Theism有神論

General Information 一般資料

Theism is a philosophically or theologically reasoned understanding of reality that affirms that the source and continuing ground of all things is in God; that the meaning and fulfillment of all things lie in their relation to God; and that God intends to realize that meaning and fulfillment. Thus theism is distinguished from Agnosticism in claiming it to be possible to know of God, or of ultimate reality. 有神論是一種哲理或theologically理性的認識現實申明之源,並繼續地面的所有東西,是上帝;意義和圓滿的一切事物,在於他們與天主間的關係,並認為上帝打算明白含義和實現因此有神論,是區別於不可知論中聲稱,它才有可能知道上帝的,還是最終的現實。 It is distinguished from Pantheism in affirming that God is in some sense "personal" and so transcends the world even as a totality and is distinct from the world and its parts.它是有別於泛神論在肯定神是,在一定意義上的"個人"等,是超越世界連為一個整體,是有別於世界及其零部件。 Finally, it is distinguished from Deism, which denies God's active, present participation in the world's being and the world's history.最後,它是有別於自然神論,否認神的活躍,目前參與,在世界上的幸福和世界的歷史。 Historically, theism so understood represents a reasoned articulation of the understanding of God characteristic of the Jewish, Christian, and, to some extent, Islamic faiths.在歷史上,有神論,所以理解是一個理性的升學途徑的認識,上帝的特點,猶太教,基督教,並在一定程度上,伊斯蘭信仰。

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Bibliography 參考書目
WW Fenn, Theism: The Implication of Experience (1969); J Hall, Knowledge, Belief, and Transcendence; Philosophical Problems in Religion (1975); LE Mascall, He Who Is: A Study in Traditional Theism (1966); CH Monson, ed., Great Issues Concerning Theism (1965).第一次世界大戰fenn ,有神論:蘊涵的經驗( 1969年) ; j大廳,知識,信仰和超越;哲學問題,宗教( 1975年) ;樂馬斯科爾,他的人是:研究在傳統的有神論( 1966 ) ;甲烷蒙森,版,大問題,有神論( 1965 ) 。


Theism有神論

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Theism is, literally, belief in the existence of God. Though the concept seems to be as old as philosophy, the term itself appears to be of relatively recent origin. 有神論是,從字面上來看,在信仰上帝存在的,雖然這個概念似乎是一樣古老哲學,這個詞本身似乎是相對近期的原產地。 Some have suggested that it appeared in the seventeenth century in England to take the place of such words as "deism" and "deistic" when referring to belief in God.一些人認為它似乎是在17世紀在英國,以取代聽到這樣的話為"自然神論"和" deistic "當談到信仰上帝。 "Theism" is often used as the opposite of "atheism," the term for denial of the existence of God, and distinguishes a theist from an atheist or agnostic without attempting any technical philosophical or theological connection. "有神論" ,是經常被用作對面的"無神論" ,在任期的否定上帝存在的,並區分者,由一名無神論者或不可知論,沒有任何企圖技術哲學或神學方面。 The term is also used as a label for religious believers, though again, there is no attempt to imply a particular theological or philosophical position.該術語也用來作為一個標籤,為信教群眾,雖然這又是沒有嘗試意味著某一特定的神學或哲學的立場。 Finally, the term is used to denote certain philosophical or theological positions, regardless of whether this involves a religious relationship to the God of whom individuals speak.最後,中期是指一定的哲學或神學的立場,不管是這涉及到一個宗教關係,以上帝的人的個人發言。

God as Ultimate Reference Point上帝作為最終的參考點

In its broadest sense theism denotes a belief in some ultimate reference point that gives meaning and unity to everything.其最廣泛的意義有神論是指一種信念,在一些終極參照點,使意義和團結一切。 However, the God postulated in this sense is totally depersonalized and thoroughly transcendent, almost an abstract concept.然而,假定上帝,在這個意義上講,是完全人格化,並徹底超越性,幾乎是一個抽象的概念。 There are philosophical and theological positions that seem to use "God" and "theism" in this way.有哲學和神學的立場,似乎是用"神"與"有神論" ,在這樣的。

(1) Paul Tillich's concept of theism is that God is whatever becomes a matter of ultimate concern, something that determines our being or nonbeing. ( 1 )保羅蒂里希的概念,有神論,是神是什麼,成為此事的終極關懷,而這是決定我們正在或nonbeing 。 Consequently, God is identified by Tillich as the ground of all being, or being - itself.因此,神是確定的蒂里希由於地面的全部,或正在-本身。 While being - itself is certainly objective and not a mere creation of the mind, Tillich's God is totally depersonalized and abstract.而正在-本身肯定是客觀而不是僅僅創造的頭腦,蒂里希的上帝是完全人格化和抽象。 This is demonstrated by Tillich's claim that the only nonsymbolic statement one can make about God is that he is being - itself or the ground of being.這表現在蒂里希的說法,認為唯一nonsymbolic聲明,誰也不能對上帝的是,他正在-本身或地面的福祉。 All words traditionally used to denote the attributes of God are entirely symbolic.所有詞傳統上是用來指屬性的上帝完全是象徵性的。

(2) This broad sense of theism is also found in Hegel, who actually has several concepts of God, but at least one that fits this category. ( 2 )本廣義有神論的是還發現,在黑格爾,他們實際上有幾個概念的上帝,但至少有一位適合這一類。 In Hegel's thought, one concept is that God is equivalent to the infinite.在黑格爾的思想,一個概念是,上帝就等於無限。 Philosophy, he says, rises to divinity or a divine viewpoint.哲學,他說,上升到神或神的觀點。 Here "God" seems to be equivalent to transcendent, all encompassing thought, but is not a personal God.這裡的"神" ,似乎就等於超然,所有包含思想,但不是個人的上帝。

God as Immanent上帝上蒼

A narrower concept of theism sees God also as depersonalized and as the ultimate reference point, but gives God some kind of concrete manifestation.較窄的概念,有神論認為上帝也是人格化,並作為最終的參考點,但賦予上帝的某種具體體現。 Nevertheless, the God of such theistic views is entirely immanent.不過,上帝的這種有神論的觀點是完全上蒼。

One example is pantheism, the view that everything is God.其中一個例子是泛神論思想,認為一切都是神。 The most famous philosophical form is that of Spinoza, who held there is only one substance in the universe, God.最有名的哲學形式,是斯賓諾莎,他們在那裡舉行只有一個物質在宇宙中,上帝。 Consequently, everything is merely a mode of that one substance.因此,一切都只是一種模式,即一種物質。 Such a God is not abstract but immanent.這樣,上帝不是抽象的而是內在的。

By contrast, the biblical concept speaks of God as infinite, meaning, among other things, that God has being to an infinite degree, but not to an infinite amount, a view that is qualitative but not quantitative being.相比之下,聖經中的概念,講的上帝是無窮,這意味著,除其他事項外,上帝正以無限度的,而不是無限量,有一種觀點認為,是定性而不是定量。 Scripture further teaches that God is everywhere simultaneously (immensity) and is present at every spatial location in the totality of his being (omnipresence), ie, God is present at but not as every point in space.經文進一步教導我們,神是無處不在的同時(巨大) ,它是目前在每一個空間位置,在全部被他(無所不在) ,即上帝是出席但不作為的每一點空間。

The broad difference between the pantheistic and biblical concepts on these matters is that the pantheist thinks God is present, not only at every point in space, but as every point.廣大差別pantheistic和聖經的觀念,對這些事情是因為pantheist認為上帝是,目前不僅在每一個點的空間,但由於每一個點。 Furthermore, pantheism denies omnipresence, since the totality of God's being is present in no one place.此外,泛神論否認無處不在的,因為全部的上帝的,是目前在任何一個地方。

Another example of this concept is process theism, based on the process metaphysics of Alfred North Whitehead (Process and Reality), sometimes known as bipolar or dipolar theism. Some of the better known process theologians are Charles Hartshorne, Schubert Ogden, John Cobb, and David Griffin.另一個例子,這個概念是過程有神論的基礎上過程中的形而上學阿爾弗雷德北白石(進程與現實) ,有時也被稱為雙極或偶極有神論,有的越好已知過程神學家們查爾斯哈茨霍恩,舒伯特奧格登,約翰科布,大衛格里芬。 According to this school, there are in God two poles: a primordial, eternal, potential pole, and a temporal, consequent, actual, pole.據這所中學,有上帝兩個極點:一個原始的,永恆的,潛在的一極,以及時間,相應的,實際的,一極。 In addition, there are certain eternal objects that may ingress into the world to become actual entities.此外,有一些永恆的物體可能侵入融入世界,成為真正的實體。 Such eternal objects are pure potentials, and, as such, cannot order and relate themselves as actual entities can.這種永恆的對象是純粹的潛能,而且象這樣的,不能命令,並與自己的實際實體。 To order these eternal entities some nontemporal actual entity is needed, and this is God in his primordial nature.令這些永恆的實體部分nontemporal實際實體是必要的,這是上帝在他的原始性。 Here God is like a backstage director who lines up the forms, getting them ready to ingress onto the stage of the temporal world.在這裡,神是像一個幕後導演系了表格,讓他們隨時準備侵入到了舞台上的顳世界。

However, God's primordial nature should not be seen as distinct from the order of eternal objects; which means the order is his primordial nature.不過,上帝的原始性質,不應該被視為有別於常規的永恆對象;這就意味著秩序,是他的原始性。 Consequently, God is not a creator before creation, but with it in its concrescence at its very beginning.因此,神是不是一個創作者,然後才考慮開設,但它在其concrescence在其開始的。 In his primordial pole, God is the principle of concretion; and this entirely depersonalizes God and makes him finite.在他的原始極點,是上帝的原則,結核;這完全depersonalizes上帝和他的有限的。

The same is true for God in his actual role.這同樣適用於上帝,在他的實際作用。 According to bipolar theism, every actual entity (and God is perceived as such) needs a physical pole to complete the "vision" of its potential pole.據雙極有神論,每一個實際的實體(神是知覺等)需要一個實際的極點,完成"願景" ,其潛在的一極。 The consequent nature of God, then, refers to all the entities in being in the temporal order.相應天主的本性,那麼,是指所有實體在顳秩序。 Given such a view, God can change and develop as his temporal pole does, and he is clearly finite.鑑於這種觀點,上帝能的變化和發展,作為他的顳極不,而且他顯然是有限的。 Moreover, God in his actual pole can perish, since all actual things can perish.此外,上帝在他的實際極亡,因為所有實際的東西可以亡。 In such a concept God is not the creator of the world, but rather the director of a world process.在這樣的一個概念,上帝不是造物主的世界,而是一間公司的董事世界的過程。 He is interdependent in the sense of being mutually dependent.他是在相互依存的意識正在互相依賴。 Moreover, he does not have all perfections eternally and concurrently, but attains them successively and endlessly.此外,他還不完全具備完善大智並兼任,但達到他們先後和無底洞。

A final example of this form of theism is found in Hegel's conception of God as Spirit.最後一個例子,這種形式的有神論,是發現在黑格爾的概念,上帝作為精神。 This notion of Spirit does not allow God to be a person in the Judeo Christian sense, but sees him as a force, or general consciousness, uniting all finite consciousnesses.這一概念的精神,不容許有上帝視為一個人在猶太基督教意義上說,但他認為,作為使用武力,或一般意識,團結一切有限意識。 In other words, he is not just all finite consciousnesses taken together, but rather the force that underlies and unites all intersubjectivity.或者換句話說,他不只是所有的有限意識兩者合計,而是力量,突顯和團結各主體間性。 Such a God is clearly immanent and not personal.這樣一個上帝顯然是內在的而不是個人。

God as Personal上帝作為個人

A third sense of theism is that God is not an abstract concept nor even a concrete manifestation of some depersonalized idea.第三個意義上的有神論,是上帝不是一個抽象的概念,甚至沒有一個具體的體現,一些人格化的想法。 In this sense, the concept of God does take on personhood, though this is not to suggest that in all forms of this view God has interactions with persons.在這個意義上說,神的觀念是否採取對人格,雖然這是不是表明,在所有形式的這種看法上帝有互動的人。 Despite the fact that such a God is an individual object (rather than a compilation of objects), he is not the equivalent of the Judeo Christian concept.儘管事實是這樣的上帝是一個單獨的對象(而不是彙編對象) ,他是沒有相當於猶太教基督教的概念。 Normally, such a concept of God sees him in some way as finite.一般情況下,這樣一個神的觀念,他認為,在某種程度上,作為有限。 Two examples will illustrate this sense of theism.這兩個例子說明這個意義上的有神論。

(1) Polytheism, of which the best known is perhaps the Greco Roman pantheon of gods. ( 1 ) 多神教,其中最有名的也許是希臘羅馬萬神殿的眾神。 Here there is a multiplicity of gods, each representing and personifying some aspect of life that of the created universe.這裡是有多重性的神,每個代表和personifying某些方面的生活方式的創造宇宙。 In spite of the fact that each god may represent only one quality of life (love, war etc.), each is perceived as a person.儘管事實上每一個上帝可能只代表一個生活質量(愛情,戰爭等) ,每個認為是一個人。 As such, the gods are perceived as separate from, but participating in, the world and interacting with men and with one another.因此,神被視為獨立的,但參與,面向世界,人際交往與男子形成一個。 In fact, the gods were perceived as having many of the foibles and failings of human beings.事實上,神被視為有很多的foibles和失誤的人。 Such polytheistic perceptions of God view him as personal, but definitely finite.這種polytheistic的看法,上帝視他為個人,但絕對有限。 Such concepts are not equivalent to the Judeo Christian notion of God.這樣的概念並不等同於猶太教和基督教的概念神。

(2) There is also deism. According to this view, God is an individual being (personal in that sense), but one who does not interact with the world. ( 2 )也有自然神論。根據這種觀點,上帝是個人的福祉(個人,在這個意義上) ,但一個人,並不與世界。 He initially created the world, but since then has withdrawn himself from it (impersonal in that sense).他首先創造了世界,但自那時以來已撤回自己從它(人性,在這個意義上) 。 He does not act in the world or sustain it, but remains thoroughly transdencent from it.他不採取行動,在世界上還是維持了,但仍然是徹底transdencent從它。 There is a sense in which such a view renders God's existence inconsequential and certainly not equivalent to the Judeo Christian conception.有一種感覺,在這樣一個觀點,使上帝的存在無關緊要,而且肯定不等同於猶太基督教觀念。

God as Personal Creator and Sustainer上帝為個人創作者和sustainer

A final perception is of God as creator and sustainer of the universe.最後的印象,就是上帝的創造者和sustainer的宇宙。 He is infinite in attributes, and he is the only God.他是在無限的屬性,而他是唯一的真神。 This monotheistic concept of God is held within the Judeo Christian tradition, and there are three ways in particular that have appeared.這種一神教的神的觀念是舉行猶太教和基督教的傳統,而且有三種方式,特別是已經出現了。

(1) Theonomy. According to this view, God is the law in the universe, and in particular, his will is law. ( 1 ) theonomy 。根據這種觀點,上帝就是法律,在宇宙中,尤其是他的意志就是法律。 Whatever rules of ethics, epistemology, etc., there are result from what God wills and could be otherwise if he so chose.不論道德規則,認識論等,有結果,由神所立遺囑,並可以,否則的話,給他選擇了。 No action in the universe is intrinsically good or evil or better or worse, but has its value in regard to the value God places upon it.任何行動,在宇宙在本質上是善或惡,或更好或更差,但有它的價值,對於價值的地方上帝賦予的職能。 The necessary rules are known through divine revelation rather than reason.必要的規則,是眾所周知的,通過神的啟示,而不是原因。

(2) Rationalism. This school is thought is represented by the work of Leibniz. ( 2 ) 理性主義。這所學校是思想,是代表工作的萊布尼茨。 According to his system, all the laws of logic, ethics, and the like are necessary laws in the universe and are so in virtue of the principle of sufficient reason in accord with which everything must happen.根據他的體系,所有的法律邏輯,倫理學等,也都是必要的法律,在宇宙中是如此美德的原則,充足的理由,在符合這一切都要發生。 In such a system God must create a world, and he must create the best of all possible worlds (for Leibniz, the best world is intelligible).在這樣一個制度上帝要創造一個世界,他必須創造最佳的所有可能世界(萊布尼茲,最好的世界是理解) 。 The circumstances in such a universe are discernible by the light of pure reason unaided by revelation.這種情況下,在這樣一個宇宙是可以辨別的,由輕的純粹理性,由無外援的啟示。 If in theonomy the concept of God is prior to logic, in rationalism logic is prior to theology.如果在theonomy神的觀念是前邏輯,在理性主義的邏輯是:前神學。

(3) Modified Rationalism. There is a mediating position which, like theononmy, does not claim that everything is discernible by reason alone, nor that what is discernible is an expression of some necessary law. ( 3 ) 改性理性主義也有一個調解的立場,像theononmy ,並不聲稱一切都是可以辨別的,由一個理由,我們就有,也不是什麼可辨,是表達了一些必要的規定。 Modified rationalism does not demand that God create a world, but asserts that creating a world is something fitting for God to do.改性理性主義並不要求上帝創造世界,但聲稱,創造一個世界,是裝修上帝做的。 For a modified rationalist, there is no best possible world, only good and evil worlds.為改良理性,是沒有最好的世界上,只有善良與邪惡的世界。 Modified rationalism differs from theonomy in that it claims that certain things are intrinsically good and intrinsically evil, apart from what God says about them.改性理性主義不同於theonomy ,因為它聲稱某些事物有著內在的良好和內在的邪惡,除了什麼,上帝說他們。 In such a universe, and in many cases they are according to reason, and in many cases one can discern why something is the case and what the case is by means of reason, though some things can be known only by revelation, a view historically typical of Judeo Christian theologies.在這樣一個宇宙,而且在許多情況下,它們是根據理性的,在許多情況下,可以看出為什麼有些情況是什麼情況,是手段,因此,儘管有些事情可以被稱為只有啟示,以期從歷史典型的猶太教和基督教神學。

Conclusion結論

More needs to be said about theism as a philosophy, especially about certain questions traditionally attached to the philosophy of theism.需要作出更多的表示,約有神論作為一門哲學,尤其是對某些問題歷來重視哲學有神論。 For example, in speculating on theism, one of the questions that arises is about the relation of human language to God, ie, How is human language (with its reference to finite beings) predicable of an infinite being?例如,在炒有神論,其中一個問題出現的是關於有關人類語言的上帝,即如何,是人類的語言(其參考,以有限的人) ,可以預見的是一個無限大嗎? Another question deals with whether it is possible to demonstrate rationally, or at least to justify rationally, belief in God's existence.另一個問題涉及是否能夠表現出理性的,或至少證明理性,信仰上帝的存在。 Philosophers of religion also ask whether a particular mode of experience is specifically religious.哲學家的宗教也想問某一特定模式的經驗,是專門為信教者。 Likewise, they ask about the relation of the providence and soverignty of God to the freedom and responsibility of man.同樣,他們詢問有關關係的普羅維登斯和soverignty神,以自由和責任的人。 Finally, there is the question about the internal consistency of theological systems that hold to the existence of an all powerful, all loving God along with the presence of evil in the world.最後,還有一個問題,關於內部一致性的神學系統,其持有的存在,都強大,所有熱愛上帝隨著在場的罪惡,在世界上。

Though many philosophers and theologians in our century (Barthians, existentialists, logical emphiricists, eg), and at other times, have argued that it is impossible to give a rational justification of theism, nonetheless, many are ready to answer to the contrary.儘管許多哲學家和神學家,在我們這個世紀( barthians ,存在主義,邏輯emphiricists ,如) ,並在其他時候,也有人認為這是不可能給予一個合理的理由,有神論的,不過,許多人都願意回答正好相反。

JS Feinberg js feinberg
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
AM Farrar, Finite and Infinite; E Gilson, God and Philosophy; J Maritain, The Range of Reason; EL Mascall, Existence and Analog; S Ogden, The Reality of God and Other Essays; W Reese and E Freeman, Process and Divinity; B Spinoza, Ethics; P Tillich, Systematic Theology.上午farrar ,有限與無限;電子吉爾松,上帝與哲學; j旦而言,各種原因;下午馬斯科爾,存在和類比; s奧格登,現實的上帝和其他散文;瓦特雷斯和電子商務弗里曼,過程和神性; b斯賓諾莎,倫理學; p蒂里希的,有系統的神學。


Also, see:此外,見:
Pantheism 泛神論
Process Theology 過程神學
Rationalism 理性主義
Agnosticism 不可知論
Panentheism panentheism
Polytheism 多神教

This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


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The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在