Religion宗教

General Information 一般資料

Religion is a complex phenomenon, defying definition or summary.宗教是一種複雜的現象,不畏定義或摘要。 Almost as many definitions and theories of religion exist as there are authors on the subject.幾乎同樣多的定義和理論,宗教的存在,有作者對此事的意見。 In the broadest terms, three approaches are generally taken to the scholarly study of religion: the historical, the phenomenological, and the behavioral or social - scientific.在廣泛的計算,三種方法一般是採取學術研究宗教:歷史的,現象學,行為學或社會-科學性。

Scholarly Approaches學術辦法

Historical歷史

The historical approach deals, of necessity, with texts, whether these be the doctrinal, devotional, or ritual texts that stem from the religious community per se or secular documents such as statistics through which the historian attempts to reconstruct the religious life of a community.在歷史主義的態度處理,有必要的,與文本,無論這些問題成為理論,靈修,或祭祀文本幹,從宗教社會本身或世俗的文件,如統計數據通過該歷史學家企圖重建宗教生活的一個社區。 The historians may weave both types of documents together to create a rich sense of the role of religion in the life of a people as a whole.史家可能編織這兩種類型的文件共同努力,以營造一個富有意義上的宗教的作用,在一個民族的生活作為一個整體。 A particularly fine recent example of this approach is Le Roy Ladurie's Montaillou (1975; Eng. trans., 1978), in which the social and economic life of a small medieval French village is seen against the backdrop of religious heterodoxy.格外晴朗,最近的一個例子是這種做法是樂羅伊ladurie的到蒙泰羅( 1975年;英文跨, 1978年) ,其中社會和經濟生活中的一小中世紀法國鄉村的背景來看待宗教異端。

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Phenomenological唯象

The phenomenological study of religion, although often starting with the results of the historian, is directed toward discovering the nature of religion - the fundamental characteristics that lie behind its historical manifestations.現象學研究的宗教,雖然往往是從結果的歷史學家,是針對發現的性質宗教-基本特徵在於它背後的歷史表現。 In this particular field the classic treatment remains Gerardus van der Leeuw's Religion in Essence and Manifestation: A Study in Phenomenology (1933; Eng. trans., 1938).在這一特定領域經典的待遇仍然gerardus的Van der leeuw的宗教,在本質和表現形式:一種學習現象( 1933年;英文跨, 1938年) 。 Many scholars of comparative religion, such as Mircea Eliade, may also be said to fall into this category, although their relations to the historical traditions are often complex.許多學者比較宗教學等的主要原因eliade ,也可以說是屬於這一類,雖然他們的關係的歷史傳統,是經常很複雜。 The phenomenological tradition has been criticized, both by the historians and the social scientists, for losing sight of the details of particular religions in overly general comparison and speculation, but contemporary scholars are attempting to overcome these problems by dissolving the artificial boundaries between the disciplines.現象學的傳統,已被批評,無論是由歷史學家和社會科學家,對於忽略的細節,特別是在宗教過於一般的比較性和投機性的,但當代的學者們正試圖克服這些問題,化解人為的國界之間的學科。

Social社會

A clear example of this tendency may be seen in the rise of social scientific studies of religion in the last hundred years.一個明顯的例子,這種傾向可以看出,在崛起的社會科學的研究宗教,在過去一百年。 Psychology, sociology, and especially anthropology have contributed great depth to the understanding of religious phenomena.心理學,社會學,人類學,尤其是有偉大貢獻的深度理解,對宗教的現象。 In the psychology of religion, the two most important figures remain William James and Sigmund Freud.在心理學的宗教,兩個最重要的數字仍威廉詹姆斯和弗洛伊德。 James's Varieties of Religious Experience (1902) established a set of topics and approaches to those topics that set the overall tone for much later work in the field.詹姆斯的品種宗教經驗( 1902年) ,建立了一套題目和辦法,以這些課題的那一套整體的基調很遲在外地的工作。

While James dealt primarily with conscious expressions of religious experience, Freud and the psychoanalytic tradition stemming from him attempted to fit the various forms of religious experience into the framework of a general theory of the unconscious.而詹姆斯主要涉及的自覺表達的宗教體驗,弗洛伊德和精神分析的傳統,源自他的企圖,以適應各種形式的宗教體驗到的範圍內的一般理論的無意識。 CG Jung in particular has been influential among interpreters of religion, in part, no doubt, as the best developed alternative to Freud himself. CG榮格特別是已經有影響力的口譯員之間的宗教,部分毫無疑問,作為最佳開發替代弗洛伊德自己。

One problem usually associated with the psychological approach is the difficulty of moving from the individual's experience to the structure and experience of the religious community.其中一個問題,通常與心理的做法,是難以從個人的經驗傳授給結構和經驗的宗教社會。 This problem has been confronted by the sociological and the anthropological traditions since the last third of the 19th century.這個問題已面臨著社會學和人類學的傳統,自上三分之一的19世紀。 William Robertson Smith, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber were the leading figures in creating a sociological tradition in the analysis of religion.威廉羅伯遜史密斯,埃米爾迪爾凱姆,韋伯被領導人物,創造了社會學的傳統,在分析中的宗教。

The year 1922 is sometimes taken as marking the beginning of modern anthropology and with it the complex studies of existing cultures and their religions that have done much to illuminate contemporary thought about religion.今年是1922年,有時採取標誌著現代人類學和與它複雜的研究現有的文化和宗教,他們已經做了大量工作,照亮當代思考宗教。 In that year Bronislaw Malinowski and AR Radcliffe - Brown published studies based on in - depth field work in foreign cultures.在這一年( Bronislaw觀察家和AR拉德克利夫-布朗公佈的研究基礎上,在-深入實地工作,在外國文化。 Their functionalist approach to the analysis of religion became a school, from which a steady flow of detailed studies of religion in cultural context continues unabated.其功能的方法來分析宗教,成為一所學校,從哪個源源不斷的詳細研究宗教,在文化背景繼續有增無減。 Perhaps the most eminent figure in this tradition was Sir Edward Evans - Pritchard, whose influential works continue to serve as points of departure for analysts of religion.也許是最傑出的人物,這個傳統是尤德爵士埃文斯-普里查德,其有影響力的作品,繼續服務作為出發點,為分析師的宗教。

Meanwhile, a French tradition was developing out of the school of Durkheim that was in some ways analogous with and in others opposed to the British school.此外,一名法國傳統,是發展出學校的迪爾凱姆認為,在某些方面相似,並在其他一些議員反對向英國學校。 In this context structure has played a role akin to that of function.在此背景下結構發揮了作用,類似於當年的功能。 Claude Levi - Strauss has developed a complex theory of the way in which religious symbol and myth are transformed in the articulation by a culture of the cosmos in which it finds itself.克勞德列維-施特勞斯已制定了一個複雜的理論,以何種方式宗教象徵和神話轉化,在升學文化的一個宇宙,在它所處的。

This brief treatment cannot do justice to the variety of approaches to the study of religion, but one thing should be made clear.這簡短的治療不能做到公正,以各種不同的方式來研究宗教,但有一件事我們應該加以明確。 Any approach taken in isolation from the others will lead to distortion and bias.任何採取的辦法脫離他人,將導致歪曲和偏見。 The attempt to integrate a number of theories stemming from a wealth of traditions is necessary to grasp the character of the religions of the world.企圖把一些理論源於豐富的傳統是要把握特點,宗教對世界的看法。

Characteristics of Religion特色的宗教

Keeping in mind the dangers of general characterizations, what are the distinctive features of religion?要銘記危險的一般特徵,什麼是特色鮮明的宗教? Several concepts may be isolated that, even though not necessary or sufficient conditions if taken separately, may jointly be considered "symptomatic" of religions.幾個概念可能是孤立的,即使沒有必要或充分條件,如果將它們分開,可共同被視為"症狀"的宗教。

The Holy聖地

Religious belief or experience is usually expressed in terms of the holy or the sacred.宗教信仰或經驗,通常是在職權神聖或神聖的。 The holy is usually in opposition to the everyday and profane and carries with it a sense of supreme value and ultimate reality.神聖的,通常是在反對以日常生活和褻瀆,並帶有某種意義上的最高價值和終極現實。 The holy may be understood as a personal God, as a whole realm of gods and spirits, as a diffuse power, as an impersonal order, or in some other way.羅馬教廷可能會被理解為個人的上帝,作為一個整體的境界神和昂揚的精神狀態,作為一個權力分散的,作為一個客觀的秩序,或其他一些方式。 Although the holy may ultimately be nothing but the social order, a projection of the human mind, or some sort of illusion, it is nevertheless experienced in religion as an initiating power, coming to human life and touching it from beyond itself.雖然教廷可能最終都不過是社會秩序,一個投影的人的頭腦,或某種虛幻的,但它是在經歷了宗教作為發起國,未來對人類生活和感人的,它從自我超越。

Religions frequently claim to have their origin in Revelations, that is, in distinctive experiences of the holy coming into human life.宗教經常聲稱擁有其原產地在啟示,那就是在獨特的經驗神聖進入人的生命。 Such revelations may take the form of visions (Moses in the desert), inner voices (Muhammad outside Mecca), or events (Israel's exodus from Egypt; the divine wind, or kamikaze, which destroyed the invading Mongol fleet off Japan; the death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ).這種啟示可以採取以下方式:願景(摩西在沙漠) ,黨內聲音(穆罕默德外麥加) ,或者事件(以色列的出埃及,從埃及;神聖的風,還是敢死隊,摧毀來犯蒙古艦隊起飛,日本的死亡和復活的耶穌) 。 Revelations may be similar to ordinary religious experience, but they have a creative originating power from which can flow an entire religious tradition.啟示可能類似於普通的宗教經驗,但他們有一個創意源於權力從可流通整個宗教傳統。

Response回應

Response to the holy may take the form of participation in and acquiescence to the customs and rituals of a religious community or of a commitment of faith.響應教廷可能採取的形式參與和默許下,以海關和禮儀的一個宗教或社會的承諾的信心。 Faith is not merely belief but an attitude of persons in which they commit themselves to the holy and acknowledge its claim upon them.信仰不僅是信仰的,但態度的人,他們在其中承擔自己神聖的,並承認其索賠身上。 In a deeply religious person, faith commitment tends to shape all of that person's life and character.在一個深深的宗教人士,信仰的承諾,往往會形成所有的人的生活和性格。

Beliefs信仰

As religious traditions develop, they generate systems of belief with respect to both practice and doctrine.作為宗教傳統的發展,就產生系統的信仰與尊重,以實踐和學說。 These systems serve to situate the members of the religious tradition in the world around them and to make intelligible this world in relation to the holy.這些系統服務,以境內成員組成的宗教傳統,在他們身邊的世界,並能夠容易明白這個世界上,在關係到聖地。 In early or primitive traditions this practice and doctrine usually find expression in bodies of myth or in ritual law.在早期或原始的傳統,這個實踐和理論,通常表現在機構的神話還是在禮法。 In those traditions which develop an extensive literate class, Theology often comes to supplant myth as the vehicle for refining and elaborating belief.在這些傳統的發展是一個廣泛的識字班,神學常常來取代神話作為工具提煉和闡釋信念。 The more this happens, the more the belief system has to be evaluated.越是這樣,越信仰體系進行評估。 The importance attached to right belief ("orthodoxy") has varied from religion to religion and from period to period.重視正確的信念( "正統" ) ,從不同的宗教和宗教的時期。 It has loomed large in Christianity, as for example in the great Christological and Trinitarian controversies from the 3d century onward.它已面臨大在基督教的,如在大基督論和三位一體的爭論,從三維世紀不斷前進。

Rituals and Liturgy禮儀和禮儀中

Religious traditions almost invariably involve ritual and liturgical forms as well as systems of belief.宗教傳統幾乎無一例外地涉及到祭祀和禮儀形式以及制度的信仰。 These may take the form of Sacrifice or Sacrament, Passage Rites, or invocations of God or the gods.這些可以採取以下方式:犧牲或聖餐,通過儀軌,或調用的上帝或神。 The most important cultic acts are in most cases those performed by the entire community or a significant portion of it, although in many traditions private devotional forms such as prayer, fasting, and pilgrimage are also practiced.最重要的邪教行為,在大多數情況下,這些演出是整個社會或一個重要部分,雖然在許多傳統的私人靈修形式,如祈禱,齋戒,朝聖,也練。 A distinction is often made between religion and magic in this context.區分往往都是宗教與魔法,在此背景下。 In magic, attempts are made to manipulate divine forces through human acts.在魔術,企圖都是為了操縱神聖力量通過人的行為。 In truly cultic acts such as prayer and sacrifice, the prevailing attitude is one of awe, worship, and thanksgiving.在真正的邪教行為,如祈禱和犧牲,當時的態度是敬畏,崇拜和感恩。

Participation in communal rituals marks a person as a member of the community, as being inside and integral to the community that is articulated in the system of beliefs.參與社區禮儀標誌著一個人,作為社會的一分子,作為內與積分向社會就是在闡述該系統的信念。 That in many traditions the disfavor of the community is expressed in its barring a person from the important cultic acts is not surprising because these acts insure the proper standing of the individual and community in relation to the holy.在許多傳統的disfavor的社會,是體現在它阻止一個人從重要的邪教行為,是不奇怪,因為這些行為投保適當常委會的個人與社會的關係,以神聖的。

Ethical Codes道德守則

Connected with beliefs is yet another aspect of religion, the possession of an ethical code incumbent upon the members of the community.涉嫌與信仰,但另一個方面的宗教,藏有一個道德行為守則義不容辭社區成員。 This is particularly evident in highly structured societies such as India, where the caste system is an integral part of traditional Hinduism.這一點尤其明顯,在高度結構化的社會,如印度,那裡的種姓制度是國家不可分割的一部分傳統的印度教。 Marduk in ancient Babylon and Yahweh in ancient Israel were believed to be the authors of the laws of those nations, thus giving these laws the weight and prestige of holiness.馬杜克在古巴比倫和雅威在古代以色列據信是作者的法律,這些國家,從而使這些法律的重量和威望的聖德。

The Prophets of Israel were social critics who claimed that righteous acts rather than cultic acts are the true expression of religion.以色列的先知被社會批評人士聲稱,正義的行為,而非邪教行為,是真正表達的宗教。 As religions develop, they come to place increasing stress on the ethical, and sometimes religion is almost totally absorbed into morality, with only a sense of the holiness of moral demands and a profound respect for them remaining.由於宗教的發展,他們來的地方越來越大的壓力對道德的,有時宗教是幾乎完全被吸收到道德的,只有意識的成聖的道德要求和深刻尊重他們剩下的。

Community社區

Although religious solitaries exist, most religion has a social aspect that leads its adherents to form a community, which may be more or less tightly organized.雖然宗教孤獨的存在,大多數的宗教,都有一個社會問題,導致其黨羽,以形成一個共同體,這可能是較多或較少組織嚴密。 In earlier times the religious community could scarcely be distinguished from the community at large; all professed the same faith, and the ruler was both a political and a religious leader.在較早時候,宗教社會可以少有別於社會上大多數都自稱同樣的信念,和被統治者,無論是從政治和宗教領袖。 In the course of time, however, religious and civil societies have become distinct and may even come into conflict.在這個過程中的時間,不過,宗教和民間社團已成為鮮明的,甚至可能來重新陷入衝突。 In modern secular states - India and the United States, for example - a plurality of religious communities coexist peacefully within a single political entity.在現代世俗國家-印度和美國,舉例來說-一個多元化的宗教社區和平相處在一個單一的政治實體。 Each religious community, whether in a pluralistic or homogeneous society, has its own organized structure.每一個宗教社會,無論是在一個多元化或均質社會,有其自身的組織結構。 A common though by no means universal feature of these religious organizations is a priesthood charged with teaching and transmitting the faith and performing liturgical acts.一個共同的,但絕不是普遍的特點,這些宗教組織是一個神職人員被控以教學和轉遞的信仰和表演,禮儀行為。

Forms of Religious Experience形式的宗教體驗

The complex phenomenon described above constitutes what may be called the religious experience of humankind.複雜現象上文所述構成什麼可稱為宗教體驗人類的生活。 In different religions and in different individuals, one or more of the characteristics mentioned may predominate, whereas others may be weak or almost nonexistent.在不同宗教和不同的個人,其中一個或一個以上的特色提及可能佔主導地位,而其他人可能比較弱或幾乎不存在。 This difference explains why religion is best treated as a polymorphous concept and why it is better to see religions as linked by variable family likenesses than by some constant but elusive essence.這種差異解釋了為什麼宗教是最好的治療,作為一個多形性的概念,以及為什麼它是更好地看到宗教掛鉤,由可變家庭肖像比一些常數,但難以捉摸的本質。

Basic Forms基本形式

Even though many varieties of religious experience exist, they seem to occur in two basic forms.儘管許多品種的宗教體驗存在,他們似乎發生在兩種基本形式。 In the first, the sense of the holy is conjoined markedly with an awareness of human finitude.在第一,意識的聖地,是連體明顯改善意識,人類有限性。 This conjunction is expressed in Friedrich Schleiermacher's characterization of religion as a "feeling of absolute dependence"; it might be called the negative approach to religious experience.這一結合體現在弗里德里希施萊爾馬赫的表徵宗教作為"的感覺絕對依賴" ,它可稱為消極的做法,以宗教體驗。 The awareness of the holy is set against the foil of finitude, sinfulness, and meaninglessness.意識的聖地,是一套針對鋁箔的有限性,罪孽,和意義。 At an earlier stage in his career, however, Schleiermacher defined religion differently - as the "sense and taste for the Infinite."在較早階段,在他的職業生涯,不過,施萊爾馬赫界定宗教的不同-作為"的意識和品位,為無窮" 。 Here the awareness of the holy is conjoined with the human experience of transcendence, of going beyond every state of existence to a fuller existence that lures on the human being.在此認識的聖地,是聯體與人類經驗的超越,超越了每一個國家的存在,以更加充分地存在誘惑對人類福祉。 This method may be called the affirmative approach.這種方法可稱為肯定的態度。

Although one approach or another may dominate, both belong to the full range of religious experience.雖然其中的一個方法或另一種可能主宰,同屬提供種類齊全的宗教體驗。 Both find their place in Rudolf Otto's classic, The Idea of the Holy (1917; Eng. trans., 1923), as a person's encounter with the mysterium tremendum et fascinans.既找到自己的位置,在魯道夫奧托的經典,重新認識聖地( 1917年;英文跨, 1923年) ,因為一個人的遭遇神秘tremendum等fascinans 。 Mysterium points to the otherness of the holy; tremendum to its overwhelmingness in relation to human finitude; and fascinans to the lure that draws individuals out of and beyond themselves.神秘點,以差異性的聖地; tremendum其overwhelmingness有關人力有限性; fascinans向誘惑吸引了個人出來,並超越自己。 Otto's work has been regarded as a masterly achievement in the phenomenology of religious experience.奧托的工作已被視為精湛的成就是,在現象學的宗教體驗。

Validity of Religious Experience有效性的宗教體驗

The question about the validity of religious experience must also be raised.提問有關有效性的宗教體驗也必須提高。 Do religious people or worshiping communities encounter a holy reality that is outside of themselves and other than anything purely natural?做宗教界人士或崇拜社區遇到的一個神聖的現實,這是外界對自己及他人比什麼都純粹自然嗎? Schleiermacher believed that the capacity for religious experience is universal in human beings.施萊爾馬赫認為,容量為宗教的經驗是具有普遍的人類。 He therefore claimed that it could be accepted as self authenticating and could take the place of the traditional proofs offered for the existence of God.因此,他聲稱,它可被接納為自我認證,並可以代替傳統的證據提供上帝存在的。 Few people today would concede Schleiermacher's claim.幾個人,就不會有今天的讓步施萊爾馬赫的索賠。 Not only might they deny having the kinds of experiences he described; they might also suggest quite different interpretations for them.不僅可能使他們否認有過的各種經驗,他形容,他們也可能提出相當不同的解釋給他們。 Many traditional revelations, which seemed to be miracles in a prescientific age, might now be judged as natural events or coincidences.許多傳統的啟示,它似乎是奇蹟,在prescientific年齡,而現在則是被判斷為自然事件或巧合。

Inner voices and private visions might be explained psychologically as subconscious mental processes.黨內的聲音和私人的願景可能被解釋為心理潛意識的心理過程。 From Ludwig Feuerbach to Freud, belief in God has been explained as a projection of the human mind; Karl Marx and other social analysts have seen religious belief as the product of socioeconomic forces.由路德維希費爾巴哈,以弗洛伊德,信仰上帝已經解釋作為一個投影的人的頭腦;卡爾馬克思和其他社會分析家們看到宗教信仰的產物,社會經濟力量。 Each of these naturalistic explanations of religious belief has drawn attention to some element that enters into the religious complex, but it may be questioned whether such theories account exhaustively for the phenomenon of religion.每個這些自然主義的解釋,宗教信仰引起注意的幾個要素進入宗教情結,但它可能會質疑這種理論帳戶鉅細無遺地為這一現象的宗教。 The question about the validity of religious experience must ultimately be dealt with by returning to rational arguments for and against theism or, more broadly, for and against the existence of some holy reality, despite Schleiermacher's arguments to the contrary.提問有關有效性的宗教經驗,最終必須加以處理,由回歸理性贊成和反對有神論,或者更廣泛地說,支持和反對存在著一些神聖的現實,儘管施萊爾馬赫的論點正好相反。

A Typology類型學

Any typology that attempts an ordering of religions is the product of a particular tradition in which others are seen relatively to its own centrality.任何類型試圖一個訂購的是宗教的產物某一傳統別人看到比較,以自己的中心地位。 For instance, starting from the perspective of the Christian experience of the holy as both transcendent and immanent makes possible the construction of a series in which the various traditions are related more or less closely to Christianity insofar as they emphasize one or the other.舉例來說,從開始的角度,基督教經驗的聖地,因為這兩個超越性和內在使得有可能建造一個系列,其中的各種傳統,是與較為密切,以基督教的,因為它們強調的一個或另一個。 That is, Christian tradition strongly asserts the transcendence of God as an essential element in its Judaic heritage, but it just as strongly insists upon the immanence of God in the incarnation and in the sacraments.那就是基督教傳統的強烈斷言,超越上帝的一個基本要素,在其猶太遺產,但正如強烈堅持後,內在的神的化身,並在聖禮。 Roughly speaking, Judaism and Islam fall on the transcendent side of the series, whereas Hinduism and Buddhism fall more on the immanent.粗略來說,猶太教和伊斯蘭教秋天就超越一方的系列,而印度教和佛教跌得越對上蒼。

A detailed analysis along these lines, taking into account the variety of traditions within Christianity, reveals illuminating affinities, as for example between Calvinism and Islam and among the various mystical traditions.詳細的分析,根據這些原則,同時考慮到各種不同的傳統,基督教,揭示了啟發親和力,例如之間加爾文教和伊斯蘭教之間的各種神秘傳統。 Thus the construction of a typology, despite the limitations of any given perspective, draws attention to both the unity and diversity of religions.因此,建造一個類型學,儘管限制任何特定的角度,提請注意,無論是統一性和多樣性的宗教。

Conclusion結論

In a world where the status and future of religion is in so many ways uncertain, understanding of religious concepts is not likely to be reached with extreme views, whether this extremism takes the form of a dogmatic and isolationist claim to the superiority of an individual's own faith or a vague blurring of the genuine differences among the traditions.在這樣一個世界上的地位和未來的宗教是,在這麼多不確定的途徑,了解宗教觀念,是不太可能達到與極端的看法,這是否極端主義採取的形式是教條主義和孤立主義聲稱的優越性,是一個個別的自己信念還是一種模糊的,模糊的真正分歧,其中傳統。 A middle ground must be established by those who accept the need for patient dialogue to uncover and explore both the agreements and disagreements among the religions.中間必須建立由那些接受有需要耐心對話,以發現和探索雙方協議和分歧宗教之間。 This third way aims at deepening the commitment and understanding of religious groups in their own traditions while at the same time making them more open to and ready to learn from other traditions.這第三條路的目的在於加深承諾和理解宗教群體,在他們自己的傳統,而在同一時間,使他們更具有開放性,並願學習其他傳統。

John Macquarrie約翰macquarrie

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