Spiritualism唯心論

General Information 一般資料

Spiritualism, in philosophy, is sometimes used as a synonym for Idealism.唯心論,在哲學領域,有時被用來作為一個別名為唯心主義。 A far more common usage, however, refers to a system of religious beliefs centered on the presumption that communication with the dead, or spirits, is possible.一個更常見的用法,不過,指的是一個系統的宗教信仰為核心的推定,就是溝通與死了,還是精神狀態,是可能的。

Attempts to evoke the spirits of the dead are recorded in ancient Near Eastern and Egyptian sources, and spiritualistic practices have a long history in India, where they are regarded as bhuta worship, or worship of the dead.試圖喚起對烈酒的死者都記錄在古代近東和埃及消息人士透露,和spiritualistic做法有著悠久的歷史,在印度,他們被視為律師布塔崇拜,還是崇拜的人死亡。 Spiritualism in its modern sense, though, traces its origins to the activities of Margaret Fox and, to a lesser extent, her two sisters.唯心論,在其現代意義上說,雖然,跡其起源到活動的吳福克斯,以及在較小的程度上,她的兩個姐妹。 Beginning in 1848 at their parents' farmhouse near Hydesville, NY, the Fox sisters were able to produce spirit "rappings" in answer to questions put to them.一開始,在1848年,在父母的農場附近hydesville美國紐約長島,狐狸姐妹們是否能夠產生精神" rappings " ,在回答媒體詢問時向他們提出的。 After moving to Rochester, NY, and receiving a wider audience, their fame spread to both sides of the Atlantic.入住後,以紐約州羅徹斯特和接受更廣泛的觀眾,他們的名利蔓延到大西洋兩岸。 By the mid 1850s they had inspired a host of imitators.由19世紀50年代中期,他們曾鼓舞了東道主之勢。 Margaret Fox admitted later in life that she had produced rapping noises through manipulation of her joints.吳福克斯承認,在生命後期,她曾製作了振雜音通過操縱她的關節。

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A person who "channeled" communications between the earthly and spirit worlds was first referred to as a medium, although now they are often called channelers.一個人的"渠道"之間的相互溝通,俗世的和精神的世界最早被稱為一種媒介,雖然現在他們通常被稱為channelers 。 The repertoire of the early mediums included table levitations, Extrasensory Perception, speaking in a spirit's voice during trances, Automatic Writing, and the manifestation of apparitions and "ectoplasmic" matter.匯輯的早期媒介列入表levitations , extrasensory知覺,在一個精神的聲音在trances ,自動寫作,並體現幻影" ectoplasmic "此事。 All such phenomena were attributed by the mediums to the agency of spirits.所有這些現象是由於受介質,以該機構的靈魂。 Early supporters of spiritualistic phenomena included American journalist Horace Greeley, British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, and British scientists AR Wallace and Sir William Crookes.早期的支持者spiritualistic現象,其中包括美國記者賀拉斯greeley ,英國作家阿瑟先生科南道爾和英國科學家氬華萊士和威廉crookes 。 Support for spiritualism diminished, however, as many 19th century mediums were proven to be fakes.支持唯心減弱,不過,由於許多19世紀的媒介被證明是假貨。

Spiritualism has had, since its inception, a large following.唯心了,自其成立以來,吸引為數眾多的用戶。 Many churches and societies have been founded that profess some variety of spiritualistic beliefs.許多教會和社團已經成立,即聲言有些品種的spiritualistic信念。 It achieved particularly widespread popular appeal during the 1850s and '60s and immediately following World War I. Closely aligned with other New Age beliefs, belief in spiritualism again became popular during the 1980s, particularly in the United States.它實現了,特別是大眾的廣泛呼籲,在19世紀50年代和六十年代,並立即緊隨第一次世界大戰密切配合,與其他新時代的信仰,信仰唯心論再度成為流行是在80年代,特別是在美國。 One new facet of spiritualism is that modern day channelers are as apt to attempt contact with extraterrestrials or spirits from ancient mythical societies as they are to try to communicate with the recently deceased.一個新的層面,唯心論,是因為現代一天channelers是apt嘗試接觸外星人或烈酒,從古代神話社團,因為他們是設法溝通與最近去世。

Bibliography 參考書目
G Abell and B Singer, eds., Science and the Paranormal (1986); R Brandon, The Spiritualists (1984); M Gardner, The New Age: Notes of a Fringe Watcher (1988); H Kerr and C Crow, The Occult in America (1983); J Oppenheim, The Other World (1985); J Webb, ed., The Mediums and the Conjurers (1979).克abell和B歌手合編,科學與超自然現象( 1986 )與r布蘭登, spiritualists ( 1984年) ;米加德納,新時代:注一個附帶的守護者( 1988年) ; h克爾和C烏鴉,隱匿在美國( 1983年) ; j奧本海姆,其他世界( 1985年) ; j韋伯版,培養基和conjurers ( 1979 ) 。


Spiritualism唯心論

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

The term "spiritualism" has been frequently used to denote the belief in the possibility of communication with disembodied spirits, and the various devices employed to realize this belief in practice.而言, "唯心論"一直是經常被用來指信仰的可能性溝通disembodied精神,以及各種設備,以實現這個信念,在實踐中。 The term "Spiritism", which is used in Italy, France, and Germany, seems more apt to express this meaning.術語" spiritism " ,它可以用來在意大利,法國,德國,似乎更容易表達這層意思。

Spiritualism, then, suitably stands opposed to materialism.唯心論,那麼,適當地站在反對唯物論。 We may say in general that Spiritualism is the doctrine which denies that the contents of the universe are limited to matter and the properties and operations of matter.我們可以概括地說,這是唯心學說否認這些內容的宇宙是有限的,以事的性質和運作此事。 It maintains the existence of real being or beings (minds, spirits) radically distinct in nature from matter.它維持生存的真實或為本(頭腦,烈酒) ,從根本上截然不同的性質,從此事。 It may take the form of Spiritualistic Idealism, which denies the existence of any real material being outside of the mind; or, whilst defending the reality of spiritual being, it may also allow the separate existence of the material world.它的形式可以是spiritualistic唯心論,即否認存在任何真正的物質以外的精神,或者,雖然捍衛現實的精神,它也可能允許單獨存在的物質世界。 Further, Idealistic Spiritualism may either take the form of Monism (eg, with Fichte), which teaches that there exists a single universal mind or ego of which all finite minds are but transient moods or stages: or it may adopt a pluralistic theory (eg with Berkeley), which resolves the universe into a Divine Mind together with a multitude of finite minds into which the former infuses all those experiences that generate the belief in an external, independent, material world.此外,理想化,唯心論,可採取的形式是一元論(例如,與費希特) ,其中任教存在著一種單一的普遍心態或自我的,其中所有的有限頭腦,不過是短暫的情緒或階段:或者它可能採取一個多元化的理論(如與伯克利分校) ,它解決了宇宙成神記連同眾多的有限自亂方寸,其中前者含所有這些經驗所產生的信念,在一個外部的,獨立的,物質世界的。 The second or moderate form of Spiritualism, whilst maintaining the existence of spirit, and in particular the human mind or soul, as a real being distinct from the body, does not deny the reality of matter.第二代或溫和的形式,唯心論,但同時又能維持生存的精神,尤其是人的頭腦和靈魂,作為一個真實的,有別於身體,不否定現實的事。 It is, in fact, the common doctrine of Dualism.這是,事實上,在共同的軍事學說的二元論。 However, among the systems of philosophy which adhere to Dualism, some conceive the separateness or mutual independence of soul and body to be greater and others less.然而,在眾多系統的哲學,即堅持以二元論,有的隱瞞分開或相互獨立的靈魂與身體,以更大的和其他人少。 With some philosophers of the former class, soul and body seem to have been looked upon as complete beings merely accidentally united.一些哲學家的前級,靈魂與身體似乎被看作為完整的人,只是意外地團結起來。 For these a main difficulty is to give a satisfactory account of the inter-action of two beings so radically opposed in nature.基於上述的一個主要困難是給予一個滿意的交代的國際行動的兩個人,以便從根本上反對性質。

Historically, we find the early Greek philosophers tending generally towards Materialism.在歷史上,我們找到了早期希臘哲學家趨於普遍對唯物論。 Sense experience is more impressive than our higher, rational consciousness, and sensation is essentially bound up with the bodily organism.感覺經驗是更加令人印象深刻,比我們更高的,理性的意識,有感覺,基本上是約束與身體的有機體。 Anaxagoras was the first, apparently, among the Greeks to vindicate the predominance of mind or reason in the universe.阿那克薩戈拉是第一次,顯然,其中包括希臘人,以維護為主的主意或理由,在宇宙中。 It was, however, rather as a principle of order, to account for the arrangement and design evident in nature as a whole, than to vindicate the reality of individual minds distinct from the bodies which they animate.不過,當時的,而不是作為一個原則的秩序,以帳戶為佈置與設計自明性作為一個整體,而不是平反的現實,個別頭腦有別於團體,他們使用動畫。 Plato was virtually the father of western spiritualistic philosophy.柏拉圖實際上是父親的西方spiritualistic哲學。 He emphasized the distinction between the irrational or sensuous and the rational functions of the soul.他強調,兩者之間的區別不理性或感性與理性的職能靈魂。 He will not allow the superior elements in knowledge or the higher "parts" of the soul to be explained away in terms of the lower.他不會允許該上級元素的知識或較高的"零件"的靈魂加以解釋遠離而言,以較低者為準。 Both subsist in continuous independence and opposition.生存都在不斷獨立和反對。 Indeed, the rational soul is related to the body merely as the pilot to the ship or the rider to his horse.事實上,理性的靈魂,是關係到機構只是作為先導,以船舶或騎他的馬。 Aristotle fully recognized the spirituality of the higher rational activity of thought, but his treatment of its precise relation to the individual human soul is obscure.亞里士多德充分認識到靈性的更高的理性活動的思路,但他的治療,其確切關係到個別人的靈魂是模糊不清。 On the other hand, his conception of the union of soul and body, and of the unity of the human person, is much superior to that of Plato.在另一方面,他的構想該聯盟的靈魂與身體,和團結的人,遠優於即柏拉圖。 Though the future life of the human soul, and consequently its capacity for an existence separate from the body, was one of the most fundamental and important doctrines of the Christian religion, yet ideas as to the precise meaning of spirituality were not at first clear, and we find several of the earliest Christian writers (though maintaining the future existence of the soul separate from the body), yet conceiving the soul in a more or less materialistic way (cf. Justin, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement, etc.).雖然未來生活的人的靈魂,因此,其容量為一個單獨的存在,從身體,是一個最根本,最重要的教義,基督教,但思路,以確切意義和靈性當時我們並沒有首先明確的,我們找到幾個最早的基督教作家(雖然保持未來存在的靈魂脫離身體) ,但構思的靈魂,在一個較為功利的方式(參見官,愛任紐,戴爾都良,克萊門特等) 。 The Catholic philosophic doctrine of Spiritualism received much of its development from St. Augustine, the disciple of Platonic philosophy, and its completion from Albertus Magnus and St. Thomas, who perfected the Aristotelian account of the union of soul and body.天主教哲學學說的唯心所收到的,其大量的開發,從聖奧古斯丁,弟子柏拉圖哲學,其完成從: Albertus馬格納斯和聖托馬斯,他們完善了亞里士多德到工會的靈魂與身體。

Modern Spiritualism, especially of the more extreme type, has its origin in Descartes.現代唯心論,尤其是較為極端的類型,有它的原產地在笛卡兒。 Malebranche, and indirectly Berkeley, who contributed so much in the sequel to Monistic Idealism, are indebted to Descartes, whilst every form of exaggerated Dualism which set mind and body in isolation and contrast traces its descent from him.馬勒伯朗士,間接伯克利分校,作出貢獻的人這麼多,在續集monistic唯心論,是政府債笛卡爾,而各種形式的誇大二元哪一套身心孤立和對比度的痕跡,其後裔,從他的。 In spite of serious faults and defects in their systems, it should be recognized that Descartes and Leibnitz contributed much of the most effective resistance to the wave of Materialism which acquired such strength in Europe at the end of the eighteenth and during the first half of the nineteenth centuries.儘管嚴重的缺點和毛病,在他們的系統,我們應該承認,笛卡爾和leibnitz貢獻良多的最有效的抵抗浪潮的唯物主義後天這種實力在歐洲結束的第十八屆,並在上半年的十九世紀。 In particular, Maine de Biran, who emphasized the inner activity and spirituality of the will, followed by Jouffroy and Cousin, set up so vigorous an opposition to the current Materialism as to win for their theories the distinctive title of "Spiritualism".尤其是,緬因德雅沃夫比讓他強調黨內活動和靈性的意願,其次是jouffroy和表姐,成立了,所以大力反對目前的唯物論,以贏得他們的理論鮮明的標題"唯心論" 。 In Germany, in addition to Kant, Fichte, and other Monistic Idealists, we find Lotze and Herbart advocating realistic forms of Spiritualism.在德國,除了康德,費希特,以及其他monistic理想主義者,我們發現lotze和赫爾巴特主張現實形式的唯心論。 In England, among the best-known advocates of Dualistic Spiritualism, were, in succession to the Scottish School, Hamilton and Martineau; and of Catholic writers, Brownson in America, and WG Ward in England.在英國,其中最有名的主張二元唯心論,人,在繼承中,以蘇格蘭學校,漢密爾頓和martineau ;天主教作家, brownson在美國,病房工作組在英格蘭。

EVIDENCE FOR THE DOCTRINE OF SPIRITUALISM證據學說的唯心論

Whilst modern Idealists and writers advocating an extreme form of Spiritualism have frequently fallen into grievous error in their own positive systems, their criticisms of Materialism and their vindication of the reality of spiritual being seem to contain much sound argument and some valuable contributions, as was indeed to be expected, to this controversy.雖然現代理想主義者和作家主張一種極端形式的唯心論往往陷入悲痛,誤差在自己的正面系統,他們的批評的唯物論和他們平反的現實精神,似乎正在向載有大量無害的說法和一些有價值的貢獻,因為確實是可以預料,這引起爭論。

(1) Epistemological Proof ( 1 )認識論證明

The line of reasoning adopted by Berkeley against Materialism has never met with any real answer from the latter.該線的推理通過伯克利反對唯物主義從來沒有遇到任何真正的答案,由後者。 If we were compelled to choose between the two, the most extreme Idealistic Materialism would be incomparably the more logical creed to hold.如果我們被迫選擇兩者之間,最極端的理想主義的唯物論,將是無法比擬的,更合乎邏輯的信條舉行。 Mind is more intimately known than matter, ideas are more ultimate than molecules.心是更密切地比已知此事,思路更終極超過分子。 External bodies are only known in terms of consciousness.外界機構,是唯一已知的角度意識。 To put forward as a final explanation that thought is merely a motion or property of certain bodies, when all bodies are, in the last resort, only revealed to us in terms of our thinking activity, is justly stigmatized by all classes of Spiritualists as utterly irrational.提出,作為一個最後解釋說,以為只是一個議案或財產的某些機構,當所有機構中,在萬不得已時,只有啟示我們,在我們的思維活動,是理直氣壯地指責所有類別的spiritualists作為根本不合理的。 When the Materialist or Sensationist reasons out his doctrine, he is landed in hopeless absurdity.當唯物主義或sensationist原因,他的學說,他是降落在無望的荒謬。 Materialism is in fact the answer of the men who do not think, who are apparently quite unaware of the presuppositions which underlie all science.唯物論其實是在回答該男子,他們並不認為,他們顯然是相當不知道該預設和了解所有的科學。

(2) Teleological Proof ( 2 ) teleological證明

The contention, old as Anaxagoras, that the order, adaptation, and design evidently revealed in the universe postulate a principle distinct from matter for its explanation is also a valid argument for Spiritualism.引起爭論的,舊的阿那克薩戈拉,一聲令下,適應,並在設計上明顯顯示,在宇宙中設一個原則有別於事,其解釋是,也是一個有效的論據唯心論。 Matter cannot arrange itself.此事不能安排本身。 Yet that there is arrangement in the universe, an that this postulates the agency of a principle other than matter, is continually more and more forced upon us by the utter failure of natural selection to meet the demands made on it during the last half of the past century to accomplish by the blind, fortuitous action of physical agents work demanding the highest intelligence.然而,有安排,在宇宙中,這一假設該機構的一個原則以外的事,就是不斷地越來越多地強加給我們的,由個徹底失敗的自然選擇,以滿足所提出的要求,它在上半部分過去的一個世紀,完成由盲,偶然行動的物理介質的工作,要求最高的智慧。

(3) Ethical Proof ( 3 )道德證明

The denial of spiritual beings distinct from, and in some sense independent of, matter inexorably involves the annihilation of morality.否定鬼神有別於,並在一定意義上的獨立的,無論涉及到無情湮沒德治國結合起來。 If the mechanical or materialistic theory of the universe be true, every movement and change of each particle of matter is the inevitable outcome of previous physical conditions.如果機械或唯物主義理論,宇宙是真的,每一個運動和變化的,每個粒子的事是必然的結果,以前的身體狀況。 There is no room anywhere for effective human choice or purpose in the world.有沒有空間,在世界各地,有效地人的選擇或目的,在世界上。 Consequently, all those notions which form the constituent elements of man's moral creed--duty, obligation, responsibility, merit, desert, and the rest--are illusions of the imagination.因此,所有這些概念的形成構成要素的人的道德信條-責任,義務,責任,擇優的原則,沙漠,其餘部分-都是幻想的想像力。 Virtue and vice, fraud and benevolence are alike the inevitable outcome of the individual's circumstances, and ultimately as truly beyond his control as the movement of the piston is in regard to the steam-engine.優點和缺點,欺詐和仁是完全一樣的必然結果,就個別的情況下,並最終作為真正超出他的控制,作為不結盟運動的活塞,是在考慮到蒸汽發動機。

(4) Inefficacy and Uselessness of Mind in the Materialist View ( 4 )無效和無用的心態,在唯物主義觀點

Again, unless the reality of spirit distinct from, and independent of, matter be admitted, the still more incredible conclusion inexorably follows that mind, thought, consciousness play no really operative part in the world's history.再次,除非現實的精神有別於和獨立的,此事予以承認,更令人難以置信的結論無情地跟隨心,思想,意識,沒有發揮真正的執行部分,在世界的歷史。 If mind is not a real distinct energy, capable of interfering with, guiding, and influencing the movements of matter, then clearly it has played no real part in the creations of art, literature, or science.如果介意的是不是一個真正獨特的能量,能夠干擾性,指導性,並影響變動的事情,那麼顯然它一直發揮沒有真正的一部分,在創作中的藝術,文學或科學。 Consciousness is merely an inefficacious by-product, an epiphenomenon which has never modified in any degree the movements of matter concerned in the history of the human race.意識不過是一個無效的副產物,是一個伴隨現象,其中沒有修飾,在任何程度的變動事宜,在人類有史以來的。

(5) Psychological Proof ( 5 )心理證明

The outcome of all the main theses of psychology, empirical and rational, in Catholic systems of philosophy is the establishment of a Spiritualistic Dualism, and the determination of the relations of soul and body.結果,所有的主要論文的心理,經驗和理性的,在天主教系統的理念是建立一個spiritualistic二元論,並且堅定不移地關係的靈魂與身體。 Analysis of the higher activities of the soul, and especially of the operations of intellectual conception, judgment, reasoning, and self-conscious reflection, proves the faculty of intellect and the soul to which it belongs to be of a spiritual nature, distinct from matter, and not the outcome of a power inherent in a bodily organ.分析較高的活動的靈魂,尤其是該業務的智力概念,判斷,推理能力,自我意識的反思,證明系的智慧和靈魂,它是屬於被一種精神性質,有別於事,而不是結果的權力固有的身體器官。 At the same time the Scholastic doctrine, better than any other system, furnishes a conception of the union of soul and body which accounts for the extrinsic dependence of the spiritual operations of the mind on the organism; whilst maintaining the spiritual nature of the soul, it safeguards the union of soul and body in a single person.在同一時間,在學術上的理論,更好地比其他任何系統,提供了觀念,該聯盟的靈魂與身體佔為外在的依賴,其精神和行動的態度上的有機體;同時維持精神性質的靈魂,它保障了職工的靈魂與身體在一個單一的人。

Publication information Written by Michael Maher & Joseph Bolland.出版信息該書由Michael馬希爾&約瑟夫bolland 。 Transcribed by Janet Grayson.轉錄由珍妮購房。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. nihil obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


Spiritism spiritism

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

Spiritism is the name properly given to the belief that the living can and do communicate with the spirits of the departed, and to the various practices by which such communication is attempted. spiritism是名字妥善給予信念,即生活,可以做溝通與精神的背離,以及各種做法,使這種溝通是企圖。 It should be carefully distinguished from Spiritualism, the philosophical doctrine which holds, in general, that there is a spiritual order of beings no less real than the material and, in particular, that the soul of man is a spiritual substance.它應仔細區分,唯心論,哲學學說持有,一般而言,有一種精神秩序的人不低於實際比物質,尤其是該國的靈魂,人是一種精神實質。 Spiritism, moreover, has taken on a religious character. spiritism ,此外,已採取對具有宗教性質。 It claims to prove the preamble of all religions, ie, the existence of a spiritual world, and to establish a world-wide religion in which the adherents of the various traditional faiths, setting their dogmas aside, can unite.它聲稱,以證明序言中的所有宗教,即存在著一個精神世界,並建立一個全球性的宗教,其中的信徒們的各種傳統信仰,確定它們的教條外,能夠團結起來。 If it has formulated no definite creed, and if its representatives differ in their attitudes toward the beliefs of Christianity, this is simply because Spiritism is expected to supply a new and fuller revelation which will either substantiate on a rational basis the essential Christian dogmas or show that they are utterly unfounded.如果它已制定,沒有明確的教義,如果其代表有不同的態度,他們對信仰的是基督教,這完全是因為spiritism預計供應一個新的更全面的啟示,這也將充實對一個理性的基礎上的本質基督教教條或查看他們是完全沒有根據的。 The knowledge thus acquired will naturally affect conduct, the more so because it is hoped that the discarnate spirits, in making known their condition, will also indicate the means of attaining to salvation or rather of progressing, by a continuous evolution in the other world, to a higher plane of existence and happiness.知識,因此收購自然會影響到操守,更是因為我們希望該discarnate精神,使已知條件,也將顯示手段,以達到救助或相當的進步,由一個連續演化,在其他世界,往高層次上的生存與幸福。

THE PHENOMENA現象

These are classified as physical and psychical.這些被歸類為身體和心理。 The former include:前者包括:

production of raps and other sounds;生產的批評和其他聲音;

movements of objects (tables, chairs) without contact or with contact insufficient to explain the movement:運動的物體(桌,椅) ,沒有接觸或接觸不足以解釋運動:

"apports" ie, apparitions of visible agency to convey them; " apports " ,即幻影的有形機構向他們傳達;

moulds, ie, impressions made upon paraffin and similar substances;模具,即印象所作的石蠟和類似的物質;

luminous appearances, ie, vague glimmerings or light or faces more or less defines;夜光露面,即模糊glimmerings或輕或面臨著更多或更少界定;

levitation, ie, raising of objects from the ground by supposed supernormal means;懸浮力,即提高的物體從地面所假定的超常手段;

materialization or appearance of a spirit in visible human form;物化或外觀的精神,在可視化人體形態;

spirit-photography, in which the feature or forms of deceased persons appear on the plate along with the likeness of a living photographed subject.精神-攝影,其中功能或形式的已故者的出現,對板塊隨相似的生活照。

The psychical, or significative, phenomena are those which express ideas or contain messages.心理,還是有意義的現象是那些表達想法或包含的信息。 To this class belong:為了這門課屬於:

table-rapping in answer to questions;表-說唱在回答媒體詢問;

automatic writing; slate-writing;自動寫作;板岩寫作;

trance-speaking; trance語;

clairvoyance;千里眼;

descriptions of the spirit-world; and說明精神-世界;

communications from the dead.通訊從死裡復活。

HISTORY歷史

For an account of Spiritistic practices in antiquity see NECROMANCY.一個帳戶的spiritistic做法在古代見necromancy 。 The modern phase was ushered in by the exhibitions of mesmerism and clairvoyance.現代階段,迎來了由展覽會的mesmerism和千里眼。 In its actual form, however, Spiritism dates from the year 1848 and from the experiences of the Fox family at Hydesville, and later at Rochester, in New York State.在實際的形式,不過, spiritism日期從今年1848年從國際經驗福克斯家庭hydesville ,後來在羅切斯特,在紐約州。 Strange "knockings" were heard in the house, pieces of furniture were moved about as though by invisible hands, and the noises became so troublesome that sleep was impossible.奇怪的" knockings "聽說在眾議院,件家具感動,因為雖然是由看不見的手,以及噪音變得如此麻煩,睡眠是不可能的。 At length the "rapper" began to answer questions, and a code of signals was arranged to facilitate communication.在長度的"說唱"開始回答問題,和工作守則信號隨後被安排,以方便溝通。 It was also found that to receive messages special qualifications were needed; these were possessed by Catherine and Margaret Fox, who are therefore regarded as the first "mediums" of modern times.實驗還發現,以接收訊息特別資格的人所需要的,這些人擁有的凱瑟琳和瑪格麗特福克斯,他們因此被視為第一個"媒介"的現代倍。

Similar disturbances occurred in other parts of the country, notably at Stratford, Connecticut, in the house of Rev. Dr. Phelps, a Presbyterian minister, where the manifestations (1850-51) were often violent and the spirit-answers blasphemous.類似的騷亂發生在該國其他地方,尤其是在斯特拉特福,康涅狄格州,在眾議院中的牧師博士菲爾普斯,長老部長,那裡的表現( 1850年至1851年) ,而且往往是暴力和精神-答案褻瀆。 In 1851 the Fox girls were visited in Buffalo by three physicians who were professors in the university of that city.在1851年,福克斯女孩被訪水牛被三名醫師的人,教授,在大學的這個城市。 As a result of their examination the doctors declared that the "raps" were simply "crackings" of the knee-joints.由於他們的檢查,醫生宣布說, "批評" ,只是"開裂"的膝部關節。 But this statement did not lessen either the popular enthusiasm or the interest of more serious persons.不過,這份聲明並未減輕或者流行的熱情或興趣,更嚴重的人。

The subject was taken up by men like Horace Greeley, Wm.此事採取了由男性喜歡賀拉斯greeley ,西醫結合。 Lloyd Garrison, Robert Hare, professor of chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania, and John Worth Edmonds, a judge of the Supreme Court of New York State.勞合社的駐軍,羅伯特野兔,化學教授,在賓夕法尼亞大學,約翰值得埃德蒙茲,一名最高法院法官的新的紐約州。 Conspicuous among the Spiritists was Andrew Jackson Davis, whose work, "The Principles of Nature" (1847), dictated by him in trance, contained a theory of the universe, closely resembling the Swedenborgian.突出了spiritists是安德魯傑克遜戴維斯,他們的工作"的原則自然" ( 1847年) ,出於他的狀態,包含理論的宇宙,相似的swedenborgian 。 Spiritism also found earnest advocates among clergymen of various denominations, especially the Universalists; it appealed strongly to many people who had lost all religious belief in a future life; and it was welcomed by those who were then agitating the question of a new social organization--the pioneers of modern Socialism. spiritism還發現,認真提倡神職人員之間的各種面額的,尤其是universalists ,它強烈呼籲,很多人已失去了一切宗教信仰,在未來的生活中,並歡迎這些人再攪拌問題的一個新的社會組織-先驅,現代社會主義。 So widespread was the belief in Spiritism that in 1854 Congress was petitioned to appoint a scientific commission for the investigation of the phenomena.如此普遍的是信仰spiritism說,在1854年的國會請願,任命一個科學委員會,負責調查這一現象。 The petition, which bore some 13,000 signatures, was laid on the table, and no action was taken.請願書,上面有一些13000個簽名,被提交立法會省覽,並沒有採取任何行動。

In Europe the way had been prepared for Spiritism by the Swedenborgian movement and by an epidemic of table-turning which spread from the Continent to England and invaded all classes of society.在歐洲的路已經準備spiritism由swedenborgian運動和由一個流行的表不准在其中蔓延,從大陸到英國,並且侵占了各階級的社會。 It was still a fashionable diversion when, in 1852, two mediums, Mrs. Hayden and Mrs. Roberts, came from America to London, and held séances which attracted the attention of scientists as well as popular interest.這仍是一個時髦的引水時,在1852年,兩種介質,夫人海登和夫人羅伯茨,來自美國,倫敦,並舉行séances其中吸引住了在場的科學家,以及受歡迎的利益。 Faraday, indeed, in 1853 showed that the table movements were due to muscular action, and Dr. Carpenter gave the same explanation; but many thoughtful persons, notably among the clergy, held to the Spiritistic interpretation.法拉第,事實上,在1853年發現該表的變動是由於肌肉行動,並卡彭特博士作出了同樣的解釋,但許多有見地的人,尤其是其中神職人員,舉行了向spiritistic解釋。 This was accepted also by Robert Owen, the socialist, while Professor De Morgan, the mathematician, in his account of a sitting with Mrs. Hayden, was satisfied that "somebody or some spirit was reading his thoughts".這是被接受,也由歐文,社會主義,而教授德摩根,數學家,在他的賬戶一坐,與夫人海登,被認為"某人或某種精神,是讀他的思想" 。 The later development in England was furthered by mediums who came from America: Daniel Dunglas Home (Hume) in 1855, the Davenport Brothers in 1864, and Henry Slade in 1876.後來的發展在英國是促進了媒介的人是來自美國:丹尼爾丹格拉首頁(休謨) ,在1855年,達文波特的兄弟在1864年,亨利斯萊德在1876年。 Among the native mediums, Rev. William Stainton Moses became prominent in 1872, Miss Florence Cook in the same year, and William Eglinton in 1886.其中本土媒介,牧師威廉王菲摩西突出, 1872年,錯過佛羅倫薩庫克在同一年,和威廉eglinton在1886年。 Spiritism was advocated by various periodical publications, and defended in numerous works some of which were said to have been dictated by the spirits themselves, eg, the "Spirit Teachings" of Stainton Moses, which purport to give an account of conditions in the other world and form a sort of Spiritistic theology. spiritism有人主張通過各種期刊出版物,並捍衛了無數作品,其中有些人表示,已決定由自己的靈魂,如"精神遺訓" ,王菲摩西,其中旨趣作出交代的情況,在其他世界並形成一種spiritistic神學。 During this period also, scientific opinion on the subject was divided.在此期間,而且,科學輿論對此事意見分歧。 While Professors Huxley and Tyndall sharply denounced Spiritism in practice and theory, Mr. (later Sir Wm.) Crookes and Dr. Alfred Russell Wallace regarded the phenomena as worthy of serious investigation.而教授赫胥黎和廷德爾尖銳地譴責spiritism在實踐與理論的先生(後來先生西醫結合) 。 crookes博士和阿爾弗雷德羅素華萊士視現象,值得認真調查。 The same view was expressed in the report which the Dialectical Society published in 1871 after an inquiry extending over eighteen months, and at the Glasgow meeting of the British Association in 1876 Professor Barrett, FRS, concluded his account of the phenomena he had observed by urging the appointment of a committee of scientific men for the systematic investigation of such phenomena.同時有人表示,在報告中,其中的辯證社會公佈,在1871年後延長調查超過18個月,在格拉斯哥舉行的英國協會在1876年教授巴瑞特,使TRS ,結束了他的帳號的現象,他曾觀察到,促請任命的一個委員會的科學官兵,以便有系統地調查這類現象。

The growth of Spiritism on the Continent was marked by similar transitions from popular curiosity to serious inquiry.生長spiritism對大陸的主要標誌是類似的轉變,從大眾的好奇心,要認真調查。 As far back as 1787, the Exegetic and Philanthropic Society of Stockholm, adhering to the Swedenborgian view, had interpreted the utterances of "magnetized" subjects as messages from the spirit world.因為早在1787年, exegetic和慈善協會的斯德哥爾摩,堅持以swedenborgian來看,有這樣解釋的言論"磁化"科目的訊息,從精神的世界。 This interpretation gradually won favour in France and Germany; but it was not until 1848 that Cahagnet published at Paris the first volume of his "Arcanes de la vie future dévoilées", containing what purported to be communications from the dead.這個解釋,逐漸贏得了贊成票,在法國和德國,但直到1848年即卡阿涅出版於巴黎首卷他的" arcanes德生命與未來dévoilées " ,載有什麼意圖予以通報從死裡復活。 The excitement aroused in Paris by table-turning and rapping led to an investigation by Count Agénor de Gasparin, whose conclusion ("Des Tables tournantes", (Paris, 1854) was that the phenomena originated in some physical force of the human body. Professor Thury of Geneva ("Les Tables tournantes", 1855) concurred in this explanation. Baron de Guldenstubbe ("La Réalité des Esprits" Paris, 1857), on the contrary, declared his belief in the reality of spirit intervention, and M. Rivail, known later as Allan Kardec, published the "spiritualistic philosophy" in "Le Livre des Esprits" (Paris, 1853), which became a guide-book to the whole subject.興奮,引起在巴黎表轉折和說唱導致調查計數agénor德加斯帕蘭,其結論(下稱"萬表tournantes " , (巴黎, 1854年)被認為現象起源於一些物理力的人的身體。教授蒂裡的日內瓦( "就業輔導組表tournantes " , 1855年)同意這個解釋。男爵德guldenstubbe (下稱"香格里拉斯圖亞特萬esprits "巴黎, 1857年) ,與此相反,宣布他的信仰是在現實的精神干預,米裡瓦伊被稱為稍後黃子kardec ,公佈了" spiritualistic哲學" , "樂livre萬esprits " (巴黎, 1853年) ,從而成為指導書到整個課題。

In Germany also Spiritism was an outgrowth from "animal magnetism".在德國也spiritism是一個新的衍生,由"動物磁性" 。 JH Jung in his "Theorie der Geisterkunde" declared that in the state of trance the soul is freed from the body, but he regarded the trance itself as a diseased condition. JH的榮在他的"理論之geisterkunde "宣布,在國家的trance靈魂,是擺脫組織,但他認為, trance本身作為一個患病的情況。 Among the earliest German clairvoyants was Frau Frederica Hauffe, the "Seeress of Prevorst", whose experiences were related by Justinus Kerner in "Die Seherin von Prevorst" (Stuttgart, 1829).其中最早的德語千里眼是frau ( Frederica hauffe , " seeress的prevorst " ,其經驗與所justinus kerner在"死seherin馮prevorst " (斯圖加特, 1829 ) 。 In its later development Spiritism was represented in scientific and philosophical circles by men of prominence, eg, Ulrici, Fichte, Züllner, Fechner, and Wm.在其以後的發展spiritism的代表出席了在科學和哲學界所官兵突出,如烏爾里奇,費希特, züllner ,費希納,西醫。 Weber.韋伯。 The last-named three conducted (1877-8) a series of experiments with the American medium Slade at Leipzig.最後命名為3個進行( 1877-8 ) ,一系列的實驗與美國中等斯萊德在萊比錫。 The results were published in Züllner's "Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen" (cf. Massey, "Transcendental Physics", London, 1880, in which the portions relating to spiritism are translated).研究結果發表在züllner的" wissenschaftliche abhandlungen " (見梅西, "超越物理學" ,倫敦, 1880年,其中部分內容涉及spiritism翻譯) 。 Though considered important at the time, this investigation, owing to lack of caution and accuracy, cannot be regarded as a satisfactory test.雖然認為重要的,在當時,這調查,但由於缺乏謹慎性和準確性,不能被視為一個令人滿意的考驗。 (Cf. "Report of the Seybert Commission", Philadelphia, 1887-, which also contains an account of an investigation conducted at the University of Pennsylvania with Slade and other mediums.) (參見"報告的塞博爾特委員會" , 76人, 1887年-,其中還包含一個帳戶的一個調查仍在進行中,在賓夕法尼亞大學的斯萊德和其他媒介) 。

The foregoing outline shows that modern Spiritism within a generation had passed beyond the limits of a merely popular movement and had challenged the attention of the scientific world.前述概要顯示,現代spiritism一個代已經過去了超越界限只是一個民間運動,並提出了挑戰注意的科學世界。 It had, moreover, brought about serious divisions among men of science.它,而且帶來了嚴重分歧,男子的科學。 For those who denied the existence of a soul distinct from the organism it was a foregone conclusion that there could be no such communications as the Spiritists claimed.對於那些否認存在一個民族的靈魂,有別於有機體,它是一個預料之中的結論是,不可能有任何此類通信作為spiritists稱。 This negative view, of course, is still taken by all who accept the fundamental ideas of Materialism.這種負面的看法,當然是仍然採取所有的人接受的基本思想的唯物主義。 But apart from any such a priori considerations, the opponents of Spiritism justified their position by pointing to innumerable cases of fraud which were brought to light either through closer examination of the methods employed or through the admissions of the mediums themselves.但是,除了從任何這種先驗的考慮,對手的spiritism正當他們的立場,指出無數的欺詐案件,其中被帶到輕要么通過仔細考察的方法,或通過招生辦的媒介本身。

In spite, however, of repeated exposure, there occurred phenomena which apparently could not be ascribed to trickery of any sort.儘管如此,然而,在反复暴露,有發生的現象,這顯然不能歸因於玩弄權謀的任何通知。 The inexplicable character of these the sceptics attributed to faulty observation.這個令人費解的性質這些懷疑論者歸咎於錯誤的觀察。 The Spiritistic practices were simply set down as a new chapter in the long history of occultism, magic, and popular superstition.該spiritistic做法,只是定下一個新的篇章,在漫長的歷史神秘學,魔術,和流行的迷信。 On the other hand, a certain number of thinkers felt obliged to confess that, after making due allowances for the element of fraud, there remained some facts which called for a more systematic investigation.在另一方面,一定數量的思想家不得不坦白地說,經過適當的津貼為元素的欺詐行為,但仍有一些事實,即要求制定一個更加系統的調查。 In 1869 the London Dialectical Society appointed a committee of thirty-three members "to investigate the phenomena alleged to be spiritual manifestations, and to report thereon".於1869年在倫敦的辯證社會委任一個委員會的33名" ,以探討的現象,據稱得到精神上的表現,並就此提交報告" 。 The committee's report (1871) declares that "motion may be produced in solid bodies without material contact, by some hitherto unrecognized force operating within an undefined distance from the human organism, an beyond the range of muscular action"; and that "this force is frequently directed by intelligence".該委員會的報告( 1871 )宣布, "議案可能產生的固體機構沒有物質接觸中,一些迄今為止尚未力量經營一個未定的距離,人類機體,是一個超越了一系列肌肉行動" ,並認為"這股力量是經常導演的情報" 。 In 1882 there was organized in London the "Society for Psychical Research" for the scientific examination of what its prospectus terms "debatable phenomena".在有1882年舉辦了在倫敦的"社會心理研究所" ,為科學檢驗的是什麼,其招股書條款"的現象,值得商榷" 。 A motive for investigation was supplied by the history of hypnotism, which had been repeatedly ascribed to quackery and deception.動機調查是由歷史的催眠術,其中曾多次得益於quackery和欺騙。 Nevertheless, patient research conducted by rigorous methods had shown that beneath the error and imposture there lay a real influence which was to be accounted for, and which finally was explained on the theory of suggestion.儘管如此,病人進行的研究嚴謹的方法顯示在下方的誤差和imposture有奠定真正的影響力,這是為了進行核算,並最終被解釋論的建議。 The progress of Spiritism, it was thought, might likewise yield a residuum of fact deserving scientific explanation.進度spiritism ,有人以為,可能同樣產渣油的事實,值得科學解釋。

The Society for Psychical Research soon counted among its members distinguished representatives of science and philosophy in England and America; numerous associations with similar aims and methods were organized in various countries.協會心理研究,盡快清點其成員中的傑出代表,科學和哲學在英國和美國的許多社團與類似目標和手段都舉辦了不同國家。 The "Proceedings" of the Society contain detailed reports of investigations in Spiritism and allied subjects, and a voluminous literature, expository and critical, has been created. "訴訟"的社會,載有詳細的報告,調查,在spiritism和專職學科,以及汗牛充棟的文獻,論述和批判,已經成立。 Among the most notable works are: "Phantasms of the Living" by Gurney, Myers, and Podmore (London, 1886); FWH Myers, "Human Personality and Its Survival of Bodily Death" (London, 1903); and Sir Oliver Lodge, FRS, "The Survival of Man" (New York, 1909).其中最顯著的工程,分別是: "幻像的生活" ,由gurney ,邁爾斯,並podmore (倫敦, 1886年) ; fwh邁爾斯, "人的個性和其生存的身體死" (倫敦, 1903年)和主席先生奧利弗提出,使TRS , "生存的人" (紐約, 1909年) 。 In recent publications prominence is given to experiments with the mediums Mrs. Piper of Boston and Eusapia Palladino of Italy; and important contributions to the literature have been made by Professor Wm.在最近的出版物中是突出了以實驗與媒介夫人伯爾的波士頓和eusapia不可避免的,意大利和重要貢獻的文獻都已經由教授西醫結合。 James of Harvard, Dr. Richard Hodgson of Boston, Professor Charles Richet (University of Paris), Professor Henry Sidgwick (Cambridge University), Professor Th.詹姆斯的哈佛,理查德博士,惠普的波士頓,教授查爾斯richet (巴黎大學) ,教授亨利sidgwick (劍橋大學出版社) ,教授次。 Flournoy (University of Geneva), Professor Morselli (University of Genoa), Professor Cesare Lombroso (University of Turin), Professor James H. Hyslop (Columbia University), Professor Wm. flournoy (日內瓦大學) ,教授莫爾塞利(熱那亞大學) ,教授凱薩勃羅梭(都靈大學) ,教授詹姆斯每小時hyslop (哥倫比亞大學) ,教授西醫結合。 R. Newbold (University of Pennsylvania).傳譯紐伯德(賓夕法尼亞大學) 。 While some of these writers maintain a critical attitude, others are outspoken in favour of Spiritism, and a few (Myers, James), lately deceased, arranged before death to establish communication with their surviving associates.雖然這些作家保持批判的態度,其他人都是敢言贊成spiritism ,並於數(邁爾斯,詹姆斯) ,近來死者,安排死亡前,以建立溝通與倖存的同夥。

HYPOTHESES假說

To explain the phenomena which after careful investigation and exclusion of fraud are regarded as authentic, three hypotheses have been proposed.解釋的現象,經過仔細調查和排斥的欺詐,被視為正宗,三個假說已提出。 The telepathic hypothesis takes as its starting-point the so-called subliminal consciousness.該telepathic假說需要為出發點即所謂潛意識意識。 This, it is claimed, is subject to disintegration in such wise that segments of it may impress another mind (the percipient) even at a distance.對此,有人聲稱,是受解體,在這種明智表示環節,它可能留下深刻印象的另一記( percipient ) ,甚至在距離。 The personality is liberated, so to speak, from the organism and invades the soul of another.個性解放,可以這麼說,從生物體和侵占的靈魂。 A medium, on this hypothesis, would obtain information by thought-transference either from the minds of persons present at the séance or from other minds concerning whom the sitters know nothing.一個中等,對這一假說,將獲得有關資料,發人深省劃轉無論是從頭腦的人,目前在該次會議上或者從其他有關頭腦的人sitters一無所知。 This view, it is held, would accord with the recognized facts of hypnosis and with the results of experimental telepathy; and it would explain what appear to be cases of possession.這種觀點認為,它是舉行,將符合公認的事實,催眠療法,並與結果實驗感應;它將解釋什麼似乎要案件藏。 Similar to this is the hypothesis of psychical radiations which distinguishes in man the material body, the soul, and an intermediate principle, the "perispirit".相似的,這是假設的心理輻射,它區別於在人的物質身體,靈魂,及一個中間原則, " perispirit " 。 This is a subtle fluid, or astral body, which in certain persons (mediums) can escape from the material organism and thus form a "double".這是一種微妙液,或星際機構,在某些人(媒介) ,可以脫離物質的有機體,從而形成一個"倍增器" 。 It also accompanied the soul after death and it is the means by which communication is established with the peri-spirit of the mediums.它也伴隨著靈魂死亡後,這是方法,使溝通是建立了與周邊精神上來,把介質。 The Spiritistic hypothesis maintains that the communications are received from disembodied spirits.該spiritistic假說認為,通訊是收到disembodied飽滿的精神狀態。 Its advocates declare that telepathy is insufficient to account for all the facts, that its sphere of influence would have to be enlarged so as to include all the mental states and memories of living persons, and that even with such extension it would not explain the selective character of the phenomena by which facts relevant for establishing the personal identity of the departed are discriminated from those that are irrelevant.其主張宣布感應是不夠的,佔全部的事實,認為自己的勢力範圍,都必須擴大,以便包括所有的精神狀態和記憶的生活者,並保證,即使是這樣的延伸,將本人不能說明其選擇性性格的現象,其中有關事實,為建立個人的身份後離去而受到歧視,從那些是無關宏旨。 Telepathy at most may be the means by which discarnate spirits act upon the minds of living persons.感應,在最可能的途徑,其中discarnate烈酒法後,頭腦活的人。

For those who admit that the manifestations proceed from intelligences other than that of the medium, the next question in order is whether these intelligences are the spirits of the departed or beings that have never been embodied in human forms.對於那些承認表現,從智力以外的媒介,接下來的問題,以便在於這些智力都是神的離去還是被認為沒有體現在人類形式。 The reply had often been found difficult even by avowed believers in Spiritism, and some of these have been forced to admit the action of extraneous or non-human intelligences.答复往往被發現很難,即使真有信徒在spiritism ,這些公司中有些已被迫承認,該行動的外在因素或非人類智力。 This conclusion is based on several sorts of evidence:這一結論是基於幾個各種各樣的證據:

the difficulty of establishing spirit-identity, ie, of ascertaining whether the communicator is actually the personality he or it purports to be; the love of personation on the part of the spirits which leads them to introduce themselves as celebrities who once lived on earth, although on closer questioning they show themselves quite ignorant of those whom they personate;難以確定的精神認同,即以確定是否傳播者,實際上是他的個性或者它意圖;愛personation對部分的烈酒,導致他們介紹自己是名人曾經生活在地球上,雖然仔細盤問,他們表現自己很無知的人,他們personate ;

the trivial character of the communications, so radically opposed to what would be expected from those who have passed into the other world and who naturally should be concerned to impart information on the most serious subjects;一葉障目字的通訊,以便從根本上反對什麼,將可望從那些已經過去了成其他世界的人,自然應該關心的是傳授信息,對最嚴重的科目;

the contradictory statements which the spirits make regarding their own condition, the relations of God and man, the fundamental precepts of morality;相互矛盾的聲明的精神,使他們對於自己的狀態,關係人與上帝根本戒律道德;

finally the low moral tone which often pervades these messages from spirits who pretend to enlighten mankind.最後,低道德的語氣往往貫穿於這些訊息,從神的人假裝來啟發人類。

These deceptions and inconsistencies have been attributed by some authors to the subliminal consciousness (Flournoy), by others to spirits of a lower order, ie, below the plane of humanity (Stainton Moses), while a third explanation refers them quite frankly to demonic intervention (Raupert, "Modern Spiritism", St. Louis, 1904; cf. Grasset, "The Marvels beyond Science," tr. Tubeuf, New York, 1910).這些騙案和不一致已歸入有些作者向潛意識意識( flournoy ) ,由他人以神為低,即低於這架飛機的人性(王菲摩西) ,而第三種解釋是指,他們很坦率地向惡魔般的干預( raupert , "現代spiritism " ,聖路易斯, 1904年;比照grasset , "奇蹟超越科學"的TR 。 tubeuf ,紐約, 1910年) 。 For the Christian believer this third view acquired special significance from the fact that the alleged communications antagonize the essential truths of religion, such as the Divinity of Christ, atonement and redemption, judgment and future retribution, while they encourage agnosticism, pantheism, and a belief in reincarnation.對於基督徒信奉這第三種觀點獲得了特殊的意義,從這一事實,即所稱通信對抗的基本真理的宗教,如基督的神,贖罪和贖回,判斷和未來的報應,而他們鼓勵不可知論,泛神論,和一種信念輪迴。

Spiritism indeed claims that it alone furnishes an incontestable proof of immortality, a scientific demonstration of the future life that far surpasses any philosophical deduction of Spiritualism, while it gives the death-blow to Materialism. spiritism確實聲稱,它僅提供了一個無可爭議的證明不死的,科學的論證了未來的生活,遠遠超過任何哲學扣除唯心論,而它賦予死亡的打擊,以唯物主義。 This claim, however, rests upon the validity of the hypothesis that the communications come from disembodied spirits; it gets no support from the telepathic hypothesis or from that of demonic intervention.這種說法,不過,休息後的有效性假設,即通信來自disembodied烈酒,它得到任何支持,從telepathic假說或由這惡魔般的干預。 If either of the latter should be verified the phenomena would be explained without solving or even raising the problem of human immortality.如果任何一方對後者則應核實該現象會解釋,如果沒有解決,甚至是提高的問題,人的不朽。 If, again, it were shown that the argument based on the data of normal consciousness and the nature of the soul cannot stand the test of criticism, the same test would certainly be fatal to a theory drawn from the mediumistic utterances which are not only the outcome of abnormal conditions, but are also open to widely different interpretations.如果它再次被證明,這種說法資料的基礎上,正常的意識和大自然的靈魂不能經得起任何風浪的考驗的批評,同樣的試驗,當然會是致命的一個理論取自mediumistic話語,這不僅是結果異常狀況,而且還公開,廣泛不同的解釋。 Even where all suspicion of fraud or collusion is removed--and this is seldom the case--a critical investigator will cling to the idea that phenomena which now seem inexplicable may eventually, like so many other marvels, be accounted for without having recourse to the Spiritistic hypothesis.即使所有涉嫌欺詐或串通去掉-這是很少的情況-的一個關鍵調查員會固守觀念的現象,現在似乎莫名最終有可能像許多其他奇蹟,被佔而不求助於該spiritistic假說。 Those who are convinced, on philosophical grounds, of the soul's immortality may say that communications from the spirit world, if any such there be, go to strengthen their conviction; but to abandon their philosophy and stake all on Spiritism would be more than hazardous; it would, indirectly at least, afford a pretext for a more complete rejection of soul and immortality.那些深信,在哲學上的理由,對靈魂的不朽可以說,從通信的精神世界,如果有這樣的有,去加強他們的信念,但放棄自己的哲學和股份全部spiritism將超過危險;這將間接至少負擔為藉口,更全面地拒絕了靈魂不死的。 In other words, if Spiritism were the sole argument for a future life, Materialism, instead of being crushed, would triumph anew as the only possible theory for science and common sense.或者換句話說,如果spiritism人的唯一論據,為今後的生活中,唯物主義,而不是被壓死,將凱旋脫胎換骨,唯一可行的理論,科學知識和常識。

DANGERS危險

To this risk of philosophical error must be added the dangers, mental and moral, which Spiritistic practices involve.這一風險的哲學誤差必須補充的危險,精神和道德的,其中spiritistic做法涉及。

Whatever the explanations offered for the medium's "powers", their exercise sooner or later brings about a state of passivity which cannot but injure the mind.無論解釋為中等的"權力" ,他們行使遲早會帶來一國的被動局面,這不能不損害介意。 This is readily intelligible in the hypothesis of an invasion by extraneous spirits, since such a possession must weaken and tend to efface the normal personality.這是很容易理解,在該假說的一個入侵不相干的精神狀態,因為這樣一個藏有必須削弱,並往往能在抹除正常人格。 But similar results may be expected if, as the alternate hypothesis maintains, a disintegration of the one personality takes place.但類似的結果,可預期的,如果作為候補假說保持一個解體的一個人格上露面。 In either case, it is not surprising that the mental balance should be disturbed, and self-control impaired or destroyed.在這兩種情況下,這是不足為奇的心理平衡應該受到打擾,自我控制受損或被毀。 Recourse to Spiritism frequently produces hallucinations and other aberrations, especially in subjects who are predisposed to insanity; and even those who are otherwise normal expose themselves to severe physical and mental strain (cf. Viollet, "Le spiritisme dans ses rapports avec la folie", Paris, 1908).求助於spiritism經常產生幻覺和其他反常現象,尤其是在學科的人傾向於精神失常的;即使是那些在其他方面正常的自己暴露在嚴重的身體和心理應變(參見viollet , "樂spiritisme dans經濟局局長rapports avec香格里拉炫耀" ,巴黎, 1908年) 。

More serious still is the danger of moral perversion.更為嚴重的仍然是危險的道德曲解。 If to practise or encourage deception of any sort is reprehensible, the evil is certainly greater when fraud is resorted to in the inquiry concerning the future life.如果實行鼓勵或欺騙的任何一種,是應受譴責的,邪惡肯定是更大的詐騙案時,是訴諸我們在調查委員會的有關未來的生活。 But apart from any intention to deceive, the methods employed would undermine the foundations of morality, either by producing a disintegration of personality or by inviting the invasion of an extraneous intelligence.但是,除了從任何意圖欺騙的方法會破壞該基金會的道德,無論是由製作一個解體的個性或邀請入侵的一個不相干的情報。 It may be that the medium "yields, perhaps, innocently at first to the promptings of an impulse which may come to him as from a higher power, or that he is moved by an instinctive compulsion to aid in the development of his automatic romance--in any case, if he continues to abet and encourage this automatic prompting, it is not likely that he can long retain both honesty and sanity unimpaired. The man who looks on at his hand doing a thing, but acquits himself of responsibility for the thing done, can hardly claim to be considered as a moral agent; and the step is short to instigating and repeating a like action in the future, without the excuse of an overmastering impulse . . . To attend the séances of a professional medium is perhaps at worst to countenance a swindle; to watch the gradual development of innocent automatism into physical mediumship may be to assist at a process of moral degeneration" (Podmore, "Modern Spiritualism", II, 326 sqq.).或許可以說是中等"的產量,也許,天真地在第一至promptings的衝動,這有可能會走到他從一個更高的力量,或者說,他是提出一種本能的強迫之下,以幫助發展其自動浪漫-在任何情況下,如果他繼續助長和鼓勵這種自動提示,也不太可能,他可以長期保留黨風廉政建設和思維正常,不受影響,該名男子,他們看起來就在他的手做的事,但acquits自己的責任感,為事做,也難以索賠,以被視為一種道德代理人和步驟,是短,以鼓動和重複類似的行動,並在未來,沒有藉口的一個overmastering衝動… … 。參加séances一個專業中,或許在最壞的,以國家進行騙局;觀賞逐步發展無辜自動分為物理mediumship可協助在過程中的道德墮落" ( podmore , "現代唯心論" ,第二章, 326 sqq ) 。

ACTION OF THE CHURCH行動教會

As Spiritism has been closely allied with the practices of "animal magnetism" and hypnotism, these several classes of phenomena have also been treated under the same general head in the discussions of theologians and in the decisions of ecclesiastical authority.作為spiritism已緊密地與盟國的做法"動物磁性"和催眠術,這幾個班的現象也下得到治療,同時一般頭部在討論中的神學家,並在作出決定的宗教權威。 The Congregation of the Inquisition, 25 June, 1840, decreed:會眾的宗教裁判所, 1840年6月25日,發布命令:

Where all error, sorcery, and invocation of the demon, implicit or explicit, is excluded, the mere use of physical means which are otherwise lawful, is not morally forbidden, provided it does not aim at unlawful or evil results.那裡所有的錯誤,巫術,並援引惡魔,含蓄或明確的,是被排除在外,僅僅是利用物理手段,是合法的,否則,是沒有道德上禁止的,是它的目的不是非法或邪惡的結果。 But the application of purely physical principles and means to things or effects that are really supernatural, in order to explain these on physical grounds, is nothing else than unlawful and heretical deception.但是,應用單純的物理原理和方法,以東西或效果,真的是超自然的,是為了解釋這些對身體的理由,也沒有辦法比非法和異端邪說欺騙。

This decision was reiterated on 28 July, 1847, and a further decree was issued on 30 July, 1856, which, after mentioning discourses about religion, evocation of departed spirits and "other superstitious practices" of Spiritism, exhorts the bishops to put forth every effort for the suppression of these abuses "in order that the flock of the Lord may be protected against the enemy, the deposit of faith safeguarded, and the faithful preserved from moral corruption".這一決定重申了對1847年7月28日,並進一步令發出關於1856年7月30日,經過一提的論述,關於宗教,招的背離精神和"其他迷信活動"的spiritism ,敦促主教們提出的每努力為制止這些暴行" ,以使該群主可以受到保護,免遭敵,存款信仰的保障,並且忠實地保存下來,從道義上的腐敗" 。 The Second Plenary Council of Baltimore (1866), while making due allowance for fraudulent practice in Spiritism, declares that some at least of the manifestations are to be ascribed to Satanic intervention, and warns the faithful against lending any support to Spiritism or even, out of curiosity, attending séances (Decreta, nn. 33-41).第二次全體會議,會議的巴爾的摩( 1866年) ,而作出適當的津貼欺詐行為,中spiritism ,宣布一些起碼的表現是,要歸功於撒旦干預,並警告信徒們對貸款的任何支持,以spiritism ,甚至出因為好奇,參加séances ( decreta ,神經網絡。 33-41 ) 。 The council points out, in particular, the anti-Christian character of Spiritistic teachings concerning religion, and characterizes them as an attempt to revive paganism and magic.安理會指出,尤其是反基督教的特色spiritistic教誨關於宗教的,他們的特點,作為一個企圖復活paganism和魔術隊。 A decree of the Holy Office, 30 March, 1898, condemns Spiritistic practices, even though intercourse with the demon be excluded and communication sought with good spirits only.一項法令的神聖辦公室, 1898年3月30日,譴責spiritistic做法,即使性交時,與惡魔被排除和溝通尋求與精神很好,只是。 In all these documents the distinction is clearly drawn between legitimate scientific investigation and superstitious abuses.在所有這些文件的區別是明確區分合法的科學調查和迷信濫用的情況。 What the Church condemns in Spiritism is superstition with its evil consequences for religion and morality.什麼教會譴責spiritism是迷信,其惡果為宗教和道德的高峰。

Publication information Written by Edward A. Pace.出版信息寫愛德華步伐。 Transcribed by Janet Grayson.轉錄由珍妮購房。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. nihil obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


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