Revivalism復興

General Information 一般資料

Revivalism is a predominantly North American Protestant phenomenon in which itinerant preachers exhort their hearers to accept forgiveness of personal sin through faith in Jesus Christ and to commit themselves to spiritual self discipline and religious exercises such as prayer, Bible reading, and church support.復興主要是一個北美新教現象,其中流動傳教士敦促他們hearers接受寬恕的個人單透過相信耶穌基督,並致力於自己的精神自律和宗教演習,如祈禱,讀經,和教會的支持。

Revivalism in America has been in reaction to a perceived overemphasis by the major denominations on ritual, cultural accommodation, and doctrinal or ideological correctness at the expense of personal religious experience.復興在美國已反應到一個知覺過分強調由大面額,對禮儀,文化住宿,並學說或意識形態的正確性,不惜犧牲個人的宗教體驗。 Four specific periods of intense religious revival were:四個特定時期的激烈宗教復興的有:

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
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Paul Merritt Bassett保羅梅里巴塞特

Bibliography 參考書目
WG McLoughlin, Modern Revivalism (1959); T Smith, Revivalism and Social Reform (1957); WW Sweet, Revivalism in America (1944); BA Weisberger, They Gathered at the River (1958).工作組mcloughlin ,現代復興( 1959年)和t史密斯,復興和社會改革( 1957 ) ;第一次世界大戰甜,復興,在美國( 1944年) ;廣管局魏絲伯格,他們聚集在河( 1958年) 。


Revivalism復興

Advanced Information 先進的信息

A movement within the Christian tradition which emphasizes the appeal of religion to the emotional and affectional nature of individuals as well as to their intellectual and rational nature.一個運動內部的基督教傳統,強調上訴的宗教情緒和情感的性質,個人以及他們的智慧和理性的性質。 It believes that vital Christianity begins with a response of the whole being to the gospel's call for repentance and spiritual rebirth by faith in Jesus Christ.它認為,重要的基督教始於反應的整體,以福音的呼籲,有悔罪重生是因信耶穌基督。 This experience results in a personal relationship with God.這方面的經驗成果,在個人與天主的關係。

Some have sought to make revivalism a purely American and even a predominantly frontier phenomenon.有些人試圖使復興一個純粹的美國,甚至一個主要前沿的現象。 Revivalism, however, can be seen as a much broader Christian tradition.復興,但是,可以被看作是更為廣泛的基督教傳統。 Recent studies have discovered a revivalist tradition in the Roman Catholic Church.最近的研究已發現了復興傳統,在羅馬天主教會。

The Reformation Roots改革的根

Modern revival movements have their historical roots in Puritanpietistic reactions to the rationalism of the Enlightenment and the formalized creedal expression of Reformation faith that characterized much of seventeenth century Protestantism.現代復興運動有其歷史根源,在puritanpietistic反應,以理性主義的啟蒙運動和正規化creedal表達改革的信心,特點是許多17世紀新教。 Lutherans such as Johann Arndt, Philipp Spener, and August Francke resisted this depersonalization of religion. lutherans如約翰arndt ,菲利普spener ,八月francke抵制這種缺乏人性的宗教。 They discovered a more experiential element in Reformation faith which emphasized personal commitment and obedience to Christ and a life regenerated by the indwelling Holy Spirit.他們發現了更多的體驗元素,在改革的信念,強調個人的承諾和服從於基督生命再生所留置聖靈。 They also emphasized witness and missions as a primary responsibility of the individual Christian and the church.他們還強調了證人和使命,作為一個主要的責任,個人的基督徒和教會。 Subjective religious experience and the importance of the individual became a new force in renewing and expanding the church.主觀宗教的經驗和重要的是個人成為新的力量在延續和擴大了教堂。 These concerns gradually permeated much of Protestantism, especially the developing churches in America.這些憂慮逐漸滲進許多新教,特別是發展中國家的教會在美國。

The Eighteenth Century Birth十八世紀誕生

The appeal for a personal, public response to the gospel that came to characterize revivalism sprang up almost simultaneously in both England and America in the eighteenth century.呼籲建立一個個人,市民反應福音跑到特點復興擺出來,幾乎在同一時間,在英格蘭和美國在十八世紀。 The initial signs of the First Great Awakening in the American colonies occurred in the congregation of the Dutch Reformed pastor Theodore J Frelinghuysen in northern New Jersey in 1725, a decade before John Wesley and George Whitefield began their field preaching in England.初步跡象第一次大覺醒,在美洲殖民地發生於眾的荷蘭語改革牧師西奧多j frelinghuysen在北部新球衣,在17時25分, 23年前約翰韋斯利和喬治Whitefield的開始自己的實地講道英格蘭。 Frelinghuysen had come under the influence of pietism before coming to America. frelinghuysen來的影響下pietism才來美國。 In 1726 William Tennent, the Presbyterian leader of the Great Awakening, started his "log college" to prepare ministers who would preach a personalized Calvinism which called men and women to repentance.在1726年威廉Tennent ) ,長老會領袖的偉大覺醒,開始了他的"日誌團"準備的部長們將倡導一種個性化加爾文呼籲男女悔改之意。

By the time George Whitefield began recurrent revivalistic tours of the American colonies in 1738, Jonathan Edwards, the theologian of the colonial awakening, had already experienced revival in his Northampton, massachusetts, Congregational church.經過一段時期喬治Whitefield的開始經常revivalistic參觀美國的殖民地,在1738年,喬納森愛德華茲,神學家的殖民地覺醒,已經歷了復甦,在他的northampton ,馬薩諸塞,公理教會。 Edwards accepted the validity of much of the religious emotion that accompanied the conversions among his parishioners and wrote in defense of the proper role of emotion in true religion.愛德華茲接受的有效性,大部分的宗教情感伴隨轉換他的教區居民,並寫在國防部的適當角色的情感在真正的宗教。 The revival continued to move south until it touched all the colonies.復活繼續南下,直到它觸及所有殖民地。 In England the recognized leader of the "Evangelical Revival" was John Wesley, founder of Methodism and close friend of Whitefield.在英國是全球公認的領先的"福音復甦" ,是約翰韋斯利的創始人methodism和親密朋友的Whitefield 。 Whitefield had encouraged Wesley to take up the field preaching that brought the gospel directly to the masses of working people. Whitefield的鼓勵韋斯利採取了實地標榜自己帶來了福音,直接向廣大勞動人民。

The success of this appeal to the heart as well as the head could not be doubted.這一行動的成功上訴至心臟以及頭部不能受到懷疑。 Religious interest was renewed, and people flocked to the churches in significant numbers in both America and England.宗教感興趣的是新的,人們湧到教堂有大量在美國和英格蘭。 American historians recognize that the sweep of religious fervor from north to south (prior to the Revolution) was one of the few unifying factors among the otherwise disparate American colonies.美國歷史學家們認識到,打掃的宗教熱情,從北到南(前革命) ,是少數統一的因素之一,否則不相干的美洲殖民地。 In England the revival left an indelible religious and social impact for stability in the midst of the revolutionary unrest which pervaded most of Europe at the time.在英格蘭復興留下了不可磨滅的宗教和社會影響,為穩定在複雜多變的革命動亂,其中最普遍的歐洲,在時間。

The Definitive Stage具有權威性的階段

The pre Revolutionary revivals demonstrated the general patterns which characterized all subsequent awakenings; however, it was the Second Great Awakening at the beginning of the nineteenth century that defined the theology and method of the tradition.前革命復甦表明了一般模式的特點是其後所有awakenings ,但它是世界上第二個大覺醒,在19世紀初葉,確定了神學和方法研究傳統。 The revival began at Hampden Sidney and Washington colleges in Virginia in 1787.復興開始在漢普頓悉尼和華盛頓大學在弗吉尼亞州在1787年。 It continued at Yale under Timothy Dwight and at Andover and Princeton at the end of the eighteenth century.它繼續在耶魯根據蒂莫西德懷特和andover和普林斯頓在十八世紀末。 It was popularized in the great camp meetings on the frontier.這是推廣,在大營會議,對邊防。 The Cane Ridge, Kentucky, camp meeting in August, 1801, became the most famous of all.甘蔗嶺,肯塔基州,營8月的會議上, 1801年,成為當時最有名的。 The strange emotional phenomena which had shown themselves in the earlier colonial revival reappeared in intensified form.但奇怪的情感現象,表明自己在早先的殖民地復興齟齬加劇的形式。 "Falling," "jerking," "rolling," and "dancing" exercises engaged many of the twenty thousand worshipers present. "落入" , " jerking " , "滾動" , "跳舞"演習進行了很多的2.0萬朝聖者出席。 These demonstrations moderated as the revival continued, but physical phenomena have always existed in some measure in popular revival movements.這些示威活動放緩,因為持續復甦,但物理現象始終存在,在一定程度上流行的復興運動。

Camp Meetings and Revivalism營會議和復興

The Presbyterians who organized these first camp meetings soon abandoned their use.該presbyterians誰組織這些第一陣營的會議很快放棄其使用。 The Methodists and Baptists, however, continued to use them.該衛理及浸信會,但繼續使用它們。 The ambience of the natural setting in which the camps were held, the release from the ordinary routines of home and church, the freedom to worship together in a less sectarian context, the family reunion, community center flavor, all contributed to a mystique that made the camp meeting a continuing factor in future revivalism.氛圍:自然定在營地舉行了釋放,從普通的日常家居護理和教會,自由崇拜一起在一個較低的宗派背景下,與家人團聚,社區中心,風味,都促成了神秘感,使得營地會議持續因子在未來復興。 The frontier camp meetings declined by the time of the Civil War, but the Holiness revival which began to flourish after the Civil War utilized them extensively in both rural and urban settings.邊防營會議下跌的時候,內戰,但成聖復甦開始轉旺,內戰結束後,利用他們廣泛地在農村和城市的設置。

Camp meetings became the religious centers that shaped the theology and ethos of the numerous Holiness churches organized at the end of the century.營會議成為宗教中心,塑造了神學和校風的眾多聖潔教會組織在本世紀的結束。 Although many camp meetings evolved from their original revivalistic commitments into Chautauquas or Christian family resort centers, in Holiness and Pentecostal churches the camp meeting remains an essential expression of their revivalistic worship.雖然許多營地開會的主要矛盾,從原來的revivalistic承諾變為chautauquas或基督教家庭度假中心,在成聖和五旬節教會營地會議仍然是一個重要的表達自己的revivalistic崇拜。 Even there, however, the camp meeting has become more of a church family rally or reunion than a time for evangelistic outreach to the unchurched.即使在那裡,不過,營地會議已經成為更多的是家庭教會集會或團聚比的時候,福音推廣到不去教會。

Charles Grandison Finney查爾斯格蘭迪森finney

The outstanding figure in early nineteenth century revivalism was Charles Grandison Finney.傑出人物,在十九世紀初,復興,是查爾斯格蘭迪森finney 。 Finney took the revival ethos of the frontier camp meeting to the urban centers of the northeast. finney了復興民族精神的邊境難民營會議向城市中心的東北地區。 His success there and his widespread influence as a professor and later president of Oberlin College gave him a platform for propagating a theology and defense of the revival methods he espoused.他的成功有其廣泛的影響,作為一名教授,後來總統的奧伯林學院給了他一個平台,為宣揚一名神和國防的復甦方法,他熱愛。 In his Revival Lectures Finney contended that God had clearly revealed the laws of revival in Scripture.在他的復活講座finney爭辯說,上帝已經清楚地揭示了法律的復甦中的經文。 Whenever the church obeyed those laws, spiritual renewal resulted.每當教會服從這些法律,精神重建的結果。 In the minds of many Calvinists this emphasis on human ability greatly modified the traditional concept of the sovereign movement of God in reviving the church.在人的頭腦中的許多calvinists這種強調人的能力,極大地改進了傳統的概念,主權運動的上帝在復興教會。 However, the importance which Finney attached to the necessity for prayer and the agency of the Holy Spirit in his revival theory and practice helped to mute such concerns.不過,重要的,其中finney重視必要性祈禱和該機構的聖靈在他的復活的理論與實踐,幫助聾啞這種關切。

Finney's "new methods" raised as much controversy as his attachment to New School Calvinism. finney的"新方法" ,提出了很多爭議,因為他的依戀,以新校加爾文。 Preaching was direct, addressed to the individual, and usually delivered without manuscript or even notes.說教是直接的,給個人,而且通常沒有發表的手稿,甚至筆記。 The public nature of the conversion experience was focused by the introduction of the "anxious bench," by which the serious seeker placed his intentions on record before the congregation.公共性轉化的經驗,重點是通過實行"焦急板凳" ,其中嚴重的導引頭放在他的意向,記錄在案前聚集。 The critics were especially wary of the public platform given to the laity and especially women as they prayed and testified in the revival services.批評者尤其警惕公共平台向俗人,尤其是婦女,因為他們祈禱,並證明了在復興服務。 After the dramatic Fulton Street or Layman's Revival of 1858, however, most of the critics were silenced, and revivalized Calvinism joined with the revivalized Arminianism of burgeoning American Methodism to set the predominant pattern of American Protestantism for the remainder of the century.之後,戲劇性的富爾頓街或門外漢的復興, 1858年,不過,大部分的批評者壓制, revivalized加爾文加入與revivalized arminianism的蓬勃發展,美國methodism定為主導的格局,美國基督新教為剩餘的世紀。

Perfectionist Revivalism完美主義復興

A significant new development in revivalism between 1835 and 1875 was the rise of perfectionist revivalism.一個重要的新發展,在復興與1835年和1875年,是崛起的完美主義復興。 Finney introduced a perfectionist note into his evangelism after his move to Oberlin College in 1835. finney介紹了一個完美主義帶進他的傳道後轉會到奧伯林學院於1835年。 He and his colleague Asa Mahan, president of Oberlin, joined perfectionist leaders in Methodism, such as lay leaders Walter and Phoebe Palmer, in a new Holiness revivalism in the churches.他和他的同事ASA的馬漢,總統奧伯林,加入完美主義領袖methodism ,如教友領導人沃爾特和閩帕爾默,在一個新的成聖復興在教堂。 The movement used revivalistic methods to call Christians to a second crisis of faith and total commitment subsequent to conversion, commonly called among American Calvinists a "second conversion," a "rest of faith," or the "deeper" or "higher life"; to Methodists it was "entire sanctification," "perfection in love," or "the second blessing."運動用revivalistic方法,呼籲基督信徒,以第二次信仰危機,並徹底承諾以後轉換,俗稱其中美國calvinists "二次轉化" , "休息的信念" ,或者"更深的"或"更高的生命" ;以衛,是"整個成聖" , "完美的愛" ,或者"第二個祝福" 。

Both Calvinist and Methodist wings of the revival ultimately gave prominence to a personal "fullness" or "baptism" of the Holy Spirit in speaking of the experience.雙方calvinist和衛翼的復活,最終突出了個人的"豐滿"或"洗禮"的聖靈在談到經驗。 The creation of the National Camp meeting Association for the Promotion of Holiness by John Inskip and other Methodist ministers in 1867 spread the movement beyond Methodism around the world.創建全國營地會議推廣協會成聖約翰inskip和其他循道衛理部長們在1867年的擴散運動以後methodism世界各地。 In England the Holiness revival gave rise to the Salvation Army and the Keswick Movement.在英國是聖潔的復甦產生了救世軍和敬誠運動。

Institutionalization and Decline制度化和衰敗

Dwight L Moody dominated the revival movement from 1875 until his death in 1899.德懷特升穆迪主導復興運動,從1875年直到他逝世於1899年。 Although most of the revivalism of the time was carried on in the local churches and camp meetings of the rapidly growing Baptist and methodist denominations, Moody's leadership was the stimulus which encouraged the continued use of revivalistic methods in churches not as strongly committed to them.雖然大部分的復興的時間裡進行了關於在當地教堂和軍營舉行的迅速增長浸信會和衛理面額,穆迪的領導,是刺激鼓勵繼續使用revivalistic方法,在教會不作為堅定地致力於他們。 His mass evangelistic campaigns drew vast audiences in Britain and the United States and set the patterns for a more professional revivalism which demanded extensive organization and substantial budgets.他的大規模布道活動,吸引廣大觀眾,在英國和美國,並設置模式,以便更專業的復興號決議,要求廣泛組織和大量的預算。 Ira Sankey, his musical director, became the best known of the many gospel musicians who formed an essential part of the revivalistic teams which sprang up everywhere in this period.愛爾蘭共和軍sankey ,他的音樂總監,成為最知名的許多福音音樂家組成的一個重要部分的revivalistic隊擺出來,到處都在這一時期。

Moody also sponsored educational institutions which furthered his evangelistic aims: the Northfield Institutions in Massachusetts and Moody Bible Institute in Chicago.穆迪還舉辦教育機構,其中,更進一步他布道的目的是: northfield機構,在馬薩諸塞州和穆迪聖經學院在芝加哥。 These institutions were representative of the large number of organizations and movements which sprang out of the many revival movements that looked to Moody for inspiration and leadership at the end of the nineteenth century.這些機構的代表人數眾多,組織和運動的興起,其中出了不少復興運動期待穆迪靈感和領導水平,在19世紀末。 Many of these became important components of the growing fundamentalist movement.許多這些已成為重要的組成部分,越來越多的原教旨主義運動。

Large audiences continued to attend the revival campaigns of William "Billy" Sunday, RA Torrey, Gypsy Smith, and others after the turn of the century.大批觀眾繼續參加復興運動的威廉"比利"週日,在Ra利松,吉普賽史密斯和其他人後,在世紀之交。 However, the change of national mood resulting from the economic upheavals that followed World War I, the persistent attacks of such social critics as HL Mencken, and the turn toward a gospel of social concern among the larger denominations led to a decline in the influence of revivalism in the churches and in American life.但是,這一變化的民族情緒所造成的,從經濟的大幅波動,隨後的第一次世界大戰後,持續不斷的攻擊這種社會批評的HL mencken ,並反過來對福音的社會,引起大面額導致下降的影響復興在教會和在美國生活。 Nevertheless, the Pentecostal revival which spread swiftly from its center in Los Angeles after 1906 and the effective use of radio by Charles Fuller and other radio evangelists indicated the continuing strength of the revivalist tradition in the churches.然而,五旬節復興而迅速蔓延,從它的中心在美國洛杉磯後, 1906年和有效利用無線電查爾斯更充分和其他無線電傳道士表示,持續強勢的復興主義傳統,在教堂。

The Modern Period現代時期

The rise of Billy Graham in the 1950s and his subsequent recognition as one of the most influential religious leaders of the post World War II period signaled the latent residual strength of revivalism in the Christian churches.崛起比利格雷厄姆在20世紀50年代和他後來承認,作為全球最有影響力的宗教領袖的職位二戰期間標誌著潛在的剩餘強度復興在基督教教堂。 Graham's success in working with a broad spectrum of Protestant churches as well as significant segments of Catholicism reiterated the fact that revivalism is not a sporadic phenomenon in the Christian tradition but rather a steady force which breaks into public prominence whenever churches and society tend to ignore its concerns for experiential religion.葛理翰的成功,在工作有著廣譜的新教教會以及很大一部分天主教重申一個事實,即復興不是一個偶發現象,在基督教的傳統,而是一個穩定的力量,打破公營突出每當教會和社會往往忽視其關切體驗宗教。 Billy Graham emphasized again both the method and theology of the tradition. Billy Graham時再次強調,無論是方法和神學的傳統。 He played down some of the more strident emotional and psychological aspects of the method; he retained, however, the direct, forceful sermon appeal, the biblically oriented message, the call for personal, public response, the use of gospel music and of large mass meetings.他輕描淡寫的一些較強烈的情緒和心理方面的方法;他保留著,但是,直接,有力的講道中呼籲時,聖經導向的訊息,呼籲為個人,公眾的反應,使用的福音音樂和大型群眾性會議。

Graham's ministry represented a general revival of religion, as indicated by the rapid growth of evangelical churches and spread of the charismatic revival in the decades following World War II.葛理翰的部代表了一般的復興宗教所表明的那樣快速增長,福音派教會和蔓延魅力復活,在之後的幾十年裡二戰。 The charismatic emphases on the baptism and the gifts of the Spirit, especially glossolalia, have had significant influence upon both Protestant and Catholic churches.魅力側重點上的洗禮和禮物的精神,特別是說方言,有相當的影響力,雙方的新教和天主教教堂。 The exposure of revivalism with its message and method to the public through television and the dominant role revivalists currently hold in religious broadcasting are additional signs of the contemporary revitalization of the tradition.曝光的復興同其信息內容和方法,以宣傳工作,通過電視和主導作用revivalists目前正在舉行宗教廣播額外的跡象,當代的振興傳統。

The Theology of Revivalism神學的復興

The intimate historical relationship between the growth of evangelicalism and revivalism indicates many common theological presuppositions.親密的歷史關係,增長evangelicalism和復興表明,有許多共同的神學預設的。 Evangelicalism's commitment to the reliability and authority of Scripture is the basis for revivalism's direct preaching and appeal; the former's belief in the universal need for spiritual rebirth is the basis for the latter's direct call for repentance and faith in Christ. evangelicalism的承諾的可靠性和權威性的經文是基礎,復興的直接說教和感召力;前者的信仰,在普遍的需要重生是基礎,後者的直接呼籲悔改,並在基督裡的信仰。 The evangelical's acceptance of Christ's final commission to his disciples as a mandate for personal witness and world mission reinforces the urgency that characterizes revival movements.福音的接受基督的最後委員會,以他的弟子,作為一項任務,為個人見證和世界使命強化了緊迫的特點復興運動。

Revivals of religion and the theological presuppositions and practices which have accompanied them through their history have consistently raised a common pattern of criticism.復甦的宗教和神學預設和做法,已伴隨他們渡過其歷史上一貫提出的一個共同的模式,為人所詬病。 The strongly emotional nature of the revivalist's appeal, the critics charge, leads to spiritual instability or even to irrational behavior.強烈的情緒性的復興主義的呼籲,批評,導致精神不穩定,甚至不理性的行為。 They also claim that the revivalist's emphasis upon crisis experience tends to deprecate the place of growth and process in Christian living.他們還聲稱,若復興的重點放在危機的經驗,往往deprecate地方的發展和進程,在基督教的生活。 Opponents also charge that the importance revivalism attaches to a warm hearted, spiritual ministry results in a general anti intellectualism throughout the tradition; they claim as well that the strong appeal to individualized religion leads to a subjectivism that obscures or even denies the social and cultural implications of Christianity.反對者還認為,收費的重要性復興重視溫暖愛心,精神部在一,一般反知識分子在整個傳統,他們聲稱,以及表示強烈呼籲個性宗教導致了主觀主義認為,掩蓋了,甚至否認了社會和文化的影響基督教的。 The direct praying and preaching, the tendency to popularize and excite interest by use of promotional psychology, and inclination to judgmentalism and separatism are also common accusations brought against revivalists.直接祈禱及傳教,傾向以普及和激發興趣,並利用宣傳心理學,並傾向以judgmentalism和分裂主義,也有共同的指控起訴revivalists 。

The major response of revival proponents has been to point to the positive results they claim for religious revival and revivalism in church and society since the beginning of the movements in the eighteenth century.主要反應的復興倡議者一直點到了積極的成果,他們宣稱為宗教復甦和復興,在教會和社會年初以來,該運動在18世紀。 The dramatic growth of the churches resulting from special periods of religious revival and the day - to - day revival emphasis in revivalistic churches is part of the historical record.急劇增長的教會所造成的特殊時期的宗教復甦的情況,以及一天--日間復興強調在r e vivalistic教堂是黨的歷史紀錄。 Significant moral, social, and cultural changes have accompanied the major awakenings.顯著的道德,社會,文化等各種變化都伴隨著重大awakenings 。 The ecumenical spirit of revival efforts has often produced a level of cooperation among churches not achieved in any other way.普世精神的復興努力,往往產生了某種程度的合作,教會沒有取得任何其他方式。 Expanded Christian benevolence and church extension have always accompanied these periods of spiritual renewal.擴大基督教的仁愛和教堂擴建始終伴隨著這些時期的精神重建。 Religious institutions and organizations to promote Christian causes and social concerns, including most of America's Christian colleges, seminaries, Bible institutes, and many mission bodies, are products of revivalism.宗教機構和組織,以促進基督教的原因和社會的關注,其中還包括大多數美國的基督教學院,神學院,聖經學院,而很多團組織,是產品的復興。

ME Dieter我迪特爾
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
R Carwardine, Transatlantic Revivalism; DW Dayton, Discovering an Evangelical Heritage; ME Dieter, The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century; JP Dolan, Catholic Revivalism; J Edwards, A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God; J F Findlay, Dwight L Moody: American Evangelist 1837 - 1899; CG Finney, Lectures on Revivals of Religion; ES Gaustad, The Great Awakening in New England; CA Johnson, The Frontier Camp Meeting; WG McLaughlin, Modern Revivalism: Charles Grandison Finney to Billy Graham; TL Smith, Revivalism and Social Reform in Mid Nineenth Century America; WW Sweet, Revivalism in America; BA Weisberger, They Gathered at the River. r carwardine ,大西洋復興; DW的代頓,發現是一個福音遺產;我迪特爾,成聖復興十九世紀;太平紳士杜蘭,天主教復興; j愛德華茲的忠實敘述,令人稱奇的工作,上帝; j f範達,德懷特升穆迪:美國傳道1837 -1 899;的C Gf inney,講座復甦的宗教;中文g austad,大覺醒,在新英格蘭;鈣約翰遜,前營會議;麥克勞林工作組,現代復興:查爾斯格蘭迪森f inney以比利格雷厄姆;鉈史密斯,復興和社會改革中nineenth世紀的美國;第一次世界大戰甜,復興,在美國;廣管局魏絲伯格,他們聚集在河中。


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