Salvation救贖

General Information 一般資料

Salvation (from the Latin salus, "health," "safety," "well being") is a religious concept that refers either to the process through which a person is brought from a condition of distress to a condition of ultimate well being or to the state of ultimate well being that is the result of that process.救贖(來自拉丁語salus , "健康" , "安全" , "幸福" )是一個宗教概念,是指無論對通過這一過程的人所帶來的是從一個條件困擾的一個條件的終極福祉,或國家的終極福祉,這是導致這一進程的情況。 The meaning of the concept varies according to the different ways religious traditions understand the human plight and the ultimate state of human well being.這個概念的含義並根據不同方法不同宗教傳統的理解人類的困境和極限狀態的人類福祉。 Ideas of salvation may or may not be linked to the figure of a savior or redeemer or correlated with a concept of God.思想的救贖可能會或不會被連接到數字的救世主或救世主或相關概念的上帝。

In Christianity, salvation is variously conceived. 在基督教裡,救恩是各種設想。 One prominent conception emphasizes justification - the process through which the individual, alienated from God by sin, is reconciled to God and reckoned just or righteous through faith in Christ. Other religions present other views. 一個突出的概念,強調的理由-通過這一過程,個人的疏離上帝的罪惡,是調和神,並推測公正或正義通過信仰基督,其他宗教的,目前其他看法。 In certain forms of Hinduism and Buddhism, for example, salvation is understood as liberation from the inevitable pain of existence in time by means of religious disciplines that ultimately achieve a state of being that is not determined by time bound perceptions and forms of thought.在某些形式的印度教和佛教,舉例來說,救恩是理解為解放,從必然疼痛的存在,在時間的手段,宗教學科,最終實現一國被認為是不取決於時間約束的觀念和形式的思路。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
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These and other ideas of salvation rest on the notion that the human condition is marked by fundamental forms of distress that prevent persons from attaining true and enduring well being.這些和其他的想法救贖休息的概念,即人類狀況的標誌是基本形式的危難防止有人從實現真正和持久的幸福。 Salvation, then, is the process through which true well being is realized.救贖,那麼,是通過這一過程真正的福祉,是實現。

William S Babcock威廉s貝比考克

Bibliography 參考書目
K Klostermaier, Liberation, Salvation, Self Realization: A Comparative Study of Hindu, Buddhist, and Christian Ideas (1973); AW Pink, The Doctrine of Salvation (1975); CR Smith, The Bible Doctrine of Salvation: A Study of the Atonement (1969). k klostermaier ,解放,救國的,自我實現:一個比較研究的印度教,佛教和基督教的思想( 1973年) ;胡粉紅色的,這個學說的救贖( 1975年) ;鉻史密斯,聖經教義的救贖:研究贖罪( 1969年) 。


Salvation救贖

General Information 一般資料

Salvation is perceived in a variety of ways by different Christians and even different Christian Churches.救恩是知覺,在多種方式,由不同的基督徒,甚至不同的基督教教堂。 The Salvation process is unique to each individual.拯救的過程中是獨一無二的每一個人。 In some cases, it can be a slow, methodical procedure.在某些情況下,它可以是一個緩慢的,有條不紊的程序。 In others, an instantaneous flash of insight causes a miraculous transformation!在其他情況下,一個瞬間閃光的洞察力,造成了奇蹟般的轉變! For most people, the Salvation process is somewhere between these extremes.對大多數人來說,救贖的過程,是介於這兩種極端。

In all cases, the central human condition involved for Salvation is absolute total trust in God.在所有案件中,中央人力條件涉及救恩是絕對的總的信任上帝。

A very analytical way of looking at it involves the following:一個很解析的方式看,它涉及以下內容:
(This presents a generalized Protestant perspective. Catholics and Orthodox are taught rather different views on Salvation.) (這是一個廣義的角度新教徒,天主教徒和東正教徒講授,而有不同的意見,救恩) 。

Many Christian Churches consider only some of these 'stages' to be part of the Salvation process.許多基督教會只考慮一些這些'階段' ,以參與組成救贖的過程。 Various Denominations describe their concept of Salvation in different ways.各種面額的描述他們的概念救贖方式不同。 In addition, the indwelling Holy Spirit understands what unique sequence and process is necessary for each individual, so sweeping generalities (like this description!) are often incorrect.此外,留置聖靈明白什麼獨特的順序和進程是必要的,為每一個單獨的,所以籠統泛泛(像這樣描述! )往往不正確。 These matters make precise general discussion on the subject somewhat difficult.這些事項做出準確就該議題進行一般性討論較為困難。

In addition, this listing is a specifically Protestant description.此外,此一上市,是一個專門新教描述。 Catholic and Orthodox desciptions have some differences, and generally discuss fewer "stages".天主教會與東正教desciptions有一些分歧,但與一般討論較少的"階段" 。 Also, where Protestant beliefs insist on Salvation being totally by the Grace of God, with no input by the person, Catholic beliefs include finding substantial value in the Good Works of the person.此外,那裡的新教信仰,堅持救國完全由天主的恩典,沒有任何投入的人,天主教信仰,包括尋找具有重大價值,在優秀作品的人。

(BELIEVE contains individual presentations on these different matters. See the very end of this page for links to them.) (相信載有個別發言,對這些不同的事情。看到非常年底這個網頁,鏈接到它們) 。


Salvation救贖

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The saving of man from the power and effects of sin.節水男子從權力和影響的罪過。

The Biblical Idea聖經理念

The common Hebrew words for salvation, deriving from the root yasa' (width, spaciousness, freedom from constraint, hence, deliverance) obviously lend themselves to broad development in application.共同希伯萊語救贖,源於根yasa ' (寬度,寬敞,不受制約,因此,解脫) ,顯然使它們廣闊的發展應用前景。 Literally, they cover salvation from any danger, distress, enemies, from bondage in Egypt (Exod. 14:13; 15:2), exile in Babylon (Isa. 46:13; 52:10 - 11), adversaries (Ps. 106:10), defeat (Deut. 20:4), or oppression (Judg. 3:31; etc.).從字面上來看,它們包括救國任何危險,危難,敵人的時候,從枷鎖,在埃及( exod. 14時13分; 15時02分) ,流亡在巴比倫(以賽亞書46:13 ; 52:10 -1 1) ,對手(雅歌106:10 ) ,失敗(申命記20時04分) ,或壓迫( judg. 3時31分;等) 。 Metaphorically, in salvation from social decay (Hos. 1:7) and from want, the meaning approaches moral and personal welfare ("prosperity"; Job 30:15); in Ps.比喻,在救贖的,由社會衰變( hos. 1時07分)和免於匱乏,但其意義辦法道德和個人福利( "繁榮" ;就業30:15 ) ,在PS 。 28:9, religious blessing in general. 28:9 ,宗教祝福一般。 "The Lord is. . . my salvation" is the heart of OT testimony, always with an overtone of underserved mercy. "耶和華是… … 。我的救贖"是香港的心臟城市旅遊局的證詞,始終與泛音的水平低下,決不手軟。 Later Judaism anticipated a messianic deliverance, which might include political, national, or religious elements (Pss. Sol. 10:9; T Benj. 9:10; cf. Luke 1:69, 71, 77).後來猶太教預期救世主的解脫,這些措施可能包括政治,民族,宗教要素( pss.溶膠。 10時09分和t benj 。 9時10分;比照盧克1:69 , 71 , 77 ) 。

Soteria therefore gathered a rich connotation from LXX to carry into NT. soteria因此掌握了豐富的內涵,從lxx進行到新台幣。 There, too, it means deliverance, preservation, from any danger (Acts 7:25; 27:31; Heb. 11:7).在那裡,也就是救我們,保鮮,從任何危險(行為7時25分; 27:31 ;以弗所書11時07分) 。 The roots saos, sozo, however, add the notion of wholeness, soundness, health, giving "salvation" a medical connotation, salvation from affliction, disease, demon possession, death (Mark 5:34; James 5:15; etc.).根saos , sozo ,但是,添加的概念完整,穩健,健康,使"救贖"醫學內涵,救贖從痛苦,疾病,妖魔藏,死亡(馬克5時34分;詹姆斯下午5時15等) 。 Sometimes this meaning is literal; peace, joy, praise, faith are so interwoven with healing as to give "saved" a religious significance also.有時候這意思是字面上的;和平,喜悅,讚美,信仰是如此交織在一起,具有治療,以"節省"是一個宗教意義也。 Jesus' self description as "physician" (Mark 2:17) and the illustrative value of the healing miracles in defining his mission show how readily physical and spiritual healing unite in "salvation" (Luke 4:18 - 19).耶穌的自我描述為"醫師" (馬克2:17 )和說明性價值癒合的奇蹟在界定他的使命顯示如何輕易的身體和精神癒合團結在"救贖" (路加福音4時18分-1 9) 。

Much of the most frequent use of soteria and derivatives is for deliverance, preservation from all spiritual dangers, the bestowal of all religious blessings.大部分最頻繁使用的soteria和衍生工具,是為救我們,保存從一切精神艱險,贈與所有宗教祝福。 Its alternative is destruction (Phil. 1:28), death (2 Cor. 7:10), divine wrath (1 Thess. 5:9); it is available to all (Titus 2:11), shared (Jude 3), eternal (Heb. 5:9).其辦法是銷毀( phil. 1時28分) ,死亡( 2肺心病。 7時10分) ,神的憤怒( 1帖5時09分) ,它是提供給所有(提2,11 ) ,共享(裘德3 )永恆的(希伯來書5時09分) 。 It is ascribed to Christ alone (Acts 4:12; Luke 19:10), "the pioneer of salvation," and especially to his death (Heb. 2:10; Rom. 5:9 - 10).這可能歸因於基督單(使徒4時12分;路加福音19:10 ) , "先鋒的救贖" ,特別是在其死亡(希伯來書2時10分;光碟。 5時09 -1 0) 。 In that sense salvation was "from the Jews" (John 4:22), though for Gentiles too (Rom. 11:11).在這個意義上的拯救是"從猶太人的" (約翰福音4時22分) ,儘管為外邦人太(羅馬書11:11 ) 。 It is proclaimed (taught) as a way of thought and life (Acts 13:26; 16:17; Eph. 1:13), to be received from God's favor by faith alone, a confessed confidence and trust (Acts 16:30 - 31; Eph. 2:8) focused upon the resurrection and Lordship of Christ (Rom. 10:9), "calling" upon him (Acts 2:21; Rom. 10:13).這是宣布(教)的一種方式,思想和生活( 13時26分行為; 16:17 ;以弗所書1:13 ) ,將收到的來自上帝的青睞,由信念單獨一個交待信心和信任(使徒行16:30 -3 1人;以弗所書2時0 8分)集中後復活,並l ordship基督(羅馬書1 0時0 9分) , "呼籲: "當他(指行為2時2 1分;光碟。 1 0:13) 。 Once received, salvation must not be "neglected" but "held fast," "grown up to," humbly "worked out" (Heb. 2:3; 1 Cor. 15:2; 1 Pet. 2:2; Phil. 2:12), some being only narrowly saved in the end (1 Cor. 3:15; 1 Pet. 4:18).一旦接收到救亡決不能"忽略" ,但"仍堅守" , "長大了, "虛心" ,制定了" (希伯來書2:3 1肺心病。 15時02分,一寵物。 2:2 ;菲爾。 2時12分) ,有的只是狹義地保存在年底( 1肺心病。 3:15 ,一寵物。 4時18分) 。

The Comprehensiveness of Salvation全面性的救贖

The comprehensiveness of salvation may be shown:全面性的救恩,可顯示:

(1) By what we are saved from. ( 1 )在我們所節省的。 This includes sin and death; guilt and estrangement; ignorance of truth; bondage to habit and vice; fear of demons, of death, of life, of God, of hell; despair of self; alienation from others; pressures of the world; a meaningless life.這包括罪惡和死亡;罪惡感和隔閡;不了解真相;束縛習慣和副主席;恐懼的惡魔,死亡的,在生活中,上帝的,地獄;絕望中的自我;異化從別人;壓力的世界;毫無意義的生活。 Paul's own testimony is almost wholly positive: salvation has brought him peace with God, access to God's favor and presence, hope of regaining the glory intended for men, endurance in suffering, steadfast character, an optimistic mind, inner motivations of divine love and power of the Spirit, ongoing experience of the risen Christ within his soul, and sustaining joy in God (Rom. 5:1 - 11).保羅自己的證詞中,幾乎全是肯定的:救贖為他帶來了和平與上帝,獲得上帝的青睞,並駐留,希望能夠重新奪回了榮耀,打算為男性,有耐力,在痛苦的,堅定的性格,樂觀的態度,黨內的動機神聖的愛和力量的精神,持續的經驗,復活的基督與他的靈魂,並維持喜悅神(羅馬書5:1 -1 1) 。 Salvation extends also to society, aiming at realizing the kingdom of God; to nature, ending its bondage to futility (Rom. 8:19 - 20); and to the universe, attaining final reconciliation of a fragmented cosmos (Eph. 1:10; Col. 1:20).救贖也延伸到社會,其目標在於實現神的國度;大自然,從而結束其束縛徒勞(羅馬書8時19分-2 0) ,以及到宇宙中,為實現最終和解的一個支離破碎的宇宙(以弗所書1 :10 ;上校1:20 ) 。

(2) By noting that salvation is past (Rom. 8:24; Eph. 2:5, 8; Titus 3:5 - 8); present (1 Cor. 1:18; 15:2; 2 Cor. 2:15; 6:2; 1 Pet. 1:9; 3:21); and future (Rom. 5:9 - 10; 13:11; 1 Cor. 5:5; Phil. 1:5 - 6; 2:12; 1 Thess. 5:8; Heb. 1:14; 9:28; 1 Pet. 2:2). ( 2 )指出,救恩是過去(羅馬書8時24分;以弗所書2時05分, 8名;弟兄3時05 -8 ) ;出示( 1肺心病。 1 :18; 1 5時0 2分, 2肺心病。 2 : 15中以1寵物1時09分; 3時21分)和未來(羅馬書5時09 -1 0; 1 3時1 1分, 1肺心病。 5 :5;菲爾。 1 :5- 6; 2 : 12日,一帖5時08分;以弗所書1:14 ; 9時28分,一寵物。 2:2 ) 。 That is, salvation includes that which is given, freely and finally, by God's grace (forgiveness, called in one epistle justification, friendship; or reconciliation, atonement, sonship, and new birth); that which is continually imparted (santification, growing emancipation from all evil, growing enrichment in all good, the enjoyment of eternal life, experience of the Spirit's power, liberty, joy, advancing maturity in conformity to Christ); and that still to be attained (redemption of the body, perfect Christlikeness, final glory).那就是救亡包括認為這是由於在自由和最後,是由上帝的恩典(寬恕,所謂在一個書信理由,友誼;或和解,贖罪, sonship ,新出生) ,即是不斷地傳授( santification ,越來越多的解放從一切邪惡,越來越豐富,在所有的好,享受永恆的生命,經驗,精神的權力,自由,快樂,與時俱進成熟符合基督) ,並仍然要達到的(贖回的身體,完美的christlikeness ,最後榮耀) 。

(3) By distinguishing salvation's various aspects: religious (acceptance with God, forgiveness, reconciliation, sonship, reception of the Spirit, immortality); emotional (strong assurance, peace, courage, hopefulness, joy); practical (prayer, guidance, discipline, dedication, service); ethical (new moral dynamic for new moral aims, freedom, victory); personal (new thoughts, convictions, horizons, motives, satisfactions, selffulfillment); social (new sense of community with Christians, of compassion toward all, overriding impulse to love as Jesus has loved). ( 3 )通過區分救贖的各個方面:宗教(接受與上帝,寬恕,和解, sonship ,接待的精神,不朽) ;情緒(強有力的保證,和平,勇氣, hopefulness ,喜悅) ;實用(祈禱,指導,紀律奉獻,服務) ;倫理(新的道德動力,為新的道德的目的,自由,勝利的象徵) ,個人(新的思想,信念,視野,動機,滿意度, selffulfillment ) ,社會(新的社區意識與基督教徒,同情心,對所有,壓倒一切的衝動,以愛情為耶穌愛) 。

Salvation in the NT救贖在新台幣

Distinctive approaches underline the richness of the concept.獨特的辦法,強調豐富的概念。 Jesus presupposed the universal sin and need of men, originating in rebelliousness (Matt. 7:23; 13:41; 24:12 "lawless"; 21:28 - 29), and causing "sickness" of soul (Mark 2:17), which lies deep within personality, defiling from within (Matt. 7:15 - 16; 12:35; cf. 5:21 - 22, 27 - 28; 15:19 - 20; 23:25), and leaving men in debt to God for unpaid duty (6:12; 18:23 - 24).耶穌預先假定的普遍罪惡和需要的男人,原產於叛逆。 ( 7時23分; 13時41分; 24:12 "無法無天" , 21時28分-2 9) ,並造成"病"的靈魂(馬克2 :17 ) ,這是內部的深層性格, defiling從內部。 ( 7:15 -1 6; 1 2:35;比照5點2 1分- 22月2 7日- 2 8日;1 5時19 - 20 ;2 3時2 5分) ,並留下男性在債務向上帝未付稅( 6時12分; 18時23分-2 4) 。 He therefore called all to repentance (Mark 1:15; Luke 5:32; 13:3, 5; 15:10), to a change of outlook and life style that enthrones God (Luke 8:2; 19:9 (John 8:11); Matt. 9:9; etc.), urged daily prayer for forgiveness, himself offered forgiveness (Mark 2:5), and commended humble penitence as the only acceptable basis upon which to approach God (Luke 18:9 - 10).因此,他呼籲所有悔改(馬克1:15 ;盧克5時32分; 13時03分, 5條; 15:10 ) ,以改變面貌和生活作風enthrones神(路加福音8:2 ; 19時09分(約翰。 8時11分) ;馬特。 9時09分;等) ,要求每天祈禱寬恕,自己所提供的寬恕(馬克2時05分) ,並讚揚謙卑懺悔,作為唯一可接受的基礎,使接近神(盧克18時09分-1 0) 。

In Jesus' openness and friendship toward sinners, the loving welcome of God found perfect expression.在耶穌的公開性和友誼,對罪人,歡迎愛好的上帝發現了完美的體現。 Nothing was needed to win back God's favor.什麼是需要贏回上帝的恩賜。 It waited eagerly for man's return (Luke 15:11 - 24).它等待,熱切盼望男子的回報(盧克15時11分-2 4) 。 The one indispensable preliminary was the change in man from rebelliousness to childlike trust and willingness to obey.一個不可缺少的是初步改變男子從叛逆到一個小孩子的信任,並願意聽從。 That shown, there followed life under God's rule, described as feasting, marriage, wine, finding treasure, joy, peace, all the freedom and privilege of sonship within the divine family in the Father's world.這顯示出,隨後下的生活神的統治下,稱為酒綠燈紅,婚姻,葡萄酒,尋找寶藏,歡樂,和平,一切自由和特權的sonship內部的神聖家族,在父親的世界。

Peter also called to repentance (Acts 2:38), promising forgiveness and the Spirit to whoever called upon the Lord.彼得還呼籲悔改(使徒2時38分) ,有前途的寬恕和精神向誰呼籲主。 Salvation was especially from past misdeeds and for conformity to a perverse generation (vss. 23 - 40); and with a purpose, inheritance, and glory still to be revealed (1 Pet. 1:3 - 5; etc.).救恩是特別從過去的行為,為符合倒行逆施代( vss. 23 -4 0) ;以及與目的,繼承和榮耀,仍有待發現( 1寵物1 :3- 5等) 。

In John's thought salvation is from death and judgment.在約翰的思想救恩是從死亡和判斷。 He restates its meaning in terms of life, rich and eternal (thirty six times in Gospel, thirteen in 1 John), God's gift in and with Christ, beginning in total renewal ("new birth"); illumined by truth ("knowledge," "light"); and experienced as love (John 3:5 - 16; 5:24; 12:25; 1 John 4:7 - 11; 5:11).他重申,它的意義而言,生活中,豐富和永恆( 36次福音, 13個在約翰一) ,上帝的禮物,並與基督開始,在總重建(簡稱"新的誕生" ) ;照亮真理( "知識, " , "輕" ) ;和經驗豐富的,因為愛(約翰3點05分-1 6; 5時2 4分; 1 2:251約翰4點0 7分- 11 ;5時1 1分) 。

Paul saw his own failure to attain legal righteousness reflected in all men and due to the overmastering power ("rule") of sin, which brought with it death.保羅看見他自己的失敗,以實現法律正義,反映在所有男人和因應overmastering功率( "規則" )的單仲偕,隨之而來的,它的死因。 Salvation is therefore, first, acquital, despite just condemnation, on the ground of Christ's expiation of sin (Rom. 3:21 - 22); and second, deliverance by the invasive power of the Spirit of holiness, the Spirit of the risen Christ.救恩是,因此,第一, acquital ,儘管只是譴責,在地面上的基督的犯罪被害人單(羅馬書3點21分-2 2) ;第二,救我們所創的權力,精神的聖德,精神復活。 The faith which accepts and assents to Christ's death on our behalf also unites us to him so closely that with him we die to sin and rise to new life (Rom. 6:1 - 2).信仰接受和assents以基督的死對我們也代表我們團結起來,以他如此密切,隨著他的死,以單與崛起,以新的生命(羅馬書6:1 -2 ) 。 The results are freedom from sin's power (vss. 7, 18; 8:2); exultation in the power of the indwelling Spirit and assurance of sonship (ch. 8); increasing conformity to Christ.結果免於罪惡的權力( vss. 7日, 18日; 8:2 ) ;歡欣鼓舞,在權力範圍內留置精神和保證sonship (第八章) ;日益整合,以基督。 By the same process death is overcome, and believers are prepared for life everlasting (6:13, 22 - 23; 8:11).由同一進程中的死亡是克服,信徒願意為生命永恆( 6時13分, 22 -2 3; 8時1 1分) 。

Further Development進一步發展

It is evident, even from this brief outline, that need would arise for endless analysis, comparison, systematization, and restatement in contemporary terms of all that salvation means to Christian faith.這是顯而易見的,即使從這個簡短的提綱,即需要,將引起無休止的分析,比較,系統化,並重申了在當代條件的一切救贖手段,以基督教信仰。 This is the task of soteriology, the doctrine of soteria, salvation.這是任務soteriology ,這個學說的soteria ,救贖。 How far, for example, did the mystery religions of the first century influence the Christian hope derived from Judaism?有多遠,舉例來說,有沒有神秘宗教的第一世紀的影響力,基督教希望來自猶太教? They offered salvation, as "all the blessings it is possible to desire," and above all else, immortality.他們所提供的救恩,因為"所有的祝福,這是不可能的願望, "看得高於一切,不死的。 Before becoming absorbed in Christology, patristic reflection probed especially the meaning of the ransom Christ had paid for man's salvation and freedom.後來成為吸收christology ,教父的思考,探索,特別是意義的贖金基督曾支付人的救贖與自由。

Later, the Eastern Church traced the effect of Adam's fall chiefly in man's mortality, and saw salvation as especially the gift of eternal life through the risen Christ. 稍後,東方教會追溯效力的亞當的下降主要是在男子的死亡率,看到拯救作為特別的禮物永生通過復活。 The Western Church traced the effect of Adam's fall chiefly in the inherited guilt (Ambrose) and corruption (Augustine) of the race, and saw salvation as especially the gift of grace through Christ's death. 西方教會追溯效力的亞當的下降,主要是在繼承了有罪(劉漢銓)和腐敗(奧古斯丁)的比賽,看到救亡特別是作為禮品的恩典透過基督的死亡。 Divine grace alone could cancel guilt and deliver from corruption. 神的恩典能夠單獨取消有罪,並提供從腐敗。

Anselm and Abelard explored further the relation of man's salvation to the cross of Jesus as satisfaction for sin, or redeeming example of love; Luther, its relation to man's receiving faith; Calvin, its relation to God's sovereign will. anselm和阿貝拉爾進一步探討關係人類的救贖,以十字架的耶穌,因為滿意度為單,或贖回的例子愛情;路德,它關係到人的接受信仰;卡爾文,及其與神的主權意志。 Roman Catholic thought has emphasized the objective sphere of salvation within a sacramental church; and Protestantism, the subjective experience of salvation within the individual soul.羅馬天主教思想強調客觀領域的救贖一個聖教會和基督新教,主觀經驗的救贖與個人的靈魂。 Modern reflection tends to concentrate on the psychological process and ethical results of salvation, emphasizing the need to "save" society.現代反思往往把注意力集中在心理過程和道德的結果救贖,並強調要"救"的社會。

REO White選舉事務處的白

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
LH Marshall, Challenge of NT Ethics; HR Mackintosh, Christian Experience of Forgiveness; V Taylor, Forgiveness and Reconciliation; E Kevan, Salvation; U Simon, Theology of Salvation. LH的馬歇爾,挑戰新台幣道德;心率麥金托希,基督教經驗的寬恕; v泰勒,寬恕與和解;電子kevan ,救贖; u西門,神學的救贖。


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Soteriological Ordering soteriological訂購

Advanced Information 先進的信息

There are four major ways of ordering the soteriological elements of God's eternal decree.主要有四個方面的方式訂購soteriological要素上帝的永恆的法令。

Arminianism arminianism Supralapsarianism supralapsarianism Infralapsarianism infralapsarianism Amyraldianism amyraldianism
  1. Create創造
  2. Permit Fall許可證秋天
  3. Provide salvation for all提供救贖,為所有
  4. Call all to salvation請所有來救贖
  5. Elect those who believe選出那些相信
  1. Elect some, reprobate rest選一些, reprobate休息
  2. Create創造
  3. Permit Fall許可證秋天
  4. Provide salvation for elect提供得救選出
  5. Call elect to salvation請新當選的救贖
  1. Create創造
  2. Permit Fall許可證秋天
  3. Elect some, pass over the rest選一些,通過多休息
  4. Provide salvation for elect提供得救選出
  5. Call elect to salvation請新當選的救贖
  1. Create創造
  2. Permit Fall許可證秋天
  3. Provide salvation sufficient for all提供足夠的救贖,為所有
  4. Elect some, pass over rest選一些,通過多休息
  5. Call elect to salvation請新當選的救贖

The distinction between infralapsarianism and supralapsarianism has to do with the logical order of God's eternal decrees, not the timing of election.區分infralapsarianism和supralapsarianism也與邏輯順序上帝的永恆的法令,而不是時間的選舉。 Neither side suggests that the elect were chosen after Adam sinned.任何一方都不認為選舉被選定後,亞當罪。 God made His choice before the foundation of the world (Eph. 1:4), long before Adam sinned.上帝發了言,他面前的選擇立黨之本,世界(以弗所書1:4 ) ,前不久亞當罪。 Both infras and supras (and even many Arminians) agree on this.雙方infras和蘇普拉斯(甚至許多arminians )同意這點。

SUPRALAPSARIANISM is the view that God, contemplating man as yet unfallen, chose some to receive eternal life and rejected all others. supralapsarianism是認為上帝,公司名男子尚未unfallen ,選擇一些接受永恆的生命,並拒絕了所有其他人。 So a supralapsarian would say that the reprobate (non-elect) vessels of wrath fitted for destruction (Rom. 9:22) were first ordained to that role, and then the means by which they fell into sin was ordained.所以supralapsarian會表示, reprobate (非選舉)的船隻眾怒裝有銷毀(羅馬書9時22分)首次受戒這一角色, 然後方法,使他們陷入罪惡是受戒。 In other words, supralapsarianism suggests that God's decree of election logically preceded His decree to permit Adam's fall, so that their damnation is first of all an act of divine sovereignty, and only secondarily an act of divine justice.或者換句話說, supralapsarianism表明上帝的法令的選舉邏輯上先於他的法令,准許亞當的降臨,使他們damnation首先是一種行為的神聖主權,而只有為輔行為的神聖正義。

Supralapsarianism is sometimes mistakenly equated with "double predestination." supralapsarianism有時錯誤地等同於"雙重宿命" 。 The term "double predestination" itself is often used in a misleading and ambiguous fashion.而言, "雙重宿命"本身是常用的一種誤導,模糊的時裝。 Some use it to mean nothing more than the view that the eternal destiny of both elect and reprobate is settled by the eternal decree of God.有的用它來毫無意義多於認為永恆的命運都選舉權和reprobate是解決永恆法令的上帝。 In that sense of the term, all genuine Calvinists hold to "double predestination" and the fact that the destiny of the reprobate is eternally settled is clearly a biblical doctrine (cf. 1 Peter 2:8; Romans 9:22; Jude 4).在這個意義上來說, 所有真正calvinists舉行,以"雙宿命" ,並事實,那就是命運的reprobate永遠定居顯然是一個聖經的教義(參見彼得2時08分;入鄉隨俗9時22分;裘德4 ) 。 But more often, the expression "double predestination" is employed as a pejorative term to describe the view of those who suggest that God is as active in keeping the reprobate out of heaven as He is in getting the elect in. (There's an even more sinister form of "double predestination," which suggests that God is as active in making the reprobate evil as He is in making the elect holy.)但更多的時候,表達的"雙重宿命" ,是受僱為貶義的任期來形容者的看法認為上帝是作為積極的,在保持reprobate出來的天堂,因為他是在獲得當選英寸(這裡還有一個更險惡形式的"雙重宿命" ,這意味著上帝是活躍在作出reprobate邪惡,因為他是在作出選出聖地) 。

This view (that God is as active in reprobating the non-elect as He is in redeeming the elect) is more properly labeled "equal ultimacy" (cf. RC Sproul, Chosen by God, 142).這種觀點(即上帝是活躍在reprobating不當選,因為他是在挽救選出) ,是比較恰當的標記"平等ultimacy " (見鋼筋sproul , 選擇上帝, 142 ) 。 It is actually a form of hyper-Calvinism and has nothing to do with true, historic Calvinism.它實際上是一種形式的超加爾文教,並已完全與真實的,歷史的加爾文。 Though all who hold such a view would also hold to the supralapsarian scheme, the view itself is not a necessary ramification of supralapsarianism.雖然所有的人持有這種看法也將舉行向supralapsarian計劃,有代表認為,它本身並非一個必要課後supralapsarianism 。

Supralapsarianism is also sometimes wrongly equated with hyper-Calvinism. supralapsarianism有時也被錯誤地等同於超加爾文。 All hyper-Calvinists are supralapsarians, though not all supras are hyper-Calvinists.所有超calvinists是supralapsarians ,雖然不是所有蘇普拉斯是超線程calvinists 。

Supralapsarianism is sometimes called "high" Calvinism, and its most extreme adherents tend to reject the notion that God has any degree of sincere goodwill or meaningful compassion toward the non-elect. supralapsarianism有時也被稱為"高"加爾文教,其最極端的信徒們往往拒絕概念,即上帝有任何程度的真誠善意或有意義的同情心,對非選舉。 Historically, a minority of Calvinists have held this view.在歷史上,少數calvinists舉行了這一觀點。

But Boettner's comment that "there is not more than one Calvinist in a hundred that holds the supralapsarian view," is no doubt an exaggeration.但boettner的意見,即"不存在一個以上的calvinist在百掌握supralapsarian認為, "毫無疑問,一個誇張。 And in the past decade or so, the supralapsarian view seems to have gained popularity.而在過去十多年來, supralapsarian看法似乎已獲得了人氣。

INFRALAPSARIANISM (also known sometimes as "sublapsarianism") suggests that God's decree to permit the fall logically preceded His decree of election. infralapsarianism (又稱有時為" sublapsarianism " ) ,表明上帝的法令,允許屬於邏輯上先於他的政令選舉。 So when God chose the elect and passed over the non-elect, He was contemplating them all as fallen creatures.因此,當上帝選擇了選舉,並通過在非選舉,他正在考慮他們為這些墮落的。

Those are the two major Calvinistic views.這些都是兩大calvinistic意見。 Under the supralapsarian scheme, God first rejects the reprobate out of His sovereign good pleasure; then He ordains the means of their damnation through the fall.根據supralapsarian計劃,上帝首先駁斥reprobate出他的主權高興的,好,然後他ordains手段,其damnation到秋季。 In the infralapsarian order, the non-elect are first seen as fallen individuals, and they are damned solely because of their own sin.infralapsarian一聲令下,不選是首次被視為塌個人,他們是該死,純粹是因為自己的罪孽。 Infralapsarians tend to emphasize God's "passing over" the non-elect ( preterition ) in His decree of election. infralapsarians往往強調上帝的"擦身而過" ,不選( preterition )在他的法令,選舉工作的進行。

Robert Reymond, himself a supralapsarian, proposes the following refinement of the supralapsarian view: (See Robert Reymond, Systematic Theology of the Christian Faith, 489).羅伯特reymond ,自己是一個supralapsarian ,提出以下建議完善該supralapsarian看法: (見Robert reymond ,有系統神學的基督教信仰, 489頁) 。

Reymond's Modified reymond的修飾
Supralapsarianism supralapsarianism
  1. Elect some sinful men, reprobate rest選一些罪孽深重的男人, reprobate休息
  2. Apply redemptive benefits to the elect申請救贖的效益去選出
  3. Provide salvation for elect提供得救選出
  4. Permit Fall許可證秋天
  5. Create創造

Notice that in addition to reording the decrees, Reymond's view deliberately stresses that in the decree of election and reprobation, God is contemplating men as sinners.通知指出,除了reording的法令, reymond的看法,刻意強調,在該法令的選舉和reprobation ,上帝正男為罪人。 Reymond writes, "In this scheme, unlike the former [the classic supra- order], God is represented as discriminating among men viewed as sinners and not among men viewed simply as men." reymond寫道, "在這項計劃下, 不像前任 [經典超常規] ,是上帝所代表的是歧視男性視為罪人,而不是男人僅僅作為男人" Reymond's refinement avoids the criticism most commonly leveled against supralapsarianism, that the supralapsarian has God damning men to perdition before He even contemplates them as sinners. reymond的細化,避免了批評,最常見的層次,對supralapsarianism ,認為supralapsarian有上帝譴責男人墜入萬劫不復之前,他甚至考慮作出他們當作罪人。 But Reymond's view also leaves unanswered the question of how and why God would regard all men as sinners even before it was determined that the human race would fall.但reymond的看法,也給人留下了懸而未決的問題,如何以及為什麼上帝把所有男人的罪人,即使在已確定人類將下降。 (Some might even argue that Reymond's refinements result in a position that, as far as the key distinction is concerned, is implicitly infralapsarian.) (有的甚至可以說reymond的改進,結果在一個位置,對於關鍵的區別而言,是含蓄infralapsarian ) 。

All the major Reformed Creeds are either explicitly infralapsarian, or else they carefully avoid language that favors either view. No major creed takes the supralapsarian position. (This whole issue was hotly debated throughout the Westminster Assembly. William Twisse, an ardent supralapsarian and chairman of the Assembly, ably defended his view. But the Assembly opted for language that clearly favors the infra position, yet without condemning supralapsarianism.) 所有重大改革的信條是要么明確infralapsarian ,否則小心避免語言主張要么看法。 並無重大信條採取supralapsarian位置, (這整個問題是經過激烈辯論,在整個西敏寺議會。威廉twisse ,殷切supralapsarian董事長大會,幹練地捍衛了他的看法,但大會增選為語文,顯然有利於紅外地位,但如果沒有譴責supralapsarianism ) 。

"Bavinck has pointed out that the supralapsarian presentation 'has not been incorporated in a single Reformed Confession' but that the infra position has received an official place in the Confessions of the churches" (Berkouwer, Divine Election, 259). "巴文克指出,該supralapsarian介紹'並沒有被納入一個單一的改革認罪,但表示,紅外線立場得到了官方的,在供述中的教堂" ( berkouwer , 神聖的選舉中, 259名) 。

Louis Berkhof's discussion of the two views (in his Systematic Theology ) is helpful, though he seems to favor supralapsarianism.路易,伯克霍夫的討論中的兩種觀點(在他的系統神學 ) ,是有幫助的,但他似乎主張supralapsarianism 。 I take the Infra view, as did Turretin, most of the Princeton theologians, and most of the leading Westminster Seminary men (eg, John Murray).我藉此紅外線來看,由於沒有特里田,大部分的美國普林斯頓神學家,而且大部分的領導威斯敏斯特修道院男子(例如,約翰默里) 。 These issues were at the heart of the "common grace" controversy in the first half of the Twentieth Century.這些問題均處於核心地位的"共同恩典"的爭議,在首二十世紀下半葉。 Herman Hoeksema and those who followed him took such a rigid supralapsarian position that they ultimately denied the very concept of common grace.赫爾曼hoeksema以及那些跟隨他上了這種僵化supralapsarian立場,即它們最終否認了這一概念的共同恩典。

Finally, see the chart ( above ), which compares these two views with Amyraldism (a kind of four-point Calvinism) and Arminianism.最後,見圖表( 以上 ) ,其中比較這兩種意見與amyraldism (一種四點加爾文)和arminianism 。 My notes on each view ( below ) identify some of the major advocates of each view.我的筆記對每個視圖( 以下 ) ,確定一些主要的倡導者,每個觀點。

Notes on the Order of the Decrees紙幣上的秩序的法令

Supralapsarianism supralapsarianism

Beza, who held this view, often is credited with formulating the supralapsarian position, but he did not. beza ,持這個觀點,往往是貸制訂supralapsarian立場,但他沒有。 Other historic supras include Gomarus, Twisse, Perkins, Voetus, Witsius, and Comrie.其他歷史性蘇普拉斯包括戈馬魯斯, twisse ,帕金斯, voetus , witsius , comrie 。 Louis Berkhof sees value in both views, but seems to lean slightly toward supralapsarianism.路易,伯克霍夫看到價值在兩種意見,但似乎稍微傾斜,對supralapsarianism 。 Karl Barth felt supralapsarianism was more nearly correct than infralapsarianism.卡爾巴特認為supralapsarianism更接近正確的,比infralapsarianism 。 Robert Reymond's Systematic Theology of the Christian Faith takes the supralapsarian view and includes a lengthy defense of supralapsarianism.羅伯特reymond的系統神學的基督教信仰採取supralapsarian意見,並包括一個冗長的防衛supralapsarianism 。 Turretin says supralapsarianism is "harsher and less suitable" than infralapsarianism.特里田說, supralapsarianism是"更嚴厲的,並不太適合"比infralapsarianism 。 He believes it "does not appear to agree sufficiently with [God's] unspeakable goodness".他認為, "似乎並不認同,足以與[上帝]無法形容的善" 。 Herman Hoeksema and the entire leadership of the Protestant Reformed Churches (including Homer Hoeksema, Herman Hanko, and David Engelsma) are determined supralapsarians, often arguing both implicitly and explicitly that supralapsarianism is the only logically consistent scheme. This presumption clearly contributes to the PRC's rejection of common grace. In fact, the same arguments used in favor of Supralapsarianism have been employed against common grace.赫爾曼hoeksema和整個領導的基督教改革教會(包括荷馬hoeksema ,赫爾曼hanko ,和大衛engelsma )決心supralapsarians ,常常爭論,既含蓄,並明確表示, supralapsarianism是,不僅在邏輯上一貫的計劃, 這推定顯然助長中共的排斥反應共同的恩典。事實上,在相同的論點用來主張supralapsarianism已受聘常見的恩典。 So supralapsarianism may have in it a tendency that is hostile to the idea of common grace.所以supralapsarianism公司可能在它的傾向,這是敵對的思想,共同的恩典。 (It is a fact that virtually all who deny "common grace" are supralapsarians.) Supralapsarianism also necessitates the harshest sort of "double predestination." (這是一個事實,幾乎所有的人否認"共同恩典" ,是supralapsarians ) 。 supralapsarianism ,也有必要嚴厲排序的"雙重宿命" 。 It is hard to find exponents of supralapsarianism among the major systematic theologians.卻難以找到指數supralapsarianism各主要系統的神學家。 RA Webb says supralapsarianism is "abhorrent to metaphysics, to ethics, and to the scriptures. It is propounded in no Calvinistic creed and can be charged only upon some extremists."類風濕性關節炎韋布說, supralapsarianism是"令人憎惡的,以形而上學,倫理,並以聖經的,它是提出,在沒有calvinistic信條和可被控告後,只有一些極端分子" 。 ( Christian Salvation, 16).基督教救贖, 16 ) 。 [Webb is a 19th-cent. [韋伯是19美分。 southern Presbyterian.]南長老會。 ]

Infralapsarianism infralapsarianism

This view is also called "sublapsarianism."這一觀點也被稱為" sublapsarianism " 。 John Calvin said some things that seem to indicate he would have been in sympathy with this view, though the debate did not occur in his lifetime (see Calvin's Calvinism, trans. by Henry Cole, 89ff; also William Cunningham, The Reformers and the Theology of the Reformation, 364ff).約翰卡爾文說,有些東西似乎表明他會一直在同情這種觀點,雖然辯論並沒有出現在他的一生中(見卡爾文的加爾文,跨所亨利科爾, 89ff ;也威廉坎寧安, 改革者和神學的改革, 364ff ) 。 WGT Shedd, Charles Hodge, L Boettner, and Anthony Hoekema held this view. wgt謝德,查爾斯Hodge的,升boettner ,和安東尼赫克瑪舉行了這一觀點。 Both RL Dabney and William Cunningham lean decidedly to this view but resist arguing the point.這兩個研究部主管dabney和威廉坎寧安精益斷然這種看法,但抵制爭論點。 They believe the whole debate goes beyond scripture and is therefore unnecessary.他們認為,整個辯論超越了經文,因而是沒有必要的。 Dabney, for example, says "This is a question which ought never to have been raised" ( Systematic Theology, 233). dabney ,例如,說: "這是一個問題,而應該永遠得到提高" ( 系統神學, 233 ) 。 Twisse, the supralapsarian, virtually agreed with this. twisse , supralapsarian ,幾乎同意這種說法。 He called the difference "merely apex logicus, a point of logic. And were it not a mere madness to make a breach of unity or charity in the church merely upon a point of logic?"他所謂的差異只是" 尖logicus ,這是一個邏輯的。並且,它不是一個單純的瘋狂,使違反統一或慈善組織,在教會只是一個點的邏輯" ? (cited in Cunningham, The Reformers, 363). (摘自在坎寧安, 改革者, 363 ) 。 GC Berkouwer also agrees: "We face here a controversy which owes its existence to a tresspassing of the boundaries set by revelation."氣相色譜berkouwer也同意: "我們在這裡面對爭議,其中欠它的存在,一tresspassing的界限定的啟示" 。 Berkouwer wonders aloud whether we are "obeying the teaching of Scripture if we refuse to make a choice here" ( Divine Election, 254-55). berkouwer奇觀高喊,我們是否"服從教學中的經文,如果我們拒絕作出一個選擇,在這裡" ( 神聖的選舉中, 254-55 ) 。 Thornwell does not agree that the issue is moot. thornwell並不同意這個問題,是頗具爭議。 He says the issue "involves something more than a question of logical method. It is really a question of the highest moral significance. . . . Conviction and hanging are parts of the same process, but it is something more than a question of arrangement whether a man shall be hung before he is convicted" ( Collected Writings, 2:20).他說,這個問題"涉及到的東西多的問題,邏輯方法,它是真正的問題,最高的道德意義… … 。定罪和掛有部分相同的過程,但它是一個多問題,是否安排一名男子應紅之前,他是被定罪" ( 收集道具, 2時20分) 。 Thornwell is vehemently infralapsarian. thornwell是極力infralapsarian 。 Infralapsarianism was affirmed by the synod of Dordt but only implied in the Westminster standards. infralapsarianism確認主教的dordt ,而只是隱含在西敏寺標準。 Twisse, a supralapsarian, was the first president of the Westminster Assembly, which evidently decided the wisest course was to ignore the controversy altogether (though Westminster's bias was arguably infralapsarian) . twisse , supralapsarian ,是首任總統的西敏寺大會,它顯然決定最明智的,當然是不加理會的爭議完全(雖然西敏寺的偏見,應該說是infralapsarian ) 。 The Westminster Confession, therefore, along with most of the Reformed Creeds, implicitly affirmed what the Synod of Utrecht (1905) would later explicitly declare: "That our confessions, certainly with respect to the doctrine of election, follow the infralapsarian presentation, [but] this does not at all imply an exclusion or condemnation of the supralapsarian presentation."西敏寺供述,因此,隨著大部分的改革信條,含蓄地肯定了什麼主教的烏得勒支( 1905年) ,後來明確宣布: "我們的供述中,肯定與尊重,以中庸的選舉中,按照infralapsarian介紹, [但]這不都意味著排斥或譴責對supralapsarian陳述" 。

Amyraldism amyraldism

Amyraldism is the preferred spelling, not Amyraldianism ). amyraldism是首選拼寫,而不是amyraldianism ) 。

Amyraldism is the doctrine formulated by Moise Amyraut, a French theologian from the Saumur school. amyraldism正在制定的軍事學說,由moise amyraut ,一位法國神學家,從索米爾學校。 (This same school spawned another aggravating deviation from Reformed orthodoxy: Placaeus' view involving the mediate imputation of Adam's guilt). (這同一所學校產生了另一種加劇偏離改革的正統: placaeus意見,涉及調解歸責亞當的罪惡感) 。 By making the decree to atone for sin logically antecedent to the decree of election, Amyraut could view the atonement as hypothetically universal, but efficacious for the elect alone.通過該法令,以贖罪,單從邏輯上的前因,以法令的選舉中, amyraut可以查看贖罪,因為根據假設普遍性,但有效的為當選。 Therefore the view is sometimes called "hypothetical universalism."因此認為,有時也被稱為"假設的普遍性" 。 Puritan Richard Baxter embraced this view, or one very nearly like it.清教徒理查德巴克斯特接受了這一觀點,或其中一項非常接近喜歡它。 He seems to have been the only major Puritan leader who was not a thoroughgoing Calvinist.他似乎已成為唯一的主要清教徒的領導者,是不是一個根本性的calvinist 。 Some would dispute whether Baxter was a true Amyraldian.有些人會爭議是否巴克斯特是一位真正的amyraldian 。 (See, eg George Smeaton, The Apostles' Doctrine of the Atonement [Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 1991 reprint], Appendix, 542.) But Baxter seemed to regard himself as Amyraldian. (見,例如喬治smeaton ,使徒'理論的贖罪 [愛丁堡:旗幟的真相, 1991年再版] ,附錄, 542 ) ,但巴克斯特似乎把自己 amyraldian 。 This is a sophisticated way of formulating "four-point Calvinism," while still accounting for an eternal decree of election.這是一個複雜的方式制定"四點加爾文教" ,而仍然佔一個永恆的法令,選舉工作的進行。 But Amyraldism probably should not be equated with all brands of so-called "four-point Calvinism."但amyraldism大概不應該等同於所有品牌的,所以所謂的"四點加爾文教" 。 In my own experience, most self-styled four-pointers are unable to articulate any coherent explanation of how the atonement can be universal but election unconditional.在我自己的經驗,最自封四個三分球未能闡明任何相干解釋如何贖罪,可普遍,但選舉無條件的。 So I wouldn't glorify their position by labeling it Amyraldism.因此,我沒有美化自己的立場,貼標,它amyraldism 。 (Would that they were as committed to the doctrine of divine sovereignty as Moise Amyraut! Most who call themselves four-pointers are actually crypto-Arminians.) AH Strong held this view ( Systematic Theology, 778). (會說,他們作為致力於中庸的神聖主權moise amyraut !大多數自稱為四個三分球,其實是隱arminians )啊強烈舉行這種觀點( 系統神學, 778 ) 。 He called it (incorrectly) "sublapsarianism."他要求,它(錯誤) " sublapsarianism " 。 Henry Thiessen, evidently following Strong, also mislabeled this view "sublapsarianism" (and contrasted it with "infralapsarianism") in the original edition of his Lectures in Systematic Theology (343).亨利泰森,顯然以下強大,也復發的這種看法" sublapsarianism " (和對比,它與" infralapsarianism " ) ,在原版的他的演講,在系統神學 ( 343 ) 。 His discussion in this edition is very confusing and patently wrong at points.他在討論這個版本是非常混亂和錯誤的,顯然點。 In later editions of his book this section was completely rewritten.在後來的版本他的著作,這部分是完全改寫。

Arminianism arminianism

Henry Thiessen argued for essentially this view in the original edition of his Systematic Theology. The revised edition no longer explicitly defends this order of the decrees, but Thiessen's fundamental Arminianism is still clearly evident.亨利泰森說,基本上這個觀點,在原版的,他有系統的神學修訂版不再明確地捍衛這條命令的法令,但泰森的根本arminianism仍是顯而易見的。 Most Arminian theologians decline to deal with God's eternal decree, and extreme Arminians even deny the very concept of an eternal decree.最arminian神學家下跌,以處理與上帝的永恆法令和極端arminians甚至否定這個概念的一個永恆的法令。 Those who acknowledge the divine decree, however, must end up making election contingent upon the believer's response to the call of the gospel.那些承認神的法令,但是, 最終使選舉取決於信徒的呼籲作出回應的福音。 Indeed, this is the whole gist of Arminianism.的確,這是整個要點arminianism 。

PR Johnson公關約翰遜


Salvation救贖

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

(Greek soteria; Hebrew yeshu'ah). (希臘語soteria ;希伯來語yeshu'ah ) 。

Salvation has in Scriptural language the general meaning of liberation from straitened circumstances or from other evils, and of a translation into a state of freedom and security (1 Samuel 11:13; 14:45; 2 Samuel 23:10; 2 Kings 13:17).救國已在聖經的語言一般意義上的解放,從水深火熱的情況下,或從其他的醜惡的東西,並逐步轉化為一個國家的自由和安全( 1塞繆爾11時13分; 14:45 ; 2 ,塞繆爾23:10 2國王13 : 17 ) 。 At times it expresses God's help against Israel's enemies, at other times, the Divine blessing bestowed on the produce of the soil (Isaiah 45:8).有時,它表示在上帝的幫助下對以色列的敵人,在其他時候,神賜予的祝福就產生的土壤(以賽亞書45:8 ) 。 As sin is the greatest evil, being the root and source of all evil, Sacred Scripture uses the word "salvation" mainly in the sense of liberation of the human race or of individual man from sin and its consequences.因為單是最大的罪惡,正在源頭上的一切邪惡,神聖的經文用字, "救贖" ,主要集中在意義上的解放,人的種族或個別男子單及其後果。 We shall first consider the salvation of the human race, and then salvation as it is verified in the individual man.我們應先考慮拯救人類,然後救贖,因為它驗證了在個別的人。

I. SALVATION OF THE HUMAN RACE一,拯救人類

We need not dwell upon the possibility of the salvation of mankind or upon its appropriateness.我們不必糾纏後,有可能對人類的拯救或經其適宜性。 Nor need we remind the reader that after God had freely determined to save the human race, He might have done so by pardoning man's sins without having recourse to the Incarnation of the Second Person of the Most Holy Trinity.也不需要我們提醒讀者,神後,曾自由地決定,以挽救人類的,他也許有這樣做的,由赦免人的罪過,而不求助於化身的第二人的最神聖的三一。 Still, the Incarnation of the Word was the most fitting means for the salvation of man, and was even necessary, in case God claimed full satisfaction for the injury done to him by sin (see INCARNATION).儘管如此,化身字,是最恰當的手段,為人類的救贖,更是必要的,如果上帝聲稱完全滿意為損傷做給他的單仲偕(見化身) 。 Though the office of Saviour is really one, it is virtually multiple: there must be an atonement for sin and damnation, an establishment of the truth so as to overcome human ignorance and error, a perennial source of spiritual strength aiding man in his struggle against darkness and concupiscence.雖然辦公室的救世主,實在是一個,它實際上是多種:必須有一個贖罪,為單及damnation ,成立真相等,以克服人類無知和錯誤,常年源的精神力量,協助男子在他的鬥爭黑暗和concupiscence 。 There can be no doubt that Jesus Christ really fulfilled these three functions, that He therefore really saved mankind from sin and its consequences.因此,可以毫無疑問的是耶穌基督真正實現這三項職能,因此,他真的挽救人類免於罪惡及其後果。 As teacher He established the reign of truth; as king He supplied strength to His subjects; as priest He stood between heaven and earth, reconciling sinful man with his angry God.作為教師,他建立了統治的真相;作為國王,他供應的實力,他的科目;作為牧師,他站在天地間,調和罪孽深重的人,與他的憤怒神。

A. Christ as Teacher答:基督為教師

Prophets had foretold Christ as a teacher of Divine truth: "Behold, I have given him for a witness to the people, for a leader and a master to the Gentiles" (Isaiah 55:4).先知曾預言基督作為教師的神聖真理: "看哪,我給了他一個見證到人,一個領導人和一個主人的外邦人" (以賽亞書55:4 ) 。 Christ himself claims the title of teacher repeatedly during the course of His public life: "You can call me Master, and Lord; and you say well, for so I am" (John 13:13; cf. Matthew 23:10; John 3:31).基督本人聲稱的標題老師反复的過程中,他的公共生活: "你們可以稱我為師父,並主,你說得不好,所以我" (約翰福音13時13分;比照馬太23:10 ;約翰。 3時31分) 。 The Gospels inform us that nearly the whole of Christ's public life was devoted to teaching (see JESUS CHRIST).福音告訴我們,幾乎整個基督的公共生活,是專門用於教學(見耶穌基督) 。 There can be no doubt as to the supereminence of Christ's teaching; even as man, He is an eyewitness to all He reveals; His truthfulness is God's own veracity; His authority is Divine; His words are the utterance of a Divine person; He can internally illumine and move the minds of His hearers; He is the eternal and infinite wisdom of God Incarnate Who cannot deceive and cannot be deceived.不可能有任何懷疑,因為該supereminence基督對他的教誨,連作為人,他是一名目擊者向所有他透露,他的真實性是上帝自己的真實性;他的權力,是神聖,他的話是話語的神的人,他能內部照亮,並提出了心中的他hearers ,他是永恆的和無窮的智慧,上帝肉身的人,不能騙,不能欺騙。

B. Christ as King乙基督為國王

The royal character of Christ was foretold by the Prophets, announced by the angels, claimed by Christ Himself (Psalm 2:6; Isaiah 9:6-7; Ezekiel 34:23; Jeremiah 23:3-5; Luke 1:32-33; John 18:37).皇家性格的基督被預言由先知,宣布由天使,聲稱基督本人(詩篇2時06分;以賽亞書9:6-7 ;以西結34:23 ;耶利米23:3-5 ;路加福音1:32 - 33 ;約翰18時37分) 。 His royal functions are the foundation, the expansion and the final consummation of the kingdom of God among men.他的皇家職能為基礎,擴大並最終圓滿的神的國度之間的男性。 The first and last of these acts are personal and visible acts of the king, but the intermediate function is carried out either invisibly, or by Christ's visible agents.第一和最後的這些行為是個人和有形的行為國王,但中介功能的工作都是看不見的,或由基督的有形代理商。 The practical working of the kingly office of Christ is described in the treatises on the sources of revelation; on grace, on the Church, on the sacraments, and on the last things.實際工作的王道辦公室基督是寫在論文上的來源啟示;恩典,對教會,聖禮,並就過去的東西。

C. Christ as Priest三基督作為祭司

The ordinary priest, is made God's own by an accidental unction, Christ is constituted God's own Son by the substantial unction with the Divine nature; the ordinary priest is made holy, though not impeccable, by his consecration, while Christ is separated from all sin and sinners by the hypostatic union; the ordinary priest draws nigh unto God in a very imperfect manner, but Christ is seated at the right hand of the power of God.普通牧師,是上帝自己的,由一個偶然unction ,基督是構成上帝的自己的兒子是由大量unction與神性;普通牧師是神聖的,但並非無懈可擊,他consecration ,而基督是分不開的所有罪過與罪人,由本質的聯盟;普通神父提請天空神在一個非常完美的方式,但基督是坐在右手的上帝的力量。 The Levitical priesthood was temporal, earthly, and carnal in its origin, in its relations to God, in its working, in its power; Christ's priesthood is eternal, heavenly, and spiritual.該levitical神職人員是顳葉,俗世,肉慾在其原籍國,在處理國際關係中,以上帝的,在其工作,在其權力範圍;基督的聖職是永恆的,天堂和精神文明。 The victims offered by the ancient priests were either lifeless things or, at best, irrational animals distinct from the person of the offerer; Christ offers a victim included in the person of the offerer.被害人所提供的古代祭司要么沒有生命的東西,或者在最好的,非理性的動物,有別於人的offerer ;基督提供了一個受害者包括在人的offerer 。 His living human flesh, animated by His rational soul, a real and worthy substitute for mankind, on whose behalf Christ offers the sacrifice.他居住的人肉,動畫,由他的理性靈魂,一個真實的和值得代替人類,其所代表的基督的犧牲。 The Aaronic priest inflicted an irreparable death on the victim which his sacrificial intention changed into a religious rite or symbol; in Christ's sacrifice the immutation of the victim is brought about by an internal act of His will (John 10:17), and the victim's death is the source of a new life to himself and to mankind.該aaronic神父造成了無法彌補的死亡對受害者,他的犧牲品的意圖轉變成一個宗教的儀式或象徵;基督的犧牲immutation的受害人所帶來的一個內部行為,他的意志(約翰10時17分) ,以及受害人的死亡的根源在於一個新的生命,以自己和人類。 Besides, Christ's sacrifice, being that of a Divine person, carries its own acceptance with it; it is as much of a gift of God to man, as a sacrifice of man to God.此外,基督的犧牲,就是對神的人,帶有其自己所接受的,與它,它是作為太大的神的恩賜,人類,作為一個犧牲的人向上帝。

Hence follows the perfection of the salvation wrought by Christ for mankind.因此如下完善的救贖造成的基督,人類的禍害。 On His part Christ offered to God a satisfaction for man's sin not only sufficient but superabundant (Romans 5:15-20); on God's part supposing, what is contained in the very idea of man's redemption through Christ, that God agreed to accept the work of the Redeemer for the sins of man, He was bound by His promise and His justice to grant the remission of sin to the extent and in the manner intended by Christ.關於他的部分,基督提供給上帝滿意,為人類的罪過,不僅有足夠的,但超富足(羅馬書5:15-20 ) ,對上帝的部分假設,什麼是包含在理念非常人的贖回透過基督,天主,同意接納工作的救贖主,為罪孽的人,他是受他的承諾和他的司法給予減免罪過的程度和方式意圖基督。 In this way our salvation has won back for us the essential prerogative of the state of original justice, ie, sanctifying grace while it will restore the minor prerogatives of the Resurrection.這樣,我們的拯救已奪回對我們來說至關重要的國家的特權的原始正義,即sanctifying恩典,而它將會恢復輕微的特權復活。 At the same time, it does not at once blot out individual sin, but only procures the means thereto, and these means are not restricted only to the predestined or to the faithful, but extend to all men (1 John 2:2; 1 Timothy 2:1-4).在同一時間內,但並不馬上印跡個別單,但只有勾引手段時,和這些手段並不只限於向命中註定,還是向忠實的,但擴大到所有男性( 1約翰2:2 1提摩太後2:1-4 ) 。 Moreover salvation makes us coheirs of Christ (Romans 8:14-17), a royal priesthood (1 Peter 2:9; cf. Exodus 19:6), sons of God, temples of the Holy Ghost (1 Corinthians 3:16), and other Christs--Christianus alter Christus; it perfects the angelical orders, raises the dignity of the material world, and restores all things in Christ (Ephesians 1:9-10).此外救贖,使我們coheirs基督(羅馬書8:14-17 ) ,皇家神職人員( 1彼得2時09分;比照逃亡19時06分) ,神的兒子,廟宇的聖靈(哥林多前書3:16 )和其他基督-c hristianus改變基督,它完善了a ngelical訂單,提高了尊嚴的物質世界,並恢復所有的東西,在基督裡(以弗所書1 :9-10) 。 By our salvation all things are ours, we are Christ's, and Christ is God's (1 Corinthians 3:22-23).我們的救恩,所有的東西都是我們的,我們是基督的,基督是上帝的(哥林多前書3:22-23 ) 。

II.二。 INDIVIDUAL SALVATION單獨救贖

The Council of Trent describes the process of salvation from sin in the case of an adult with great minuteness (Sess. VI, v-vi).安理會的遄達敘述的過程中,由救國單,在案件的成人非常微小( sess.第六,第五和第六部分) 。

It begins with the grace of God which touches a sinner's heart, and calls him to repentance.它是從天主的恩典,其中涉及到一個罪人的心,並呼籲他的悔改之意。 This grace cannot be merited; it proceeds solely from the love and mercy of God.此寬限期不能功勳,它的收益,因此單從愛與慈悲的上帝。 Man may receive or reject this inspiration of God, he may turn to God or remain in sin.男人可以接受或拒絕這個靈感的上帝,他可能求助於上帝或留在單。 Grace does not constrain man's free will.恩典並不限制人的自由意志。

Thus assisted the sinner is disposed for salvation from sin; he believes in the revelation and promises of God, he fears God's justice, hopes in his mercy, trusts that God will be merciful to him for Christ's sake, begins to love God as the source of all justice, hates and detests his sins.從而協助罪人變賣為救贖從罪孽;他認為,在啟示和許諾的上帝,他擔心上帝的公義,希望在他的擺佈,相信上帝會仁慈的,以他為基督的緣故,開始對上帝的愛為源所有正義,不喜歡和detests他的罪孽。

This disposition is followed by justification itself, which consists not in the mere remission of sins, but in the sanctification and renewal of the inner man by the voluntary reception of God's grace and gifts, whence a man becomes just instead of unjust, a friend instead of a foe and so an heir according to hope of eternal life.這個處分是其次的理由本身,它不是在單純罪得赦,但在成聖和更新的內在男子由自願接受上帝的恩典和禮物,何時會有一個人成為正義不是正義,朋友,而非一個敵人,所以一個繼承人按照希望的永恆的生命。 This change happens either by reason of a perfect act of charity elicited by a well disposed sinner or by virtue of the Sacrament either of Baptism or of Penance according to the condition of the respective subject laden with sin.這一變化發生任何理由建立一個完善的慈善行動引起了一個好處置罪人或憑藉聖要么洗禮或懺悔,根據條件分別受到拉丹與罪過。 The Council further indicates the causes of this change.安理會還顯示,造成這一改變的。 By the merit of the Most Holy Passion through the Holy Spirit, the charity of God is shed abroad in the hearts of those who are justified.由優異的最聖潔的激情,通過聖靈,慈善的上帝是大棚國外在心底的那些理由。

Against the heretical tenets of various times and sects we must hold反對邪教原理不同時間和宗派,我們一定要舉行

that the initial grace is truly gratuitous and supernatural;認為最初的寬限期,是真正的無償和超自然;

that the human will remains free under the influence of this grace;認為人的意志仍然是自由的影響下,此寬限期;

that man really cooperates in his personal salvation from sin;這名男子是否真的合作,以他個人的救恩從罪孽;

that by justification man is really made just, and not merely declared or reputed so;這是由人的理由是真的公正,而不是只申報或千里眼;

that justification and sanctification are only two aspects of the same thing, and not ontologically and chronologically distinct realities;這一理由和成聖只有兩個方面是同一回事,而不是本體論和時序上鮮明的現實;

that justification excludes all mortal sin from the soul, so that the just man is no way liable to the sentence of death at God's judgment-seat.這一理由排除所有凡人,單從靈魂,使剛剛男子是沒有出路的,可判處死刑,在上帝的判決議席。

Other points involved in the foregoing process of personal salvation from sin are matters of discussion among Catholic theologians; such are, for instance,其他各點在前述過程中的個人救贖,從單事宜的討論,天主教神學家,這樣的,舉例來說,

the precise nature of initial grace,確切性質的初始寬限期,

the manner in which grace and free will work together,以何種方式在恩典和自由意志一起工作,

the precise nature of the fear and the love disposing the sinner for justification,確切性質的恐懼和愛的處置罪人為理由,

the manner in which sacraments cause sanctifying grace.以何種方式在聖禮事業sanctifying恩典。

But these questions are treated in other articles dealing ex professo with the respective subjects.但這些問題的處理,其他物品處理前professo與各自的學科。 The same is true of final perseverance without which personal salvation from sin is not permanently secured.同樣如此,最後的毅力,沒有這種個人救贖,從單是不會永久擔保。

What has been said applies to the salvation of adults; children and those permanently deprived of their use of reason are saved by the Sacrament of Baptism.什麼有人說,適用於救恩的成年人,兒童和那些永遠失去其使用的原因是節省聖事的洗禮。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息所作的AJ馬斯。 Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.轉錄由現任j.好事。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.天主教百科全書,體積十三。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. nihil obstat , 1912年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, DD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,副署長,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


Also, see:此外,見:
Conversion 轉換
Regeneration 再生
Justification 理由
Sanctification 成聖
Confession 自白
Predestination 宿命
Arminianism arminianism
Supralapsarianism supralapsarianism
Infralapsarianism infralapsarianism
Amyraldianism amyraldianism

The Arising of Jesus 產生的耶穌


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


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