Sabbath安息日

General Information 一般資料

The seventh day of the Jewish week - from sundown Friday to sundown Saturday - the Sabbath commemorates the seventh day of creation, on which God rested. It is a divinely appointed day of rest (Exod. 20:8), to be devoted to prayer and study, and its observance is a mark of Jewish faith. 第七天猶太人一周-從週五日落至週六日落-安息日紀念第七天創造,而上帝在於,它是一個神聖的任命一天休息(e x od.20時0 8分) ,將專門用於祈禱學習,遵守,是一個標記的猶太信仰。

Christians have generally considered the Sabbath to be fulfilled by Christ's Sabbath rest in the tomb and celebrate, instead, the Lord's Day (Sunday) as a weekly day of worship.基督徒已被普遍認為是安息日必須履行的,由基督的安息日休息,在墓穴和慶祝,而是主日(週日)為每週日的禮拜。 It is the first day of the new week, symbolic of the unending Day of the Lord, the day of Christ's resurrection and of his expected return.這是第一天的新的一周,象徵性的無休止的主日,那天是基督的復活和他的預期收益。 Some Protestant groups have traditionally called Sunday the Sabbath and apply to it the Old Testament Sabbath regulations (Sabbatarianism).一些新教團體歷來所謂週日安息日,並適用於它舊約安息日規例( sabbatarianism ) 。 In many places these have been given the force of civil law (Blue Laws).在許多地方,這些都已經考慮到部隊的民事法律後果(藍法) 。

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Bibliography 參考書目
T Gaster, Festivals of the Jewish Year (1953); HB Porter, Day of Light (1960); W Rordorf, Sunday (1968); Schauss, Hayyim, Jewish Festivals (1938).噸胃,音樂節的猶太人,今年( 1953年) ;血紅蛋白波特,天燈( 1960 ) ;瓦特rordorf ,週日( 1968年) ; schauss , hayyim ,猶太節日( 1938 ) 。


Sabbath安息日

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Sabbath (Heb. verb shabbath, meaning "to rest from labour") is the day of rest.安息日(希伯來書shabbath動詞,意思是"休息,由外勞" ) ,是休息日。 It is first mentioned as having been instituted in Paradise, when man was in innocence (Gen. 2:2).這是第一次提到視為已提起生活在天堂,當一名男子在無罪推定(創2:2 ) 。 "The sabbath was made for man," as a day of rest and refreshment for the body and of blessing to the soul. "安息日是為男子, "作為一個休息日及小食為身體和祝福靈魂。 It is next referred to in connection with the gift of manna to the children of Israel in the wilderness (Ex. 16:23); and afterwards, when the law was given from Sinai (20:11), the people were solemnly charged to "remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy."它接著提到他涉嫌與禮品的甘露,向孩子們的以色列在荒無人煙的戈壁灘上(如16:23 ) ;事後,當法律被從西奈( 20時11分) ,人鄭重記入"記住安息日,以保持其神聖的" 。 Thus it is spoken of as an institution already existing.所以大家都談到了作為一個機構已經存在。 In the Mosaic law strict regulations were laid down regarding its observance (Ex. 35:2, 3; Lev. 23:3; 26:34).在馬賽克的法律法規,嚴格規定了關於其遵守(如: 35:2 , 3 ;列弗。 23時03分; 26:34 ) 。

These were peculiar to that dispensation.這些奇特的這一特許。 In the subsequent history of the Jews frequent references are made to the sanctity of the Sabbath (Isa. 56:2, 4, 6, 7; 58:13, 14; Jer. 17:20-22; Neh. 13:19).在隨後的歷史上的猶太人經常提及了神聖不可侵犯的安息日(以賽亞56:2 ,四,六,七; 58:13 , 14票;哲。 17:20-22 ; neh 。 13時19分) 。 In later times they perverted the Sabbath by their traditions.在稍後的時間,他們貪贓枉法安息日由他們的傳統。 Our Lord rescued it from their perversions, and recalled to them its true nature and intent (Matt. 12:10-13; Mark 2:27; Luke 13:10-17).我們的主救出,從他們違反自然的性行為,並回顧了他們自己的真實性質和意圖。 ( 12:10-13 ;馬克2時27分;路加福音13:10-17 ) 。 The Sabbath, originally instituted for man at his creation, is of permanent and universal obligation.安息日,原本是為向男子時,他的創造,是長期和普遍的義務。 The physical necessities of man require a Sabbath of rest.實物必需品的人需要一個安息日的休息。 He is so constituted that his bodily welfare needs at least one day in seven for rest from ordinary labour.他是這樣構成了他的身體福利機構至少需要一天,在七,其餘來自普通勞工。

Experience also proves that the moral and spiritual necessities of men also demand a Sabbath of rest.經驗還證明,道德和精神的必需品,男人也要求安息日的休息。 "I am more and more sure by experience that the reason for the observance of the Sabbath lies deep in the everlasting necessities of human nature, and that as long as man is man the blessedness of keeping it, not as a day of rest only, but as a day of spiritual rest, will never be annulled. I certainly do feel by experience the eternal obligation, because of the eternal necessity, of the Sabbath. The soul withers without it. It thrives in proportion to its observance. The Sabbath was made for man. God made it for men in a certain spiritual state because they needed it. The need, therefore, is deeply hidden in human nature. "我愈來愈相信,由經驗得知,因此,為遵守安息日在於深藏於永恆的必需品,人的本質,並表示,只要男子是人的幸福,保存它,而不是作為一個休息日,但作為一個一天的休息,精神,將永遠被廢止。當然,我也覺得,由經驗永恆的義務,因為永恆的必要性,對安息日。靈魂withers沒有它,它賴以比例,其得到遵守。安息日是為男子。上帝使男性在某精神狀態,因為他們需要的時候。需要,因此,這是深藏在人類的天性。

He who can dispense with it must be holy and spiritual indeed.他的人可以免除它必須聖地和精神。 And he who, still unholy and unspiritual, would yet dispense with it is a man that would fain be wiser than his Maker" (FW Robertson). The ancient Babylonian calendar, as seen from recently recovered inscriptions on the bricks among the ruins of the royal palace, was based on the division of time into weeks of seven days. The Sabbath is in these inscriptions designated Sabattu, and defined as "a day of rest for the heart" and "a day of completion of labour." The change of the day. Originally at creation the seventh day of the week was set apart and consecrated as the Sabbath. The first day of the week is now observed as the Sabbath.和他的人,仍非神聖和unspiritual ,將尚未免除它是一個男人,將fain明智的,比他的製造者" ( FW的羅伯森) 。古代巴比倫歷,從最近收回的題字就用磚頭廢墟之中的王宮,是基於分工的時候到週的7天。安息日的是,在這些碑文指定sabattu ,並定義為"一天休息,為心" , "每天完成的勞工"的變化一天,本來在創作第七天一周內訂定外,並consecrated為安息日。首日的一周內,是目前觀察到的安息日。

Has God authorized this change?有上帝認可這種變化呢? There is an obvious distinction between the Sabbath as an institution and the particular day set apart for its observance.有一個明顯的區別安息日作為一個機構,並特別設定每天除了為它慶祝活動。 The question, therefore, as to the change of the day in no way affects the perpetual obligation of the Sabbath as an institution.因此,問題,以改變的一天,決不會影響長期義務的安息日作為一個機構。 Change of the day or no change, the Sabbath remains as a sacred institution the same.變化之日或根本沒有變化,安息日仍然是一個神聖的機構一樣的。 It cannot be abrogated.它不能一律廢止。 If any change of the day has been made, it must have been by Christ or by his authority.如果有任何改變的一天已經發表,它必須是被基督或由他的權威。 Christ has a right to make such a change (Mark 2:23-28).基督有權利作出這樣的改變(馬克2:23-28 ) 。 As Creator, Christ was the original Lord of the Sabbath (John 1:3; Heb. 1:10).作為創造者,基督是原來的主的安息日(約翰1:3 ;以弗所書1:10 ) 。 It was originally a memorial of creation.它本來是一個紀念的創作風格。 A work vastly greater than that of creation has now been accomplished by him, the work of redemption.一項工作大大高於創作現在已經完成了由他的工作,贖回。

We would naturally expect just such a change as would make the Sabbath a memorial of that greater work.我們當然期待這樣一個變化將使安息日紀念這一更大的工作。 True, we can give no text authorizing the change in so many words.誠然,我們可以給文字授權變化在這麼多的話。 We have no express law declaring the change.我們有沒有明文法律,宣布這項改變。 But there are evidences of another kind.但也有證據的是另一種。 We know for a fact that the first day of the week has been observed from apostolic times, and the necessary conclusion is, that it was observed by the apostles and their immediate disciples.我們所知道的事實是,在第一天的星期已經觀察到從使徒時代,以及必要的結論是,這是遵守使徒和其直系弟子。 This, we may be sure, they never would have done without the permission or the authority of their Lord.這一點,我們可以確信,他們從來沒有這樣做,沒有許可或監督其主。 After his resurrection, which took place on the first day of the week (Matt. 28:1; Mark 16:2; Luke 24:1; John 20:1), we never find Christ meeting with his disciples on the seventh day.之後,他的復活,其中發生在第一天的一周。 ( 28:1 ;馬克16時02分;路加福音24:1 ;約翰20:1 ) ,我們永遠找不到基督與他的弟子們對第七天。 But he specially honoured the first day by manifesting himself to them on four separate occasions (Matt. 28:9; Luke 24:34, 18-33; John 20:19-23).但他特別榮幸的第一天,體現自己對他們在四個不同場合。 ( 28:9 ;路加福音24:34 , 18-33 ;約翰20:19-23 ) 。

Again, on the next first day of the week, Jesus appeared to his disciples (John 20:26).再次,對明年的第一天,本週內,耶穌似乎是他的門徒(約翰20時26分) 。 Some have calculated that Christ's ascension took place on the first day of the week.有人計算過基督的阿森松島事件發生後的第一天,一周。 And there can be no doubt that the descent of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost was on that day (Acts 2:1).因此,可以毫無疑問,這後裔的聖靈在五旬節是那一天(使徒行2:1 ) 。 Thus Christ appears as instituting a new day to be observed by his people as the Sabbath, a day to be henceforth known amongst them as the "Lord's day."因此,基督似乎實行了新的一天,以待觀察他的人作為安息日,每天從此已知其中有作為"主日" 。 The observance of this "Lord's day" as the Sabbath was the general custom of the primitive churches, and must have had apostolic sanction (comp. Acts 20:3-7; 1 Cor. 16:1, 2) and authority, and so the sanction and authority of Jesus Christ.遵守這一"主日"安息日是一般習慣的原始教會,而且必須有使徒制裁( comp.行為20:3-7 1肺心病。 16:1 , 2 )和權威,等等制裁和權威的耶穌基督。 The words "at her sabbaths" (Lam. 1:7, AV) ought probably to be, as in the Revised Version, "at her desolations."加上"在她的安息日" ( lam. 1時07分, AV產品) ,應大概要,因為在修訂版本" ,在她的desolations " 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Sabbath安息日

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Sabbath is the seventh day of the week in which God ceased from his work of creation and declared the day blessed and holy (Gen. 2:1-3).安息日是第七天了,上週該上帝不再從他的作品創作,並宣布當天有福和聖地(創2:1-3 ) 。 Through the episode of the manna (Exod. 16), the sacred nature of the day was stressed to the Israelites.通過插曲的甘露( exod. 16 ) ,神聖性, 18日強調,要對以色列人。 It was to be "a sabbath of the Lord," a day set apart for God and for rest.它是一個"安息日的主" ,一天一套,除了上帝和休息。 The Decalogue forbids work on the sabbath, both for the Israelites and for their servants and guests (Exod. 20:8-11).十誡禁止工作,對在安息日,為以色列人和他們的僕人和客人( exod. 20:8-11 ) 。 Deut. deut 。 5:12-15 implies that there is a humanitarian motive in the sabbath concept. 5:12-15意味著有一個人道的動機,在安息日的概念。 In God's sight, no man or animal should be required to work seven days a week and to be enslaved as the Israelites were in Egypt.在上帝的視線,沒有任何人或動物的,應規定工作7天,一個星期和被奴役的,因為以色列人在埃及。 The sabbath is therefore a direct indication of God's consecration of Israel, as well as of his creation.安息日,所以直接顯示上帝的consecration的以色列,以及他的創作風格。

Violating the sabbath was a serious offense, and the person who worked on the sabbath was to be "cut off from among his people" (Exod. 31:14).違反安息日,是一項嚴重罪行,在與人的工作安息日是"切斷他的人" ( exod. 31:14 ) 。 During their wandering in the wilderness, the Israelites brought to trial a man found gathering wood on the sabbath.在他們遊蕩在荒無人煙的戈壁灘上,對以色列人進行了審判,一名男子發現收集木材對安息日。 He was stoned to death according to the commandment of the Lord for profaning the sabbath (Num. 15:32-36).他被石頭打死根據有關戒律的神profaning安息日( num. 15:32-36 ) 。 A fire was not to be kindled on the sabbath (Exod. 35:3), and admonitions to reverence the day are linked to reverence toward parents (Lev. 19:3) and reverence toward the Lord's sanctuary (19:30; 26:2).火災沒有得到這樣就點燃安息日( exod. 35:3 ) ,並告誡,以虔敬之日是連在一起的崇敬,對父母( lev. 19時03分)和敬畏耶和華的聖殿( 19:30 ; 26日: 2 ) 。 The sabbath terminated a week of work and was to be a complete rest unto the Lord, a distinguishing mark of God's choosing the Jewish people.安息日終止為期一周的工作,並且已經成為一個完整的休息所不欲,主,一個區分的標誌,上帝選擇的猶太人民。

The sabbath was a joyous holy day, a day of spiritual refreshment and reverent worship.安息日是一個愉快的聖日,每天的精神點心和reverent崇拜。 It seems to have been a popular day, an opportunity for man to imitate his Creator, to devote himself to contemplation and to community worship.這似乎已成為流行的一天,一個機會,男子模仿他的創造者,立志報國,沉思和社會崇拜。 Those that delighted in the Lord in this fashion were promised that they would "ride on the heights of the earth" (Isa. 58:13-14).那些樂於在上主內,以這種方式得到保證說,它們將"乘坐高地的大地" (以賽亞書58:13-14 ) 。 Even foreigners who kept from profaning the sabbath and held to God's covenant were promised blessing and deep joy (56:6-8).甚至外籍人士不斷從profaning安息日,並舉行了向上帝的盟約得到許諾的祝福和深厚的喜悅( 56:6-8 ) 。 Jewish tradition held that Isaiah declared the eventual universalization of the sabbath among all nations (note 66:23).猶太傳統認為以賽亞宣布最終普遍化安息日所有國家之間(注66:23 ) 。 Prophets such as Jeremiah and Ezekiel placed such stress on the importance of observing the sabbath that at times the fate of the Jewish people was directly linked in prophecy to attitudes toward the sabbath (note Jer. 17:19-27 and Ezek. 20:12ff.).先知如耶利米和以西結書寄予如此強調必須遵守安息日,在時代的命運猶太人民被直接掛在預言,以態度安息日(注哲。 17:19-27和ezek 。 20點12法郎) 。

Josephus explains that during the first Christian century there were public discourses on the sabbath in the Jewish community.約瑟夫解釋說,在第一個基督教世紀有公共話語就在安息日猶太社區。 Jesus observed the sabbath, not only worshiping, but also teaching in the synagogue during that time of the week (Mark 6:2).耶穌遵守安息日,而不是只崇拜,而且教學中的猶太教堂在這段時間的一周內(標誌中以) 。 The incidents regarding his disciples' plucking ears of grain or his healing on the sabbath were not a digression from the sabbath law, but were rather an indication that Jesus knew the content of the commandment very well.該事件對於他的弟子'採摘耳朵的糧食或其癒合對安息日不是一個題外話,從安息日法,而是表明了耶穌知道內容的戒律非常好。 Not only his disciples, but also the apostle Paul and the early Jewish Christians observed the sabbath.不僅他的弟子,但也使徒保羅和早期猶太基督徒遵守安息日。

Jewish tradition has maintained the aspects of Torah observance, community worship, and joyful family participation to the present day.猶太傳統,保持了各方面的律法遵守,社會的拜金主義,和歡樂的家庭參與到今天。 The mother prepares a special meal and kindles the sabbath candles remembering the holy day.母親準備了特殊膳食和kindles安息日蠟燭,紀念神聖的日子。 As she wafts the aura of the candles toward her and recites the blessing over the candles, she symbolizes the putting of her daily cares from her and acknowledges the historic sacredness of the hour.正如她wafts光環,蠟燭,對她和朗誦的祝福超過蠟燭,她象徵著把她的關心,每天從她的,並承認了歷史性神聖的一小時。 Two loaves of bread are placed on the dinner table and covered with a cloth to symbolize the double portion of manna given during the wilderness wandering.兩條麵包都擺在餐桌上,並蓋有布象徵雙重部分甘露由於在荒無人煙的戈壁灘上遊蕩。 Guests are often invited to share in this sabbath joy, and special prayers and hymns are recited, led by the father of the household.客人是應經常獲邀出席,共同分享這安息日的喜悅,並特別祈禱和聖歌是吟誦,由父親的家庭。 The family worships at weekly sabbath services at the synagogue.家庭供奉在每週安息日服務,在猶太教堂。 A farewell service is observed in a spirit of sadness that the blessed day has passed.告別服務是觀察的精神,悲痛之日已經過去了。 Jewish tradition has proposed that if every Jew kept the sabbath for two consecutive sabbaths, the Messiah would return.猶太傳統中提出,如果每一個猶太人保持安息日為兩個連續的安息日,彌賽亞將返回。

The Bible also made provision for a sabbath year.聖經中也作出了規定,為安息日。 During the seventh year the land was to lie fallow so that the land might rest, the needy might feed on the aftergrowth, and the animals might eat the surplus.在第七個年頭的土地,是休閒,使土地可能會休息,有需要的飼料可能就aftergrowth ,動物可能吃了盈餘。 God promised an abundant harvest the sixth year to carry through the sabbatical period.上帝許諾豐富收穫第六年開展透過休假期。 In addition, debts were to be cancelled during that year (note Exod. 23:10-11; Lev. 25:1-7, 18-22; Deut. 15:1-11).此外,債務被取消,在這一年裡(注exod 。 23:10-11 ;列弗。 25:1-7 , 18-22 ; deut 。 15:1-11 ) 。 At the close of seven sabbatical cycles a year of jubilee was instituted.在結束七休假週期一年的銀禧被提起。 Land that had been sold was to be returned to its former owner, and there were other sabbatical year provisions.土地已出售,是歸還其原擁有人,並有其他休假一年的規定。 These provisions underscored the fact that ultimately God owned the land.這些規定強調了這樣一個事實,最終上帝國有土地。

DA Rausch大rausch
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
AE Millgram, Sabbath: The Day of Delight; GF Moore, Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era; AJ Heschel, The Sabbath; S. Goldman, Guide to the Sabbath; DA Carson, From Sabbath to Lord's Day; RT Beckwith and W. Stott, The Christian Sunday; NE Andreasen, Rest and Redemption.美國運通millgram ,安息日:一天的喜悅;綠摩爾,猶太教,在第一世紀的基督教時代氣息的AJ heschel ,安息日;美國高盛好,引導好,以安息日;達卡森,從安息日,以主的一天;逆轉錄貝克維斯和小斯托特,基督教週日;氦氖安德烈,休息及贖回。


Sabbath安息日

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

(Hebrew shabbath, cessation, rest; Greek Sabbaton; Latin Sabbatum). (希伯來語shabbath ,停止,休息;希臘語sabbaton ;拉丁語sabbatum ) 。

The seventh day of the week among the Hebrews, the day being counted from sunset to sunset, that is, from Friday evening to Saturday evening.第七天的一周當中希伯來人,這一天正在清點從黃昏到日落,即從週五晚上到週六晚上。

Prescriptions concerning the Sabbath處方有關安息日

The Sabbath was a day of rest "sanctified to the Lord" (Exodus 16:23; 31:15; Deuteronomy 5:14).安息日是一個休息日"神聖化向耶和華" (出埃及記16:23 ; 31:15 ;申命記5時14分) 。 All work was forbidden, the prohibition including strangers as well as Israelites, beasts as well as men (Exodus 20:8-10; 31:13-17; Deuteronomy 5:12-14).一切工作被禁止,其中包括禁止陌生人以及以色列人,獸,以及男子(出埃及記20:8-10 ; 31:13-17 ;申命記5:12-14 ) 。 The following particular actions are mentioned as forbidden: cooking (ex., xvi, 23); gathering manna (xvi, 26 sqq.); plowing and reaping (xxxiv, 21); lighting a fire (for cooking, xxxv, 3); gathering wood (num., xv, 32 sqq.); carrying burdens (jer., xvii, 21-22); pressing grapes, bringing in sheaves, and loading animals (Nehemiah 13:15); trading (Ibid., 15 sqq.).以下特別行動提到故宮:烹調(例如,第十六章, 23條) ;聚會甘露(十六, 26 sqq ) ;春耕和收穫(三十四, 21 ) ;生火(做飯,第三十五卷, 3 ) ;收集木材( num. ,十五, 32 sqq ) ;攜帶負擔( jer. ,第十七章, 21-22 ) ;緊迫的葡萄,引進層和裝載動物(尼希米記13:15 ) ;交易(同上, 15 sqq ) 。 Travelling, at least with a religious object, was not forbidden, the prohibition of Ex., xvi, 29, referring only to leaving the camp to gather food; it is implied in the institution of holy assemblies (Leviticus 23:2-3, Heb. text), and was customary in the time of the kings (2 Kings 4:23).行駛,至少是一個宗教的對象,是沒有明令禁止,禁止前,十六,二十九,只是指離開營地收集食物,它是隱含在該機構的聖地集會(利未記23:2以弗所書文) ,並在習慣的時候,國王隊( 2國王4時23分) 。 At a later period, however, all movement was restricted to a distance of 2000 cubits (between five and six furlongs), or a "sabbath day's journey" (Acts 1:12).在以後的時期,但是,所有的運動被限制在距離2000年肘(介乎五至六furlongs ) ,抑或是"安息日的旅程" (使徒1:12 ) 。 Total abstention from work was prescribed only for the Sabbath and the Day of Atonement; on the other feast-days servile work alone was prohibited (Exodus 12:16; Leviticus 23:7 sqq.).總投棄權工作只能為安息日贖罪日;另一方面盛宴-天奴性的工作,僅被禁止(出埃及記12時16分;利未記23時07 sqq ) 。 Wilful violation of the Sabbath was punished with death (Exodus 31:14-15; Numbers 15:32-36).故意違反安息日被處以死刑(出埃及記31:14-15 ;號碼15:32-36 ) 。 The prohibition of work made it necessary to prepare food, and whatever might be needed, the day before the Sabbath, hence known as the day of preparation, or Parasceve (paraskeue; Matthew 27:62; Mark 15:42; etc.).禁止工作,所以有必要準備食物,而不管可能需要的情況下,前一天的安息日,所以被稱為一天的準備,或parasceve ( paraskeue ;馬太27:62 ;大關15:42等) 。 Besides abstention from work, special religious observances were prescribed.此外,棄權的工作,特殊的宗教慶祝活動,處方。 (a) The daily sacrifices were doubled, that is two lambs of a year old without blemish were offered up in the morning, and two in the evening, with twice the usual quantity of flour tempered with oil and of the wine of libation (num., xxvii, 3-10). (一)每天犧牲了一倍,這是兩個羔羊的一歲,沒有污點,共提供了在早上,和兩個在晚上,與兩次慣常數量的麵粉,鍛煉與石油和酒libation ( num個,二十七, 3-10 ) 。 (b) New loaves of proposition were placed before the Lord (Leviticus 24:5; 1 Chronicles 9:32). ( b )新麵包的命題被置於主面前(利未記24:5 ;歷代志上9時32分) 。 (c) A sacred assembly was to be held in the sanctuary for solemn worship (Leviticus 23:2-3, Heb. text; Ezekiel 46:3). (三)有一種神聖的大會將舉行的聖殿,為莊嚴的崇拜(利未記23:2 ,以弗所書文本;以西結書46:3 ) 。 We have no details as to what was done by those living at a distance from the sanctuary.我們沒有這方面的資料,以什麼做的是那些生活在遠離聖殿。 Synagogal worship belongs to the post-Exilic period; still it is probably a development of an old custom. synagogal崇拜屬於後exilic期;仍有它可能是一個發展的一個老習慣。 In earlier days the people were wont to go to hear the instructions of the Prophets (2 Kings 4:23), and it is not unlikely that meetings for edification and prayer were common from the oldest times.在先前幾天的人won't的去聽取指示的先知( 2國王4時23分) ,這點並非不可能會議啟迪和祈禱的人共同的,從最古老的時代。

Meaning of the Sabbath含義安息日

The Sabbath was the consecration of one day of the weekly period to God as the Author of the universe and of time.安息日是consecration的一天的每週期,以上帝的作者對宇宙和時間的。 The day thus being the Lord's, it required that man should abstain from working for his own ends and interests, since by working he would appropriate the day to himself, and that he should devote his activity to God by special acts of positive worship.一天,因此被主的,它需要這樣的人,棄權的工作,為他自己的目的和利益,因為已經工作,他將在適當之日起對自己,並說,他應該用他的活動,以上帝的特殊行為的正面崇拜。 After the Sinaitic covenant God stood to Israel in the relation of Lord of that covenant.之後,西乃半島盟約上帝站在以色列的關係,主該公約的規定。 The Sabbath thereby also became a sign, and its observance an acknowledgment of the pact: "See that thou keep my sabbath; because it is a sign between me and you in your generations; that you may know that I am the Lord, who sanctify you" (Exodus 31:13).安息日從而也成為標誌,並遵守不承認該條約的說: "看到你守我的安息日,因為這是一個跡象,我和你的後代;你也許知道,我是主,誰聖你的" (出埃及記31:13 ) 。 But while the Sabbath was primarily a religious day, it had a social and philanthropic side.不過,雖然安息日,主要是一個宗教一天,它有一個社會和慈善事業方面。 It was also intended as a day of rest and relaxation, particularly for the slaves (Deuteronomy 5:14).也有人打算作為一天的休息和放鬆,特別是為奴隸(申命記5時14分) 。 Because of the double character, religious and philanthropic, of the day, two different reasons are given for its observance.由於雙重性格,宗教和慈善事業,一天,兩個不同的原因是由於其遵守。 The first is taken from God's rest on the seventh day of creation: "For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, . . .and rested on the seventh day: therefore the Lord blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it" (Exodus 20:11; 31:17).首先是從上帝的休息第七天創造: "在六個月之內,耶和華造天地, … … 。休息就第七天:所以耶和華賜福第七天,聖化" (出埃及記20時11分; 31:19 ) 。 This does not mean that the Sabbath was instituted at the Creation, as some commentators have thought, but that the Israelites were to imitate God's example and rest on the day which He had sanctified by His rest.這並不意味著安息日,是建立在創造,正如一些評論家以為,但以色列人被模仿上帝的例子,就休息一天,他神聖化,他的休息。 The Sabbath as the sign of the Sinaitic covenant recalled the deliverance from the bondage of Egypt.安息日為標誌的西乃半島盟約回憶起救我們脫離桎梏的埃及。 Hence, in the second place, the Israelites are bidden to remember that they were once slaves in Egypt, and should therefore in grateful remembrance of their deliverance rest themselves and allow their bond-servants to rest (Deuteronomy 5:14-15).因此,在第二位,以色列人是bidden要記住,他們曾經是奴隸,在埃及,因此,應該在感激懷念他們解脫自己的休息,並允許其債券-公務員休息(申命記5:14-15 ) 。 As a reminder of God's benefits to Israel the Sabbath was to be a day of joy (Isaiah 57:13) and such it was in practice (cf. Hosea 2:11; Lamentations 2:6).作為提醒上帝的好處以色列安息日是那麼一天的喜悅(以賽亞書57:13 )等,它是在實踐中(參見何西阿2時11分;悲嘆2時06分) 。 No fasting was done on the Sabbath (Judith 8:6) on the contrary, the choicest meals were served to which friends were invited.沒有空腹做對安息日(朱迪思8時06分)與此相反,彩虹膳食服務,以它的朋友受邀參加。

Origin of the Sabbath原產地的安息日

The Sabbath is first met with in connection with the fall of the manna (Exodus 16:22 sqq.), but it there appears as an institution already known to the Israelites.安息日是第一次見面,與他涉嫌與秋天的甘露(出埃及記16時22 sqq ) ,但它似乎是作為一個機構已經知道要對以色列人。 The Sinaitic legislation therefore only gave the force of law to an existing custom.在西乃半島立法,因此只能給予法律的力量,以現有的風俗。 The origin of this custom is involved in obscurity.起源這種習俗是參與不了了之。 It was not borrowed from the Egyptians, as the week of seven days closing with a day of rest was unknown to them.它不是借來的,由埃及人,因為一個星期七天關閉一個休息日被不明給他們。 In recent years a Babylonian origin has been advocated.近年來,巴比倫的起源一直提倡的。 A lexicographical tablet gives shabattu as the equivalent of um nuh libbi, "the day of the appeasement of the heart" (of the gods). 1辭書片給人shabattu作為相當於嗯nuh利比, "那天,在懷柔的心" (神) 。 Furthermore, a religious calendar of the intercalary month Elul and of the month Marchesvan mentions the 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, and 19th days, the latter probably because it was the 49th (7x7) day from the beginning of the preceding month, as days on which the king, the magician, and the physician were to abstain from certain acts.此外,宗教日曆的夾層一個月elul和本月底marchesvan提到了7天, 14天,第21 ,第28 ,第19天,後者則可能是因為這是第49次( 7x7 )天從一開始的前一個月,天,即國王,魔術師,和醫師均投棄權票,從某些行為。 The king, for instance, was not to eat food prepared with fire, put on bright garments, ride in a chariot, or exercise acts of authority.國王,舉例來說,是不是吃的食物與火,把光明服裝,乘坐在一輛戰車上,或行使行為的權威。 These days were then, days of propitiation, and therefore shabattu days.這些天來,然後,天propitiation ,因此shabattu天。 We have thus periods of seven days the last day of which is marked by abstention from certain actions, and called shabattu, in other words the equivalent of the Sabbath.因此,我們期7天的最後一天,而其標誌是投棄權票,從某些行動,並呼籲shabattu ,換句話說,相當於安息日。 A Babylonian origin is not in itself improbable, since Chaldea was the original home of the Hebrews, but there is no proof that such is actually the case. 1巴比倫的原產地是不是在本身難以琢磨的,因為chaldea是原來的家希伯來人,但沒有任何證據表明這種情況其實並非如此。 The reading shabattu is uncertain, shapattu being at lest equally probable.閱讀shabattu是不確定的, shapattu正處於以免同樣可能。 Besides, there is no evidence that these days were called shabattu; the signs so read are found affixed only to the 15th day of the month, where, however, sha patti, "division" of the month is the more probable reading.此外,沒有任何證據表明,這些天來,被稱為shabattu ;跡象,使閱讀發現貼僅15日至本月底,但是,如果沙( Patti , "分化"的月份是較為可能的讀。 These days, moreover, differed entirely from the Sabbath.這些天來,而且,不同於完全從安息日。 They were not days of general rest, business being transacted as on other days.他們不是兩天的一般性休息,業務交易,因為就在其他日子。 The abstention from certain acts had for object to appease the anger of the gods; the days were, therefore, days of penance, not of joy like the Sabbath.棄權從某些行為已為對象,以安撫憤怒的神靈;日子裡,因此,兩天的懺悔,而不是喜悅,像安息日。 Lastly, these days followed the phases of the moon, whereas the Sabbath was independent of them.最後,這些天,其次是月相,而安息日,是獨立的調查。 Since the Sabbath always appear as a weekly feast without connexion with the moon, it cannot be derived, as is done by some writers, from the Babylonian feast of the full moon, or fifteenth day of the month, which, moreover, has only doubtful claim to the designation shabattu.由於安息日總是出庭,以每週一次盛宴,沒有就此月亮,但並不能推導,是由一些作家,從巴比倫盛宴的全部月球,或15天至本月底,其中,而且,只有存疑自稱指定shabattu 。

Observance of the Sabbath遵守安息日

Violations of the Sabbath seem to have been rather common before and during the exile (Jeremiah 17:19 sqq., Ezekiel 20:13, 16, 21, 24; 22:8; 22:38); hence the Prophets laid great stress on its proper observance (Amos 8:5; Isaiah 1:13; 57:13-14; Jeremiah loc. cit.; Ezekiel 20:12 sqq.).違反安息日似乎已經相當常見前及比賽期間流亡(耶利米17時19 sqq 。以西結20:13 16日, 21日, 24日; 22時08分; 22時38分) ,因此,先知奠定了很大的壓力就其適當的遵守(阿莫斯8時05分;以賽亞書1:13 ; 57:13-14 ;耶利米如上。 ;以西結20時12 sqq ) 。 After the Restoration the day was openly profaned, and Nehemias found some difficulty in stopping the abuse (Nehemiah 13:15-22).修復後當天被公然褻瀆,並內赫米亞斯發現了一些困難,在制止濫用(尼希米記13:15-22 ) 。 Soon, however, a movement set in towrds a meticulous observance which went far beyond what the law contemplated.很快,然而,一場運動集towrds細緻遵守,它遠遠超出了法律爭議。 At the time of the Machabees the faithful Jews allowed themselves to be massacred rather than fight on the Sabbath (1 Maccabees 2:35-38); Mathathias and his followers realizing the folly of such a policy decided to defend themselves if attacked on the Sabbath, though they would not assume the offensive (1 Maccabees 2:40-41; 2 Maccabees 8:26).在時間的machabees忠實猶太人許自己被屠殺,而不是單打獨鬥安息日( 1馬加比2:35-38 ) ; mathathias和他的追隨者實現蠢事這種政策的決定,為自己辯護,如果攻擊安息日雖然他們不會承擔進攻( 1馬加比2:40-41 2馬加比8時26分) 。 Under the influence of pharasaic rigorism a system of minute and burdensome regulations was elaborated, while the higher purpose of the Sabbath was lost sight of.的影響下pharasaic rigorism制度分鐘和繁重的規章制度制訂了,而更高的目的安息日被拋諸腦後。 The Mishna treatise Shabbath enumerates thirty-nine main heads of forbidden actions, each with subdivisions.該mishna傷寒shabbath列舉了39主要負責人不得行動,每個下屬部門。 Among the main heads are such trifling actions as weaving two threads, sewing two stitches, writing two letters, etc. To pluck two ears of wheat was considered as reaping, while to rub them was a species of threshing (cf. Matthew 12:1-2; Mark 2:23-24; Luke 6:1-2).其中的主要負責人都是這樣的瑣碎的行動,為織造兩個線程,縫紉兩個縫針,寫兩封信等,以振奮的兩個耳朵的小麥被視為收穫,而激怒了,他們是一個物種的脫粒(參見馬修12:1 -2 ;馬克2:23-24 ;路加福音6:1-2 ) 。 To carry an object of the weight of a fig was carrying a burden; hence to carry a bed (John 5:10) was a gross breach of the Sabbath.進行一個物體的重量, A圖是背著包袱,因此,攜帶床(約翰福音17:10 )是一個嚴重違背安息日。 It was unlawful to cure on the Sabbath, or to apply a remedy unless life was endangered (cf. Matthew 12:10 sqq.; Mark 3:2 sqq.; Luke 6:7 sqq.).它是非法的治療上的安息日,或可申請補救,除非生命受到威脅(參見馬修12:10 sqq ;馬克3:2 sqq ;盧克6時07 sqq ) 。 This explains why the sick were brought to Christ after sundown (Mark, I, 32).這就解釋了為什麼有病被帶到基督後,日落(馬克,我, 32歲) 。 It was even forbidden to use a medicament the preceding day if it produced its effect on the Sabbath.它甚至禁止使用藥物前一天,如果它產生及其對安息日。 In the time of Christ it was allowed to lift an animal out of a pit (Matthew 12:11; Luke 14:5), but this was later modified so that it was not permitted to lay hold of it and lift it out, though it might be helped to come out of itself by means of mattresses and cushions.在僅有的時間內基督的,它被允許解除對動物出一個坑(馬太12時11分;盧克14時05分) ,但這個後來被修改,以便它不容許奠定舉行的,它和電梯出來,雖然它可能有助於走出自己的方式床墊和坐墊。 These examples, and they are not the worst, show the narrowness of the system.這些例子中,他們根本就不是最壞的打算,顯示狹隘的制度。 Some of the rules were, however, found too burdensome, and a treatise of the Mishna (Erubin) tempers their rigour by subtle devices.有些規則,卻發現太繁瑣,以及論文的mishna ( erubin )脾氣其嚴格的微妙裝置。

The Sabbath in the New Testament安息日,在新約聖經

Christ, while observing the Sabbath, set himself in word and act against this absurd rigorism which made man a slave of the day.基督的,同時遵守安息日,把自己在Word和法令對這種荒謬rigorism使得男子奴隸的一天。 He reproved the scribes and Pharisees for putting an intolerable burden on men's shoulders (Matthew 23:4), and proclaimed the principle that "the sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath" (Mark 2:27).他譴責了文士和法利賽將是一個無法忍受的負擔,對男人的肩膀上(馬太23時04分) ,並宣布了一項原則,即"安息日是為男子,不是人為安息日" (馬克2時27分) 。 He cured on the Sabbath, and defended His disciples for plucking ears of corn on that day.他治愈,對安息日,並捍衛了他的弟子,為採摘耳玉米那一天。 In His arguments with the Pharisees on this account He showed that the Sabbath is not broken in cases of necessity or by acts of charity (Matthew 12:3 sqq.; Mark 2:25 sqq.; Luke 6:3 sqq.; 14:5).在他的論點與法利對這個賬戶,他表明安息日,是不是打破了案件的必要性或行為的慈善機構(馬太12時03 sqq ;馬克2時25 sqq ;盧克選手sqq ; 14 : 5 ) 。 St. Paul enumerates the Sabbath among the Jewish observances which are not obligatory on Christians (Colossians 2:16; Galatians 4:9-10; Romans 14:5).聖保祿列舉安息日其中猶太紀念活動,其中不強制對基督徒他們( 2點16分;加拉太書4:9-10 ;羅馬書14時05分) 。 The gentile converts held their religious meetings on Sunday (Acts 20:7; 1 Corinthians 16:2) and with the disappearance of the Jewish Christian churches this day was exclusively observed as the Lord's Day.該gentile舉行皈依自己的宗教集會上週日( 20時07分行為;哥林多前書16時02分) ,並與失踪的猶太基督教會在本月10日召開專門觀察作為神的一天。 (See SUNDAY.) (見週日) 。

Publication information Written by F. Bechtel.出版信息撰稿樓柏克德公司。 Transcribed by John Looby.轉錄約翰looby 。 Dedicated to Christopher James Looby The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.致力於克里斯托弗詹姆斯looby天主教百科全書,體積十三。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. nihil obstat , 1912年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, DD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,副署長,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

EDERSHEIM, "Life and Times of Jesus II" (New York, 1897), 52-62, 777 sqq.; SCHURER, "Hist. Of the Jewish People" (New York, 1891), see index; PINCHES, "Sapattu, the Babylonian Sabbaath" in "Proceed. Of Soc. Of Bibl. Archeol." edersheim , "生活與時代的耶穌Ⅱ " (紐約, 1897年) , 52-62 , 777 sqq 。 ; schurer , "歷史的。猶太人民" (紐約, 1891年) ,見指數; pinches , " sapattu ,巴比倫sabbaath "中的"著手。 SoC的。的bibl 。 archeol " 。 (1904), 51-56; LAGRANGE, "Relig. Semit." ( 1904 ) , 51-56 ;拉格朗日, " relig 。 semit " 。 (Paris, 1905), 291-5; DHORME in "Rev. bibl." (巴黎, 1905 ) , 291-5 ;多爾姆在"牧師bibl " 。 (1908), 462-6; HERN, "Siebenzahl und Sabbath bei den Babyloniern un im AT" (Leipzig, 1907); IDEM, Der Israelitische Sabbath" (Munster, 1909); KEIL, "Babel und Bibelfrage" (Trier, 1903), 38-44; LOTZ, "Quaestiones de histor. ( 1908年) , 462-6 ; hern , " siebenzahl und安息日鼻書齋babyloniern聯合國的IM " (萊比錫, 1907年) ;同上,明鏡israelitische安息日" (明斯特, 1909年) ; Keil的, "通天塔und bibelfrage " (特里爾, 1903 ) , 38-44 ; lotz , " quaestiones德histor 。 sabbati" (1883); LESETRE in VIGOUROUX, "Dict. sabbati " ( 1883 ) ; lesetre在vigouroux , "字典。 de la bible", sv "Sabbat."德香格里拉聖經" , sv " sabbat " 。


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