Resurrection復活

General Information 一般資料

The concept of resurrection from the dead is found in several religions, although it is associated particularly with Christianity because of the central belief in the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Hope of a resurrection from the dead may have entered Judaism from Persian sources, although the idea has deeper roots in Old Testament Yahwism and the concept of God's covenant with Israel.的概念復活,從死者被發現在一些宗教,它雖然是有聯繫,特別是與基督教,因為中央的信仰是在復活的基督,但願一個復活從死者可能已經進入了猶太教從波斯語來源,雖然想法有更深的根在舊約yahwism觀念和上帝的盟約與以色列。 The resurrection life was variously conceived, but the type of hope that passed into early Christian thought centered on the transformation of human life from the dead into a transcendental mode of existence.復活的生命是各種設想,但該類型的,希望通過成為早期基督教思想,圍繞改造人的生命從死裡復活成為一個先驗的模式存在。 This was expressed poetically as "shining like the stars in heaven" (Dan. 12:3) or becoming "like the angels" (Mark 12:25).這是詩意地表達為"光輝像星星在天上" ( dan. 12時03分) ,或成為"像天使" (馬克12:25 ) 。

After the Easter experiences, earliest Christianity expressed its faith in what had happened to Jesus as resurrection in the transcendental sense.經過復活節經驗,最早的基督教表達其信仰發生了什麼事,因為耶穌復活,在超越意識。 This concept is sharply distinguished from resuscitation, or a return to this worldly existence, as narrated in the raisings of Lazarus and others attributed to Jesus.這個概念是尖銳地區別於復甦,還是回到這世間存在,因為敘述在raisings的拉撒路和其他歸功於耶穌。 Saint Paul conceived the resurrection of Jesus as the first instance of an apocalyptic type resurrection ("Christ the first fruits," 1 Cor. 15:20, 23); as a result of Christ's resurrection, all believers may hope for resurrection at the Second Coming of Christ.聖保羅構思復活的耶穌作為初審的一個世界末日式的復活( "基督的第一批成果, " 1肺心病。 15:20 , 23 ) ,由於基督的復活,所有信徒可能希望復活在第二次未來的基督。 Paul indicates that the resurrection body will be new and "spiritual" (1 Cor. 15:35 - 54); most theologians interpret this to mean that it is the personality that is resurrected.保羅表明復活的遺體將被新的"精神" ( 1肺心病。 15:35 -5 4) ;大多數神學家解釋,這意味著它是一個人格,就是復活。

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Islam also believes in the resurrection of the dead, as did traditional Judaism.伊斯蘭教還認為,在死中復活的,因為沒有傳統的猶太教。

Reginald H Fuller ( Reginald h更充分

Bibliography 參考書目
RH Fuller, The Formation of the Resurrection Narratives (1971); SH Hooke, The Resurrection of Christ as History and Experience (1967); P Perkins, Resurrection: New Testament Witness and Contemporary Reflection (1984); N Perrin, The Resurrection according to Matthew, Mark, and Luke (1977).銠更充分,可以形成復活的敘述( 1971年) ;巰基虎克,復活的基督為中心的歷史和經驗( 1967 ) , p帕金斯,復活:新約聖經證人與當代反思( 1984 )氮波倫,復活據馬太,馬克,路加( 1977 ) 。


Resurrection復活

Advanced Information 先進的信息

That Jesus Christ died and afterward rose from the dead is both the central doctrine of Christian theology and the major fact in a defense of its teachings. 耶穌是基督死亡及隨後從死既是中央學說的基督教神學及主要事實,在防衛它的教義。 This was true in the earliest church and remains so today. 這是事實,在最早的教堂至今依然如此。

The Centrality of the Resurrection中心性復活

It is the witness of the NT that the resurrection of Jesus is the pivotal point of Christian theology and apologetics.這是見證新台幣認為復活的耶穌是支點的基督教神學和護教學。 Paul reports an early creed in I Cor.保羅報告早日信條在I肺心病。 15:3ff. 15點03法郎。 which both includes the resurrection as an integral part of the gospel and reports several eyewitness appearances.其中既包括了復活作為一個不可分割的一部分,福音和匯報了幾個目擊者露面。

Then Paul relates the importance of this event, for if Jesus did not literally rise from the dead, then the entire Christian faith is fallacious (vs. 14) and ineffective (vs. 17).然後保羅涉及這方面的重要性,因為如果耶穌沒有從字面上崛起從死裡復活,那麼整個基督信仰是謬誤的(相對於14 )和無效(而不是17 ) 。 Additionally, preaching is valueless (vs. 14), Christian testimony is false (vs. 15), no sins have been forgiven (vs. 17), and believers have perished without any Christian hope (vs. 18).此外,說教是毫無價值(相對於14 ) ,基督徒的見證是假的(相對於15 ) ,沒有任何的罪過都被饒恕(相對於17 ) ,和信徒已滅亡了,沒有任何基督教希望(而不是18 ) 。 The conclusion is that, apart from this event, Christians are the most miserable of all people (vs. 19).結論是,除了政府能從這一事件中,基督徒是最慘的,所有的人(而不是19 ) 。 Paul even states that without the resurrection we should "eat and drink, for tomorrow we die" (vs. 32).保羅連國,如果沒有復活, "要吃飯,喝酒,為明天我們死" (相對於32 ) 。 If Jesus was not raised, believers have no hope of resurrection themselves and may as well turn to hedonistic philosophies of life.如果耶穌沒有提出,信徒也沒有希望復活自己,並可能如因勢利導,以快樂主義哲學的生活方式。 He thereby strongly implies that it is this event that separates Christianity from other philosophies.他因而強烈暗示,這是這一事件分級基督教從其他哲學。

Paul teaches the centrality of the resurrection in other passages as well.保羅教的中心復活,在其他段落一樣。 In another ancient creed (Rom. 1:3-4) he recites a brief Christology and asserts that Jesus was shown to be the son of God, Christ, and Lord by his resurrection (cf. Rom. 14:9).在另一個古老信條(羅馬書1:3-4 ) ,他朗誦簡短christology並斷言,耶穌被證明是上帝的兒子,耶穌,上帝,由他的復活(參見光盤。 14時09分) 。 This event also provides salvation (Rom. 10:9-10) and ensures the resurrection of believers (I Cor. 15:20; II Cor. 4:14; I Thess. 4:14).這項活動還提供了救贖(羅馬書10:9-10 ) ,並確保復活的信徒(林前。 15:20 ;二,肺心病。 4時14分,我帖前4點14分) 。

Similarly, Luke's writings relate several instances where the resurrection provided the basis for the Christian proclamation.同樣地,盧克的著作涉及幾個事例復活提供了依據,為基督教的文告。 Jesus taught that his death and resurrection was a central message of the OT (Luke 24:25-27).耶穌教導說,他的死亡與復活的是一個中心思想的催產素(路加福音24:25-27 ) 。 Peter held that the miracles which Jesus performed, and his resurrection in particular, were the chief indications that God approved of his teachings (Acts 2:22-32).彼得認為,奇蹟耶穌演出,和他的復活,尤其是被行政跡象表明,上帝批准他的教誨(使徒2:22-32 ) 。 Paul's teaching frequently utilized the resurrection as the basis of the gospel message (cf. Acts 13:29-39; 17:30-31).保羅對他的教誨,經常利用復活為基礎的福音訊息(參見行為13:29-39 ; 17:30-31 ) 。

Other NT writings share the same hope.其他新界著作有著相同的希望。 Jesus utilized his resurrection as the sign vindicating the authority of his teachings (Matt. 12:38-40).耶穌利用他的復活為標誌的維護權威,他的教誨。 ( 12:38-40 ) 。 This event both ensures the believer's salvation (I Pet. 1:3) and provides the means by which Jesus serves as the believer's high priest (Heb. 7:23-25).這項活動既保證了信徒的救贖(我的寵物。 1:3 ) ,並提供方法,使耶穌作為信徒的高神父(希伯來書7:23-25 ) 。

Even such a brief survey indicates the centrality of the resurrection for the NT writers.即使是這樣一個簡單的調查顯示,該中心地位的復活為新台幣作家。 Clearly, early believers such as Paul realized that this event provided the central claim of Christianity.顯然,早期的信徒,如保羅意識到這一事件提供了中央要求的基督教。 With it the Christian message of eternal life is secure, resting on the reality of Jesus' victory over death.它與基督教的信息,永恆的生命是安全的,休息的現實為耶穌戰勝死亡。 Without it the Christian message is reduced to that of one of man's philosophies.沒有它基督徒的訊息是降低到一個人的哲學。

The earliest postapostolic writings held this same message of the centrality of Jesus' resurrection.最早postapostolic著作舉行,這同一個信息的中心地位,耶穌的復活。 For example, Clement of Rome asserts that this event both demonstrates the truthfulness of Christ's message (Cor. 42) and is an example of the believer's resurrection (24-26).舉例來說,克萊門特的羅馬斷言,這項活動既體現了真基督的訊息( cor. 42 ) ,就是一個例子信徒的復活( 24-26 ) 。 Ignatius insists on the literal facticity of this occurrence as an event in time (Mag. 11; Trall. 9; Smyr. 1), which is the believer's hope (Trall., Introduction) and an example of our resurrection (Trall. 9).伊格堅持字面真實性的發生,這是一個重大事件的時候( mag. 11人; trall 9 ; smyr 1 ) ,這是信仰之人的希望( trall. ,導言)和一個例證,說明我們的復活( trall. 9 ) 。 He also stresses the belief that it was Jesus' flesh that was raised (Smyr. 3).他還強調,我們認為它是耶穌的肉,這是提高( smyr. 3 ) 。

This latter issue of whether it was Jesus' flesh which was resurrected, as supported by Ignatius and later by Tertullian, or whether it was a resurrected body not composed of flesh, as championed by the Alexandrian school and Origen in particular, was a major question in early Christian theology. 這後一個問題,無論是耶穌的肉被復活,為支持伊格以及後來戴爾都良,抑或這是一個復活遺體未組成的肉體,作為倡導,由亞歷山大學校和淵源,尤其是一個重大問題在早期基督教神學。 It was the former position, or forms of it, which gradually became the more widely accepted view in the medieval church and even afterward. 這是前的職務,或形式,而逐漸成為更廣泛接受的觀點,在中世紀的教堂,甚至以後。

For many scholars today who accept the literal resurrection of Jesus, the emphasis has shifted to stress Paul's concept of the "spiritual body" (I Cor. 15:35-50, eg), endeavoring to do justice to both elements.對於許多學者今天在接受字面復活的耶穌,重點已轉向強調保羅的觀念"的精神體" (林前。 15:35-50 ,如) ,努力做到公正,以兩元素。 Thus, Jesus was raised in a real body which had new, spiritual qualities.因此,耶穌被提出,在一個真正的組織,有了新的,精神素質。

The Resurrection and Contemporary Theology復活與當代神學

There is virtual agreement, even among most critical theologians, that the resurrection of Jesus is the central claim of Christianity.有虛擬的協議,即使在最關鍵的神學家,那復活的耶穌,是中央要求的基督教。 Willi Marxsen asserts that it is still the decisive issue in Christian theology today; to have uncertainty concerning this claim is to jeopardize all of Christianity.手Willi marxsen聲稱,它仍然是決定性的問題,在基督教神學的今天,有不確定性,有關這種說法是危及所有的基督教。 Gunther Bornkamm agrees that without the message of Jesus' resurrection there would be no church, no NT, and no Christian faith even to this day. 。 Gunther博恩卡姆同意,如果沒有信息的耶穌的復活將不會有教堂,沒有新台幣,並沒有基督教信仰,甚至到今天。 Jurgen Moltmann clearly states that Christianity either stands or falls with Jesus' resurrection.主教練莫特曼明確指出,無論是基督教的立場或大跌與耶穌的復活。

Yet a major issue here concerns the question of whether all that is required is the message of the resurrection, or the literal event itself.然而,一個主要的問題,這裡涉及到的問題:是否所有需要的是信息的復活,或直譯為活動本身。 This is not only a dispute between evangelicals and higher critical theologians, but also among these critical scholars themselves.這不僅是一個爭議新教徒和更高的批判神學家,而且其中關鍵的學者本身。 The pivotal fact, recognized as historical by virtually all scholars, is the original experiences of the disciples.關鍵的事實,承認為歷史上幾乎所有的學者,是原來的經驗的弟子。 It is nearly always admitted that the disciples had real experiences and that "something happened."它幾乎始終承認該弟子曾真實經歷,並表示, "發生過什麼事" 。 Yet, while contemporary scholars rarely utilize the naturalistic alternative theories, various views exist concerning the exact nature of these experiences. At the risk of oversimplification and partial repetition, at least four major critical positions can be outlined with regard to this question.然而,儘管當代學者很少運用自然選擇的理論,各方面的意見存在,有關的確切性質,這些經驗, 在風險的簡單化和部分重複的,至少有四大關鍵職位,可概述對於這個問題。

First, more radical critics hold that the nature of the original eyewitnesses' experiences cannot be ascertained. For example, Rudolf Bultmann and his followers claim that the actual cause of the disciples' transformation is obscured in the NT text. 首先,更為激進的批評者認為,大自然的原始目擊者經驗不能確定的。舉例來說,魯道夫布特曼和他的追隨者聲稱,實因門徒的轉型是淹沒在新台幣文本。 Regardless, it is not really important to inquire into the object of these experiences.不管怎樣,它是不是真正重要的,調查對象的這些經驗。 Similarly, Marxsen also believes that the constitution of these encounters cannot be known, including whether the disciples actually saw the risen Jesus.同樣, marxsen也認為,憲法的這些遭遇不能眾所周知的,包括是否弟子實際上是看到了復活的耶穌。 Paul van Buren believes that "something happened" which changed the disciples' outlook from discouragement of faith.保羅範buren認為, "發生過什麼事" ,其中改變了弟子視野,從挫折的信心。 Although these experiences were more than subjective and were expressed in terms of actual appearances of Jesus, we still cannot judge their nature.儘管這些經驗還不止主觀的,並表示,按實際露面的耶穌,我們還不能判斷其性質。

A second group of scholars is distinguished from the first not only by exhibiting some interest in the nature of the disciples' experiences, but often by the acceptance of the literal resurrection itself. Yet while the naturalistic theories are usually rejected, this group still insists that the event can be known only by faith completely apart from any verification. 第二組由學者,是傑出的,從第一,不僅展示了一些利息,在性質上的門徒的經驗,但往往是由接受字面復活本身,但同時自然主義理論通常是拒絕了,這個小組仍然堅持該事件都可以稱為只有信仰完全除任何核查。

The theologians in this second group have usually been influenced by Soren Kierkegaard and more recently by Karl Barth, who held that the resurrection may be accepted by faith as a literal event, but that it cannot be ascertained by any historical investigation.該神學家在這第二個組,通常是受到不容錯過克爾凱郭爾以及最近由卡爾巴特,他們認為復活的可被接受的信仰作為一個字面上的大事,但它不能確定的,任何歷史調查。 Barth emphatically rejected naturalistic theories and asserted that Jesus appeared empirically to his disciples, yet this event occurred in a different sphere of history and thus cannot be verified by history.巴特強調拒絕了自然主義理論,並聲稱耶穌出現實證,以他的弟子,然而,這件事發生在不同的領域中的歷史,因此無法查證歷史的檢驗。 Similar views were held by neo-orthodox theologians such as Emil Brunner and Dietrich Bonhoeffer, and are also popular in more contemporary works.相似的看法,舉行了新的正統派神學家,如埃米爾布蘭和迪特里希朋霍費爾,也很受歡迎,在更多的現代作品。 For example, Bornkamm notes the invalidity of naturalistic theories but yet, in a manner reminiscent of Barth, states that this event can be accepted only by faith apart from historical examination.舉例來說,博恩卡姆筆記無效的自然主義理論,但,在一個地令人想起巴特,說明這一事件是可以接受的,只有真誠地,除了從歷史的檢驗。

The third position is characterized by a significant interest in more historical aspects of the resurrection. Not only are naturalistic theories usually rejected, but the empty tomb is often held to be a historical fact. 第三位的特點是顯著的興趣,更多歷史等方面的復活,不僅是自然主義理論通常拒絕了,但空墓,往往認為是一個歷史事實。 Additionally, these scholars proceed a step further by setting forth a more or less abstract reconstruction of the historical nature of the appearances.此外,這些學者進行更進一步設置了一個較為抽象的重建歷史性質的外表。 However, it is still held that the resurrection itself is an eschatological event and is not demonstrable by historical methodology, although some hold that it will be verifiable in the future.但是,它仍然認為復活本身是一個eschatological事件,並沒有可證實的歷史方法論,雖然有些人認為這將是可核查的,在未來。

Moltmann holds that the disciples were the recipients of appearances of the risen Jesus, which involved spoken messages and commissioned the hearers to service in the world.莫特曼認為弟子被受助人的外表的復活的耶穌,這涉及到口語信息,並委託hearers服務,在世界上。 These events, which are not strictly verifiable, are placed in eschatological history and are subject to future verification.這些活動,都是沒有嚴格核查,是擺在eschatological歷史,並受到未來的核查。 Ulrich Wilckens likewise concludes that history cannot decide exactly what happened.烏爾里希維爾肯斯同樣得出結論認為,歷史是不能決定到底什麼事。 Thus, while naturalistic theories can be refuted and the facticity of the empty tomb upheld, the appearances themselves were private revelations, indications of a future, eschatological existence.因此,雖然自然主義理論,可以反駁和真實性的空墓堅持,外表自己私人的啟示,種種跡象顯示,一個未來, eschatological存在。

Reginald Fuller notes that the disciples' transformations necessitate a cause. ( Reginald充分地注意到門徒的轉變需要一個事業。 This cause is Jesus' appearances, which are historically defined as visionary experiences of light and auditions of meaning communicated to the earliest eyewitnesses.這項事業是耶穌的外表,這是歷史上被界定為具有遠見的經驗和輕音的意思傳達給最早的目擊者。 The messages both proclaimed that Jesus was risen and imparted a mission to his followers.訊息都宣稱耶穌復活,並傳授了一個代表團前往他的追隨者。 Such phenomena were not subjective visions but actual experiences.這種現象不是主觀願景,但實際經驗。 They were the source of the Easter faith and message, but are removed from historical demonstration.它們分別是源復活節信仰和訊息,但被刪除的歷史,示威的自由。 Joachim Jeremias similarly taught that the appearances of Jesus were spiritual visions of shining light by which the disciples experienced Jesus as the risen Lord.約阿希姆jeremias同樣教導說,外表耶穌的人的精神願景的光輝輕,其中弟子經歷了耶穌復活的主。

The fourth approach to the resurrection is that the available historical evidence demonstrates the probability that Jesus was literally raised from the dead. Perhaps the best-known recent theologian accepting this conclusion is Wolfhart Pannenberg, who both argues against naturalistic theories and concludes that the historical facts demonstrate the empty tomb and the literal appearances of Jesus. 第四個辦法,以復活的是,現有的歷史證據表明概率耶穌是從字面上提出從死裡復活,也許最有名的神學家最近接受這個結論是代表人物潘內伯格,他們都辯稱,對自然主義理論,並得出結論,認為歷史事實展示空墓字面露面的耶穌。 Yet Pannenberg argues against a corporeal resurrection body in favor of appearances which are described in terms of a spiritual body which was recognized as Jesus, who appeared from heaven, imparted an audition, and, at least in Paul's case, was accompanied by a phenomenon of light.然而pannenberg辯稱,對一個有體復活機構青睞的外表,其中描述了條款的精神體,其中被確認為耶穌,似乎從天上,傳授音,而且,至少在保羅的情況下,伴隨著的現象輕。

AM Hunter utilizes historical investigation to conclude that Jesus' resurrection can be demonstrated by the facts.上午獵人利用歷史調查得出結論認為,耶穌的復活,可顯示出來的事實。 JAT Robinson points out that historical studies cannot ascertain the exact details, but they may be sufficient to formulate a probable case for the probability of this event.李祖澤羅賓遜指出,歷史研究不能確定了底細,但它們可能足以制訂一個可能的情況下,為概率此次活動。 Raymond Brown, after an extensive study of the textual data, likewise supports the historical verification of Jesus' resurrection.陳卓愉褐色,經過廣泛研究的文字資料,同樣支持歷史驗證耶穌的復活。 Additionally, Hunter, Robinson, and Brown all favor the concept of the spiritual body.此外,獵人,羅賓遜和布朗都贊成觀的精神體。

It is important to note that of these four critical positions only the first is generally characterized by a rejection of or agnostic attitude toward the literal resurrection of Jesus.但必須注意的是,這4個關鍵職位,只有第一項是普遍的特點是排斥或不可知論的態度,從字面上復活的耶穌。 Just as significant is the observation that the first position not only appears to be losing ground, but varying positions which support the facticity of the resurrection are presently quite popular.同樣重要的是觀察說,第一地位,不僅顯露出下降的地上,但在不同的職位,其中支持真實性的復活,是目前頗為流行。

The Resurrection as History復活的歷史

Historical arguments for the resurrection have traditionally been based on two lines of support. First, naturalistic theories have failed to explain away this event, chiefly because each is disproven by the known historical facts.歷史論據復活傳統上一直主要基於兩個系的支持,第一,自然主義的理論無法解釋遠離這一活動,這主要是因為他們每disproven由已知的歷史事實。

Additionally, critics themselves have attacked each theory.此外,批評者曾攻擊每一個理論。 For instance, in the nineteenth century David Strauss disarmed the swoon theory while Theodor Keim and others pointed out the weaknesses in the hallucination theory.例如,在19世紀國寶施特勞斯解除了swoon理論,而Theodor的keim和其他人指出的缺點在幻覺理論。 Form critical studies later revealed the futility of the legend theory popularized by the history of religions school of thought.形式危急研究後,發現是徒勞的傳說大眾化理論是由歷史上的宗教學校的思路。 In the twentieth century such diverse thinkers as Barth, Tillich, Bornkamm, and Pannenberg are examples of higher critical theologians who have rejected these alternative hypotheses.在二十世紀裡這些不同的思想家,為巴特,蒂里希,博恩卡姆, pannenberg的例子更高的批判神學家,他們都不願接受這些替代假說。

Second, historical evidences for the resurrection are often cited, such as the eyewitness testimony for Jesus' appearances, the transformed lives of the disciples, the empty tomb, the inability of the Jewish leaders to disprove these claims, and the conversion of skeptics such as Paul and James, the brother of Jesus. 其次,歷史證明為復活是最常被提到的,如目擊證人的證詞,耶穌的外表,轉化生命的弟子,空墓,無力的猶太領袖,以反駁這些說法,並轉化懷疑論者如保羅和詹姆斯的兄弟耶穌。 When combined with the absence of naturalistic alternative theories these evidences are quite impressive. 當加上沒有自然選擇的理論,這些證據是相當可觀。

However, contemporary apologetics has moved even beyond these important issues to other arguments in favor of the resurrection. One crucial center of attention has been I Cor. 然而,當代護搬到甚至超越了這些重要問題,以其他的論點主張復活,其中一個重要關注的中心,已被林前。 15:3-4, where Paul records material which he had "received" from others and then "delivered" to his listeners. 15:3-4 ,保羅記錄材料,他"已收到" ,從別人,然後點"發表" ,以他的聽眾。 It is agreed by virtually all contemporary theologians that this material contains an ancient creed that is actually much earlier than the book in which it is recorded.大家都同意,由幾乎所有的當代神學家表示,這種材料含有一個古老的信仰,這實際上是遠早於這本書,其中記載。

The early date of this tradition is indicated not only by Paul's rather technical terms for receiving and passing on tradition, but also by the somewhat stylized content, the non-Pauline words, the specific names of Peter and James (cf. Gal. 1:18-19), and the possible Semitic idioms used.早期的日期,這個傳統是表示不只有保羅的,而不是技術術語,為接收和傳承傳統,但也有點程式化內容,非寶蓮,換句話說,特定的名稱,彼得和詹姆斯(參見加爾1 : 18-19 ) ,以及可能的反猶成語使用。

These facts have accounted for the critical agreement as to the early origin of this material.這些事實都佔關鍵協議,以早期起源這種材料。 In fact, Fuller, Hunter, and Pannenberg date Paul's receiving of this creed from three to eight years after the crucifixion itself. These data are quite significant in that they further indicate that both Paul and the other eyewitnesses proclaimed the death and resurrection of Jesus (I Cor. 15:11) immediately after the events themselves. This anchors their report firmly in early eyewitness testimony and not in legendary reports arising later.事實上,在更充分,獵人,並pannenberg日期保羅的接受這個信條,從7點57年後,自己釘死在十字架上,這些數據都是非常重大的意義,因為它們還表明,無論保羅和其他目擊者宣告死亡和復活的耶穌(林前。 15時11分)後,立即進行了事件本身。主播這個報告牢牢掌握在早期的目擊者證詞,並沒有傳說中的報導後,所引起的。

Another extremely strong argument for the resurrection is derived from the known facts that are admitted as historical by virtually all critical scholars who deal with this subject. 另一個極為有力的論據,為復活的是來自已知的事實是,作為歷史上幾乎所有重要的學者,處理這方面的問題。 Events such as Jesus' death by crucifixion, the subsequent despair of the disciples, their experiences which they believed to be appearances of the risen Jesus, their corresponding transformations, and the conversion of Paul due to a similar experience are five facts which are critically established and accepted as historical by most scholars. 賽事,如耶穌的死亡和受難日,隨後絕望的門徒,他們的經驗,他們相信被外表的復活的耶穌其相應的轉變,轉換保羅因類似的經歷5個事實,這是既定的批判及接受為歷史所大多數學者。

Of these facts the nature of the disciples' experiences is the most crucial. As historian Michael Grant asserts, historical investigation demonstrates that the earliest eyewitnesses were convinced that they had seen the risen Jesus. 這些事實的性質門徒經驗,是最關鍵的,正如歷史學家邁克爾金斷言,歷史調查表明,最早的目擊者都確信說,他們看到復活的耶穌。 Carl Braaten explains that skeptical historians agree with this conclusion.卡爾braaten解釋說,持懷疑態度的歷史學家同意這一結論。 One major advantage of these critically accepted historical facts is that they deal directly with the issue of these experiences.其中一個重大的優越性,把這些批判地接受歷史的事實是,他們直接處理的問題,總結這些經驗。 On a more limited scale these facts are capable both of arguing decisively against each of the naturalistic alternative theories and of providing some strong evidences for the literal appearances of the risen Jesus as reported by the eyewitnesses.一個更規模有限,這些事實都是既可在爭論,果斷地對每一種自然主義的替代理論提供了一些強有力的證據字面露面的復活的耶穌據目擊證人。

Not only can the historical resurrection be established on this basis, but the additional advantage of these facts is that they are admitted by virtually all scholars as knowable history. Since such a minimum number of facts is adequate to historically establish the literal resurrection as the best explanation for the data, this event therefore should not be rejected even by those critics who disbelieve the reliability of Scripture. 這不僅可以歷史復活建立在此基礎上,但額外的優勢,這些事實是,他們都承認,幾乎所有學者可知的歷史 ,因為這種最低數目的事實,足以在歷史上建立字面復活為最佳解釋為數據,這一事件,因此不應被拒絕,甚至那些批評的人根本就不可靠的經文。 Their questions on other issues do not disprove this basic conclusion, which can be established by critical and historical procedures.他們的問題,其他問題不反證這一基本結論,可確定的批判與歷史的程序。

Especially when viewed in conjunction with the eyewitness evidence from the early creed, we have a strong twofold apologetic for the historicity of Jesus' resurrection. 尤其是當觀看與目擊者的證據,從早期信仰,我們有一個強大的雙重歉意,為歷史性的耶穌的復活。 This contemporary approach also complements the more traditional apologetic summarized earlier, all of which combine to historically demonstrate the fact that Jesus was raised from the dead. 這個當代辦法還補充了較為傳統的歉意,歸納比較所有這一切結合起來,以展示歷史事實,耶穌被提出從死裡復活。

As Paul asserted in I Cor.正如保羅斷言,在I肺心病。 15:12-20, the resurrection is the center of the Christian faith and theology. 15:12-20 ,復活的是該中心的基督教信仰和神學。 This event signals the approval of Jesus' teachings (Acts 2:22-23) and thus continues to provide a basis for Christian belief today.這一事件標誌著批准耶穌的教誨(使徒2:22-23 ) ,並從而繼續提供一個基礎的基督教信仰。 It guarantees the reality of eternal life for all who trust the gospel (I Cor. 15:1-4, 20).它保證了現實的永恆的生命,為所有的人相信福音(我肺心病。 15:1-4 , 20 ) 。

GR Habermas遺傳資源哈貝馬斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
K. Barth, Church Dogmatics, IV/1, 334-52; D. Bonhoeffer, Christ the Center; G. Bornkamm, Jesus of Nazareth; RE Brown, The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus; E. Brunner, Dogmatics, II, 366-72; R. Bultmann, Theology of the NT; DP Fuller, Easter Faith and History; RH Fuller, The Formation of the Resurrection Narratives; M. Grant, Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels; GR Habermas, The Resurrection of Jesus: An Apologetic; AM Hunter, Bible and Gospel; J. Jeremias, NT Theology; W. Marxsen, The Resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth; J. Moltmann, Revolution and the Future; J. Orr, The Resurrection of Jesus; W. Pannenberg, Jesus, God and Man; JAT Robinson, Can We Trust the NT? k.巴特,教會dogmatics ,四/ 1 334-52 ;四朋霍費爾,基督中心; g.博恩卡姆,拿撒勒的耶穌;重新布朗,處女和身體復活的耶穌;體育布蘭, dogmatics ,二, 366-72 ;傳譯布特曼,神學的新台幣;民主黨更充分,復活節,信仰和歷史的相對濕度更充分,可以形成復活的敘述;米金,耶穌:一個歷史學家的審查福音;遺傳資源哈貝馬斯,復活耶穌:抱歉;亨特時,聖經和福音的J. jeremias ,新台幣神學;總統marxsen ,復活的拿撒勒的耶穌的J.莫特曼,革命與未來的J.奧爾,復活的耶穌;瓦特。 pannenberg ,耶穌,上帝和人;李祖澤羅賓遜,我們是否可以信任新台幣? PM van Buren, The Secular Meaning of the Gospel; U. Wilkens, Resurrection.下午範buren ,世俗意義的福音;美聯儲威爾肯斯,復活。


Resurrection復活

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Resurrection is one of the cardinal facts and doctrines of the gospel.復活就是其中的樞機事實和教義的福音。 If Christ be not risen, our faith is vain (1 Cor. 15:14).如果基督沒有上升,我們的信仰是徒勞( 1肺心病。 15,14 ) 。 The whole of the New Testament revelation rests on this as an historical fact.整本新約聖經的啟示,在於這是一個歷史事實。 On the day of Pentecost Peter argued the necessity of Christ's resurrection from the prediction in Ps.對五旬節彼得辯稱,有必要基督的復活,從預測中的PS 。 16 (Acts 2:24-28). 16 (使徒2:24-28 ) 。 In his own discourses, also, our Lord clearly intimates his resurrection (Matt. 20:19; Mark 9:9; 14:28; Luke 18:33; John 2:19-22).用他自己的話語,同時,我們的主清楚地暗示他的復活。 ( 20時19分;馬克9時09分; 14時28分;盧克18時33分;約翰2:19-22 ) 。 The evangelists give circumstantial accounts of the facts connected with that event, and the apostles, also, in their public teaching largely insist upon it.福音給環境帳戶的事實,涉嫌與這一事件,和使徒,同時,在他們的公開教學,主要是固步自封。

Ten different appearances of our risen Lord are recorded in the New Testament. They may be arranged as follows: 10種不同的面貌,我們復活的主都記錄在新約聖經,他們可能是被安排如下:

  1. To Mary Magdalene at the sepulchre alone.以抹大拉的馬利亞在墳墓。 This is recorded at length only by John (20:11-18), and alluded to by Mark (16:9-11).這是記錄在長度只有約翰( 20:11-18 ) ,並暗示由Mark ( 16:9-11 ) 。
  2. To certain women, "the other Mary," Salome, Joanna, and others, as they returned from the sepulchre.某些婦女, "其他的聖母瑪利亞, "莎樂美,喬安娜,和其他人,因為他們回來墳墓。 Matthew (28:1-10) alone gives an account of this.馬修( 28:1-10 ) ,僅敘述了這一點。 (Comp. Mark 16:1-8, and Luke 24:1-11.) ( comp.馬克16:1-8 ,盧克24:1-11 ) 。
  3. To Simon Peter alone on the day of the resurrection.以西門彼得說,單就一天的復活。 (See Luke 24:34; 1 Cor. 15:5.) (見路加福音24:34 1肺心病。 15時05分) 。
  4. To the two disciples on the way to Emmaus on the day of the resurrection, recorded fully only by Luke (24:13-35. Comp. Mark 16:12, 13).向兩個弟子就未來路向非政府就一天復活,記錄完全只由盧克( 24:13-35 。可比。標記16:12 , 13 ) 。
  5. To the ten disciples (Thomas being absent) and others "with them," at Jerusalem on the evening of the resurrection day.以十大弟子(托馬斯缺席)和其他機構" ,與他們" ,在耶路撒冷對今晚的復活的一天。 One of the evangelists gives an account of this appearance, John (20:19-24).其中一個福音敘述了這一外觀,約翰( 20:19-24 ) 。
  6. To the disciples again (Thomas being present) at Jerusalem (Mark 16:14-18; Luke 24:33-40; John 20:26-28. See also 1 Cor. 15:5).向弟子再次(托馬斯出席) ,在耶路撒冷(馬克16:14-18 ;路加福音24:33-40 ;約翰20:26-28 。又見一肺心病。 15時05分) 。
  7. To the disciples when fishing at the Sea of Galilee.向弟子時,漁船在海上的加利利。 Of this appearance also John (21:1-23) alone gives an account.這個面貌也約翰( 21:1-23 ) ,僅給出了一個帳戶。
  8. To the eleven, and above 500 brethren at once, at an appointed place in Galilee (1 Cor. 15:6; comp. Matt. 28:16-20).向11個,高於500弟兄,一時間,在指定的地點,在加利利( 1肺心病。 15時06分;可比。馬特。 28:16-20 ) 。
  9. To James, but under what circumstances we are not informed (1 Cor. 15:7).詹姆斯,但在什麼情況下,我們不知道有關( 1肺心病。 15時07分) 。
  10. To the apostles immediately before the ascension.向使徒立即前阿森松。 They accompanied him from Jerusalem to Mount Olivet, and there they saw him ascend "till a cloud received him out of their sight" (Mark 16:19; Luke 24:50-52; Acts 1:4-10).他們陪同他從耶路撒冷摩司科特,並在那裡他們看到他登基" ,直至雲接待了他離開自己的視線" ( 16時19馬克;路加福音24:50-52 ;行為1:4-10 ) 。
It is worthy of note that it is distinctly related that on most of these occasions our Lord afforded his disciples the amplest opportunity of testing the fact of his resurrection. He conversed with them face to face. 這是值得注意的是,這是明顯相關,對大多數在這些場合我們的主給予他的弟子了amplest機會的測試,其實他的復活,他交談,與他們進行了面對面的。 They touched him (Matt. 28:9; Luke 24:39; John 20:27), and he ate bread with them (Luke 24:42, 43; John 21:12, 13).他們感動他。 ( 28:9 ;路加福音24:39 ;約翰20時27分) ,而且他吃麵包與他們(路加福音24:42 , 43 ;約翰21時12分, 13 ) 。 (11.) In addition to the above, mention might be made of Christ's manifestation of himself to Paul at Damascus, who speaks of it as an appearance of the risen Saviour (Acts 9:3-9, 17; 1 Cor. 15:8; 9:1). ( 11 )除上述提及的可能了基督的表現自己,以保羅在大馬士革的,他說把它看成是外表復活的救主(行為9:3-9 , 17 , 1肺心病15 : 8 ; 9:1 ) 。 It is implied in the words of Luke (Acts 1:3) that there may have been other appearances of which we have no record.它是隱含的話路加(使徒行1:3 )表示,有可能已被其他露面的,我們並沒有記錄在案。

The resurrection is spoken of as the act (1) of God the Father (Ps. 16:10; Acts 2:24; 3:15; Rom. 8:11; Eph. 1:20; Col. 2:12; Heb. 13:20); (2) of Christ himself (John 2:19; 10:18); and (3) of the Holy Spirit (1 Peter 3:18).復活的,是口語的,因為該法( 1 )神的父親(詩篇16:10 ;行徑2時24分; 3:15 ;光碟。 8時11分;以弗所書1:20 ;上校2時12分;希伯來書。 13:20 ) ; ( 2 )耶穌本身的(約翰2時19分; 10時18分) ,及( 3 )聖靈( 1彼得3時18分) 。 The resurrection is a public testimony of Christ's release from his undertaking as surety, and an evidence of the Father's acceptance of his work of redemption.復活的是一個公共的見證基督的釋放,從他的承諾,作為保證人,並證明了父親的接受他的工作的贖回權。 It is a victory over death and the grave for all his followers.這是一個戰勝死亡和嚴重的,為所有他的追隨者。

The importance of Christ's resurrection will be seen when we consider that if he rose the gospel is true, and if he rose not it is false. His resurrection from the dead makes it manifest that his sacrifice was accepted. 的重要性,基督的復活,將看到的時候,我們認為,如果他起立福音是真的,如果他沒有玫瑰,它是假的,他的復活從死裡復活,使艙單,他的犧牲是接受的。 Our justification was secured by his obedience to the death, and therefore he was raised from the dead (Rom. 4:25).我們的理由是有擔保,由他服從死刑,因此,他所提出的從死裡復活(羅馬書四時二十五分) 。 His resurrection is a proof that he made a full atonement for our sins, that his sacrifice was accepted as a satisfaction to divine justice, and his blood a ransom for sinners.他的復活是一個證明,他作了一個全面贖罪,為我們的罪,他的犧牲,被接納為滿意,以神聖的正義,和他的血液贖金為罪人。

It is also a pledge and an earnest of the resurrection of all believers (Rom. 8:11; 1 Cor. 6:14; 15:47-49; Phil. 3:21; 1 John 3:2).這也是一個承諾,並語重心長的復活所有信徒(羅馬書8時11分, 1肺心病。 6時14分; 15:47-49 ;菲爾。 3時21分;約翰一3:2 ) 。 As he lives, they shall live also.正如他的生命,他們將生活也。 It proved him to be the Son of God, inasmuch as it authenticated all his claims (John 2:19; 10:17).這證明他是上帝的兒子,因為它驗證他的所有債權(約翰2時19分; 10時17分) 。 "If Christ did not rise, the whole scheme of redemption is a failure, and all the predictions and anticipations of its glorious results for time and for eternity, for men and for angels of every rank and order, are proved to be chimeras. 'But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the first-fruits of them that slept.' "如果基督沒有上升,整項計劃贖買的是一個失敗的,所有的預言和期待的光輝業績的時間和永恆,為男人和天使的每一個職級和秩序,都被證明是嵌合體。但現在是耶穌從死裡復活,並成為第一個果,他們說,睡覺。

Therefore the Bible is true from Genesis to Revelation. The kingdom of darkness has been overthrown, Satan has fallen as lightning from heaven, and the triumph of truth over error, of good over evil, of happiness over misery is for ever secured." Hodge. With reference to the report which the Roman soldiers were bribed (Matt. 28:12-14) to circulate concerning Christ's resurrection, "his disciples came by night and stole him away while we slept," Matthew Henry in his "Commentary," under John 20:1-10, fittingly remarks, "The grave-clothes in which Christ had been buried were found in very good order, which serves for an evidence that his body was not 'stolen away while men slept.' 因此,聖經是真正從成因以啟示。王國的黑暗已被推翻,撒旦下降閃電從天而降,凱旋的真理超過誤差,良善戰勝邪惡,幸福過苦難是永遠擔保" 。霍奇隨著提到了這份報告,其中羅馬士兵被收買。 ( 28:12-14 ) ,以散發有關耶穌的復活, "他的弟子來到夜晚偷走他離開我們雖然睡, "馬修亨利在他的"解說"根據約翰20:1-10 ,恰當的言論, "嚴重-衣服在基督已被埋葬被發現在非常良好的社會秩序,它為一個證據,證明他的身體是不是'偷離開,而男子睡在地上。 Robbers of tombs have been known to take away 'the clothes' and leave the body; but none ever took away 'the body' and left the clothes, especially when they were 'fine linen' and new (Mark 15:46).劫匪的墳墓已被稱為商拿走'衣服'和離開身體,但沒有任何時候都拿走了'身體'和離開的衣服,特別是當他們優良的亞麻和新的( 15時46馬克) 。 Any one would rather choose to carry a dead body in its clothes than naked.任何一個寧願攜帶一具屍體,在其衣服比裸體。 Or if they that were supposed to have stolen it would have left the grave-clothes behind, yet it cannot be supposed they would find leisure to 'fold up the linen.'"或如果他們被假定已經成功偷取了,它已離掃墓衣服後面,但它不能假定他們會發現休閒'折起亞麻布' " 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Resurrection復活

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray 來自:主頁聖經研究評論詹姆斯米灰色

Matthew Chapter 28馬修第28章

Perhaps the most important comment we can make on this chapter will be the order of the ten events on the day of which it speaks.也許是最重要的評論,我們可以對這一章,將成為治安的十大事件對日,它發表講話。 (1) The three women, Mary Magdalene; Mary, the mother of James; and Salome, start for the sepulcher, followed by other women bearing spices. ( 1 )三女,抹大拉的馬利亞;瑪利亞的母親詹姆斯和莎樂美,開始為sepulcher ,其次是其他婦女軸承香料等。 (2) These find the stone rolled away and Mary Magdalene, goes to tell the disciples (Luke 23:55-24:9; John 20:1, 2). ( 2 )這些發現石頭滾去抹大拉的馬利亞,去告訴門徒(路加福音23:55-24:9 ;約翰20:1 , 2 ) 。 (3) Mary, the mother of James, draws near the tomb and discovers the angel (Matthew 28:2). ( 3 )瑪利亞的母親塗,臨近墓,並發現天使(馬太28:2 ) 。 (4) She returns to meet the other women bearing the spices. ( 4 ) ,她的回報,以滿足其他婦女承受香料等。 (5) Peter and John arrive, look in and go away. ( 5 )彼得和約翰來,看看在漸漸遠去。 (6) Mary Magdalene returns, sees the two angels and Jesus (John 20:11-18). ( 6 )抹大拉的馬利亞的回報,看到兩個天使和耶穌(約翰20:11-18 ) 。 (7) She goes to tell the disciples. ( 7 ) ,她告訴弟子。 (8) Mary, the mother of James, returns with the other women, all of whom see the two angels (Luke 24:4, 5; Mark 15:15). ( 8 )瑪利亞的母親塗,回報與其他婦女,他們都沒有看到這兩個天使(路加福音24:4 ,五日;大關15:15 ) 。 (9) They receive the angel's message. ( 9 ) ,他們獲得天使的訊息。 (10) While seeking the disciples are met by Jesus (Matthew 28:8-10). ( 10 ) ,同時尋求弟子,是由耶穌(馬太28:8-10 ) 。

Another comment of interest is the order of the appearances of Jesus on this day.另一評論感興趣的是有序的外表耶穌的這一天。 (1) To Mary Magdalene (John 20:14-18); (2) To the women returning from the tomb with the angel's message (Matthew 28:8-10); (3) To Peter (Luke 24:34; 1 Cor. 15:5); (4) To the two on the way to Emmaus (Luke 24:13-31); (5) To the apostles in the absence of Thomas (Luke 24: 36-43; John 20:19-24)). ( 1 )以抹大拉的馬利亞(約翰20:14-18 ) ; ( 2 )向婦女重新從墓與天使的訊息(馬太28:8-10 ) ; ( 3 )彼得(路加福音24:34 1 ;肺心病。 15時05分) ; ( 4 ) ,以兩對的方式,以非政府(路加福音24:13-31 ) ; (五)向門徒,在沒有托馬斯(路加福音24 : 36-43 ;約翰20時19分-24 ) ) 。

In dividing the chapter we have (1) The narative of the resurrection with the appearance of Jesus to the women (vv. 1-10); (2) The false invention of the Jews (v. 11-15); (3) The gathering in Galilee (vv. 16-20).在劃分章,我們有( 1 ) narative的復活與外觀的耶穌向婦女( vv. 1-10 ) , (二)虛假發明的猶太人(五11-15 ) ; ( 3 )與會人士在加利利( vv. 16-20 ) 。 We can only touch upon the most important things, one of which is Christ's reference to His disciples as His "brethren" (v. 10).我們只能觸及最重要的事情,其中之一是基督的參考,以他的弟子為他的"兄弟" (五10 ) 。 For the first time does he use that word in such connection, showing that until His death and resurrection on their behalf the relationship had not become possible.對於第一個時間,他是否使用這個詞,在這方面,顯示直到他的死亡和復活是代表他們的關係並沒有成為可能。 (Compare Ps. 22: 22 and Heb. 2:11, 12.) (比較的PS 22 : 22和以弗所書2點11 , 12 ) 。

Another important thing is verse 13, "Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole Him away while we slept."另一件重要的事是韻文13 , "葉說,他的弟子們來到夜,並偷走了他離開我們雖然睡" 。 We give excerpts from Gaebelein on this verse: "The watch recover from their fright, and some hasten to the city. Surely something happened or why should they leave their post to make a report? Then it is strange they went to the priests first and not the Roman governor. This was an irregular proceeding, from which we conclude that what they had to report was of greater importance for the priests than Pilate. Who knows but these priests had instructed the guard that if He should come forth they were to come to them first of all?我們給節選gaebelein就這首詩: "觀賞收回,由他們很害怕,有的趕緊給市。一定發生過什麼事,或他們為何要離開自己的職位,以作報告,然後奇怪的是,他們來到祭司先不是羅馬總督,這是一個不規則的程序後,從其中我們的結論是什麼,他們只好報告是更重要的,為司鐸比比拉多誰知道,但這些神職人員已指示警衛說,如果他應該挺身而出,他們分別來他們首先對嗎?

Their report was a witness of the resurrection and that the tomb was empty.他們的報告是一個證人的復活,並表示,李鄭屋漢墓已空空如也。 "The Sanhedrin was hastily summoned to receive the report in an offical way. The straightforward statement, as men of military training are apt to report, made doubt about veracity impossible. To impeach them would have been insane. But what would happen if this truth got out among the people? "The resurrection must be denied which could only be by inventing a lie. "公會是匆匆召見得到一份正式的方式。直截了當的聲明,因為男子的軍事訓練,就很容易向你報告,作出了懷疑真實性是不可能的。彈劾權,他們會一直瘋了,但會發生什麼事,如果這個真理失控之間的事嗎"的復活,必須否認這只能由發明一個謊言。 The only possible lie was that His disciples stole the body.唯一可能的謊言,是他的門徒偷走了身體。 The story is incredible.故事是令人難以置信。

It is easier to believe He arose from the dead than to believe what the Jews invented about His resurrection.這是比較容易相信他是由死比相信什麼猶太人發明了他的復活。 The disciples had forgotten about the resurrection promised and they were a scattered, poor, timid lot of people.門徒們忘記了關於復活的承諾,並獲得零星的,窮人,很多膽小的人。 But even if they had been anxious to steal the body, how could they have done it?不過,即使他們已被急欲搶屍體,他們怎麼可能做呢? Here was the company of armed men.這裡是該公司的武裝人員。 Then there was the sealed, heavy stone.又是密封的,沉重的石頭。 "But the ridiculous side of the lie came out with the report the soldiers were to circulate. The disciples came and stole the body, while they were sleeping! It is incredible that all these men had fallen asleep at the same time, and so fast asleep that the commotion of rolling away the stone and the carring away of the dead did not disturb them. " ,但可笑的一面謊稱梳理出報告,戰士們分發。弟子來到偷走身體,而他們正在睡覺!這是不可思議的是,所有這些涉案男子已睡著了,在同一時間,而這麼快睡覺時表示, commotion滾動遠離石頭和攜帶以外的死並沒有打擾他們。

Furthermore, sleeping at a post meant death for the Roman soldier.此外,睡在一個職位意味著死刑的羅馬士兵。 One might have nodded and risked his life, but that all slept is an impossiblity.人們也許會點點頭,並冒著生命危險,但都睡的是一個impossiblity 。 But the report is foolish; they were asleep, and while asleep witnessed how the disciples stole the body of Jesus!但這份報告是愚蠢的,他們正在睡覺,而在睡覺時目睹了弟子偷走了耶穌的身體! It was a miserable lie, and is continued to the present day." We might mention here the testimony of Josephus, who says in his antiquities: "He appeared to them alive on the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning Him."這是一個可悲的所在,是持續到現在的一天, "我們可能會在此一提的證詞,約瑟夫,他說在他的古董: "他似乎是他們活著就在第三天,因為神的先知曾預言這些十名1000其他美好的事物有關他" 。

A third matter of importance is the "Great Commission" as it is called (vv. 19, 20).第三件事最重要是"大委員會" ,因為它是所謂的( vv. 19日, 20日) 。 Note the word "Name" as indicative of the Trinity.注字"姓名"作為指示性的三一。 It is not names but "Name."這不是名字,但"姓名" 。 "Father, Son and Holy Spirit is the final name of the one true God. The conjunction in one name of the three affirms equality and oneness of substance." "父,子和聖靈是最後的名字一的真神。連接詞在一個名字的三個申明平等和統一性的物質" 。 Note the peculiarity of the terms.注特殊性條款。 This is the Kingdom commission, as another expresses it, not the Christian commission.這是英國的委員會,作為另一種表達,而不是基督教委員會。 The latter is in Luke, distinctively the Gentile Gospel, but not here, which is distinctively the Jewish Gospel.後者是在路加,鮮明的gentile福音,但不是在這裡,這是鮮明的猶太福音。 And this is all the more remarkable because in Luke, the disciples are commanded to go to the Jews (24:47), while here they are commanded to go to "all nations."這更是了不起的,因為在路加,弟子是指揮者前往猶太人( 24:47 ) ,而在這裡他們指揮的,到"所有國家" 。

It points to the close of the age when the commission will be carried out by the faithful remnant of the Jews so often spoken about.這點,以結束該年齡時,該委員會將進行由忠實殘存的猶太人,所以常常談及。 It has not yet been carried out.它尚未進行。 The story of the Acts is not its fulfilment.故事中的行為是不履行。 Its accomplishment has been interrupted, but will be taken up before the Lord comes to deliver Israel at the last.其成果已被中斷,但將採取行動主面前來交付以色列在最後。

Questions 1. 問題 1 。 Repeat the order of the events on the day of resurrection.重複該命令的事件對復活的日子。 2. 2 。 Do the same with reference to the appearances of Jesus.做同樣參照該露面的耶穌。 3. 3 。 Divide the chapter into three parts.鴻溝一章分為三部分。 4. 4 。 How would you answer the argument that the disciples stole the body of Jesus?你會如何回答這一論點,即弟子偷走了耶穌的身體? 5. 5 。 What is the significance of the word "Name" in the "Great Commission"?有什麼重要意義的字, "姓名" ,在"大使命" ? 6. 6 。 How do you distinguish the "Commission" in Matthew from that in Luke?你怎麼區分"委員會" ,在馬太說,從在盧克?


General Resurrection一般復活

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life.復活的是再次上升,從死裡復活,恢復生命。 The Fourth Lateran Council teaches that all men, whether elect or reprobate, "will rise again with their own bodies which they now bear about with them" (cap. "Firmiter").第四lateran會教導我們,所有的男人,不論是當選或reprobate " ,將再次上升,與自己的身體,而他們現在承受約與他們" (第" firmiter " ) 。 In the language of the creeds and professions of faith this return to life is called resurrection of the body (resurrectio carnis, resurrectio mortuoram, anastasis ton nekron) for a double reason: first, since the soul cannot die, it cannot be said to return to life; second the heretical contention of Hymeneus and Philitus that the Scriptures denote by resurrection not the return to life of the body, but the rising of the soul from the death of sin to the life of grace, must be excluded.在語文的信條和專業的信念,這回生活,是所謂的復活的身體( resurrectio carnis , resurrectio mortuoram , anastasis噸nekron )雙重原因:第一,由於靈魂不能死,也不能說回為了生活,二是邪教爭議hymeneus和philitus認為經文是指由復活不是回歸生活的身體,但上升的靈魂,從死亡的罪過生命的恩典,都必須被排除在外。 (We shall treat of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ in a separate article; here, we treat only of the General Resurrection of the Body.) "No doctrine of the Christian Faith", says St. Augustine, "is so vehemently and so obstinately opposed as the doctrine of the resurrection of the flesh" (In Ps. lxxxviii, sermo ii, n. 5). (我們會處理的復活的耶穌在一個單獨的文章;這裡,我們只對一般復活的身體) " ,沒有教條的基督教信仰" ,說,聖奧古斯丁, "是如此強烈,所以,硬是反對,因為該學說的復活,肉中刺" (在PS 。 lxxxviii , sermo二, 12月31日5 ) 。 This opposition had begun long before the days of St. Augustine: "And certain philosophers of the Epicureans and of the Stoics", the inspired writer tells us (Acts 17:18, 32), "disputed with him [Paul] ...and when they had heard of the resurrection of the dead, some indeed mocked, but others said: We will hear thee again concerning this matter."這個在野黨已經開始很久之前幾天的聖奧古斯丁說: "和某些哲學家的epicureans和該stoics " ,激發了作家告訴我們(使徒行08:59 , 32 ) , "爭議與他[保羅] … …當他們聽說過死人復活,但其實有些嘲諷的,但其他人說:我們將聽你,又涉及這件事" 。 Among the opponents of the Resurrection we naturally find first those who denied the immortality of the soul; secondly, all those who, like Plato, regarded the body as the prison of the soul and death as an escape from the bondage of matter; thirdly the sects of the Gnostics and Manichæans who looked upon all matter as evil; fourthly, the followers of these latter sects the Priscillianists, the Cathari, and the Albigenses; fifthly, the Rationalists, Materialists, and Pantheists of later times.其中對手的復活,我們當然首先找到那些否認靈魂;其次,所有那些像柏拉圖,把身體作為監獄的靈魂和死亡作為擺脫桎梏的事;第三支派的gnostics和manichæans誰又將所有的事,因為善惡;第四,信徒們的後面這些教派的priscillianists ,卡塔利,和比根斯派;第五,理性,唯物主義者,並pantheists的稍後的時間。 Against all these we shall first establish the dogma of the resurrection, and secondly consider the characteristics of the risen body.對所有這些,我們應首先樹立教條的復活,其次考慮的特點,復活的身體。 A. DOGMA OF THE RESURRECTION The creeds and professions of faith and conciliar definitions do not leave it doubtful that the resurrection of the body is a dogma or an article of faith.答教條的復活教義和專業的信仰和conciliar定義不要離開這令人懷疑復活的身體是一種教條或一篇文章的信仰。 We may appeal, for instance, to the Apostles' Creed, the so-called Nicene and Athanasian Creeds, the Creed of the Eleventh Council of Toledo, the Creed of Leo IX, subscribed by Bishop Peter and still in use at the consecration of bishops the profession of faith subscribed by Michael Palaeologus in the Second Council of Lyons, the Creed of Pius IV, and the Decree of the Fourth Lateran Council (c. "Firmiter") against the Albigenses.我們可能會上訴,例如,為使徒們的信條,即所謂nicene和亞他那修信經教義,信條進行第十一次會議的托萊多,信條利奧九,認購主教彼得和仍在使用中,在consecration主教法律界的信仰認購邁克爾palaeologus在第二局的里昂,信條比約四,及法令的第四lateran會(丙" firmiter " )的反對比根斯派。 This article of faith is based on the belief of the Old Testament, on the teaching of the New Testament, and on Christian tradition.這篇文章的信仰是基於這樣一種信念的舊約,對教學的新約聖經,對基督教的傳統。 (1) Old Testament The words of Martha and the history of the Machabees show the Jewish belief towards the end of the Jewish economy. ( 1 )舊約聖經的話,瑪莎和歷史的machabees查看猶太信仰接近年底的猶太經濟。 "I know", says Martha, "that He shall rise again, in the resurrection at the last day" (John 11:24). "我知道" ,瑪莎說, "他會再次攀升,在復活,在最後一天" (約翰福音11:24 ) 。 And the third of the Machabee martyrs put forth his tongue and stretched out his hands, saying: "These I have from heaven, but for the laws of God I now despise them: because I hope to receive them again from him" (2 Maccabees 12:11; cf. 9:14).和三分之一的馬卡貝烈士提出他的舌頭伸出他的手說: "這些我都從天上,但對於法律的上帝的旨意,我現在看不起他們:因為我希望得到他們再次從他的" ( 2馬加比12時11分;比照9:14 ) 。 The Book of Daniel (xii, 2; cf. 12) inculcates the same belief: "Many of those that sleep in the dust of the earth, shall awake: some unto life everlasting, and others unto reproach, to see it always."這本書的丹尼爾(十二, 2 ;比照12 ) inculcates相同的信念: "許多人認為,睡在塵埃的地球,應當清醒:一些祂生命永恆的,和其他人所不欲,責備,才能看到它始終" 。 The word many must be understood in the light of its meaning in other passages, eg Is., liii, 11-12; Matt., xxvi, 28; Rom., v, I8-19.這個詞許多必須明白,在輕的,其內涵在其他通道,例如是, liii , 11-12 ;亞光, 26月28日;光碟,五, I8的19 。 Though Ezechiel's vision of the resurrection of the dry bones refers directly to the restoration of Israel, such a figure would be hardly Israel, such a figure would be hardly intelligible except by readers familiar with the belief in a literal resurrection (Ezekiel 37).雖然ezechiel的願景復活的幹骨頭,是指直接向恢復以色列,這個數字將很難以色列,這個數字將很難理解,除了讀者熟悉的信念,在字面復活(以西結書37 ) 。 The Prophet Isaias foretells that the Lord of hosts "shall cast down death headlong forever" (xxv, 8), and a little later he adds: "Thy dead men shall live, my slain shall rise again. . . the earth shall disclose her blood, and shall cover her slain no more" (xxvi, 19-21).該先知伊薩亞斯羅預示主主機"應投下來死亡大呼永遠" ( 25 , 8 ) ,和一個小後,他又說: "你死男子將生活,我被殺害,應再次攀升… … 。地球不得透露她血液,並應支付她的遇害不會再有" ( 26 , 19-21 ) 。 Finally, Job, bereft of all human comfort and reduced to the greatest desolation, is strengthened by the thought of the resurrection of his body: "I know that my Redeemer liveth, and in the last day I shall rise out of the earth. And I shall be clothed again with my skin, and in my flesh I shall see God. Whom I myself shall see, and my eyes shall behold, and not another; this hope is laid up in my bosom" (Job 19:25-27).最後,工作,已經束手無策,所有人體舒適度降低到了最荒涼,是加強思想復活他的身體: "我知道我的救贖主liveth ,並在最後一天,我須起立走出地球,並我會豐衣足食,又與我的皮膚,而在我的血肉,我會看見上帝。誰,我會看看,我的眼睛會看,而不是另一種,這希望的是奠定了在我胸" (就業19:25-27 ) 。 The literal translation of the Hebrew text differs somewhat from the foregoing quotation, but the hope of resurrection remains.字面翻譯希伯萊文有所不同,從上述報價,但希望復活的屍體。 (2) New Testament The resurrection of the dead was expressly taught by Christ (John 5:28-29; 6:39-40; 11:25; Luke 14:14) and defended against the unbelief of the Sadducees, whom He charged with ignorance of the power of God and of the Scriptures (Matthew 22:29; Luke 20:37). ( 2 )新約全書從死中復活的明文教導基督(約翰福音5:28-29 ; 6:39-40 ; 11:25 ;盧克14時14分) ,並捍衛了對信者的撒都該人,其中他被控與愚昧的能力,上帝的聖經(馬太22時29分;盧克20時37分) 。 St. Paul places the general resurrection on the same level of certainty with that of Christ's Resurrection: "If Christ be preached, that he rose again from the dead, how do some among you say that there is no resurrection of the dead? But if there be no resurrection of the dead, then Christ is not risen again. And if Christ be not risen again, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain" (1 Corinthians 15:12 sqq.).聖保祿地方一般復活就相同程度的確定性與基督的復活: "如果基督不可遽下判斷,他再次上升,從死裡復活,如何做一些當中,你說有沒有死人復活嗎,但如果有沒有死人復活的話,基督是沒有上升。如果耶穌不復活,那是我們的說教白費,你的信仰,也是徒勞的" (哥林多前書15時12 sqq ) 。 The Apostle preached the resurrection of the dead as one of the fundamental doctrines of Christianity, at Athens, for instance (Acts 17:18, 31, 32), at Jerusalem (xxiii, 6), before Felix (xxiv, 15), before Agrippa (xxvi, 8).使徒鼓吹死人復活的一個基本教義的基督教,在雅典,比如(使徒行08:59 , 31 , 32 ) ,耶路撒冷(二十三號, 6 ) ,然後菲利克斯( 24 , 15 ) ,然後agrippa ( 26 , 8 ) 。 He insists on the same doctrine in his Epistles (Romans 8:11; 1 Corinthians 6:14; 15:12 sqq.; 2 Corinthians 4:14; 5:1 sqq.; Philippians 3:21; 1 Thessalonians 4:12-16; 2 Timothy 2:11; Hebrews 6:2), and in this he agrees with the Apocalypse (xx, 12 sqq.).他堅持就同一學說,在他的書信(羅馬書8時11分;哥林多前書6時14分; 15時12 sqq ;哥林多4時14分; 5:1 sqq ; philippians 3時21分, 1撒羅尼迦4時12分-第16條;提摩太2時11分;希伯來6時02分) ,並在這方面他同意與啟示( 20 , 12 sqq ) 。 (3) Tradition It is not surprising that the Tradition of the early Church agrees with the clear teaching of both the Old and New Testaments. ( 3 )的傳統,這是不足為奇的傳統,早期教會同意明確教學雙方的舊約及新約。 We have already referred to a number of creeds and professions of faith which may be considered as part of the Church's official expression of her faith.我們已經提到了一些信條和專業的信仰,可視為部分教會的官方表達她的信仰。 Here we have only to point out a number of patristic passages, in which the Fathers teach the doctrine of the general resurrection in more or less explicit terms.在這裡,我們只指出了一些教父通道,其中父親教教義的全面復活,在較多或較少的明確條款。 St. Clement of Rome, I Cor., xxv; St. Justin Martyr, "De resurrect.", vii sqq.; Idem, "Dial. c. Tryph.", lxxx; Athenagoras, "De resur. carn.", iii; Tatian, "Adv. Graec.", vi; St. Irenæus, "Contra haer.", I, x; V, vi, 2; Tertullian, "Contra Marcion.", V, ix; Idem, "De praescript.", xiii; Idem, "De resurrect. carn.", I, xii, xv, Ixiii; Minucius Felix, "Octav.", xxxiv; Origen, tom.聖克萊門特的羅馬,我肺心病,二十五聖賈斯汀烈士, "德復活" ,第七章sqq ;同上, "撥號。丙tryph " , lxxx ; athenagoras , "德resur 。 carn 。 "三; tatian , "副graec " ,第六章聖irenæus ,成了" Contra haer 。 " ,我想,第十;五,六, 2 ;戴爾都良,成了" Contra marcion 。 " ,第五章,第九章;同上, "德praescript " ,第十三;同上, "德復活。 carn 。 " ,我想,十二,十五, ixiii ;米紐修斯菲利克斯, "奧克塔夫" ,第三十四;淵源,湯姆。 XVII, in Matt., xxix; Idem, "De princip.", praef., v; Idem, "In Lev.", v, 10; Hippolytus, "Adv. Graec."十七,在馬特,二十九;同上, "德原理" , praef ,五;同上, "列夫" ,第五,第10條; hippolytus , "副graec " 。 in PG, X, 799; St. Cyril of Jerusalem, "Cat.", XVIII, xv; St. Ephraem, "De resurrect. mort."; St. Basil, "Ep. cclxxi", 3; St. Epiphanius, "In ancor.", lxxxiii sq., xcix; St. Ambrose, "De excessu frat. sui Satyri", II, lxvii, cii; Idem, "In Ps. cxviii", serm.在編號, X ,黑799 ,聖西里爾的耶路撒冷, "貓" ,十八,十五,聖ephraem , "德復活。 Mort還"聖羅勒"的EP 。 cclxxi " , 3 ,聖epiphanius , "在ancor " , lxxxiii平方公里, xcix聖劉漢銓, "德excessu frat 。綏satyri " ,第二章lxvii ,聯合會;同上" ,在PS 。 cxviii " ,血清。 x, n.十, 12月31日 18; Ps. 18歲;聚苯乙烯。 Ambr., "De Trinit.", xxiii, in PL XVII, 534; St. Jerome, "Ep. ad Paul" in LIII, 8; Rufinus, "In symbol.", xliv sq.; St. Chrysostom (Ps. Chrysostom), "Fragm. in libr. Job" in PG, LXIV, 619; St. Peter Chrysologus, serm. ambr , "德trinit " ,二十三,在特等十七, 534 ,聖杰羅姆, "的EP 。專案保羅" liii , 8 ; rufinus , "符號" ,四十四平方米;聖金口(雅歌金口) , "片段。溴化鋰。就業"的編號, lxiv , 619 ,聖彼得chrysologus ,血清。 103, 118; "Apost. Constit.", VII, xli; St. Augustine "Enchirid.", 84; Idem, "De civit. Dei", XX, xx; Theodoret, "De provident.", or. 103 , 118 " ; apost 。 constit " ,第七章,四十一;聖奧古斯丁的" enchirid " , 84個;同上, "德civit 。 dei " ,某某,某某; theodoret , "德公積金" ,或者。 ix; "Hist. eccl.", I, iii.九, "歷史。 eccl " ,一,三。 The general resurrection can hardly be proved from reason, though we may show its congruity.一般復活難以證明由,因此,儘管我們可能顯示其一致性。 As the soul has a natural propensity to the body, its perpetual separation from the body would seem unnatural.作為靈魂有一種自然的傾向,以身體,它的永久分離,從身體,似乎有違自然規律。 As the body is the partner of the soul's crimes, and the companion of her virtues, the justice of God seems to demand that the body be the sharer in the soul's punishment and reward.由於身體的是合夥人的靈魂的罪和同伴,她的美德,正義的上帝似乎需求,使身體成為分享者,在靈魂的懲罰和獎勵。 As the soul separated from the body is naturally imperfect, the consummation of its happiness, replete with every good, seems to demand the resurrection of the body.作為靈魂脫離身體,自然是不完美的,圓滿的幸福,充斥著每一個很好的,似乎需求復活的身體。 The first of these reasons appears to be urged by Christ Himself in Matt., xxii, 23; the second reminds one of the words of St. Paul, I Cor., xv, 19, and II Thess., i, 4.上述第一原因似乎是敦促基督本人在馬特,二十二, 23歲;第二想起一個關鍵詞的聖保羅,我肺心病,十五,十九,二帖,我, 4 。 Besides urging the foregoing arguments, the Fathers appeal also to certain analogies found in revelation and in nature itself, eg Jonas in the whale's belly, the three children in the fiery furnace, Daniel in the lions' den, the carrying away of Henoch and Elias, the raising of the dead, the blossoming of Aaron's rod, the preservation of the garments of the Israelites in the desert, the grain of seed dying and springing up again, the egg, the season of the year, the succession of day and night.此外,促請前述論點,父親也同時吸引著某種類比發現,在啟示和大自然本身,例如的Jonas在鯨魚的肚子,把三個孩子都在火熱的爐子,丹尼爾在獅子'書齋,進行距離的過敏性和埃利亞斯,提高了死亡,一朵朵盛開的亞倫的控制棒,保存有關成衣的以色列人在沙漠中,穀物種子的死亡和彈跳起來,蛋,季節,一年中,連續日夜奮戰。 Many pictures of early Christian art express these analogies.許多照片,早期基督教藝術表達這些類比。 But in spite of the foregoing congruities, theologians more generally incline to the opinion that in the state of pure nature there would have been no resurrection of the body.但儘管前述congruities ,神學家更普遍地傾向於認為,在國家的純天然本來就不會有任何復活的身體。 B. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RISEN BODY All shall rise from the dead in their own, in their entire, and in immortal bodies; but the good shall rise to the resurrection of life, the wicked to the resurrection of Judgment.乙特色的復活的身體都須起立從死在自己的,在其全,並在不朽的機構;但好的須起立,以復活的生命,惡人,以復活的判斷。 It would destroy the very idea of resurrection, if the dead were to rise in bodies not their own.它會破壞非常的構想復活,如果死者上升,在機構而不是他們自己。 Again, the resurrection, like the creation, is to be numbered amongst the principal works of God; hence, as at the creation all things are perfect from the hand of God, so at the resurrection all things must be perfectly restored by the same omnipotent hand.再次復活,像創作,是要以數字編號,其中主體工程的上帝,因此,在創造一切事物都是完美,從上帝的手,所以在復活的一切事物,必須完全恢復,由同一個無所不能手。 But there is a difference between the earthly and the risen body; for the risen bodies of both saints and sinners shall be invested with immortality.但兩者是有分別的俗世和復活的身體;復活的屍體都聖人與罪人應投資與永生。 This admirable restoration of nature is the result of the glorious triumph of Christ over death as described in several texts of Sacred Scripture: Is., xxv, 8; Osee, xiii, 14; I Cor., xv, 26; Apoc., ii, 4.這一令人欽佩的恢復性質,是導致光榮凱旋的基督戰勝死亡所描述的幾個文本的神聖經文:是,二十五,八; osee ,十三,十四,我肺心病,十五, 26個;載脂蛋白C ,二4 。 But while the just shall enjoy an endless felicity in the entirety of their restored members, the wicked "shall seek death, and shall not find it, shall desire to die, and death shall fly from them" (Revelation 9:6).不過,雖然只是應享有源源不絕幸福在整其成員恢復,惡人" ,應尋求死刑,並不得找不到它應渴望死亡,而且死亡的,應執飛從他們" (啟示9時06分) 。 These three characteristics, identity, entirety, and immortality, will be common to the risen bodies of the just and the wicked.這三個特點,身份,作整體考慮,而不死,將共同向上升的屍體正義與邪惡的。 But the bodies of the saints shall be distinguished by four transcendent endowments, often called qualities.但該機構的聖徒應加以區分,由4個超然的禀賦,通常被稱為素質。 The first is "impassibility", which shall place them beyond the reach of pain and inconvenience.第一是" impassibility " ,其中應置於超越達成的痛苦和不便。 "It is sown", says the Apostle, "in corruption, it shall rise in incorruption" (1 Corinthians 15:42). "這是播下了" ,信徒說, "在腐敗,它須起立廉政建設" (哥林多前書15:42 ) 。 The Schoolmen call this quality impassibility', not incorruption, so as to mark it as a peculiarity of the glorified body; the bodies of the damned will be incorruptible indeed, but not impassible; they shall be subject to heat and cold, and all manner of pain.該schoolmen呼籲這個品質impassibility ' ,而不是不朽,從而為標誌,它作為一個特殊性的歌頌體;屍體的該死,將廉潔的確,但不是impassible ,他們應受到熱與冷,並以各種方式痛苦的。 The next quality is "brightness", or "glory", by which the bodies of the saints shall shine like the sun.未來質量是"亮度" ,或"榮耀" ,其中該機構的聖徒應照耀如太陽。 "It is sown in dishonour," says the Apostle, "it shall rise in glory" (1 Corinthians 15:43; cf. Matthew 13:43; 17:2; Philippians 3:21). "這是播下拒付, "信徒說, "這須起立榮耀" (哥林多前書15時43分;比照馬太13時43分; 17時02分; philippians 3時21分) 。 All the bodies of the saints shall be equally impassible, but they shall be endowed with different degrees of glory.所有機構的聖徒應同樣impassible ,但他們應賦有不同程度的榮耀。 According to St. Paul: "One is the glory of the sun, another the glory of the moon, another the glory of the stars. For star differeth from star in glory"'(1 Corinthians 15:41-42).據聖保祿說: "一個是光彩的太陽,另一個榮耀的月亮,又榮耀的星星。星differeth從明星的榮耀" (哥林多前書15:41-42 ) 。 The third quality is that of "agility", by which the body shall be freed from its slowness of motion, and endowed with the capability of moving with the utmost facility and quickness wherever the soul pleases.第三個素質是"敏捷" ,由該機構應擺脫其緩慢的議案,並賦有能力的移動以最大的設施和機敏而靈魂為所欲為。 The Apostle says: "It is sown in weakness, it shall rise in power" (1 Corinthians 15:43).使徒保羅說: "我非常播下的弱點,它須起立權力" (哥林多前書15時43分) 。 The fourth quality is "subtility", by which the body becomes subject to the absolute dominion of the soul.第四個素質是" subtility " ,由該機構成為主體,以絕對統治的心靈。 This is inferred from the words of the Apostle: "It is sown a natural body, it shall rise a spiritual body" (1 Corinthians 15:44).這是從推斷的話,使徒保羅說: "它播下的是一個自然體,它應引起一種精神體" (哥林多前書15時44分) 。 The body participates in the soul's more perfect and spiritual life to such an extent that it becomes itself like a spirit.該機構參與了這一靈魂的,更加完善和精神生活到這樣的程度,它變成自己像一個精神。 We see this quality exemplified in the fact that Christ passed through material objects.我們看到這個品質卓越,在事實,即耶穌通過實物。 Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息所作的AJ馬斯。 Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.轉錄由現任j.好事。 Dedicated to Bishop Andre Cimichella of Montreal, and to Blessed Kateri Tekakwitha The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.致力於主教安德烈奇米凱拉的蒙特利爾,並有福了哪些特卡奎莎天主教百科全書,體積十二。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. nihil obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


Resurrection of Jesus Christ復活的耶穌基督

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life.復活的是再次上升,從死裡復活,恢復生命。 In this article, we shall treat only of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ.在這篇文章中,我們將只對復活的耶穌基督。 (The General Resurrection of the Body will be covered in another article.) The fact of Christ's Resurrection, the theories opposed to this fact, its characteristics, and the reasons for its importance must be considered in distinct paragraphs. (一般復活的遺體會被涵蓋在另一篇文章) ,其實是基督的復活,理論反對這個事實,它的特點,以同樣的理由為它的重要性,必須考慮在不同的段落。

I. THE FACT OF CHRIST'S RESURRECTION一,其實基督的復活。

The main sources which directly attest the fact of Christ's Resurrection are the Four Gospels and the Epistles of St. Paul.主要來源地直接證明了一個事實,基督的復活是四福音教會中的聖保羅。 Easter morning is so rich in incident, and so crowded with interested persons, that its complete history presents a rather complicated tableau.復活節早上,是那麼豐富,在事件發生後,太擁擠,與有興趣的人士而言,其完整的歷史,是一個相當複雜的表演。 It is not surprising, therefore, that the partial accounts contained in each of the Four Gospels appear at first sight hard to harmonize.這一點也不奇怪,因此,這部分賬目所載的每4個福音似乎乍看起來難以調和。 But whatever exegetic view as to the visit to the sepulchre by the pious women and the appearance of the angels we may defend, we cannot deny the Evangelists' agreement as to the fact that the risen Christ appeared to one or more persons.但無論exegetic觀,以這次訪問為墳墓,由虔誠的婦女和外觀的天使,我們可以防守,但我們不能否認福音使者'的協議,以事實,那就是復活的基督似乎是一人或多人。 According to St. Matthew, He appeared to the holy women, and again on a mountain in Galilee; according to St. Mark, He was seen by Mary Magdalen, by the two disciples at Emmaus, and the Eleven before his Ascension into heaven; according to St. Luke, He walked with the disciples to Emmaus, appeared to Peter and to the assembled disciples in Jerusalem; according to St. John, Jesus appeared to Mary Magdalen, to the ten Apostles on Easter Sunday, to the Eleven a week later, and to the seven disciples at the Sea of Tiberias.根據聖馬太,他似乎聖地婦女,並再次就在山中加利利;據聖馬克,他被認為是由瑪麗magdalen ,由兩個弟子在非政府和11個前他的阿森松升天;據聖盧克,他走路的門徒們,以非政府,似乎是彼得和以組裝好的弟子在耶路撒冷;據聖約翰,耶穌似乎瑪麗magdalen ,向10使徒於復活節週日,到十一個星期稍後,並以七個弟子在海上的太巴列。 St. Paul (1 Corinthians 15:3-8) enumerates another series of apparitions of Jesus after His Resurrection; he was seen by Cephas, by the Eleven, by more than 500 brethren, many of whom were still alive at the time of the Apostle's writing, by James, by all the Apostles, and lastly by Paul himself.聖保羅(哥林多前書15:3-8 ) ,還列舉了另一系列的幻影耶穌後,他的復活,他被視為cephas ,由11個,由500多名弟兄們,其中許多人還活著,在時間的使徒的寫作,由詹姆斯,由所有的使徒,並最後由保羅本人。

Here is an outline of a possible harmony of the Evangelists' account concerning the principal events of Easter Sunday:這裡是一個綱要的一個可能的和諧福音帳戶有關的主要活動的復活節週日:

The holy women carrying the spices previously prepared start out for the sepulchre before dawn, and reach it after sunrise; they are anxious about the heavy stone, but know nothing of the official guard of the sepulchre (Matthew 28:1-3; Mark 16:1-3; Luke 24:1; John 20:1).教廷婦女進行了香料事先準備好的開始,為墳墓破曉前,並達到它日出後,他們很想知道沉重的石頭,但完全不知道官方警惕的墳墓(馬太28:1-3 ;馬克16 :1 - 3 ;路加福音24:1 ;約翰20:1 ) 。

The angel frightened the guards by his brightness, put them to flight, rolled away the stone, and seated himself not upon (ep autou), but above (epano autou) the stone (Matthew 28:2-4).天使害怕看守他的亮度,把它們飛行,滾走石頭,坐在自己不經評審( EP autou ) ,但以上( epano autou )石(馬太28:2-4 ) 。

Mary Magdalen, Mary the Mother of James, and Salome approach the sepulchre, and see the stone rolled back, whereupon Mary Magdalen immediately returns to inform the Apostles (Mark 16:4; Luke 24:2; John 20:1-2).瑪麗magdalen ,瑪麗的母親詹姆斯和莎樂美的辦法墳墓,並見石頭回滾,在這種情況下瑪麗magdalen立即回報通知使徒( 16時04馬克;路加福音24:2 ;約翰20:1-2 ) 。

The other two holy women enter the sepulchre, find an angel seated in the vestibule, who shows them the empty sepulchre, announces the Resurrection, and commissions them to tell the disciples and Peter that they shall see Jesus in Galilee (Matthew 28:5-7; Mark 16:5-7).其他兩個聖地婦女進入墳墓,找到一個天使坐在前庭,表明他們空洞的墳墓,宣布復活,及佣金他們告訴門徒和彼得說,他們將看到耶穌在加利利(馬太28:5 - 7 ;馬克16:5-7 ) 。

A second group of holy women, consisting of Joanna and her companions, arrive at the sepulchre, where they have probably agreed to meet the first group, enter the empty interior, and are admonished by two angels that Jesus has risen according to His prediction (Luke 24:10).第二組的聖地婦女,其中喬安娜和她的同伴,到達墳墓,如果他們有可能同意,以滿足第一組進入空內政,並告誡兩個天使說,耶穌已上升根據他的預測(路加福音24:10 ) 。

Not long after, Peter and John, who were notified by Mary Magdalen, arrive at the sepulchre and find the linen cloth in such a position as to exclude the supposition that the body was stolen; for they lay simply flat on the ground, showing that the sacred body had vanished out of them without touching them.不久,彼得和約翰,他們被通知瑪麗magdalen ,到達墳墓,並找到亞麻布,在這樣的立場,以排除假設這具屍體被人偷去,因為他們奠定簡單平放於地面,顯示出神聖的身體已經消失了,他們沒有談到。 When John notices this he believes (John 20:3-10).當約翰通知書這個他認為(約翰20:3-10 ) 。

Mary Magdalen returns to the sepulchre, sees first two angels within, and then Jesus Himself (John 20:11-l6; Mark 16:9).瑪麗magdalen返回到墳墓,第一次看到兩個天使內部,而當時,耶穌自己(約翰20時11 - 16 ;馬克16:9 ) 。

The two groups of pious women, who probably met on their return to the city, are favored with the sight of Christ arisen, who commissions them to tell His brethren that they will see him in Galilee (Matthew 28:8-10; Mark 16:8).兩組虔誠的婦女,他們可能會見他們返回城市,是最惠國待遇與視線基督出現了,但誰佣金他們告訴他的兄弟說,他們將看到他在加利利(馬太28:8-10 ;馬克16 : 8 ) 。 The holy women relate their experiences to the Apostles, but find no belief (Mark 16:10-11; Luke 24:9-11).教廷婦女與他們的經驗向使徒,但找不到信念(馬克16:10 ;路加福音24:9-11 ) 。

Jesus appears to the disciples, at Emmaus, and they return to Jerusalem; the Apostles appear to waver between doubt and belief (Mark 16:12-13; Luke 24:13-35).耶穌似乎門徒,在非政府的,他們回到耶路撒冷;使徒們似乎動搖之間的懷疑和信念(馬克16:12-13 ;路加福音24:13-35 ) 。

Christ appears to Peter, and therefore Peter and John firmly believe in the Resurrection (Luke 24:34; John 20:8).基督似乎是彼得,因此彼得和約翰堅信,在復活(路24:34 ;約翰20時08分) 。

After the return of the disciples from Emmaus, Jesus appears to all the Apostles excepting Thomas (Mark 16:14; Luke 24:36-43; John 20:19-25).香港回歸後,門徒從非政府,耶穌似乎所有的使徒除托馬斯( 16時14馬克;路加福音24:36-43 ;約翰20:19-25 ) 。

The harmony of the other apparitions of Christ after His Resurrection presents no special difficulties.和諧的,其他的幻影基督後,他的復活禮物,沒有特殊的困難。

Briefly, therefore, the fact of Christ's Resurrection is attested by more than 500 eyewitnesses, whose experience, simplicity, and uprightness of life rendered them incapable of inventing such a fable, who lived at a time when any attempt to deceive could have been easily discovered, who had nothing in this life to gain, but everything to lose by their testimony, whose moral courage exhibited in their apostolic life can be explained only by their intimate conviction of the objective truth of their message.簡單地說,因此,事實上,基督的復活是核簽由500多名目擊者,他的經驗,簡便性,並有血性的生命,使他們不能發明這樣的一則寓言,住在這個時候,任何企圖欺騙已經可以很容易發現他無關,在這生命的增益,但失去一切由他們的證詞,其道德勇氣,表現在他們的使徒生活是可以解釋的只有他們體內被定罪的客觀真理,他們的訊息。 Again the fact of Christ's Resurrection is attested by the eloquent silence of the Synagogue which had done everything to prevent deception, which could have easily discovered deception, if there had been any, which opposed only sleeping witnesses to the testimony of the Apostles, which did not punish the alleged carelessness of the official guard, and which could not answer the testimony of the Apostles except by threatening them "that they speak no more in this name to any man" (Acts 4:17).再一個事實,基督的復活是核簽雄辯沉默的猶太教堂,其中已竭盡全力,以防止欺騙,可以很容易發現被騙後,如果有任何,而反對的只有睡覺,證人證言的使徒,其中沒有不懲治所稱粗心大意的正式民警衛隊,並不能回答的證詞使徒們除了進行恐嚇, "他們講,沒有更多的在這個名字的任何人" (使徒行4時17分) 。 Finally the thousands and millions, both Jews and Gentiles, who believed the testimony of the Apostles in spite of all the disadvantages following from such a belief, in short the origin of the Church, requires for its explanation the reality of Christ's Resurrection, fot the rise of the Church without the Resurrection would have been a greater miracle than the Resurrection itself.最後數以千計,數百萬人,無論是猶太人和外邦人,他認為證言使徒們儘管有種種不利因素後,從這樣一個信念,在短暫的起源教會,要求其解釋現實,基督的復活,該fot崛起的教會,沒有復活的,將被更多的奇蹟,比復活本身。

II.二。 OPPOSING THEORIES反對理論

By what means can the evidence for Christ's Resurrection by overthrown?由什麼樣的方法可以證明基督的復活,由推翻嗎? Three theories of explanation have been advanced, though the first two have hardly any adherents in our day.三個理論的解釋一直先進,但前兩個都幾乎沒有任何的信徒們,在我們的一天。

(1)The Swoon Theory ( 1 ) swoon理論

There is the theory of those who assert that Christ did not really die upon the cross, that His supposed death was only a temporary swoon, and that His Resurrection was simply a return to consciousness.有論者斷言基督沒有真正死亡後,在十字架上,他的假定死亡只是一項暫時性的swoon ,並認為他的復活只是一種回歸意識。 This was advocated by Paulus ("Exegetisches Handbuch", 1842, II, p. 929) and in a modified form by Hase ("Gesch. Jesu", n. 112), but it does not agree with the data furnished by the Gospels.這是倡導的鮑魯斯( " exegetisches handbuch " , 1842年第一,二,頁929 ) ,並在改良形式,由長谷(下稱" gesch 。 jesu " , 12月31日第112號) ,但不同意與數據出具的福音。 The scourging and the crown of thorns, the carrying of the cross and the crucifixion, the three hours on the cross and the piercing of the Sufferer's side cannot have brought on a mere swoon.該scourging和荊棘王冠,攜帶十字架上受難日, 3個小時就交叉和刺耳的患者的副作用不能帶來的僅僅swoon 。 His real death is attested by the centurion and the soldiers, by the friends of Jesus and by his most bitter enemies.他的真正死因是核簽由百和士兵,由朋友的耶穌和他的最慘痛的敵人。 His stay in a sealed sepulchre for thirty-six hours, in an atmosphere poisoned by the exhalations of a hundred pounds of spices, which would have of itself sufficed to cause death.他留在一個密封的墳墓,為36小時,在一個氣氛毒害所exhalations的一百磅的香料,這將對本身足以導致死亡。 Moreover, if Jesus had merely returned from a swoon, the feelings of Easter morning would have been those of sympathy rather than those of joy and triumph, the Apostles would have been roused to the duties of a sick chamber rather than to apostolic work, the life of the powerful wonderworker would have ended in ignoble solitude and inglorious obscurity, and His vaunted sinlessness would have changed into His silent approval of a lie as the foundation stone of His Church.此外,如果耶穌只是歸還從swoon ,感受復活節早上會被那些同情,而不是那些喜悅和勝利,門徒會被激起來的職責生病商會而非使徒工作,生活中的強大wonderworker會已經結束,在卑鄙的孤獨和不光彩的狂言,和他吹噓的清白,將已轉化為他的沉默批准一項謊報為基石,他的教會。 No wonder that later critics of the Resurrection, like Strauss, have heaped contempt on the old theory of a swoon.怪不得後來批評者的復活,就像施特勞斯的,有堆蔑視對舊理論一swoon 。

(2) The Imposition Theory ( 2 )實行理論

The disciples, it is said, stole the body of Jesus from the grave, and then proclaimed to men that their Lord had risen.門徒們,有人說,偷走了耶穌的身體從墳墓,然後向官兵表示,他們的主上升。 This theory was anticipated by the Jews who "gave a great sum of money to the soldiers, saying: Say you, His disciples came by night, and stole him away when we were asleep" (Matthew 28:12 sq.).這個理論是由預期的猶太人"了很大一筆錢,向士兵,他說:都說你的,他的弟子們來到夜,並偷走了他離開的時候,我們正在睡覺" (馬太28:12平方) 。 The same was urged by Celsus (Orig., "Contra Cels.", II, 56) with some difference of detail.同時敦促celsus ( orig. ,成了" Contra cels 。 " ,第二章, 56條) ,與一些不同的細節。 But to assume that the Apostles with a burden of this kind upon their consciences could have preached a kingdom of truth and righteousness as the one great effort of their lives, and that for the sake of that kingdom they could have suffered even unto death, is to assume one of those moral impossibilities which may pass for a moment in the heat of controversy, but must be dismissed without delay in the hour of good reflection.但假設使徒們同一種負擔,這種後,他們的良知可以鼓吹一個獨立王國的真理和正義的,作為一個偉大的努力,他們的生活,並為英國認為,他們可能已經遭受,甚至以至於死,是假設其中一個人的道德不可能的,這可以通過一個時刻,在激烈的爭論,但要撤職,毫不拖延地在一小時的良好反思的時候了。

(3) The Vision Theory ( 3 )理論視野

This theory as generally understood by its advocates does not allow visions caused by a Divine intervention, but only such as are the product of human agencies.這一理論作為一般的理解,其主張不容許有願景,由一種神聖的介入,但只有等都是該產品的人的機構。 For if a Divine intervention be admitted, we may as well believe, as far as principles are concerned, that God raised Jesus from the dead.因為如果神的干預予以承認,我們還不如相信,就原則而言,就是神所提出的耶穌從死裡復活。 But where in the present instance are the human agencies which might cause these visions?但在目前的是人類的機構,可能造成這些願景? The idea of a resurrection from the grave was familiar to the disciples from their Jewish faith; they had also vague intimations in the prophecies of the Old Testament; finally, Jesus Himself had always associated His Resurrection with the predictions of his death.構思一個復活,從墓穴熟悉的門徒們從他們的猶太信仰,他們也很模糊intimations在預言舊約;最後,耶穌自己一直有聯繫,他的復活與預言他的死因。 On the other hand, the disciples' state of mind was one of great excitement; they treasured the memory of Christ with a fondness which made it almost impossible for them to believe that He was gone.另一方面,關於門徒的精神狀態,是一個極大的熱情,他們十分珍視的記憶基督與偏愛,這使我們幾乎不可能讓他們相信他了。 In short, their whole mental condition was such as needed only the application of a spark to kindle the flame.總之,他們的整個精神狀態是如只需要申請一個火花點燃了火焰。 The spark was applied by Mary Magdalen, and the flame at once spread with the rapidity and force of a conflagration.星火適用於瑪麗magdalen ,且火焰立刻蔓延與速度和力量,是一個戰火。 What she believed that she had seen, others immediately believed that they must see.什麼,她相信,她看到了,其他人立即相信他們一定要見。 Their expectations were fulfilled, and the conviction seized the members of the early Church that the Lord had really risen from the dead.他們的期望得到滿足,而且堅信,繳獲成員早期教會認為,上帝真的是從死裡復活。

Such is the vision theory commonly defended by recent critics of the Resurrection.這就是視覺理論普遍悍最近批評的復活。 But however ingeniously it may be devised, it is quite impossible from an historical point of view.但無論怎樣巧妙,它可以設計,這是相當不可能的,從歷史的角度來看。

It is incompatible with the state of mind of the Apostles; the theory presupposes faith and expectancy on the part of the Apostles, while in point of fact the disciples' faith and expectancy followed their vision of the risen Christ.這是不符合心理狀態的使徒;理論假定信念和預期對部分的使徒,而這一點其實門徒的信仰和預期之後,他們的遠景復活。

It is inconsistent with the nature of Christ's manifestations; they ought to have been connected with heavenly glory, or they should have continued the former intimate relations of Jesus with His disciples, while actually and consistently they presented quite a new phase that could not have been expected.這是不符合自然的基督的表現,他們應該已與天朝榮耀,或他們應該有續前親密關係的耶穌與他的弟子,而實際上和堅持他們提出了不少新的階段,已經不能為預期。

It does not agree with the conditions of the early Christian community; after the first excitement of Easter Sunday, the disciples as a body are noted for their cool deliberation rather than the exalted enthusiasm of a community of visionaries.它不同意這些條件的早期基督教社會後,第一次激動的復活節週日,弟子作為一個機構都指出,他們冷靜商議,而不是崇高的積極性,一個社區的幻想家。

It is incompatible with the length of time during which the apparitions lasted; visions such as the critics suppose have never been known to last long, while some of Christ's manifestations lasted a considerable period.這是不符合長的時間內,這種幻影歷時;願景,如批評者假設從未被稱為長久的,而有的基督的表現持續了相當長的時間。

It is not consistent with the fact that the manifestations were made to numbers at the same instant.這是不符合事實,即表現了號碼,在同一時刻。

It does not agree with the place where most of the manifestations were made: visionary appearances would have been expected in Galilee, while most apparitions of Jesus occurred in Judea.不同意的地方,大部分的表現發了言:富有遠見的外表會被預期在加利利,而大部分的幻影耶穌發生在朱迪亞。

It is inconsistent with the fact that the visions came to a sudden end on the day of Ascension.這是不符合事實,那就是願景,來到一個突然結束了一天的阿森松島。

Keim admits that enthusiasm, nervousness, and mental excitement on the part of the disciples do not supply a rational explanation of the facts as related in the Gospels. keim坦承,熱情,緊張,精神興奮對部分的弟子不提供合理的解釋的事實,因為在相關的福音。 According to him, the visions were directly granted by God and the glorified Christ; they may even include a "corporeal appearance" for those who fear that without this they would lose all.據他講,願景,直接給予上帝和榮耀基督,他們甚至可能包括一個"有體外觀: "對於那些擔心,如果沒有這個,他們將失去一切。 But Keim's theory satisfies neither the Church, since it abandons all the proofs of a bodily Resurrection of Jesus, nor the enemies of the Church, since it admits many of the Church's dogmas; nor again is it consistent with itself, since it grants God's special intervention in proof of the Church's faith, though it starts with the denial of the bodily Resurrection of Jesus, which is one of the principal objects of that faith.但keim的理論既不符合教會,因為它擯棄了所有的證明身體復活的耶穌,也不是敵人的教會,因為它承認許多教會的教條,也沒有再次是一致的,它與本身,因為它贈款上帝的特殊干預的證明教會的信仰,雖然它一開始否認身體復活的耶穌,這是其中一個主要的對象,信仰。

(4) Modernist View ( 4 )現代觀點

The Holy Office describes and condemns in the thirty-sixth and thirty-seventh propositions of the Decree "Lamentabili", the views advocated by a fourth class of opponents of the Resurrection.聖辦公室介紹,並譴責在第三十六屆和第三十七命題的法令" lamentabili " ,意見主張由第四類對手的復活。 The former of these propositions reads: "The Resurrection of our Saviour is not properly a fact of the historical order, but a fact of the purely supernatural order neither proved nor provable, which Christian consciousness has little by little inferred from other facts."前者的這些主張寫著: "復活的是我們的救主,是不正確的事實,歷史的秩序,而是一個事實的,純粹是超自然秩序既不證實,也不具證明,其中基督教意識已經一點一滴地推斷出其他事實" 。 This statement agrees with, and is further explained by the words of Loisy ("Autour d'un petit livre", p. viii, 120-121, 169; "L'Evangile et l'Eglise", pp. 74-78; 120-121; 171).這項聲明同意,並進一步解釋的話盧瓦西( " autour -聯合國幼兒l ivre" ,第8頁, 1 20-121, 1 69" ; l '樂王吉爾堡等l 'e glise" ,頁7 4-78; 120-121 , 171 ) 。 According to Loisy, firstly, the entrance into life immortal of one risen from the dead is not subject to observation; it is a supernatural, hyper-historical fact, not capable of historical proof.據盧瓦西,第一,進入生命不朽的一個從死裡復活,是不受觀察,它是一種超自然,超歷史事實,而不是有能力的歷史證明。 The proofs alleged for the Resurrection of Jesus Christ are inadequate; the empty sepulchre is only an indirect argument, while the apparitions of the risen Christ are open to suspicion on a priori grounds, being sensible impressions of a supernatural reality; and they are doubtful evidence from a critical point of view, on account of the discrepancies in the various Scriptural narratives and the mixed character of the detail connected with the apparitions.證明被指控為復活的基督不夠充分;空墳墓只是一個間接的論據,而幻影的復活是公開的猜疑先驗理由,在明智的印象神靈現實,他們懷疑的證據從批判的角度來看,對戶口的差異,在各種聖經敘述,並混合特徵的細節與幻影。 Secondly, if one prescinds from the faith of the Apostles, the testimony of the New Testament does not furnish a certain argument for the fact of the Resurrection.其次,如果一個prescinds從信仰的使徒,我的證詞,新約聖經並沒有提供一定的論據,其實,復活。 This faith of the Apostles is concerned not so much with the Resurrection of Jesus Christ as with His immortal life; being based on the apparitions, which are unsatisfactory evidence from an historical point of view, its force is appreciated only by faith itself; being a development of the idea of an immortal Messias, it is an evolution of Christian consciousness, though it is at the same time a corrective of the scandal of the Cross.這種信仰的使徒們關注的不是那麼多,與復活的耶穌,因為他的不朽的生命;福祉的基礎上的幻影,這是不能令人滿意的證據,從歷史的角度來看,它的力量是讚賞,只有信仰本身;身為發展的思想,不朽messias ,這是一個演進的基督教意識,但它是在同一時間,一種矯正的醜聞,在十字架上。 The Holy Office rejects this view of the Resurrection when it condemns the thirty-seventh proposition in the Decree "Lamentabili": "The faith in the Resurrection of Christ pointed at the beginning no so much to the fact of the Resurrection, as to the immortal life of Christ with God."聖辦公室駁斥這種觀點的復活的時候,它譴責第三十七命題,在該法令" lamentabili "說: "信仰在復活的基督指出,在開始時並沒有這麼多的事實復活,以不朽生活中的基督與上帝" 。

Besides the authoritative rejection of the foregoing view, we may submit the following three considerations which render it untenable: First, the contention that the Resurrection of Christ cannot be proved historically is not in accord with science.除了權威性拒絕前述來看,我們可以提出下列三項因素,要使其站不住腳的:首先,他們認為復活的基督不能證明歷史上是不符合科學。 Science does not know enough about the limitations and the properties of a body raised from the dead to immortal life to warrant the assertion that such a body cannot be perceived by the senses; again in the case of Christ, the empty sepulchre with all its concrete circumstances cannot be explained except by a miraculous Divine intervention as supernatural in its character as the Resurrection of Jesus.科學並不了解不夠有關數據的局限性和性能的一個機構,提出了從死裡復活,以不朽的生命,值得斷言,這樣一個機構,不能知覺感官;再次在案件基督,是空洞的墳墓與所有混凝土情況下,並不能解釋,除非奇蹟神聖的干預作為神靈,在其性格和復活的耶穌。 Secondly, history does not allow us to regard the belief in the Resurrection as the result of a gradual evolution in Christian consciousness.其次,歷史上已不容許我們把信仰是在復活由於一個漸進演化基督教意識。 The apparitions were not a mere projection of the disciples' Messianic hope and expectation; their Messianic hope and expectations had to be revived by the apparitions.該幻影不是一個單純的投影弟子'救世主的希望和期待,他們的救世主的希望和期望,以恢復由幻影。 Again, the Apostles did not begin with preaching the immortal life of Christ with God, but they preached Christ's Resurrection from the very beginning, they insisted on it as a fundamental fact and they described even some of the details connected with this fact: Acts, ii, 24, 31; iii, 15,26; iv, 10; v, 30; x, 39-40; xiii, 30, 37; xvii, 31-2; Rom., i,4; iv, 25; vi, 4,9; viii, 11, 34; x, 7; xiv, 9; I Cor., xv, 4, 13 sqq.; etc. Thirdly, the denial of the historical certainty of Christ's Resurrection involves several historical blunders: it questions the objective reality of the apparitions without any historical grounds for such a doubt; it denies the fact of the empty sepulchre in spite of solid historical evidence to the contrary; it questions even the fact of Christ's burial in Joseph's sepulchre, though this fact is based on the clear and simply unimpeachable testimony of history.再次,使徒們並沒有展開與鼓吹不朽的生命基督與上帝,但他們所宣揚基督的復活,從一開始,他們堅持它作為一個基本事實是,他們形容,甚至一些細節上與這樣一個事實:行為二, 24 , 31 ;三, 15,26 ;四, 10歲;五, 30 ; X的39-40 ; 13 , 30 , 37 ;十七, 31-2 ;光碟,一,四;四,第25條;第六, 4.9 ;第八, 11 , 34 ; X的7項;十四, 9 ,我肺心病,十五, 4 , 13 sqq 。等等第三,否定歷史的確定性,基督的復活是涉及一些歷史失誤:問題的客觀現實的幻影,沒有任何歷史的理由,這樣一個疑問,它否認的事實,空墳墓儘管深厚的歷史證據,相反,它的問題,即使是事實,基督的埋葬在約瑟夫的墳墓,雖然這是事實的基礎上,明確和簡單無可指責的見證著歷史。

III.三。 CHARACTER OF CHRIST'S RESURRECTION性格基督的復活。

The Resurrection of Christ has much in common with the general resurrection; even the transformation of His body and of His bodily life is of the same kind as that which awaits the blessed in their resurrection.復活的基督有很多共同之處,與一般的復活,甚至改造他的身體和他的身體是人生的同類,因為它正在等待有福了,在他們的復活。 But the following peculiarities must be noted:但接下來的特殊性,必須注意:

Christ's Resurrection is necessarily a glorious one; it implies not merely the reunion of body and soul, but also the glorification of the body.基督的復活,是一個必然的光榮之一,它意味著不只是團聚的身體與靈魂,而且還美化了身體。

Christ's body was to know no corruption, but rose again soon after death, when sufficient time had elapsed to leave no doubt as to the reality of His death.基督身體的是要知道,沒有腐敗,而是再次上升後不久死亡,並有足夠的時間已經過去了留下任何懷疑,因為現實,他的死因。

Christ was the first to rise unto life immortal; those raised before Him died again (Colossians 1:18; 1 Corinthians 15:20).基督是第一個崛起祂生命的不朽;提出的那些問題在他面前的死亡再次他們( 1:18 ;哥林多前書15:20 ) 。

As the Divine power which raised Christ from the grave was His own power, He rose from the dead by His own power (John 2:19; 10:l7-18).作為神聖的權力,提出了基督從墳墓是他自己的權力,他從死裡,由他自己的權力(約翰2時19分, 10 : 17 - 18 ) 。

Since the Resurrection had been promised as the main proof of Christ's Divine mission, it has a greater dogmatic importance than any other fact.自從復活已經承諾,作為主要證據的基督的神聖使命,它有一個更大的教條式的重要性超過任何其他事實。 "If Christ be not risen again, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain" (1 Corinthians 15:14). "如果基督沒有上升,然後是我們的說教白費,你的信仰,也是徒勞的" (哥林多前書15,14 ) 。

IV.四。 IMPORTANCE OF THE RESURRECTION重要性復活

Besides being the fundamental argument for our Christian belief, the Resurrection is important for the following reasons:除了作為基本論據,我們的基督教信仰,復活是很重要的原因如下:

It shows the justice of God who exalted Christ to a life of glory, as Christ had humbled Himself unto death (Phil., ii, 8-9).它顯示了正義的上帝開天闢地基督的一生,光榮的,因為基督謙卑自己,以至於死( phil. ,二, 8-9 ) 。

The Resurrection completed the mystery of our salvation and redemption; by His death Christ freed us from sin, and by His Resurrection He restored to us the most important privileges lost by sin (Romans 4:25).復活完成的奧秘我們的拯救與救贖;對他的逝世基督把我們從罪,由他的復活,他恢復了,讓我們知道最重要的特權喪失單(羅馬四時二十五分) 。

By His Resurrection we acknowledge Christ as the immortal God, the efficient and exemplary cause of our own resurrection (1 Corinthians 15:21; Philippians 3:20-21), and as the model and the support of our new life of grace (Romans 6:4-6; 9-11).由他的復活,我們承認基督為不朽的神,其有效率和模範造成我們自己的復活(哥林多前書15時21分; philippians 3:20-21 ) ,並作為示範和支持下,我們新生活的恩典(羅馬書6:4-6 ; 9-11 ) 。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息所作的AJ馬斯。 Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.轉錄由現任j.好事。 Dedicated to Bishop Andre Cimichella of Montreal, and to Blessed Kateri Tekakwitha The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.致力於主教安德烈奇米凱拉的蒙特利爾,並有福了哪些特卡奎莎天主教百科全書,體積十二。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. nihil obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


Resurrection復活

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

-Biblical Data: -聖經的數據:

Like all ancient peoples, the early Hebrews believed that the dead go down into the underworld and live there a colorless existence (comp. Isa. xiv. 15-19; Ezek. xxxii. 21-30).象所有古老的民族,早在希伯來人認為,死亡下降到下層社會的生活,有一種無色的存在( comp.伊薩第十四15-19 ; ezek 。三十二。 21-30 ) 。 Only an occasional person, and he an especially fortunate one, like Enoch or Elijah, could escape from Sheol, and these were taken to heaven to the abode of Yhwh, where they became angels (comp. Slavonic Enoch, xxii.).只是一個偶然的人,他是一個特別幸運的一個,像伊諾克或以利亞,可以擺脫sheol ,這些被帶到天上的居留權yhwh ,在那裡成了天使( comp.斯拉夫伊諾克,二十二) 。 In the Book of Job first the longing for a resurrection is expressed (xiv. 13-15), and then, if the Masoretic text may be trusted, a passing conviction that such a resurrection will occur (xix. 25, 26).在這本書的工作,首先嚮往一個復活的是表達( xiv. 13-15 ) ,然後,如果馬索拉經文文本可能相互信任,路過的信念,這樣的復活將發生( xix. 25 , 26 ) 。 The older Hebrew conception of life regarded the nation so entirely as a unit that no individual mortality or immortality was considered.老希伯來語觀人生,把民族的,所以完全是作為一個單位,任何個人都死亡或不死進行了審議。 Jeremiah (xxxi. 29) and Ezekiel (xviii.) had contended that the individual was the moral unit, and Job's hopes are based on this idea.耶利米( xxxi. 29 )和以西結( xviii. )曾認為,個人是道德單位,而就業的希望是基於這個想法。

A different view, which made a resurrection unnecessary, was held by the authors of Ps.有不同意見,其中作出了復活不必要的,是由作者的PS 。 xlix. xlix 。 and lxxiii., who believed that at death only the wicked went to Sheol and that the souls of the righteous went directly to God.和lxxiii 。人士認為,在死亡的,只有惡人去sheol並認為心靈的正義則直接到上帝。 This, too, seem based on views analogous to those of Jeremiah and Ezekiel, and probably was not widely held.這也似乎是基於看法類似於的耶利米和以西結,並可能並不廣泛持有。 In the long run the old national point of view asserted itself in the form of Messianic hopes.在長遠而言,舊的國家的角度來看,斷言本身在形式上的救世主式的希望。 These gave rise to a belief in a resurrection in order that more might share in the glory of the Messianic kingdom.這產生了一種信念,在復活為了讓更多的份額可能會在榮耀的彌賽亞王國。 This hope first finds expression in Isa.這個希望首先表現在伊薩。 xxvi.二十六。 19, a passage which Cheyne dates about 334 BC The hope was cherished for faithful Israelites. 19 ,一個通道,其中進益日期約在公元前334希望被珍視為忠實以色列人。 In Dan.在丹。 xii.十二。 1-4 (about 165 BC) a resurrection of "many . . . that sleep in the dust" is looked forward to. 1-4 (約公元前165 )復活的"很多… … 。表示,睡在灰塵" ,是期待。 This resurrection included both righteous and wicked, for some will awake to everlasting life, others to "shame and everlasting contempt."這復活的,既有正義和邪惡的,有些人會醒來,以永恆的生命,他人"的恥辱,永恆的蔑視" 。

-In Extra-Canonical Apocalypses: -在課外的典型啟示:

In the earliest part of the Ethiopic Book of Enoch (i.-xxxvi.) there is a great advance on the conceptions of Daniel, although the book is of earlier date.在最早的一部分,該ethiopic書的伊諾克(一-三十六)是一個偉大的進步,觀念的丹尼爾,儘管這本書的願望早日變成現實。 Ch.甲烷。 xxii.二十二。 contains an elaborate description of Sheol, telling how it is divided into four parts, two of which receive two classes of righteous; the others, two classes of wicked.含有一個複雜的描述sheol ,告訴它如何分為四部分,其中兩個獲得兩班的正義;他人,兩班的惡人。 Of these, three classes are to experience a resurrection.其中, 3個班,體會復活。 One class of the wicked has been judged and has received its punishment.一類惡人已受審,並已收到了懲罰。 In H Maccabees the belief that all Israelites will be resurrected finds expression (comp. vi. 26, vii. 9-36, and xiv. 46).市場主要馬加比相信,所有以色列人將復活表現( comp.六, 26 ,七9-36 ,十四46 ) 。 In the next Enoch apocalypse (Ethiopic Enoch, lxxxiii.-xc.), composed a few years after Daniel, it was thought that only the righteous Israelites would experience a resurrection.在未來伊諾克的啟示( ethiopic伊諾克, lxxxiii. -越野) ,組成數年之後,丹尼爾,當時我們認為只有正義的以色列人將經歷一個復活。 That was to be a bodily resurrection, and the body was to be subsequently transformed.這是一個身體的復活,和身體的,是被後來轉化。 This writer realized that the earth was not a fit place for Yhwh's permanent kingdom, and so the conception of a heavenly Jerusalem appears, of which the earthly Jerusalem city is the prototype.筆者認識到,地球是不是一個合適的地方yhwh的常駐英國,所以觀天堂耶路撒冷看來,其中俗世的耶路撒冷城是原型。 Against these views some of the later psalmists uttered a protest, declaring that a resurrection was impossible (comp. Ps. lxxxviii. 10, cxv. 17).針對這些意見,有的後來psalmists說出了抗議,聲稱一個復活是不可能的( comp.的PS 。 lxxxviii 10條, cxv 17段) 。 In spite of this protest, however, the idea persisted.儘管有此抗議,不過,這個想法仍然存在。 The next Enoch apocalypse (Ethiopic Enoch, xci.-civ.) looked for a resurrection of the righteous, but as spirits only, without a body (comp. ciii. 3, 4).未來伊諾克的啟示( ethiopic伊諾克, xci. - civ ) ,期待一個復活的正義,但是作為神只,沒有一個機構( comp. ciii 。 3 , 4 ) 。 A later Enoch apocalypse (Ethiopic Enoch, xxxvii.-lxx.) expresses the conviction that both the righteous and the wicked will be raised (comp. li 1, 2; lxii. 15, 16), and that the spirits of the righteous will be clothed in a body of glory and light.稍後伊諾克的啟示( ethiopic伊諾克, xxxvii. - lxx )表示堅信,無論是正義與邪惡將提高( comp.李一日,二日; lxii 。 15 , 16 ) ,以及神的正義將被豐衣足食於一體的榮耀和輕。

The author of the Slavonic Book of Enoch (Book of the Secrets of Enoch, xxii. 8-10) believed in a resurrection of spirits, without a body.作者的斯拉夫語書籍的伊諾克(書的秘密伊諾克,二十二8-10 )認為,在一個復活的靈魂,如果沒有一個機構。 He nevertheless believed in a spiritual body, for he describes the righteous as clothed in the glory of God.不過,他認為,在一個精神的身體,為他描述了正義作為豐衣足食,在神的榮耀。 The authors of the Book of Jubilees and the Assumptio Mosis believed in a resurrection of the spirit only, without a body (comp. Jubilees, xxiii. 31 et al., and Assumptio Mosis, x. 9).作者的這本書的jubilees和assumptio mosis認為,在一個復活的精神,只是,沒有一個機構( comp. jubilees ,二十三, 31日等,並assumptio mosis ,十9 ) 。

All these believed that the soul would sleep in Sheol till the judgment, but several Alexandrian writers about the beginning of the common era held, like Ps.所有這些,相信靈魂將睡在sheol直至判決,但幾亞歷山大作家約年初共同舉辦的時代,像聚苯乙烯。 xlix. xlix 。 and lxxiii., that the spirits of the righteous entered on a blessed immortality immediately at death.和lxxiii ,即神的公義進入了一個有福了不朽立即死亡。 This was the view of the author of the Wisdom of Solomon (iii. 1-4; iv. 7, 10, et al.), of Philo, and of IV Maccabees.這是鑑於對作者的智慧所羅門( iii. 1-4 ;四,七,十,等) ,斐洛和四馬加比。 Finally, the scope of the resurrection, which in previous writers had been limited to Israel, was extended in the Apocalypse of Baruch and in II Esdras to include all mankind (comp. Baruch, xlix.-li. 4; II Esd. vii. 32-37).最後,其適用範圍的復活,這在以前的作家,已不限於以色列,獲得續聘的啟示baruch ,並在二埃斯德拉斯到包括所有人類( comp. baruch , xlix.-li. 4 ;二,公共服務電子化。七。 32-37 ) 。

Bibliography: Charles, A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life in Israel, in Judaism, and in Christianity, London, 1899.ECGAB參考書目:查爾斯,一個關鍵的歷史學說未來生活在以色列,猶太教,基督教,倫敦, 1899.ecgab

Resurrection is asserted in all the Apocryphal writings of Pharisaic origin (comp. II Macc. vii. 9-36,xii. 43-44), where arguments against Sadducean Israel are prescented (Book of Jubilees, xxiii. 30; Test. Patr., Judah, 25; Zebulun, 10; Benjamin, 10; Vita Adæ et Evæ, xiii.; Sibyllines, ii. 85; Enoch, li. 1-2; Apoc. Baruch, xxx. 1-5, l.-li.: II Esd. vii. 32; Psalms of Solomon, iii. 16, xiv. 13), and in the Hellenistic writings (see Wisdom iii. 1-9, iv. 7, v. 16, vi. 20; IV Macc. ix. 8; xiii. 16; xv. 2; xvii. 5, 18; xviii. 23).復活是斷言,在所有猜測的著作pharisaic原產地( comp.二排雷七。 9-36 ,十二43-44 ) ,在那裡的論據,反對sadducean以色列是prescented (書jubilees ,二十三,三十日;考驗。 patr 。 ,猶大, 25條;西布倫, 10歲;本傑明, 10歲;履歷表adæ等evæ ,十三; sibyllines ,二, 85名;伊諾克,李1-2 ;載脂蛋白C 。 baruch了XXX , 1-5 , l.-li. :二,公共服務電子化。七,第32條;詩篇的索羅門,三16 ,十四13 ) ,而在古希臘的著作(見智慧三1-9 ,四,七,五, 16 ,六,第20條;四,排雷。九, 8名;十三, 16歲;十五。 2 ;十七。 5 , 18歲;十八, 23 ) 。 Immortality of the soul takes the place of bodily resurrection.不朽的靈魂,以代替身體復活。 Rabbinical arguments in favor of resurrection are given in Sanh.猶太教的論點主張復活給出sanh 。 90b-92b, from promises made to the dead (Ex. iv. 4; Deut. xi. 9 [comp. Mark xii. 18]; Num. xviii. 28; Deut. iv. 4, xxxi. 16, xxxii. 39), and from similar expressions in which the future tense is applied to the future life (Ex. xv. 1; Deut. xxxiii. 6; Josh. viii. 30; Ps. lxxxiv. 5 [AV 4]; Isa. lii. 8); also in Ḥul.第九十B - 92b ,從承諾向遇難者(如四。四日; deut 。十一, 9 [可比。大關十二, 18 〕 ;序號。十八。 28 ; deut 。四,四,三十一, 16 ,三十二39 ) ,並從類似的表述中,未來式應用到今後的生活中(例如:十五。一日; deut 。三十三。六日;喬什八。 30 ;聚苯乙烯。 lxxxiv 5 [影音4 〕 ;伊薩。第五十二。 8 ) ;也在ḥul 。 142a, from promised rewards (Deut. v. 16, xxii. 17), which so frequently are not fulfilled during this life (Ber. 16b; Gen. R. xx. 26). 142a ,由許諾獎勵(申命記五16 , 22 。 17 ) ,因為這樣可以使經常不履行在此生活( ber. 16B條;將軍傳譯二十, 26 ) 。 Arguments are drawn from the grain of wheat (Sanh. 90b; comp. I. Cor. xv. 35-38), from historical parallels-the miracles of revival wrought by Elijah, Elisha, and Ezekiel (Lev. R. xxvii. 4)-and from a necessary conception of divine justice, body and soul not being in a position to be held to account for their doings in life unless, like the blind and the lame man in the parable, they are again brought together as they were before (Sifre, Deut. 106; Sanh. 91a; with reference to Ps. l. 4).論點是取自小麥顆粒( sanh.第九十B ;可比一,肺心病。十五, 35-38 ) ,從歷史的平行線-神蹟的復甦造成利亞,以利沙,以西結( lev.傳譯二十七。四日) ,並從一個必要的概念是神聖的正義,身體與靈魂不是處在一個位置,以追究有關人員責任,為他們的所作所為在生活中,除非像盲人和跛腳男子在寓言,他們再次聚集在一起,因為他們前( sifre , deut 106 ; sanh 。 91a ;參考的PS 。屬4 ) 。

The Sadducees denied the resurrection (Josephus, "Ant." xviii. 1, § 4; idem, "BJ" ii. 8, § 14; Acts xxiii. 8; Sanh. 90b; Ab. RN v.).該撒都該人否認復活(約瑟夫, "螞蟻" 。十八。 1 , § 4 ;同上, " BJ的"二。 8 ,第14名;行為二十三。 8 ; sanh 。第九十B ;抗體。氡五) 。 All the more emphatically did the Pharisees enunciate in the liturgy (Shemoneh 'Esreh, 2d benediction; Ber. v. 2) their belief in resurrection as one of their fundamental convictions (Sanh. x. 1; comp. Abot iv. 22; Soṭah ix. 15).所有人都更加強調,沒有法利闡明在禮儀中( shemoneh ' esreh ,二維功德;誤碼率。訴2 )信仰復活,因為他們的一個根本信仰( sanh.十一;可比。 abot四, 22條; soṭah九, 15 ) 。

Both the Pharisees and the Essenes believed in the resurrection of the body, Josephus' philosophical construction of their belief to suit the taste of his Roman readers notwithstanding (see "BJ" ii. 8, § 11; "Ant." xviii. 1, § 5; compare these with the genuine source of Josephus, in Hippolytus' "Refutatio Hæresium," ed. Duncker Schneidewin, ix. 27, 29, where the original ἀνάστασις [= "resurrection"] casts a strange light upon Josephus' mode of handling texts).無論是法利和essenes認為,在復活的身體,約瑟夫哲學建設自己的信仰,以適應品味他的羅馬讀者儘管有(見" BJ的"二。 8 ,第11 , "螞蟻" 。十八。一日§ 5 ;比較這些與真正的來源約瑟夫,在hippolytus " refutatio hæresium , "海關。 duncker施奈德溫,九,第27 ,第29 ,如果原來的ἀνάστασις [ = "復活" ] ,令人奇怪的光後,約瑟夫'模式處理文本) 。 According to the Rabbis, Job and Esau denied resurrection (BB 16a, b).據拉比,就業和以掃否認復活( BB心跳16A條,乙) 。 Whosoever denies resurrection will have no share in it (Sanh. 90b).凡否認復活的,不會有任何的份額,它( sanh.第九十B ) 。 The resurrection will be achieved by God, who alone holds the key to it (Ta'an. 2a; Sanh. 113a).復活將實現由上帝,單獨持有關鍵要加強( ta'an 。甲; sanh 。 113a ) 。 At the same time the elect ones, among these first of all the Messiah and Elijah, but also the righteous in general, shall aid in raising the dead (Pirḳe R. El. xxxii.; Soṭah ix. 15; Shir ha-Shirim Zuṭa, vii.; Pes. 68a; comp. "Bundahis," xxx. 17).在同一時間內選出,其中第一,大家彌賽亞和以利亞,而且還理直氣壯,一般應在援助提高死亡( pirḳe傳譯下午。三十二。 ; soṭah九, 15票; shir夏shirim zuṭa ,七;狗。 68 A條;可比" 。 bundahis ,的" XXX 17段) 。

Universal or National.全民或國家。

By means of the "dew of resurrection" (see Dew) the dead will be aroused from their sleep (Yer. Ber. v. 9b; Ta'an. i. 63d, with reference to Isa. xxvi. 19; Ḥag. 12b. with reference to Ps. lxviii. 10 [AV 9]).透過"雨露復活" (見露水) ,死者將會引起從睡夢中驚醒( yer.誤碼率。訴9B條; ta'an一63d ,參照伊薩。 26 。 19 ; ḥag 。 12 B條。參考的PS 。 lxviii 10條[影音9 ] ) 。 As to the question, Who will be raised from death?由於上述問題,他們將提出免於死亡? the answers given vary greatly in rabbinical literature.答案差別很大,在猶太教文獻。 According to R. Simai (Sifre, Deut. 306) and R. Ḥiyya bar Abba (Gen. R. xiii. 4; comp. Lev. R. xiii. 3), resurrection awaits only the Israelites; according to R. Abbahu, only the just (Ta'an. 7a); some mention especially the martyrs (Yalḳ. ii. 431, after Tanḥuma).據傳譯simai ( sifre , deut 306 )和R. ḥiyya酒吧雅伯金曲(創傳譯十三,四日;可比。列弗。傳譯十三3 ) ,等待著復活的,只有以色列人;據傳譯abbahu ,只有公正( ta'an 。七號A ) ,有的提尤其是烈士( yalḳ.二431後, tanḥuma ) 。 R. Abbahu and R. Eleazar confine resurrection to those that die in the Holy Land; others extend it to such as die outside of Palestine (Ket. 111a).傳譯abbahu和R.埃萊亞薩局限於復活那些死在聖地;他人它擴大到諸如模具以外的巴勒斯坦( ket. 111a ) 。 According to R. Jonathan (Pirḳe R. El. xxxiv.), the resurrection will be universal, but after judgment the wicked will die a second death and forever, whereas the just will be granted life everlasting (comp. Yalḳ. ii. 428, 499).據傳譯喬納森( pirḳe傳譯下午。三十四) ,復活,將普遍性,但在判決後惡人將死於第二次死亡和永遠,而只是將給予生命永恆( comp. yalḳ二。 428 , 499 ) 。 The same difference of view prevails also among the New Testament writers; at times only "the resurrection of the just" is spoken of (Luke xiv. 14, xx. 35); at other times "the resurrection of the dead" in general is mentioned (John v. 29; Acts xxiv. 15; Rev. xx. 45).同樣的差異來看,也普遍存在間新約聖經的作家;時候,唯一的"復活的正義" ,是口語的(路加福音14章14條,二十, 35 ) ;其他時候, "死人復活"一般是提到(約翰訴29人;行為24 。 15 ;牧師二十, 45 ) 。

Part of the Messianic Hope.部分救世主的希望。

As a matter of fact, resurrection formed part of the Messianic hope (Isa. xxiv. 19; Dan. xii. 2; Enoch, xxv. 5, li. 1, xc. 33; Jubilees, xxiii. 30).作為一個問題,事實上,復活的組成部分救世主的希望(以賽亞書24 。 19 ;丹。十二。 2 ;伊諾克,二十五。 5 ,李: 1 , XC的33段; jubilees ,二十三, 30 ) 。 Especially were those that died as martyrs in the cause of the Law expected to share in the future glory of Israel (II Macc. vii. 6, 9, 23; Yalḳ. to Isa. xxvi. 19; Midr. Teh. xvii. 14; Sibyllines, ii. 85).尤其是那些死於烈士造成這一法律,預期未來共同的願景,榮耀以色列(二排雷七。 6 , 9 , 23歲; yalḳ 。伊薩。 26 。 19 ; midr 。十七, 14 ; sibyllines ,二85段) 。 The very term used to express the idea of sharing in the future life is "to inherit the land" (Ḳid. i. 10; Matt. v. 5, after Ps. xxxvii. 11; Sanh. xi. 1, with reference to Isa. lx. 21).非常用的字眼來表達思想,交流,在今後的生活中是"繼承土地" ( ḳid.一, 10歲;馬特訴五日後的PS 。三十七。 11 ; sanh 。十一。 1 ,參考伊薩。中心LX 21段) 。 The resurrection, therefore, was believed to take place solely in the Holy Land (Pesiḳ. R. i., after Ps. cxvi. 9 ["the land of the living," that is, "the land where the dead live again"]; or Gen. R. lxxiv.: Yer. Ket. xii. 35b, with reference to Isa. xlii. 5 ["He giveth breath to the people upon it," that is, upon the Holy Land only]).復活的,因此,被認為是僅發生在聖地( pesiḳ.傳譯一後,再將各cxvi 9 [ "活人之地" ,也就是"土地的地方,死者住再次" ] ;或上將傳譯lxxiv :也門里亞爾。 KET的。十二, 35 B ,參照伊薩。四十二5 [ " ,他給予呼氣向人民賦予它" ,也就是當聖地只] ) 。 Jerusalem alone is the city of which the dead shall blossom forth like grass (Ket. 111b, after Ps. lxxii. 16).耶路撒冷僅是城市,其中,死者應開花了像草( ket. 111b後,聚苯乙烯。 lxxii 16段) 。 Those that are buried elsewhere will therefore be compelled to creep through cavities in the earth until they reach the Holy Land (Pesiḳ. R. lc, with reference to Ezek. xxxvii. 13; Ket. 111a).那些被埋葬在其他地方會因此被強迫蠕變透過洞穴中的地球,直到他們到達聖地( pesiḳ.傳譯信用證支付的方式,是參考ezek 。三十七。 13 ; KET的。 111a ) 。

Day of Judgment Precedes Messianic Era.當天的判決先行救世主的時代。

The trumpet blown to gather the tribes of Israel (Isa. xxvii. 13) will also rouse the dead (Ber. 15b; Targ. Yer. to Ex. xx. 15; II Esd. iv. 23; comp. I Cor. xv. 52; I Thess. iv. 16; see Enoch, x. 12 et seq., xxv. 4 et seq., xlv. 2, xc. 25, xci. 11, xcviii. 12; Test. Patr., Simeon, 61; Judah, 25; Zebulun, 10; Benjamin, 10).號角吹到聚集部落的以色列(以賽亞書二十七, 13日)也將振奮死亡( ber. 15B條; targ 。也門里亞爾。單方面的XX 。 15 ;二,公共服務電子化。四, 23歲;可比我肺心病。第十五52 ,我帖前四16 ;見伊諾克,十,十二等條,第二十五4段及以下各段,四十五。 2 ,越野25 , xci 11 xcviii 12條;考驗。 patr ,西麥第61條;猶大, 25條;西布倫, 10歲;本傑明, 10 ) 。 The nations, together with their guardian angels and stars, shall be cast into Gehenna (Enoch, xc. 24-25).國家,連同其監護人天使和星星,應投入地獄(伊諾克,越野24-25 ) 。 According to R. Eleazar of Modi'im, to the angelic princes of the seventy-two nations who will protest because, though it has sinned like the rest, God favors Israel, God will answer, "Let each nation go through the fire together with its guardian deity "; then all the nations will be consumed in common with their deities, who can not shield them, but Israel will be saved by its God (Cant. R. ii. 1; comp. Tan., Shofeṭim, ed. Buber, end, after Isa. lxvi. 14, Ps. xxiii. 4, and Micah iv. 5).據傳譯埃萊亞薩的莫迪姆,以天使般的王子的72國的人會抗議,因為儘管它已經犯罪了休息一下,上帝有利於以色列,上帝會回答, "讓每一個國家經過消防在一起它的守護神" ,然後所有國家將消耗在共同與他們的神靈,他們不能保護他們,但以色列將被保存在其神( cant.傳譯二,一;可比。火炭, shofeṭim ,教育署。布伯,結束後,伊薩。 lxvi 14 ,聚苯乙烯。二十三,四,及彌迦四,五) 。 Another view is that the glare of the sun will test the heathen's loyalty to the Law they promised to observe, and they will be cast into the eternal fire ('Ab. Zarah).The conception of God entering Hades to save Israel from Gehenna gave rise to the Christian conception of the Messiah descending into Hades to reclaim his own among those who are imprisoned there (Test. Patr., Benjamin; Sibyllines, i. 377, viii. 310; Yalḳ. ii. 359; Jellinek, "BH" ii. 50 [comp. I Peter iii. 19]; Ascensio Isaiæ, iv. 21, with reference to Isa. ix. 16, lii.-liii.; see Epstein, "Bereshit Rabbati," 1888, p. 31).另一種看法是,眩光的太陽將考驗異教徒的忠誠,對法律負責,他們承諾遵守的,它們將被投在永恆消防( '抗體。 zarah ) 。觀神進入地獄,以拯救以色列從地獄了引起基督教觀彌賽亞降入地獄領回他自己的那些被監禁的有( test. patr 。本傑明; sibyllines ,一377 ,八310個; yalḳ二359 ; jellinek , "波黑"二, 50 [可比我彼得三世19 〕 ;阿森西奧isaiæ ,四, 21 ,參照伊薩第九。 16 , lii. - liii ;見愛潑斯坦, " bereshit rabbati " , 1888年,第31頁) 。 The sole end of the judgment of the heathen is, according to R. Eleazar of Modi'im (Mek., Beshallaḥ, 'Amaleḳ), the establishment of the kingdom of God.唯一月底判決的異教徒是,按照傳譯埃萊亞薩的莫迪姆( mek. , beshallaḥ , ' amaleḳ ) ,建立神的國度。 "When the Messiah appears on the roof of the Temple announcing Israel's redemption, the light emanating from him shall cause the nations to fall prostrate before him; and Satan himself will shudder, for the Messiah will cast him into Gehenna, and death and sorrow shall flee forever" (Pesiḳ. R. 36; Sibyllines, ii. 167, iii. 46-72). "當彌賽亞出現在屋頂上的廟宇,宣布以色列的贖回,輕源於他不得使該國秋季頂禮膜拜在他面前;撒旦自己會不寒而栗,為彌賽亞會投他到地獄,死亡和悲傷會逃離永遠" ( pesiḳ.傳譯36 ; sibyllines ,二167 ,三46-72 ) 。

Resurrection Universal.復活的普遍性。

As in the course of time the national hope with its national resurrection and final day of judgment no longer satisfied the intellect and human sentiment, the resurrection assumed a more universal and cosmic character.由於在這個過程中,當時的國家希望同本國的復活和最後審判的日子不再滿足於智力和人的情緒,復活擺出更具有普遍性和宇宙的性質。 It was declared to be solely the act of God, who alone possesses the key that will unlock the tombs (Ber. 15b).它被宣布為完全是上帝的旨意,他獨自擁有的關鍵,將解鎖陵( ber. 15B條) 。 "As all men are born and die, so will they rise again," says Eleazar ha-Ḳappar (Abot iv. 22). "所有男人的誕生和死亡,所以他們會再次攀升,說: "埃萊亞薩夏ḳappar ( abot四22 ) 。 It was believed that resurrection would occur at the close of the Messianic era (Enoch, xcviii. 10, ciii. 8, civ. 5).據認為,復活將出現在結算救世主的時代(伊諾克, xcviii 10 ciii 。 8 , civ 5段) 。 This is particularly emphasized in II Esd.這是特別強調,在二,公共服務電子化。 vii.七。 26-36: "Death will befall the Messiah, after his 400 years' reign, and all mankind and the world will lapse into primeval silence for seven days, after which the renewed earth will give forth its dead, and God will judge the world and assign the evil-doers to the fire of hell and the righteous to paradise, which is on the opposite side." 26-36 : "死亡將會降臨到彌賽亞後,其400多年的'統治,以及所有人類,世界將陷入原始沉默七天後,再度地球會提出其死了,上帝會評判世界並指派惡人向消防地獄和正義的天堂,這是對對方的" 。 Also, according to Syriac Apoc.另據敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 Baruch (xxx. 1-5; l.-lii.; cxxxv. 15), the resurrection will take place after the Messiah has "returned to heaven" and will include all men, the righteous to meet their reward, and the wicked to meet their eternal doom. baruch ( xxx. 1-5 ;研究-第五十二; cxxxv 15 ) ,復活將發生後,彌賽亞已"回到天堂" ,將包括所有的男人,正義,以滿足他們的獎勵,並惡人,以滿足他們永恆的毀滅。 This lasting doom is called "second death" (Targ. Deut. xxxiii. 6; Targ. Isa. xiv. 19; xxii. 14; lxv. 6, 15, 19; Jer. li. 39; Rev. xx. 6, 14).這種持久的厄運,是所謂的"第二次死" ( targ. deut 。三十三。六日; targ伊薩。十四。 19 ; 22 14 ; lxv 6 ,第15 ,第19條;哲,李國寶。 39 ;牧師二十六日14 ) 。

Not the Heathen, but the Wicked Perish.不是異教徒,但惡人亡。

Nor is the wrath of the last judgment believed any longer to be brought upon the heathen solely as such.也不是憤怒的最後判決認為,任何再被帶後,異教徒僅僅如此。 All evil-doers who have blasphemed God and His Law, or acted unrighteously, will meet with their punishment (Tos. Sanh. xiii.; Midr. Teh. vi. 1, ix. 15).所有惡人的人褻瀆了上帝和他的律師,或者擔任unrighteously ,將會見他們的處罰( tos. sanh 。十三; midr 。六。一日,九15 ) 。 It became a matter of dispute between the older school, represented by the Shammaite R. Eliezer, and the Hillelites, represented by R. Joshua, whether or not the righteous among the heathen have a share in the future world, the former interpreting the verse, "The wicked shall return to Sheol, even all the Gentiles that forget God" (Ps. ix. 18 [RV 17]), as condemning as wicked among the Jews and the Gentiles such as have forgotten God; the latter interpreting the verse as consigning to Sheol only such Gentiles as have actually forgotten God (Tos. Sanh. xiii. 2).它成了一個有爭議的之間的老年人學校,由shammaite傳譯埃利澤和hillelites為代表的傳譯約書亞,還是不正義之間的異教徒有一個份額,在未來的世界中,前者詮釋韻文"惡人應回到sheol ,乃至所有的外邦人說,忘記上帝" (詩篇九, 18 [右心室17 ] ) ,譴責邪惡之間的猶太人和外邦人如都忘記了上帝;後者詮釋韻文作為委託給sheol只有這樣的外邦人,因為實際上忘記神( tos. sanh第十三第二款) 。 The doctrine "All Israelites have a share in the world to come" (Sanh. xi. 1), based upon Isa.該學說" ,所有以色列人都分享未來世界" ( sanh.十一1 ) ,基於ISA的。 lx.中心LX 。 21 (Hebr.), "Thy people all of them righteous shall inherit the land," is therefore identical with the Pharisaic teaching as stated by Josephus ("Ant." xviii. 1, § 3; "BJ" ii. 8, § 14), that the righteous will rise to share in the eternal bliss. 21 ( hebr. ) , "你的人,他們都是正義的,應繼承土地" ,是完全相同的,因此與pharisaic教學正如由約瑟夫(下稱"螞蟻" 。十八。 1 ,第3 , " BJ的"二。 8 , § 14 ) ,正義將上升至每股永恆的極樂世界。 It is as deniers of the fundamentals of religion that heathen, Samaritans, and heretics are excluded from future salvation (Tos. Sanh. xiii.; Pirḳe R. El. xxxviii.; Midr. Teh. xi. 5).這是因為否認者的基本條件的宗教,異教徒,撒瑪利亞,和異教徒被排除在未來的救贖( tos. sanh 。十三; pirḳe傳譯下午。三十八; midr 。第十一5 ) 。 Regarding the plurality of opinions in favor of the salvation of righteous non-Jews, and the opinions of those who adhere to the national view, see Zunz, "ZG" pp.對於多元化的意見,有利於拯救正義的非猶太人,並提意見的人堅持以國家的看法,見聰茨, "志廣"頁。 371-389. 371-389 。 Related to the older, exclusive view also is the idea that the Abrahamic covenant releases the Israelites from the fire of Gehenna (Gen. R. xlviii.; Midr. Teh. vii. 1; 'Er. 19a).涉及到老年人,獨家觀點,也就是這一想法,即亞伯拉罕盟約發布以色列人從火地獄(創傳譯四十八; midr 。七。 1 '呃。 19A條) 。 At first, it seems, resurrection was regarded as a miraculous boon granted only to the righteous (see Test. Patr., Simeon, 6; Levi, 18; Judah, 25; Zebulun, 10; Vita Adæ et Evæ, 13; comp. Luke xiv. 14, xx. 36).在第一,它似乎是復活被視為一種神奇的福只給予正義(見測試。 patr ,西麥6 ;利維, 18歲;猶大, 25條;西布倫, 10歲;履歷表adæ等evæ , 13歲;可比。路加福音14章14條,第XX 36段) 。 Afterward it came to be regarded as an act of God connected with the last judgment, and therefore universal resurrection of the dead became a doctrine, as expressed in the second benediction of the Shemoneh 'Esreh (; Sifre, Deut. 329; Sanh. 92b).隨後它被視為上帝的旨意與最後的審判,因此,普遍死人復活成為一個學說,為表示,在第二功德的shemoneh ' esreh ( ; sifre , deut 329 ; sanh 。 92b ) 。 In Syriac Apoc.在敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 Baruch, xlix.-li. baruch , xlix.-li. a description is given of the manner in which the righteous at the resurrection are transformed into angels shining like the stars, who behold the beauty of the heavenly "ḥayyot" beneath God's throne, whereas the wicked assume the horrible aspect of the pit of torture below.說明是由於該以何種方式在正義在復活轉化為天使一樣閃爍的星星,看這美麗的天堂" ḥayyot "在上帝的寶座,而惡人承擔可怕方面的深潭酷刑下面。 Whether or not the body at the resurrection undergoes the same process of growth as in the womb at the time of birth is a matter of dispute between the Hillelites and the Shammaites (Gen. R. xiv.; Lev. R. xiv.).不論該機構在復活的經歷相同的成長過程,因為在子宮裡在該子女出生時,是一個有爭議的關係hillelites和shammaites (創傳譯十四;列弗。傳譯十四) 。 In regard to the state of the soul separated from the body by death, whether it is supposed to dwell in heaven, or in some sort of dove-cot or a columbarium (= "guf") in Hades (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxx. 2; II Esd. iv. 35, 41; vii. 32, 80, 101), see Immortality of the Soul.對於國家的靈魂脫離身體死亡時,無論是要住在天上,或在某種鴿派-搖床或靈灰閣( = " guf " ) ,在地獄(敘利亞文載脂蛋白C 。 baruch了XXX 2 ;二,公共服務電子化。四, 35 , 41 ;七, 32 , 80 , 101 ) ,見不朽的靈魂。

Jewish Creed or Not?猶太信仰或不?

The belief in resurrection is expressed on all occasions in the Jewish liturgy; eg, in the morning prayer Elohai Neshamah, in the Shemoneh 'Esreh, and in the funeral services.相信在復活,是表示對所有場合中,猶太禮拜儀式;例如,在早晨祈禱elohai neshamah ,在shemoneh ' esreh ,並在殯儀服務。 Maimonides made it the last of his thirteen articles of belief: "I firmly believe that there will take place a revival of the dead at a time which will please the Creator, blessed be His name."邁蒙尼德使得過去他的13個條款的信念: "我堅信,有將發生死灰復燃的死在時間,將請造物者,有福了他的名字" 。 Saadia also, in his "Emunot we-De'ot" (following Sanh. x. 1), declared the belief in resurrection to be fundamental. saadia同時,在他的" emunot我們- de'ot " (以下sanh 。十1 ) ,申報的信念復活的是根本性的。 Ḥasdai Crescas, on the other hand, declared it to be a specific doctrine of Judaism, but not one of the fundamental teachings, which view is taken also by Joseph Albo in his "'Iḳḳarim" (i., iv. 35-41, xxiii.). ḥasdai crescas ,但另一方面,宣稱這是一個具體的學說猶太教的,但不是根本的一條教誨,其中的看法是,還採取了由約瑟夫albo在他的" ' iḳḳarim " (一,四, 35-41 ,二十三) 。 The chief difficulty, as pointed out by the latter author, is to find out what the resurrection belief actually implied or comprised, since the ancient rabbis themselves differed as to whether resurrection was to be universal, or the privilege of the Jewish people only, or of the righteous only.行政困難,指出後者的作者,是搞清楚復活的信念其實是暗示或組成的,因為古代的拉比們自己的差異,以決定是否復活,是具有普遍性,或特權,猶太人民的唯一或的正義而已。 This again depends on the question whether it was to form part of theMessianic redemption of Israel, or whether it was to usher in the last judgment.這又取決於該問題是否是要的組成部分themessianic贖回以色列,或者是否是為了迎接最後的判斷。 Saadia sees in the belief in resurrection a national hope, and endeavors to reconcile it with reason by comparing it with other miraculous events in nature and history recorded in the Bible. saadia認為,在信仰復活一個國家的希望,並力圖調和,它的原因,比較它與其他不可思議的事件,在自然和歷史記載在聖經。 Maimonides and Albo in their commentary on Sanh.邁蒙尼德和albo在其評sanh 。 x.十。 1, Ḳimḥi in his commentary on Ps. 1 , ḳimḥi在他的評論對聚苯乙烯。 i.一。 5, Isaac Aboab in his "Menorat ha-Ma'or" (iii. 4, 1), and Baḥya ben Asher in his commentary on Gen. xxiii. 5 ,艾薩克aboab在他的" menorat夏ma'or " ( iii. 4 , 1 ) ,並baḥya賁阿什爾在他的評論對將軍二十三。 extend resurrection to the righteous only.延長復活的正義而已。 On the other hand, Isaac Abravanel in his "Ma'yene Yeshu'ah" (ii. 9) concedes it to all Israel; Manasseh ben Israel, in his "Nishmat Ḥayyim" (i. 2, 8), and others, to all men.另一方面,關於艾薩克abravanel在他的" ma'yene yeshu'ah " ( ii. 9 )承認,它向所有以色列; manasseh賁以色列,在他的" nishmat ḥayyim " (一,二,三,八) ,和其他人,以所有男性。 Maimonides, however (see his commentary, lc, and "Yad," Teshubah, viii.), took the resurrection figuratively, and substituted for it immortality of the soul, as he stated at length in his "Ma'amar Teḥiyyat ha-Metim"; Judah ha-Levi also, in his "Cuzari," took resurrection figuratively (i. 115, iii. 20-21).邁蒙尼德,但是(見他的評論,信用證, "亞得, " teshubah ,八) 。代為復活的形象,並取代了它不朽的靈魂,因為他在長度在他的" ma'amar teḥiyyat夏metim " ;猶大公頃-利維同時,在他的"庫扎裡, "上台復活形象(一115 ,三20-21 ) 。

The belief in resurrection is beautifully expressed in the old Morning Benediction, taken from Ber.相信在復活精美,主要體現在老晨功德,從誤碼率。 60b: "O God, the soul which Thou hast set within me is pure. Thou hast fashioned it; Thou hast breathed it into me, and Thou dost keep it within me and wilt take it from me and restore it to me in time to come. As long as it is within me I will give homage to Thee, O divine Master, Lord of all spirits, who givest back the soul to dead bodies." 60b : "上帝啊,一個是靈魂,而祢集我是純潔。祢已過時;祢吹了,它變成了我,你多斯特保持它在我和枯萎是否可以從我身上並恢復它給我的時間來今後,只要是在我,我會來祭祀你,神聖的主人,所有的人的主神,賜予回靈魂的屍體" 。 This benediction, for which the simpler form is given in Yer.這功德,其中有簡單的表格,是由於在也門里亞爾。 Ber.誤碼率。 iv.四。 7d, Pesiḳ. 7D條, pesiḳ 。 R. 40, and Midr.傳譯40 ,並midr 。 Teh.了。 xvii.: "Blessed be Thou who revivest the dead"-recited after awakening from the night's sleep-throws light upon the whole conception of resurrection.十七,說: "有福被你的人revivest死者" -吟誦覺醒後,從晚上的睡眠全光後,整個構想復活。 Just as the soul was believed to leave the body in sleep and return at the reawakening, so was the soul, after having left the body in death, to return to "those that sleep in the dust" at the time of the great reawakening.正如靈魂被認為是離開人體在睡眠和回報,在喚醒,這樣做主要是靈魂,之後離開了身體,在死亡的,退回到"那些睡在灰塵" ,在當時的偉大復興。 In modern times the belief in resurrection has been greatly shaken by natural philosophy, and the question has been raised by the Reform rabbis and in rabbinical conferences (see Geiger, "Jüd. Zeit." vii. 246) whether the old liturgical formulas expressing the belief in resurrection should not be so changed as to give clear expression to the hope of immortality of the soul instead.近代以來的信念,在復活已大大動搖了自然哲學,而問題已經提出了改革的猶太教和猶太教會議(見蓋格, " jüd 。塞特"七。 246 )是否舊禮儀公式表達信仰在復活不應如此修改,以明確表達了希望的靈魂。 This was done in all the American Reform prayer-books.這樣做是所有美國改革祈禱書籍。 At the rabbinical conference held at Philadelphia it was expressly declared that the belief in resurrection of the body has no foundation in Judaism, and that the belief in the immortality of the soul should take its place in the liturgy.在猶太教舉行的記者招待會上76人,它被明確宣布的信念復活的身體已經沒有任何的基礎,在猶太教,並表示相信,在靈魂應採取其在禮儀中。 See Conferences, Rabbinical; Prayer-Books; Reform Judaism.見會議,猶太教;祈禱書籍,以改革猶太教。

Executive Committee of the Editorial Board, George A. Barton, Kaufmann Kohler執行委員會的組成編委會,喬治巴頓,考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版1901年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Hamburger, RBT sv Auferstehung und Wiederbelebung der Todten; ib.漢堡包,隨機呼氣測試sv auferstehung und wiederbelebung明鏡todten ;興業。 sv Belebung der Todten; Schürer, Gesch. sv belebung明鏡todten ; schürer , gesch 。 ii.二。 3, 547-551; Volz, Jüdische Eschatologie; Weber, Jüdische Theologie, Index.ECK 3 , 547-551 ; volz , jüdische eschatologie ;韋伯, jüdische theologie , index.eck


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