Predestination宿命

General Information 一般資料

Predestination is a Christian doctrine according to which a person's ultimate destiny, whether it be salvation or damnation, is determined by God alone prior to, and apart from, any worth or merit on the person's part. In some cases, it is claimed that God only determines those to be saved; in others, that he determines those to be saved and those to be condemned. The latter teaching is called double predestination. 宿命是一個基督教教義,根據一個人命運的最終歸屬,無論是救國還是damnation ,是由上帝獨自之前,除了從任何價值或好處,對人的部分,在某些情況下,這是聲稱上帝不僅決定著那些被保存;但在其他方面,他確定了那些被保存和那些應受到譴責。 後者教學是所謂的雙重宿命。

Predestination has roots in the Old Testament concept of an elect people.宿命已深深地紮根於舊約概念是一個當選人。 Hints of the doctrine appear in the New Testament, especially in Rom.暗示的學說出現在新約聖經,尤其是在光盤。 8:28 - 30, 9:6 - 24. 8時28分-3 0, 9時0 6分- 24 。 It does not appear in full form, however, until the 5th century in the writings of Saint Augustine.它似乎並不完全形成,但是,直到公元5世紀,在著作的聖奧古斯丁。 Opposing Pelagianism, which held that humans can merit salvation by good works performed by application of their own will, Augustine insisted that humans require the help of God's Grace to do good and that this grace is a free gift, given by God without regard to human merit.反對佩拉糾學派,認為人類可以值得救贖所好的作品演出,由應用自己的意志,奧古斯丁堅持說,人類需要幫助上帝的恩典做善事,並認為這恩典是一個免費的禮物,給上帝,沒有關於人類高招。 Thus God alone determines who will receive the grace that alone assures salvation.因此,只有上帝決定誰會獲得寬限期僅僅這一點保證了救贖。 In this sense God predestines some to salvation.從這個意義上講上帝predestines一些,以救贖。 Augustine's teaching was generally upheld by the church, but the further idea that some are predestined to condemnation was explicitly rejected at the Council of Orange (529).奧古斯丁的教學中普遍堅持由教會,但進一步的想法,有些是先天注定的譴責是明確拒絕在安理會的橙( 529 ) 。 The classical medieval formulation, based on Augustine, was given by Thomas Aquinas in Summa Theologica.古典中世紀配方的基礎上,奧古斯丁,是由托馬斯阿奎那在總結theologica 。

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The doctrine of predestination again became important in the late medieval period and passed into the theology of the Protestant reformers, especially John Calvin.該學說的宿命再度成為重要的,在中世紀晚期期通過,成為神學的新教改革者,特別是約翰卡爾文。 Calvin also insisted, against other forms of Christian theology, that grace is a gift and that a person cannot earn salvation.卡爾文還堅持認為,對其他形式的基督教神學,即恩典是一個禮物,並認為一個人可以賺不到救贖。 In the course of subsequent controversies, Calvin's doctrine of double predestination was strongly affirmed by the Synod of Dort (1619) in Holland and in the Westminster Confession (1647) in England.在這個過程中的爭議,隨後,卡爾文的教義有雙重宿命是強烈肯定主教的dort ( 1619 )在荷蘭和在西敏寺自白( 1647 )在英格蘭。 Until recently, it has remained a characteristic teaching of churches in the Calvinist tradition (Calvinism; Presbyterianism).直到最近,它仍是一個特點,教學的教會在calvinist傳統(加爾文; presbyterianism ) 。 In other branches of Christianity, however, it has received only limited support.其他學科的基督教,不過,只收到了有限的支持。

The 20th century theologian Karl Barth radically restated the doctrine of predestination. 20世紀神學家卡爾巴特從根本上重新中庸宿命。 He argued that God's election and condemnation of humankind converge in the divine election and rejection of Jesus Christ.他認為,上帝的選舉,並譴責人類的銜接,在神聖的選舉,並拒絕接受耶穌基督。 In Jesus' resurrection lies all humankind's salvation.在耶穌的復活在於所有人類的救贖。

William S Babcock威廉s貝比考克

Bibliography 參考書目
K Barth, "Election and Command of God" in Church Dogmatics (1957); J Calvin, Concerning the Eternal Predestination of God (1961); MJ Farrely, Predestination, Grace and Free Will (1964); JG Gerstner, Predestination Primer (1981). k巴特, "選舉和指揮神" ,在教會dogmatics ( 1957年) ; j卡爾文,關於永恆的宿命的神( 1961年) ;兆焦耳farrely ,宿命,恩典和自由意志( 1964 ) ; jg郭士納宿命底漆( 1981 ) 。


Brief Definitions簡短的定義

General Information 一般資料

determinism 宿命論
The view that every event has a cause and that everything in the universe is absolutely dependent on and governed by causal laws.認為每一個事件都有原因,並認為宇宙萬物是絕對依賴,並受到因果規律。 Since determinists believe that all events, including human actions, are predetermined, determinism is typically thought to be incompatible with free will.自determinists相信,所有的活動,包括人的行動,是預定的,決定論,是典型的被認為不符合自由意志。
fatalism 宿命論
The belief that "what will be will be," since all past, present, and future events have already been predetermined by God or another all-powerful force.堅信"會產生什麼樣的,將" ,因為所有的過去,現在和未來事件已經預定了上帝或另一種全方位的強大力量。 In religion, this view may be called predestination ; it holds that whether our souls go to Heaven or Hell is determined before we are born and is independent of our good deeds.在宗教,這種看法可能是所謂的宿命 ,它認為,無論我們的靈魂去天堂還是下地獄的決心面前,我們都是土生土長的,是獨立於我們的好人好事。
free will 自由意志
The theory that human beings have freedom of choice or self-determination; that is, that given a situation, a person could have done other than what he did.該理論認為,人有選擇的自由,或自我的決心,那就是,鑑於情況下,一個人可以做得比其他他的所作所為。 Philosophers have argued that free will is incompatible with determinism.哲學家認為,自由意志,是不符合宿命論。 See also indeterminism.也見indeterminism 。
indeterminism indeterminism
The view that there are events that do not have any cause; many proponents of free will believe that acts of choice are capable of not being determined by any physiological or psychological cause.認為有事件,也沒有任何理由;不少倡議者的自由意志,相信行為的選擇,有能力不取決於任何生理或心理的原因。


Predestination宿命

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The doctrine of predestination as formulated in the history of the Christian church by such theologians as Augustine of Hippo and John Calvin has been a constant cause of discussion and controversy, for many Christians have been unwilling to accept it in any form.該學說的宿命,作為制定,在歷史上的基督教教堂等,作為神學家奧古斯丁的河馬和約翰卡爾文一直不斷引起討論和爭議,但對於許多基督徒一直不願意接受任何形式的。 Pelagius in the early church and John Wesley in the eighteenth century provide two examples of those who had no use for such teaching. pelagius在早期教會和約翰韋斯利在18世紀提供了兩個例子,那些沒有使用這種教學。 This division concerning the doctrine has continued down to the present.本分部有關學說已經延續到現在。

The doctrine of predestination has both a wider and a narrower aspect.該學說的宿命,既有廣泛和狹義的方面。 In its wider reference it refers to the fact that the Triune God foreordains whatsoever comes to pass (Eph. 1:11, 22; cf. Ps. 2).在更廣泛的範圍,它是指一個事實,就是三位一體神foreordains什麼來通過(以弗所書1時11分, 22條;比照的PS 2 ) 。 From all eternity God has sovereignly determined whatsoever shall happen in history.從所有永恆上帝sovereignly決心,無論如何應在發生歷史。 The narrower aspect or use of the term is that God from all eternity has chosen a body of people for himself, that they should be brought into eternal fellowship with him, while at the same time he has ordained that the rest of humanity should be allowed to go their own way, which is the way of sin, to ultimate eternal punishment.狹義的方面或使用的術語,就是上帝從所有永恆選擇的是身體的人,為自己,他們應該將其帶進永恆團契與他,而在同一時間,他已注定其餘的人類應該允許走自己的路,這是罪惡的道路,以最終永恆的懲罰。 These are known as the doctrines of election and reprobation.這些都是眾所周知的,因為該學說的選舉和reprobation 。 While some may accept the idea of God choosing some to eternal life, they reject completely any idea of a decree of reprobation (Rom. 9:16 - 19).雖然有些人可能接受的上帝觀,選擇一些以永恆的生命,他們完全不接受任何理念的一項法令reprobation (羅馬書9時16分-1 9) 。

In the Scriptures there is not one term in either the Hebrew or the Greek which encompasses the term "predestination."在聖經中有沒有一個長遠的,無論是希伯來文或希臘文,其中包含了"宿命" 。 In the OT a number of words indicate the divine plan and purpose: esa (to counsel, Jer. 49:20; 50:45; Mic. 4:12); ya'as (to purpose, Isa. 14:24, 26 - 27; 19:12; 23:9); and bahar (to choose, Num. 16:5, 7; Deut. 4:37; 10:15; Isa. 41:8; Ezek. 20:5).在城市旅遊局的一些話表明神計劃及目的:歐空局(律師,張哲。 49:20 ; 50:45 ;麥克風。 4時12分) ; ya'as (宗旨,伊薩。 14:24 26 -第2 7條; 1 9時1 2分; 2 3時0 9分) ; b ahar(選擇,序號。 1 6時0 5分,第7節; d eut。 4時3 7分; 1 0:15;伊薩。 4 1:8; e zek。 2 0時0 5分) 。 In the NT there are even more words which have the meaning of predestine (proorizo, Rom. 8:29 - 30; Eph. 1:5, 11), elect (eklektos, Matt. 24:22ff.; Rom. 8:33; Col. 3:12), and to choose (haireomai, 2 Thess. 2:13; eklego, I Cor. 1:27ff.; Eph. 1:4).在新台幣還有更換句話說,其中的含義predestine ( proorizo ,光盤。 8時29分-3 0條;以弗所書1 :5, 1 1) ,選舉( e klektos,馬特。 2 4:22幾段;光碟。 8時3 3分;上校3時12分) ,並選擇( haireomai , 2帖2時13分; eklego ,我肺心病。 1:27幾段;以弗所書1:4 ) 。 But the doctrine does not depend upon the use of a few words, for as one studies the Bible as a whole this doctrine is seen to be central to much of the teaching of both testaments.但該學說並不取決於使用的幾句話,作為一個研究聖經作為一個整體,這種學說被看為中心的很大一部分教學雙方的見證。

The foundation of the doctrine of predestination is the biblical doctrine of God.立黨之本主義的宿命是聖經教義的上帝。 He is the Eternal One, above and beyond time and space, for there never was a time when he did not exist, so he is not subject to changes of time and place (Mal. 3:6; Rom. 1:20 - 21; Deut. 33:27; Isa. 57:15).他是一個永恆的,首先是跨越時間和空間,為人們沒有想到,是一個時間的時候,他根本不存在,所以他並不受變化的時間和地點( mal. 3時06分;光碟。 1:20 -2 1 ; deut 。 33:27 ;伊薩。 57:15 ) 。 Furthermore, God is sovereign over all things as the Creator, Sustainer, and Ruler of the universe.此外,上帝是一個主權所有的東西作為造物者, sustainer ,和統治者的宇宙。 He is Lord over all (Dan. 4:34 - 35; Isa. 45:1ff.; Rom. 9:17ff.; Eph. 1:11).他是上帝對所有( dan. 4時34分-3 5條;伊薩。 4 5:1幾段;光盤。 9點1 7法郎;以弗所書1時1 1分) 。 God is also sovereignly righteous, so that all that he does is according to the perfection of his nature (Jer. 23:6; 33:16; Rom. 1:17; 10:3; 2 Pet. 1:1).上帝也sovereignly正義,使所有他完全是按照完善其本質( jer. 23時06分; 33:16 ;光碟。 1時17分; 10時03分, 2寵物。 1:1 ) 。 In eternity he sovereignly established his own plan and purpose, which is far above anything that man can think of, conceive, or understand.在永恆他sovereignly建立起屬於自己的計劃和目的,那就是,遠遠超出任何人能想到,受孕,或明白。 Man, therefore, may know God's plan only as he reveals it (Jer. 23:18; Deut. 29:29; Ps. 33:11; Isa. 46:10; 55:7ff.; Heb. 6:17).男子,因此可能知道上帝的計劃只是因為他揭示了它( jer. 23時18分; deut 。 29:28 ;聚苯乙烯。 33:11 ;伊薩。 46:10你們要休息; 55:7幾段;以弗所書6時17分) 。

God has revealed his counsel to men, insofar as it was necessary for them to know it, through the prophets of the OT, through the apostolic writers of the NT, but preeminently through his Son Jesus Christ, to whom both prophets and apostles have borne witness.上帝揭示了他的律師,以男性而言,有必要讓他們知道,通過先知的職能治療,透過使徒作家新台幣,但preeminently通過他的兒子耶穌基督,向誰既先知和使徒有傳染證人。 It was by divine revelation that the prophets could point forward to the coming of the Redeemer (Gen. 3:15; Deut. 18:15; Isa. 53; Mal. 4:2; Heb. 1:1ff.), and it was the apostles who could bear witness to him who had come and explain the meaning of his life, death, resurrection, and ascension (Acts 2:22ff.; John 20:3off.).它是由神啟示先知們可以點著未來的救贖主(創3:15 ; deut 。 18:15 ;伊薩53 ;仲裁法。 4時02分;以弗所書1:1幾段) ,它是傳道人,可以見證他的人來解釋的意思,他的生命,死亡,復活,和阿森松(使徒2點22法郎;約翰20時03分起飛) 。

Therefore, human beings are limited in their understanding of God's purpose to what he has revealed to them, and the ultimate meanings, purposes, and plans must remain a mystery.因此,人是有限的,在他們的理解上帝的目的是什麼,他透露,對他們來說,和終極的意義,目的,並計劃必須仍然是一個謎。 Furthermore, because of God's infinitude, eternality, unchanging being, wisdom, power, justice, righteousness, and truth, man simply could not understand him, even should he reveal himself fully and completely to them.此外,由於上帝的無限性,外部性,天長地久,智慧,力量,公義,正義,真理,人根本無法了解他,甚至要他透露自己充分和完全給他們。 This means that God's relationship to time and space cannot be comprehended by spacial temporal beings, for they do not even know the meaning of eternity (cf. Isa. 26:12ff.; Dan. 4:24ff.; Acts 2:22ff.).這意味著上帝的關係,以時間和空間不能被理解,由空間顳人,因為他們甚至根本不知道含義的永恆(參見伊薩。 26:12幾段;丹。 4時24分及以下;行徑2時22分幾段) 。 This ultimate mystery of the being of God must be kept in mind when studying biblical doctrine.這最終神秘的被上帝必須銘刻在腦海裡的時候,學習聖經的教義。

At this point the question arises of the possibility of individual freedom and responsibility if God is absolutely sovereign.在這一點上產生了這樣的問題的可能性,個人的自由和責任,如果上帝是絕對的主權。 How can these things be?怎麼解決這些事情呢? Yet the Scriptures repeatedly assert both.但經文一再堅稱兩者。 Joseph's remarks to his brothers and Peter's statement concerning Christ's crucifixion highlight this fact (Gen. 45:4ff.; Acts 2:23).約瑟夫的講話向他的兄弟和彼得的聲明中關於耶穌的十字架上,突出了這一事實(創45:4幾段;行徑2時23分) 。 Man, in carrying out God's plan, even unintentionally, does so responsibly and freely.男子在履行上帝的計劃,甚至有意無意地,這樣做是負責任和自由。

Those who refuse to accept the biblical teaching are faced with the necessity of providing some other explanation.那些拒絕接受聖經的教學正面臨著是否確有需要提供一些其他的解釋。 Some Christians attempt to combine God's sovereignty with human independence, but have the difficulty of explaining both the statements in the Bible and also their belief in God's saving work in Jesus Christ.有些基督徒,企圖結合起來,上帝的主權與人的獨立性,但有困難的解釋都聲明在聖經中,也是他們的信仰上帝的拯救工作,在耶穌基督裡。 Non Christians have two choices.非基督徒有兩個選擇。 They can posit an ultimate chance, which destroys any possibility of human responsibility (for there is no one to whom to be responsible), of logical thought, and thus of scientific knowledge.他們可以陽性最終有機會,而破壞了任何可能的人的責任(有沒有人向誰負責) ,邏輯思維,因此,對科學知識。 The other alternative is that of a complete determinism which results in much the same outcome, for it is but solidified chance.其他替代的是一個完整的宿命論,導致許多同樣的結果,因為它不過是凝固的機會。 Although the biblical point of view cannot be fully rationalized according to our temporal spacial laws, it is the only one which makes any responsibility or freedom possible.雖然聖經的角度來看,並不能完全合理化,根據我們的時間空間的法律,它是唯一使任何責任或自由可能的。

To understand the biblical teaching concerning predestination, we must commence with the account of man's fall, which was part of God's eternal plan.了解聖經的教學關於宿命,我們必須在與該帳戶的人的秋天,它是上帝的永恆計劃。 At the same time, as Paul points out in Rom.在同一時間內,正如保羅指出,在ROM 。 1:18ff., man's refusal to acknowledge God as sovereign and his willful blindness to God's commands brought upon him God's wrath and condemnation. 1:18幾段,男子拒絕承認上帝作為主權和他隨意的盲目性,以上帝的命令後,帶來他的上帝的憤怒和譴責。 Basically, therefore, all human beings are corrupt because they refuse to acknowledge that God is Lord and that they themselves are only creatures.基本上,因此,所有的人都腐敗,因為他們都不肯承認上帝是上帝,並認為自己是唯一的生物。 Yet despite human disobedience and rebellion, God has not let his creatures go.然而,儘管人類抗命和反抗,上帝沒有讓他的動物路要走。 On the one hand he has restrained their sinfulness by his grace, so that even the sinners of this world have accomplished much that is good and true.在一方面,他克制自己的罪孽,由他的恩典,所以,即使是罪人,這個世界上有很大成就,這是好真實無訛。 On the other hand, as soon as man sinned, God promised a redeemer who would crush the tempter and bring restoration (Gen. 3:15).另一方面,關於盡快男子罪,上帝許諾救世主,他們將粉碎tempter實現恢復(創3:15 ) 。 Thus the purpose of redemption was woven inextricably into the fabric of human history from the beginning.因此,為了贖回被編織成緊密的結構,人類歷史從一開始的。

Because of the sinfulness of the creature, however, the creature would not freely seek peace or reconciliation with him who is the Creator.由於對罪孽的造化,不過,造物不會自由地謀求和平或和解與他的人是造物主。 This is shown in the story of Cain, the song of Lamech, and in the sinfulness of antediluvian society (Gen. 2 - 5).這表現在故事中的該隱,這首歌的拉麥的,而在我們罪孽深重的古老社會(創2 -5 ) 。 Yet at the same time there was a faithful minority descending from Seth to Noah, who was called to survive the flood and carry on the line of those who were obedient and trusted in God's promise of redemption.然而,在同一時間內有一個忠實少數民族降,從塞思庫,以諾亞,他們被稱為生存做好抗洪搶險和進行上線的那些聽話的和值得信賴的,在上帝的承諾贖回權。 One of this line was Abraham, whom God called out of Ur of the Chaldees, and through the descendants of his grandson Jacob established Israel as his people in the pre Christian world.一本線是亞伯拉罕的人,上帝叫鉤藤的新巴比倫王國,並通過華夏子孫,他的孫子雅各建立了以色列作為他的人在會前的基督教世界。 All this was the result of divine grace which was summed up in Jehovah's covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Gen. 12ff.).這一切是由於神的恩典,這是總結了在耶和華的盟約與亞伯拉罕,以撒,雅各(創12ff ) 。 Although up to this time little is said in Genesis about God's election and reprobation, when it came to the differentiation between Jacob and Esau it was made quite clear that even before their birth Jacob was chosen and Esau rejected, even though they were twins (Gen. 25:19ff; Mal. 1:3; Rom. 9:10ff.).雖然這個時間很少,是說,在成因神的選舉和reprobation ,當它來區分雅各和以掃,這是很清楚,甚至在他們出生雅各布選擇和以掃拒絕了,儘管他們對雙胞胎(根。 25:19法郎;仲裁法1:3 ;光盤。 9時10分幾段) 。 Here we find the first clear statement of the doctrine of double predestination.在這裡,我們尋找第一個清楚說明了我的學說雙重宿命。

Throughout the OT the doctrine of election is set forth with increasing clarity.整個城市旅遊局中庸選舉是提出了越來越清晰。 On the one hand it is stated that Israel was chosen, not because of anything it had to offer, but solely because of the grace of God and by his sovereign choice (Deut. 7:7ff.; Isa. 41:8 - 9; Ezek. 20:5).在一方面,它是說,以色列選擇的,不是因為什麼,它所能提供的,但僅僅是因為謝天謝地,他們以自己的主權選擇(申命記7點07法郎;伊薩。 41:8 -九; ezek 。 20時05分) 。 Furthermore, from both Israel and other nations God freely chose individuals who would do his will in history for the blessing of Israel (1 Sam. 16:1ff.; Isa. 45:1ff.; 1 Chr. 28:1ff.).此外,無論是來自以色列和其他國家在上帝的自由選擇的人會做他將在歷史上的祝福以色列( 1薩姆。 16:1幾段;伊薩。 45:1幾段,一人權中心。 28:1幾段) 。 On the other hand, not all Israel was of the elect, but only a faithful remnant whom God had chosen (Isa. 1:9; 10:21ff.; Jer. 23:3; 31:7).在另一方面,並非所有以色列當時的選舉,但只有忠實遺物,其中上帝選擇了(以賽亞1時09分; 10:21幾段;哲。 23時03分; 31:7 ) 。 These Paul calls "a remnant according to the election of grace" (Rom. 11:5).這些保羅稱之為"殘根據選舉的恩典" (羅馬書11時05分) 。 Those not of the elect remnant were rejected because of their sin to suffer ultimate punishment.那些不選遺物被拒絕,因為他們的罪過受到終極懲罰。

Throughout the OT there is also a constant reference to One who would come to redeem God's people, not only Israel but his elect from every race and tribe.整個城市旅遊局還有一個不斷提到一個人會來換取神的人,不僅是以色列,但他的當選,從每一個種族和部落。 While there are foreshadowings of this universal election and redemption in the histories of such individuals as Ruth and Naaman, the prophets set forth the universality of God's electing grace very clearly (Isa. 11:10; 56; Mic. 5:8; Rom. 9:24, 30; 11:12 - 13; Acts 15).雖然有foreshadowings這一普遍選舉和贖回在歷史上的這些個人作為羅思和naaman ,先知們提出了普遍性的上帝的恩典選得很清楚, (以賽亞書11:10 ; 56 ;麥克風。 5時08分;光碟。 9時24分, 30 ; 11時12 -1 3;行為1 5) 。 All those elected and predestined to become God's people, both Jew and Gentile, would indeed enter the covenant relationship.所有當選人,並注定要成為上帝的人,無論是猶太人和gentile ,的確會進入盟約關係。 But they would do so only through the One who would be the elect Mediator (Isa. 42:1ff.; 53:1ff.; cf. Matt. 12:18).但他們這樣做,只能通過一個人會成為選舉的調停人(以賽亞書42:1幾段; 53:1幾段;比照馬特。 12時18分) 。

In the NT the OT doctrines of election and predestination are expanded and clarified.在新台幣職能治療學說的選舉和宿命,是擴大和澄清。 There was no attempt to reject or alter them, but they are given a more clearly universal scope.有沒有試圖否定或改變他們,但他們有一個更明確的普遍範圍。 Christ claimed that he was the mediator spoken of in the OT, and that to him the Father had given his elect people (Mark 1:15; Luke 4:21; John 5:39; 10:14ff.).基督宣稱他的行為是調停人談到,在城市旅遊局,並以他父親給他的當選人(馬克1:15 ;路加福音4時21分;約翰5點39分; 10時14分幾段) 。 Furthermore, he stated very clearly that he had come to lay down his life as redeemer for his people.此外,他說得很清楚,他已經到了放下他的生命作為救贖主,為他的人民。 This is the theme of both his sermon in John 10 and his prayer for his own in John 17.這是主題,他的講道中,在約翰10和他的祈禱,為他自己在約翰17 。 He promised that his people would all come to him and would persevere in their faith unto eternal life (John 6:39, 65; 10:28ff.).他許諾說,他的人都來給他,並會堅持他們的信仰祂永恆的生命(約翰6時39分, 65個; 10:28幾段) 。 True, as the incarnate Son of God his righteousness was such that his life, death, and resurrection were sufficient in their merits for all men, but as he himself pointed out, his mediatorial work was directed to the salvation of his people only (John 17).不錯,作為肉身的神的兒子,他是正義的,是這樣的說,他的生命,死亡,與復活足以在它們的優點,為所有男性,但正如他本人所指出的,他mediatorial工作,是針對以拯救他的人民只(約翰。 17 ) 。 In this he was fulfilling the teaching of the OT.在此,他是在履行教學職能治療。

Such was also the position of the apostles.例如,也是地位的使徒。 The book of Acts gives a number of examples of apostolic teaching on this matter.這本書的行為給出了一些實例使徒的教誨就這件事。 In his sermon at Pentecost, Peter gives a clear indication of the sovereignty of God and the responsibility of man (Acts 2:14ff.).在他的講道,在聖神降臨,彼得給出一個明確的跡象顯示該國主權的上帝和責任人(使徒2時14分幾段) 。 The speech of Stephen in chapter 7, Peter's call to witness to Cornelius (10:24ff.), and various other passages present the same doctrines.講話的斯蒂芬在第7章,彼得的號召,以見證科尼利厄斯( 10:24以後) ,以及其他各種通道,目前同樣的教條。 In Peter's and John's letters and in the Apocalypse these themes of God's sovereignty, man's responsibility, and God's election and predestination of people reappear constantly.在彼得和約翰的信,並在啟示這些主題的上帝的主權,人的責任,和上帝的選舉與宿命的人捉獲不斷。

The apostolic writer who gives the clearest exposition of the doctrine, however, is Paul.使徒作家是誰給的最明確的闡述教義,不過,是保羅。 While he refers to the doctrine of predestination in passing in a number of places, he expounds the doctrine in detail in Rom.雖然他是指以中庸宿命順便在一些地方,他闡述了理論中的詳細光盤。 8:29 - 11:36 and throws further light on it in Eph. 8時29分-1 1時3 6分,並經過進一步揭示它在厄。 1. 1 。 In these passages he stresses the hopeless condition of man in his sinfulness and the fact that because of man's disobedience and rebellion God not only turns from him but hardens him in his sinfulness (Rom. 9:14ff.).在這些通道,他強調無望的情況男子在他的罪孽和事實,因為人的不服從和反抗上帝不僅輪流由他變硬,但他在他的罪孽(羅馬書9時14分幾段) 。 At the same time, however, he reaches out and draws to himself those whom he has chosen from all eternity, redeeming and justifying them in Jesus Christ (Rom. 10:11ff.; Eph. 1:4ff.).在同一時間,不過,他達到了,並提請自己的人,他選擇從所有永恆,挽救和辯護,他們在耶穌(羅馬書10:11幾段;以弗所書1:4幾段) 。 Yet in all of this is the mystery of God's sovereign action and man's responsibility (Rom. 9:19; 11:33).然而,在這一切的奧秘,上帝的主權行動與人的責任(羅馬書9時19分; 11時33分) 。 And in all things the glory of God's righteousness is made manifest (Rom. 9:16ff.).並在一切事上榮耀上帝的公義,是詩班(羅馬書9時16分幾段) 。

These doctrines have continued to raise questions ever since the days of the apostles, but especially since the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century, when they were formulated most precisely.這些學說不斷提出問題,自天的使徒,但尤其是因為新教改革的16世紀,當他們制定了最精確。 Despite their biblical basis both Christians and non Christians have rejected them on various grounds.儘管他們的聖經依據基督徒與非基督徒都拒絕了他們的各種理由。 If all human beings are sinners and God is sovereign, then he must be the author of sin and is unjust in punishing anyone.如果所有的人都是罪人,上帝是一個主權的話,他必須是作者的罪惡和不公,是在懲罰任何人。 Furthermore, what is the basis upon which God makes his choice?此外,依據是什麼時,真主使他的選擇嗎? Is he not arbitrary; and if not, is he not then a respecter of persons?他是不是任意的;如果沒有,是他不那麼尊重人的嗎? If these doctrines are true, do they not destroy any desire, even any necessity, for a human being to seek to live a moral life, to do justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly with God?如果這些理論是真的話,他們不破壞任何的慾望,甚至沒有必要,對一個人尋求過道德生活,要做到公正,愛慈悲,並以步行謙卑與上帝嗎? All these questions are put forward, and many of those who do so feel that they have now answered and condemned the doctrines effectively.所有這些問題都提出了,其中很多人這樣做,覺得他們現在的回答,並譴責學說有效。 They forget, however, that these questions were all raised in the time of Christ and the apostles (John 10:19ff.; Rom. 9:19ff.).他們忘記了,但是,這些問題,都提出了在的時候,耶穌和使徒(約翰十法郎;光盤。 9時19分幾段) 。

That these doctrines are set forth in both testaments would seem to be clear, along with great stress upon God's sovereign righteousness and holiness.這些理論闡述都證明了,似乎應該清楚,隨著巨大壓力上帝的主權正義與聖德。 But no further explanation is offered, and beyond what the Scriptures have to say finite man cannot go and, if he accepts the authority of the Bible as God's Word, will not wish to go.但目前還沒有進一步的解釋是,所提供的,及以後有什麼經文必須說,有限的人不能去,如果他接受權威的聖經,因為神的話語,會不想去。 All one can say is what Job said when rebuked by God (Job. 42:1 - 6) or what Paul said when closing his exposition of these doctrines (Rom. 11:33 - 36).所有的人可以說的是什麼工作時說,責罵神( job. 42:1 -6 ) ,或什麼是保羅說,當關閉他的論述,這些理論(羅馬書1 1時3 3分- 36 )。 God's wisdom and grace are beyond every creature's comprehension or understanding.上帝的智慧和恩典是超越一切造物的理解或諒解。 One can but bow in worship and praise.可以,但弓在崇拜和讚美。 Those who do so have within them a sense of comfort and strength which is not their own, but which is a gift of God to enable them to face the world with confidence and enable them to mind.那些這樣做符合他們的責任感安慰和力量,這是不是他們自己的國家,但它們是神的恩賜,使他們能面對世界與信心,使他們難以忘懷。

WS Reid被里德

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
L Boettner, The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination; J Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion 3:21 - 24 and The Eternal Predestination of God; C Hodge, Systematic Theology; J Murray, Calvin on Scripture and Divine Sovereignty; BB Warfield, Biblical Doctrines.升boettner ,經過改革學說的宿命; j卡爾文學院的基督教3時21 -2 4和永恆的宿命上帝; c H odge的,有系統的神學; j默里,卡爾文對聖經和神的主權; B B心跳沃菲爾德,聖經教義。


Predestination宿命

Advanced Information 先進的信息

This word is properly used only with reference to God's plan or purpose of salvation.這個字是用得其所,只有參考上帝的計劃或目的的救贖。 The Greek word rendered "predestinate" is found only in these six passages, Acts 4:28; Rom.希臘字,使" predestinate " ,是只有在這6個通道,行為4時28分;光碟。 8:29, 30; 1 Cor. 8時29分, 30日1肺心病。 2:7; Eph. 2時07分;厄。 1:5, 11; and in all of them it has the same meaning. 1:5 , 11 ,而且在它們都具有相同的意義。 They teach that the eternal, sovereign, immutable, and unconditional decree or "determinate purpose" of God governs all events.他們教導說,永恆的,主權的,一成不變的,無條件的法令或"確定的宗旨"的神管了所有的活動。 This doctrine of predestination or election is beset with many difficulties.這種學說的宿命或參加選舉,是困擾著許多困難。 It belongs to the "secret things" of God.它屬於"秘密事情"的上帝。

But if we take the revealed word of God as our guide, we must accept this doctrine with all its mysteriousness, and settle all our questionings in the humble, devout acknowledgment, "Even so, Father: for so it seemed good in thy sight."但是,如果我們以顯示上帝的話,作為我們的指導,我們必須接受這個學說及其所有mysteriousness ,並解決所有我們questionings在謙卑,虔誠的承認, "即使如此,父親:這麼看來好你的視線。 " For the teaching of Scripture on this subject let the following passages be examined in addition to those referred to above; Gen. 21:12; Ex.為教學的經文中就這個問題,讓以下段落進行審查,除了上面提到的那些;上將21時12分;特惠。 9:16; 33:19; Deut. 9時16分; 33:19 ; deut 。 10:15; 32:8; Josh. 10:15 ; 32:8 ;喬什。 11:20; 1 Sam. 11:20 1薩姆。 12:22; 2 Chr. 12:22 2人權中心。 6:6; Ps. 6時06分;聚苯乙烯。 33:12; 65:4; 78: 68; 135:4; Isa. 33:12 ; 65:4 ; 78 : 68 ; 135:4 ;伊薩。 41:1-10; Jer. 41:1-10 ;哲。 1:5; Mark 13:20; Luke 22:22; John 6:37; 15:16; 17:2, 6, 9; Acts 2:28; 3:18; 4:28; 13: 48; 17:26; Rom. 1:5 ;大關13:20 ;盧克22時22分;約翰6時37分; 15:16 ; 17時02分, 6日, 9日;行徑2時28分; 3時18分; 4時28分, 13 : 48 , 17 : 26條;光碟。 9:11, 18, 21; 11:5; Eph. 9時11分, 18日, 21日; 11時05分;厄。 3:11; 1 Thess. 3時11分,一帖。 1:4; 2 Thess. 1:4 , 2帖。 2:13; 2 Tim. 2時13分, 2添。 1:9; Titus 1:2; 1 Pet. 1時09分;弟兄1:2一日寵物。 1:2. 1:2 。 (See Election.) Hodge has well remarked that, "rightly understood, this doctrine (1) exalts the majesty and absolute sovereignty of God, while it illustrates the riches of his free grace and his just displeasure with sin. (2.) It enforces upon us the essential truth that salvation is entirely of grace. That no one can either complain if passed over, or boast himself if saved. (3.) It brings the inquirer to absolute self-despair and the cordial embrace of the free offer of Christ. (4.) In the case of the believer who has the witness in himself, this doctrine at once deepens his humility and elevates his confidence to the full assurance of hope" (Outlines). (見選舉) 。霍奇早已表示, "正確地理解,這種學說( 1 ) exalts了國王陛下與絕對主權的上帝,而這顯示出的財富,他的自由恩典和他只是不滿與單仲偕( 2 ) ,它執行後,我們的基本道理,救恩是完全的恩典。表示,沒有人可以抱怨,如果獲得通過,或者誇耀自己,如果救。 ( 3 )它使問訊,以絕對的自我絕望和親切擁抱的免費提供基督的復活。 (四)在案件的信徒,他們有證人本人,這種學說在一次加深了他的謙遜和提升他的信心,以充分保證的希望" (綱要) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Predestination宿命

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

Predestination (Latin prœ, destinare), taken in its widest meaning, is every Divine decree by which God, owing to His infallible prescience of the future, has appointed and ordained from eternity all events occurring in time, especially those which directly proceed from, or at least are influenced by, man's free will.宿命(拉丁語prœ , destinare ) ,在其最廣泛的含義,是每一個神聖的法令,其中神,由於他犯錯之明的未來,已任命和祝聖,從永恆所有事件發生的時間,尤其是那些直接從,或者至少是受人的自由意志。 It includes all historical facts, as for instance the appearance of Napoleon or the foundation of the United States, and particularly the turning-points in the history of supernatural salvation, as the mission of Moses and the Prophets, or the election of Mary to the Divine Motherhood.它包括所有的歷史事實,因為,例如外表拿破崙還是立黨之本,美國,尤其是轉折點,在歷史上的超自然的救恩,因為特派團的摩西和先知,或選舉佑向神聖的母親。 Taken in this general sense, predestination clearly coincides with Divine Providence and with the government of the world, which do not fall within the scope of this article (see DIVINE PROVIDENCE).在這方面採取的一般意義上說,宿命清楚,剛好與神的意志和與政府合作的世界中,不屬於該範圍的這篇文章(見神的眷顧) 。

I. NOTION OF PREDESTINATION一,概念的宿命

Theology restricts the term to those Divine decrees which have reference to the supernatural end of rational beings, especially of man.神學限制任期的那些神聖的法令,其中有參考超自然年底理性的人,尤其是男子。 Considering that not all men reach their supernatural end in heaven, but that many are eternally lost through their own fault, there must exist a twofold predestination: (a) one to heaven for all those who die in the state of grace; (b) one to the pains of hell for all those who depart in sin or under God's displeasure.考慮到不是所有的男人達到超自然年底在天堂,但許多是永遠失去了通過自己的過失,有一定存在雙重的宿命: (一)一至天堂對於所有那些死在國家的寬限期; (二)一至的痛苦地獄對於所有那些背離單或根據上帝的不悅之情。 However, according to present usages to which we shall adhere in the course of the article, it is better to call the latter decree the Divine "reprobation", so that the term predestination is reserved for the Divine decree of the happiness of the elect.不過,根據目前的慣例,這是我們將堅守在這個過程中的文章,最好是請後者法令神聖的" reprobation " ,所以,這個術語宿命,是預留給神聖的法令幸福的選舉。

A 1

The notion of predestination comprises two essential elements: God's infallible foreknowledge (prœscientia), and His immutable decree (decretum) of eternal happiness.概念的宿命包括兩個基本要素:上帝不會犯錯誤foreknowledge ( prœscientia ) ,和他一成不變的政令( decretum )永恆的幸福。 The theologian who, following in the footsteps of the Pelagians, would limit the Divine activity to the eternal foreknowledge and exclude the Divine will, would at once fall into Deism, which asserts that God, having created all things, leaves man and the universe to their fate and refrains from all active interference.神學家的人,繼在腳步聲的pelagians ,會限制神的活動,以永恆foreknowledge和排除神意,將立刻陷入自然神論,它聲稱,上帝創造了一切事物,樹葉,人與宇宙他們的命運不再由一切積極干預。 Though the purely natural gifts of God, as descent from pious parents, good education, and the providential guidance of man's external career, may also be called effects of predestination, still, strictly speaking, the term implies only those blessings which lie in the supernatural sphere, as sanctifying grace, all actual graces, and among them in particular those which carry with them final perseverance and a happy death.雖然純粹自然的饋贈神的存在,因為出身,從虔誠的家長,優秀教育工作者,以及天賜指導,以人的外在職業生涯中,也可能被所謂的影響宿命,不過,嚴格來說,這個詞意味著只有那些祝福,而在於對超自然領域中,作為sanctifying恩典,所有實際的青睞,其中特別是那些帶有他們最後毅力和快樂的死因。 Since in reality only those reach heaven who die in the state of justification or sanctifying grace, all these and only these are numbered among the predestined, strictly so called.因為在現實中只有那些達到升天的人死於該國的正當理由或sanctifying恩典,所有這些,只有這些都是編號之間命中註定,嚴格所謂。 From this it follows that we must reckon among them also all children who die in baptismal grace, as well as those adults who, after a life stained with sin, are converted on their death-beds.從這個因此,我們一定要算當中,也都死亡兒童中洗禮的恩典,以及那些成人後,生活沾滿了罪惡,被轉換對他們的死床。 The same is true of the numerous predestined who, though outside the pale of the true Church of Christ, yet depart from this life in the state of grace as catechumens, Protestants in good faith, schismatics, Jews, Mahommedans, and pagans.同樣如此眾多的命中註定的人,雖然外面蒼白的真正基督的教會,但偏離這項生活中的狀態,寬限期為慕道者,新教徒誠意, schismatics ,猶太人, mahommedans ,和異教徒。 Those fortunate Catholics who at the close of a long life are still clothed in their baptismal innocence, or who after many relapses into mortal sin persevere till the end, are not indeed predestined more firmly, but are more signally favoured than the last-named categories of persons.這些幸運的天主教徒,他們在結束一個長壽命仍在溫飽,在自己的領洗清白人,或經過多次復發成致命的罪過堅持到底,是不是確實命中註定更加堅定,但更signally最惠國比去年命名分類的人的問題。

But even when man's supernatural end alone is taken into consideration, the term predestination is not always used by theologians in an unequivocal sense.但即使是當人類的超自然年底,僅是考慮到,宿命一詞並不總是使用由神學家,在一個明確的意識。 This need not astonish us, seeing that predestination may comprise wholly diverse things.這無須震驚,我們看到宿命可能全部由多樣的東西。 If taken in its adequate meaning (prœdestinatio adœquata or completa), then predestination refers to both grace and glory as a whole, including not only the election to glory as the end, but also the election to grace as the means, the vocation to the faith, justification, and final perseverance, with which a happy death is inseparably connected.如果採取適當的,其含義( prœdestinatio adœquata或完整) ,然後宿命既指恩典和榮耀,作為一個整體,不僅包括各項選舉,以作為光榮結束,而且還當選為寬限期作為手段,也是天職,以信仰,理由,並最終毅力,其中有一個愉快的死亡是密不可分的關連。 This is the meaning of St. Augustine's words (De dono persever., xxxv): "Prædestinatio nihil est aliud quam præscientia et præparatio beneficiorum, quibus certissime liberantur [ie salvantur], quicunque liberantur" (Predestination is nothing else than the foreknowledge and foreordaining of those gracious gifts which make certain the salvation of all who are saved).這是意義的聖奧古斯丁的話(德供體persever ,三十五)說: " prædestinatio nihil預測aliud怎麼præscientia等præparatio beneficiorum , quibus certissime liberantur [即salvantur ] , quicunque liberantur " (宿命是什麼都沒有了,比foreknowledge和foreordaining那些殷勤禮物,使某些拯救所有的人都救) 。 But the two concepts of grace and glory may be separated and each of them be made the object of a special predestination.但是這兩個概念的恩典和榮耀,可被分割出去,他們每個人被列作對象的一個特殊宿命。 The result is the so-called inadequate predestination (prœdestinatio inadœquata or incompleta), either to grace alone or to glory alone.結果就是所謂的宿命不足( prœdestinatio inadœquata或incompleta ) ,要么給宏單獨或走向輝煌。 Like St. Paul, Augustine, too, speaks of an election to grace apart from the celestial glory (loc. cit., xix): "Prædestinatio est gratiæ præparatio, gratia vero jam ipsa donatio."像聖保羅,奧古斯丁,也談到選舉,以恩典除了由天體的榮耀( loc.引文中,十九)說: " prædestinatio預測gratiæ præparatio ,特惠的Vero果醬ipsa donatio " 。 It is evident, however, that this (inadequate) predestination does not exclude the possibility that one chosen to grace, faith, and justification goes nevertheless to hell.這是顯而易見的,然而,這(不足)宿命並不排除可能有一個選擇的恩典,信仰和理由去不過地獄之路。 Hence we may disregard it, since it is at bottom simply another term for the universality of God's salvific will and of the distribution of grace among all men (see GRACE).因此,我們可以不理它,因為它是自下而上的只是另一種的任期為普遍性的上帝的salvific意志和分配寬限期間所有男子(見寬限期) 。 Similarly eternal election to glory alone, that is, without regard to the preceding merits through grace, must be designated as (inadequate) predestination.同樣永恆的選舉走向輝煌的單,也就是沒有考慮到前面的優點,透過恩典,必須指定為(不足)的宿命。 Though the possibility of the latter is at once clear to the reflecting mind, yet its actuality is strongly contested by the majority of theologians, as we shall see further on (under sect. III).雖然可能性,後者是在一旦明確向反映介意,但其現狀的強烈爭議,大多數神學家,我們將看到關於進一步(下節三) 。 From these explanations it is plain that the real dogma of eternal election is exclusively concerned with adequate predestination, which embraces both grace and glory and the essence of which St. Thomas (I, Q. xxiii, a. 2) defines as: "Præparatio gratiæ in præsenti et gloriæ in futuro" (the foreordination of grace in the present and of glory in the future).從這些解釋,它是平原都知道,真正的教條的永恆選舉是專門涉及足夠的宿命,其中包含了雙方的恩典和榮耀和精神實質,其中聖托馬斯(一,問:二十三, 2 )定義為: " præparatio gratiæ在præsenti等gloriæ在futuro " ( foreordination的寬限期,在當前和輝煌,在未來的) 。

In order to emphasize how mysterious and unapproachable is Divine election, the Council of Trent calls predestination "hidden mystery".為了強調如何神秘,不可接近的,是神聖的選舉中,安理會的遄達呼籲宿命"隱藏的奧秘" 。 That predestination is indeed a sublime mystery appears not only from the fact that the depths of the eternal counsel cannot be fathomed, it is even externally visible in the inequality of the Divine choice.這宿命的確是一個偉大的奧跡,似乎並非只從事實深處的永恆律師不能fathomed ,更是外在的有形,在不平等的神聖選擇。 The unequal standard by which baptismal grace is distributed among infants and efficacious graces among adults is hidden from our view by an impenetrable veil.不平等的標準,其中洗禮的恩典,是將分佈於嬰幼兒和有效的青睞成年人隱患,從我們的觀點堅不可摧的面紗。 Could we gain a glimpse at the reasons of this inequality, we should at once hold the key to the solution of the mystery itself.我們可以爭取一個目睹這個原因,這種不平等,我們應立即將持有的關鍵,解決這個謎本身。 Why is it that this child is baptized, but not the child of the neighbour?為什麼說這孩子受洗的,而不是孩子的鄰居嗎? Why is it that Peter the Apostle rose again after his fall and persevered till his death, while Judas Iscariot, his fellow-Apostle, hanged himself and thus frustrated his salvation?為什麼說彼得使徒再次上升後回落,仍百折不撓,直到他去世,而猶大iscariot ,他的老鄉使徒上吊自殺,並因此感到氣餒,他救贖? Though correct, the answer that Judas went to perdition of his own free will, while Peter faithfully co-operated with the grace of conversion offered him, does not clear up the enigma.雖然正確的,答案猶大到滅亡他自己的自由意志,而彼得忠實合作經營與恩典的轉化提供了他,並不清楚了謎。 For the question recurs: Why did not God give to Judas the same efficacious, infallibly successful grace of conversion as to St. Peter, whose blasphemous denial of the Lord was a sin no less grievous than that of the traitor Judas?對於屢次提及的問題:為什麼沒有上帝給猶大一樣有效, infallibly成功的恩典轉換,以聖彼得大教堂,其褻瀆否認上帝是一種罪過不低於他人比的漢奸猶大? To all these and similar questions the only reasonable reply is the word of St. Augustine (loc. cit., 21): "Inscrutabilia sunt judicia Dei" (the judgments of God are inscrutable).所有這些以及類似的問題,唯一合理的答复是,這個詞的聖奧古斯丁( loc.引文中, 21日)說: " inscrutabilia必須遵守judicia dei " (該判決是上帝的高深莫測) 。

B b

The counterpart of the predestination of the good is the reprobation of the wicked, or the eternal decree of God to cast all men into hell of whom He foresaw that they would die in the state of sin as his enemies.對口的宿命的好,是reprobation的惡人,還是永恆的法令上帝投下所有男人變成地獄的人,他預見到,他們會死在國家的罪過,因為他的敵人。 This plan of Divine reprobation may be conceived either as absolute and unconditional or as hypothetical and conditional, according as we consider it as dependent on, or independent of, the infallible foreknowledge of sin, the real reason of reprobation.這一計劃的神聖reprobation可能被設想作為絕對和無條件地或作為假設的和有條件的,按照我們考慮它作為依賴,或獨立的,不會犯錯誤的foreknowledge罪惡的,真正的原因reprobation 。 If we understand eternal condemnation to be an absolute unconditional decree of God, its theological possibility is affirmed or denied according as the question whether it involves a positive, or only a negative, reprobation is answered in the affirmative or in the negative.如果我們了解永恆的譴責,是一個絕對無條件法令上帝的,其神學的可能性是肯定或否認,因為根據該問題是否涉及一個正面的,或僅是一個負面的, reprobation是肯定的答复還是否定的。 The conceptual difference between the two kinds of reprobation lies in this, that negative reprobation merely implies the absolute will not to grant the bliss of heaven while positive reprobation means the absolute will to condemn to hell.概念性區別2種reprobation在於在這方面,即負reprobation僅僅意味著絕對不會給予極樂的天堂,同時積極reprobation意味著絕對會譴責地獄之路。 In other words, those who are reprobated merely negatively are numbered among the non-predestined from all eternity; those who are reprobated positively are directly predestined to hell from all eternity and have been created for this very purpose.或者換句話說,那些reprobated只是消極的編號其中非命中註定,從所有永恆;那些reprobated積極的,直接注定了地獄,從所有永恆的,並已創造了這個目的。 It was Calvin who elaborated the repulsive doctrine that an absolute Divine decree from all eternity positively predestined part of mankind to hell and, in order to obtain this end effectually, also to sin.這是卡爾文人闡述了令人厭惡的學說認為,一個絕對神聖的法令,從所有永恆積極命中註定的一部分,是全人類的地獄中,為了獲得這個目的,有效,也為了罪過。 The Catholic advocates of an unconditional reprobation evade the charge of heresy only by imposing a twofold restriction on their hypothesis: (a) that the punishment of hell can, in time, be inflicted only on account of sin, and from all eternity can be decreed only on account of foreseen malice, while sin itself is not to be regarded as the sheer effect of the absolute Divine will, but only as the result of God's permission; (b) that the eternal plan of God can never intend a positive reprobation to hell, but only a negative reprobation, that is to say, an exclusion from heaven.天主教主張的無條件reprobation逃避收費的異端只有實行雙重限制,對他們的假說: (一)說,該處罰的地獄,可以在時間,會造成只考慮到單,並從所有永恆的,可以發布命令只有對帳戶的預見,惡有惡報,而單本身是不被視為純粹的效果絕對神意,但只作為的結果,上帝的許可; (二)永恆計劃的神只要一想就能永遠不會打算積極向reprobation地獄,但只有一負reprobation ,也就是說,排除來自天堂。 These restrictions are evidently demanded by the formulation of the concept itself, since the attributes of Divine sanctity and justice must be kept inviolate (see GOD).這些限制是很明顯的要求制定這一概念本身,因為屬性是神聖的神聖性和正義必須保持不可侵犯(見上帝) 。 Consequently, if we consider that God's sanctity will never allow Him to will sin positively even though He foresees it in His permissive decree with infallible certainty, and that His justice can foreordain, and in time actually inflict, hell as a punishment only by reason of the sin foreseen, we understand the definition of eternal reprobation given by Peter Lombard (I. Sent., dist. 40): "Est præscientia iniquitatis quorundam et præparatio damnationis eorundem" (it is the foreknowledge of the wickedness of some men and the foreordaining of their damnation).因此,如果我們認為上帝的神聖性,絕不會允許他將單積極,即使他預期在他的寬容法令與犯錯的肯定,並認為他可以司法foreordain ,並在當時所造成的,其實,地獄作為一種懲罰手段,只有原因罪惡預見,我們理解的定義,永恆reprobation給予彼得倫巴第(一發出,區40個)說: "我的præscientia iniquitatis quorundam等præparatio damnationis eorundem " (它是foreknowledge的邪惡有的男人和foreordaining他們damnation ) 。 Cf.比照。 Scheeben, "Mysterien des Christentums" (2nd ed., Freiburg, 1898), 98-103. scheeben , " mysterien萬christentums " (第二版,弗賴堡, 1898 ) , 98-103 。

II.二。 THE CATHOLIC DOGMA天主教教條

Reserving the theological controversies for the next section, we deal here only with those articles of faith relating to predestination and reprobation, the denial of which would involve heresy.保留神學爭論,為下一段,我們在處理這裡只有上述各條規定的信仰與宿命和reprobation ,拒絕將涉及異端。

A. The Predestination of the Elect答:宿命的選舉

He who would place the reason of predestination either in man alone or in God alone would inevitably be led into heretical conclusions about eternal election.他的人會發生原因的宿命無論是在男子單用或只有上帝將不可避免地被牽去邪結論永恆的選舉。 In the one case the error concerns the last end, in the other the means to that end.在一個案件中的錯誤涉及到去年年底,在其他手段來實現這一目標。 Let it be noted that we do not speak of the "cause" of predestination, which would be either the efficient cause (God), or the instrumental cause (grace), or the final cause (God's honour), or the primary meritorious cause, but of the reason or motive which induced God from all eternity to elect certain definite individuals to grace and glory.我們必須注意,我們不說"事業"的宿命,而會被有效率的原因(神) ,或器樂事業(寬限期) ,即最終原因(上帝的榮譽) ,或首要功臣事業的,但原因或動機,從而誘導上帝從所有永恆選出某些明確個人的恩典和榮耀。 The principal question then is: Does the natural merit of man exert perhaps some influence on the Divine election to grace and glory?主要問題是:是否有天然的優點男子施加或許有些影響,對神選的恩典和榮耀? If we recall the dogma of the absolute gratuity of Christian grace, our answer must be outright negative (see GRACE).如果我們回顧教條的絕對酬金基督教恩典,我們的答案必須買斷負(見寬限期) 。 To the further question whether Divine predestination does not at least take into account the supernatural good works, the Church answers with the doctrine that heaven is not given to the elect by a purely arbitrary act of God's will, but that it is also the reward of the personal merits of the justified (see MERIT).為了進一步的問題是,是否神聖宿命並不至少顧及超自然的優秀作品,教會答案與學說認為,天上是不會考慮到選舉由一個純粹任意上帝的旨意的意志為轉移,但它也是懸賞個人優點的理由(見好處) 。 Those who, like the Pelagians, seek the reason for predestination only in man's naturally good works, evidently misjudge the nature of the Christian heaven which is an absolutely supernatural destiny.那些像pelagians ,尋求原因宿命,只有在人的自然是好的作品,顯然是錯判的性質,基督教的天堂,這絕對是一種超自然的命運。 As Pelagianism puts the whole economy of salvation on a purely natural basis, so it regards predestination in particular not as a special grace, much less as the supreme grace, but only as a reward for natural merit.作為佩拉糾學派,使整個經濟體系的救贖一個純粹自然的基礎上,所以這方面宿命尤其不能作為一個特殊的恩典,更遑論作為最高的寬限期,但只作為回報自然是有道理的。

The Semipelagians, too, depreciated the gratuity and the strictly supernatural character of eternal happiness by ascribing at least the beginning of faith (initium fidei) and final perseverance (donum perseverantiœ) to the exertion of man's natural powers, and not to the initiative of preventing grace.該semipelagians也貶值約滿酬金和嚴格超自然的性質永恆的幸福所指稱,至少在一開始的信仰( initium信) ,並最終毅力(德與恩寵perseverantiœ ) ,以發揮人的自然權力,而不是主動的預防恩典。 This is one class of heresies which, slighting God and His grace, makes all salvation depend on man alone.這是一類的歪理邪說,其中,輕視上帝和他的恩典,使得所有的救贖,靠的就是人。 But no less grave are the errors into which a second group falls by making God alone responsible for everything, and abolishing the free co-operation of the will in obtaining eternal happiness.但同樣是嚴重的錯誤,把其中第二組有瀑布,使神單獨負責一切,並取消自由者的合作意願,在獲得永恆的幸福。 This is done by the advocates of heretical Predestinarianism, embodied in its purest form in Calvinism and Jansenism.這樣做所提倡異端predestinarianism ,體現在它精純的形式在加爾文和jansenism 。 Those who seek the reason of predestination solely in the absolute Will of God are logically forced to admit an irresistibly efficacious grace (gratia irresistibilis), to deny the freedom of the will when influenced by grace and wholly to reject supernatural merits (as a secondary reason for eternal happiness).那些尋求理由的宿命,純粹的絕對上帝的意志是邏輯上也不得不承認,一個勢不可擋有效的恩典(特惠irresistibilis ) ,否定了自由意志的時候,受到的恩典和完全拒絕超自然的優點(作為一個次要原因永恆的幸福) 。 And since in this system eternal damnation, too, finds its only explanation in the Divine will, it further follows that concupiscence acts on the sinful will with an irresistible force, that there the will is not really free to sin, and that demerits cannot be the cause of eternal damnation.而且由於在這個系統中的永恆damnation ,也認定,其唯一的解釋,在神聖的,它進一步跟隨concupiscence行為對罪孽深重的意志與不可抗拒的力量,有意志,是不是真的免費,以單,並記過不能事業的永恆damnation 。

Between these two extremes the Catholic dogma of predestination keeps the golden mean, because it regards eternal happiness primarily as the work of God and His grace, but secondarily as the fruit and reward of the meritorious actions of the predestined.這兩種極端之間天主教教條的宿命保持中庸,因為它對於永恆的幸福,主要是因為工作的上帝和他的恩典,但是,其次為水果和獎勵的有功行動的命中註定。 The process of predestination consists of the following five steps: (a) the first grace of vocation, especially faith as the beginning, foundation, and root of justification; (b) a number of additional, actual graces for the successful accomplishment of justification; (c) justification itself as the beginning of the state of grace and love; (d) final perseverance or at least the grace of a happy death; (e) lastly, the admission to eternal bliss.過程中的宿命包括以下五個步驟: (一)第一恩典的天職,特別是信仰作為開端,地基和根系的理由; (二)增加多項,實際青睞,為成功地完成理由; (三)有自己的理由,因為一開始的,國家的恩典和愛; (四)最後的毅力,或者至少恩典有一個愉快的死亡; (五)最後,入學永恆的極樂世界。 If it is a truth of Revelation that there are many who, following this path, seek and find their eternal salvation with infallible certainty, then the existence of Divine predestination is proved (cf. Matthew 25:34; Revelation 20:15).如果這是一個真理的啟示,有很多人,走這條道路,尋求並找到自己的永恆的救贖與犯錯確定性,那是存在的神的宿命是證明(參見馬太25:34 ;啟示20:15 ) 。 St. Paul says quite explicitly (Romans 8:28 sq.): "we know that to them that love God, all things work together unto good, to such as, according to his purpose, are called to be saints. For whom he foreknew, he also predestinated to be made conformable to the image of his Son; that he might be the first born amongst many brethren. And whom he predestinated, them he also called. And whom he called, them he also justified. And whom he justified, them he also glorified."聖保祿說相當明確地(羅馬書8時28平方)說: "我們知道,讓他們知道愛上帝,一切事物共同努力所不欲好,例如,根據他的目的,都被聖人的人,他foreknew ,他還predestinated須符合的形象,他的兒子,他有可能成為第一位出生的,其中有很多的謠言。為誰他predestinated ,他自己也稱,而且他所謂的,他自己也有道理,而且他的人合理的,他自己也歌頌" 。 (Cf. Ephesians 1:4-11) Besides the eternal "foreknowledge" and foreordaining, the Apostle here mentions the various steps of predestination: "vocation", "justification", and "glorification". (見以弗所書1:4-11 )除了永恆的" foreknowledge " foreordaining ,使徒保羅在這裡提到的各種步驟的宿命: "天職" , "理由" , "美化" 。 This belief has been faithfully preserved by Tradition through all the centuries, especially since the time of Augustine.這個信念一直忠實地保存了傳統的通過所有幾個世紀以來,特別是時間的奧古斯丁。

There are three other qualities of predestination which must be noticed, because they are important and interesting from the theological standpoint: its immutability, the definiteness of the number of the predestined, and its subjective uncertainty.有三個其他素質的宿命必須予以注意的,因為它們都是非常重要和有趣的,從神學的立場:它的變通,更為確切的數量的命中註定,其主觀不確定性。

(1) The first quality, the immutability of the Divine decree, is based both on the infallible foreknowledge of God that certain, quite determined individuals will leave this life in the state of grace, and on the immutable will of God to give precisely to these men and to no others eternal happiness as a reward for their supernatural merits. ( 1 )第一素質,而不可改變的神聖法令,是基於雙方對犯錯foreknowledge上帝說,可以肯定,相當確定個人將離開這個生活在該國的風度,以及對一成不變的意志,上帝給恰恰這些男子,並沒有其他人的永恆幸福,為表揚他們超自然的可取之處。 Consequently, the whole future membership of heaven, down to its minutest details, with all the different measures of grace and the various degrees of happiness, has been irrevocably fixed from all eternity.因此,整個未來成員的天堂,下降至minutest細節,但是所有不同措施的恩典和不同程度的幸福,已經不可逆轉地固定,從所有永恆。 Nor could it be otherwise.也不可能是相反。 For if it were possible that a predestined individual should after all be cast into hell or that one not predestined should in the end reach heaven, then God would have been mistaken in his foreknowledge of future events; He would no longer be omniscient.因為如果它被另一個可能性是命中註定個人應畢竟被投入地獄,或一個不命中註定要在年底前達成的天堂,然後上帝一直誤以為他在foreknowledge的未來事件,他將不再無所不知。 Hence the Good Shepherd says of his sheep (John 10:28): "And I give them life everlasting; and they shalt not perish forever, and no man shall pluck them out of my hand."因此,好牧人說,他的羊(約翰福音10:28 )說: "我給他們的生命永恆;它們不可永遠消亡,並沒有任何人不得採摘出來的我的手" 。 But we must beware of conceiving the immutability of predestination either as fatalistic in the sense of the Mahommedan kismet or as a convenient pretext for idle resignation to inexorable fate.但是,我們必須提防的構想不可改變的宿命無論是聽天由命,在意義上的mahommedan先秦"天命或作為一個方便的藉口,閒置辭職的必然命運。 God's infallible foreknowledge cannot force upon man unavoidable coercion, for the simple reason that it is at bottom nothing else than the eternal vision of the future historical actuality.上帝不會犯錯誤foreknowledge不能強迫男子脅迫不可避免的,原因很簡單,它是在底部就什麼都沒有比永恆展望未來的歷史現狀。 God foresees the free activity of a man precisely as that individual is willing to shape it.上帝預見到自由活動的一名男子,正是因為這是個人願意形狀。 Whatever may promote the work of our salvation, whether our own prayers and good works, or the prayers of others in our behalf, is eo ipso included in the infallible foreknowledge of God and consequently in the scope of predestination (cf. St. Thomas, I, Q. xxiii, a. 8).不管有可能促進挽救我們的工作,無論是我們自己的祈禱和好的作品,或者祈禱別人為我們仗義執言,是僱傭條例當然包括在犯錯foreknowledge上帝的,因此在適用範圍上的宿命(參見聖托馬斯,一,問:二十三,甲8 ) 。 It is in such practical considerations that the ascetical maxim (falsely ascribed to St. Augustine) originated: "Si non es prædestinatus, fac ut prædestineris" (if you are not predestined, so act that you may be predestined).正是在這樣的實際考慮,認為ascetical格言(虛假歸因於聖奧古斯丁)源自: " Si無中文prædestinatus ,外事當prædestineris " (如果你不是命中註定,所以行為,你可能命中註定) 。 Strict theology, it is true, cannot approve this bold saying, except in so far as the original decree of predestination is conceived as at first a hypothetical decree, which is afterwards changed to an absolute and irrevocable decree by the prayers, good works, and perseverance of him who is predestined, according to the words of the Apostle (2 Peter 1:10): "Wherefore, brethren, labour the more, that by good works you may make sure your calling and election."嚴格神學的,這是事實,不能批准這一大膽的說,除了至於所謂的原旨的宿命是設想在第一個假設性的法令,這是後來改為一個絕對的和不可改變的法令,由祈禱,好的作品,以及毅力,對他的人是命中註定,根據使徒的言語( 2彼得1:10 )說: "人哪,弟兄們,勞工,更透過好的作品,你可以確保你的通話和選舉" 。

God's unerring foreknowledge and foreordaining is designated in the Bible by the beautiful figure of the "Book of Life" (liber vitœ, to biblion tes zoes).上帝的,無誤foreknowledge和foreordaining是指定在聖經中所漂亮的數字"生命之書" ( liber vitœ , biblion附加費zoes ) 。 This book of life is a list which contains the names of all the elect and admits neither additions nor erasures.這本書的生活是一個名單,其中載有姓名的全部選出,並坦承既不增補,也沒有刪除。 From the Old Testament (cf. Exodus 32:32; Psalm 68:29) this symbol was taken over into the New by Christ and His Apostle Paul (cf. Luke 10:20; Hebrews 12:23), and enlarged upon by the Evangelist John in his Apocalypse [cf.從舊約(參見出埃及記32:32 ;詩篇68:29 ) ,這個符號被接管,納入新的基督和他的使徒保羅(參見路加福音10:20 ;希伯來書12:23 ) ,並擴展後,由傳道者約翰在他的啟示[比照。 Apoc., xxi, 27: "There shall not enter into it anything defiled ... but they that are written in the book of life of the Lamb" (cf. Revelation 13:8; 20:15)].載脂蛋白C , 21 , 27條: "不得進入它什麼玷污… …但他們都寫在生命之書的羔羊" (參見啟示13時08分; 20:15 ) ] 。 The correct explanation of this symbolic book is given by St. Augustine (De civ. Dei, XX, xiii): "Præscientia Dei quæ non potest falli, liber vitæ est" (the foreknowledge of God, which cannot err, is the book of life).正確解釋這一具有象徵意義的是,本書所給予的聖奧古斯丁(德civ 。 dei , XX條,第十三)說: " præscientia dei quæ非potest falli , liber vitæ預測" ( foreknowledge上帝的,這是不能出錯,是本書的生活) 。 However, as intimated by the Bible, there exists a second, more voluminous book, in which are entered not only the names of the elect, but also the names of all the faithful on earth.不過,由於恐嚇,由聖經,也存在著一個第二,更汗牛充棟的書籍,其中有進入不僅是名稱的選定,而且名字都忠實於地球。 Such a metaphorical book is supposed wherever the possibility is hinted at that a name, though entered, might again be stricken out [cf.這樣一個隱喻書是哪裡,可能是暗示說,一個名字,雖然進入了,可能再次受災出[比照。 Apoc., iii, 5: "and I will not blot out his name out of the book of life" (cf. Exodus 32:33)].載脂蛋白C ,三,五說: "我不會印跡出他的名字出書的生活" (見出埃及記32:33 ) ] 。 The name will be mercilessly cancelled when a Christian sinks into infidelity or godlessness and dies in his sin.該名稱後,將毫不留情地取消了,當一個基督教匯到不忠或godlessness和模具在他的罪孽。 Finally there is a third class of books, wherein the wicked deeds and the crimes of individual sinners are written, and by which the reprobate will be judged on the last day to be cast into hell (cf. Revelation 20:12): "and the books were opened; ... and the dead were judged by those things which were written in the books according to their works".最後還有第三類書籍,那是惡人的事蹟和刑事罪行的個人罪人撰寫,並在其中reprobate將判斷在最後一天到投入地獄(參見啟示20時12分)說: "和書籍開… …以及死者判斷這些東西是寫在書本根據自己的作品" 。 It was this grand symbolism of Divine omniscience and justice that inspired the soul-stirring verse of the Dies irœ according to which we shall all be judged out of a book: "Liber scriptus proferetur: in quo totum continetur".這是這個盛大的象徵,神無所不知和正義,鼓舞了驚心動魄的韻文的模具irœ根據,我們將所有的判斷出了一本書: " liber scriptus proferetur :現狀totum continetur " 。 Regarding the book of life, cf.關於生命之書,參 St. Thomas, I, Q. xxiv, a.聖托馬斯,我,問:二十四,答 1-3, and Heinrich-Gutberlet, "Dogmat. Theologie", VIII (Mainz, 1897), section 453. 1-3 ,並海因里希- gutberlet , " dogmat 。 theologie " ,第八章(美因茨, 1897年) ,第453名。

(2) The second quality of predestination, the definiteness of the number of the elect, follows naturally from the first. ( 2 )第二屆優質的宿命,確切的數目選,並依自然,從第一。 For if the eternal counsel of God regarding the predestined is unchangeable, then the number of the predestined must likewise be unchangeable and definite, subject neither to additions nor to cancellations.如果永恆律師上帝就注定了是不可改變的,那麼多的命中註定必須同樣不可改變的,明確的,是不受增訂條文,也不是取消。 Anything indefinite in the number would eo ipso imply a lack of certitude in God's knowledge and would destroy His omniscience.什麼無限期人數將僱傭條例本身意味著缺乏certitude在上帝的知識,並會摧毀他的無所不知。 Furthermore, the very nature of omniscience demands that not only the abstract number of the elect, but also the individuals with their names and their entire career on earth, should be present before the Divine mind from all eternity.此外,在本質上的無所不知的要求,這不僅是抽象的數目選,而且個人與他們的名字和他們的整個職業生涯在地球上,應出席才神聖的心態,從所有永恆。 Naturally, human curiosity is eager for definite information about the absolute as well as the relative number of the elect.當然,人類的好奇心,渴望明確的信息,絕對以及為相對數的選舉。 How high should the absolute number be estimated?多高應絕對數量估計? But it would be idle and useless to undertake calculations and to guess at so and so many millions or billions of predestined.但就這樣閒置無用進行計算,並猜測,所以這麼多的數百萬或數十億命中註定。 St. Thomas (I, Q. xxiii, a. 7) mentions the opinion of some theologians that as many men will be saved as there are fallen angels, while others held that the number of predestined will equal the number of the faithful angels.聖托馬斯(一,問:二十三,甲七)提意見的某些神學家表示,由於不少男性將被保存為有墮落的天使,而另一種意見則認為人數命中註定將同等數量的忠實天使。

Lastly, there were optimists who, combining these two opinions into a third, made the total of men saved equal to the unnumbered myriads of berated spirits.最後,有比較樂觀的人,結合以上兩點意見,為第三個,使總數的男人救等同於未編號湧現們飽滿的精神狀態。 But even granted that the principle of our calculation is correct, no mathematician would be able to figure out the absolute number on a basis so vague, since the number of angels and demons is an unknown quantity to us.但即使是理所當然的原則,我們的計算是正確的,沒有數學家將能夠計算出絕對數字與上一個含糊的,因為有多少天使和魔鬼,是一個未知的數量給我們。 Hence, "the best answer", rightly remarks St. Thomas, "is to say: God alone knows the number of his elect".因此,所謂"最佳答案" ,正確的言論,聖托馬斯" ,是說:只有上帝知道他的一些選舉" 。 By relative number is meant the numerical relation between the predestined and the reprobate.由相對數是指數值之間的關係注定和reprobate 。 Will the majority of the human race be saved or will they be damned?將大部分的人類保存或將他們該死? Will one-half be damned the other half saved?將其中一半被該死,另一半得救? In this question the opinion of the rigorists is opposed to the milder view of the optimists.在這個問題上的意見的rigorists是反對以較溫和的看法樂觀。 Pointing to several texts of the Bible (Matthew 7:14; 22:14) and to sayings of great spiritual doctors, the rigorists defend as probable the thesis that not only most Christians but also most Catholics are doomed to eternal damnation.指著幾本聖經(馬太7時14分; 22時14分) ,並在熟語的偉大精神醫生, rigorists捍衛作為可能的論點,即不僅大多數的基督徒,但也可能是最天主教徒,是注定要永恆damnation 。 Almost repulsive in its tone is Massillon's sermon on the small number of the elect.幾乎令人厭惡的,在其基調是馬西永的說教,對少數選。 Yet even St. Thomas (loc. cit., a. 7) asserted: "Pauciores sunt qui salvantur" (only the smaller number of men are saved).然而,即使是聖托馬斯( loc.引文中,甲七)斷言: " pauciores必須遵守qui salvantur " (只較小的男性人數是節省) 。 And a few years ago, when the Jesuit P. Castelein ("Le rigorisme, le nombre des élus et la doctrine du salut", 2nd ed., Brussels, 1899) impugned this theory with weighty arguments, he was sharply opposed by the Redemptorist P. Godts ("De paucitate salvandorum quid docuerunt sancti", 3rd ed., Brussels, 1899).並於數年前,當耶穌頁castelein ( "樂rigorisme ,樂名稱萬élus等香格里拉學說拯救" ,第二版,布魯塞爾, 1899 )受質疑這個理論與份量的論點,他尖銳地反對由redemptorist體育godts ( "時點paucitate salvandorum塊docuerunt sancti " ,第3版,布魯塞爾, 1899年) 。 That the number of the elect cannot be so very small is evident from the Apocalypse (vii, 9).這數目的選舉不能這麼少是顯而易見的,從啟示錄(七,九) 。 When one hears the rigorists, one is tempted to repeat Dieringer's bitter remark: "Can it be that the Church actually exists in order to people hell?"當一個人聽到rigorists ,一個是引誘重複dieringer的慘痛備註: "可不可以這樣說,教會的實際存在,以人的地獄" ? The truth is that neither the one nor the other can be proved from Scripture or Tradition (cf. Heinrich-Gutberlet, "Dogmat. Theologie", Mainz, 1897, VIII, 363 sq.).事實的真相是,既不是一個,也沒有其他能夠證明從經文或傳統(參見海因里希- gutberlet , " dogmat 。 theologie " ,美因茨, 1897年,八, 363平方米) 。 But supplementing these two sources by arguments drawn from reason we may safely defend as probable the opinion that the majority of Christians, especially of Catholics, will be saved.但補充這兩種來源的論據,得出原因,我們可以在安全保衛,因為有可能認為,多數基督教徒,特別是天主教徒,將被保存。 If we add to this relative number the overwhelming majority of non-Christians (Jews, Mahommedans, heathens), then Gener ("Theol. dogmat. scholast.", Rome, 1767, II, 242 sq.) is probably right when he assumes the salvation of half of the human race, lest "it should be said to the shame and offence of the Divine majesty and clemency that the [future] Kingdom of Satan is larger than the Kingdom of Christ" (cf. W. Schneider, "Das andere Leben", 9th ed., Paderborn, 1908, 476 sq.).如果我們加入這個相對數壓倒多數的非基督徒(猶太人, mahommedans , heathens ) ,然後生成( " theol 。 dogmat 。 scholast " ,羅馬, 1767 ,第二,有242平方米) ,可能是正確的,當他出任救世一半的人的種族,生怕" ,它應該說是恥辱和罪行的神聖陛下和寬大說, [未來]英國撒旦大於英國的基督" (參見小施耐德, "之andere ,生活" ,第九版,帕德博恩, 1908年, 476平方米) 。

(3) The third quality of predestination, its subjective uncertainty, is intimately connected with its objective immutability. ( 3 )第三屆優質的宿命,其主觀不確定性,是密切聯繫在一起的,與它的目標不可改變。 We know not whether we are reckoned among the predestined or not.我們不知道我們是否忽視其中命中註定與否。 All we can say is: God alone knows it.我們所能說的是:只有上帝知道。 When the Reformers, confounding predestination with the absolute certainty of salvation, demanded of the Christian an unshaken faith in his own predestination if be wished to be saved, the Council of Trent opposed to this presumptuous belief the canon (Sess. VI, can. xv): "S. qd, hominem renatum et justificatum teneri ex fide ad credendum, se certo esse in numero prædestinatorum, anathema sit" (if any one shall say that the regenerated and justified man is bound as a matter of faith to believe that he is surely of the number of the predestined, let him be anathema).當改革者,令人迷惑的宿命與絕對肯定的救恩,要求對基督教矢志不渝的信念在他自己的宿命,如果憑主觀願望才能得救,安理會的遄達反對這種冒昧的信仰佳能( sess.六,可以第十五)說: "美國每日1次, hominem renatum等justificatum teneri當然正當專案credendum ,硒certo本質中的數字prædestinatorum ,詛咒靜坐" (如有人不得說,再生及合理的人,必然是眾所周知的事真誠地相信他是的,一定數目的命中註定,讓他被詛咒) 。 In truth, such a presumption is not only irrational, but also unscriptural (cf. 1 Corinthians 4:4; 9:27; 10:12; Philippians 2:12).事實上,這樣的推定,不僅是理性的,但也unscriptural (參見哥林多前書4時04分; 9時27分; 10時12分; philippians 2時12分) 。 Only a private revelation, such as was vouchsafed to the penitent thief on the cross, could give us the certainty of faith: hence the Tridentine Council insists (loc. cit., cap. xii): "Nam nisi ex speciali revelatione sciri non potest, quos Deus sibi elegerit" (for apart from a special revelation, it cannot be known whom God has chosen).只有一個私人的啟示,如被vouchsafed向懺悔竊賊在十字架上,可以讓我們有確定性的信仰:所以德律但丁會堅持( loc.引文中,第十二)說: "不結盟運動的NiSi特惠speciali revelatione伊拉克伊斯蘭革命最高委員會非potest , quos deus sibi elegerit " (因為除了特殊的啟示,它不能被稱為人,上帝選擇了) 。 However, the Church condemns only that blasphemous presumption which boasts of a faithlike certainty in matters of predestination.不過,教會譴責,只是褻瀆推定擁有一個faithlike確定性事項的宿命。 To say that there exist probable signs of predestination which exclude all excessive anxiety is not against her teaching.說有可能存在的跡象宿命,其中排除一切過度焦慮,是不是對她的教學。 The following are some of the criteria set down by the theologians: purity of heart, pleasure in prayer, patience in suffering, frequent reception of the sacraments, love of Christ and His Church, devotion to the Mother of God, etc.以下是一些準則所訂的神學家:純潔的心靈,快樂的祈禱,忍耐痛苦,經常接待的聖禮,在基督的愛和他的教會,奉獻給天主之母,等等。

B. The Reprobation of the Damned乙reprobation的該死

An unconditional and positive predestination of the reprobate not only to hell, but also to sin, was taught especially by Calvin (Instit., III, c. xxi, xxiii, xxiv).無條件的和積極的宿命的reprobate不僅是地獄,而且是罪惡,是教特別是卡爾文( instit. ,三,長二十一,二十三,二十四) 。 His followers in Holland split into two sects, the Supralapsarians and the Infralapsarians, the latter of whom regarded original sin as the motive of positive condemnation, while the former (with Calvin) disregarded this factor and derived the Divine decree of reprobation from God's inscrutable will alone.他的追隨者在荷蘭製造分裂成兩個教派, supralapsarians和infralapsarians ,後者的人把原罪為動力的正面譴責,而前者(卡爾文)無視這一因素,並推導出神聖的法令reprobation從上帝的高深莫測會單。 Infralapsarianism was also held by Jansenius (De gratia Christi, l. X, c. ii, xi sq.), who taught that God had preordained from the massa damnata of mankind one part to eternal bliss, the other to eternal pain, decreeing at the same time to deny to those positively damned the necessary graces by which they might be converted and keep the commandments; for this reason, he said, Christ died only for the predestined (cf. Denzinger, "Enchiridion", n. 1092-6). infralapsarianism ,還舉行了由jansenius (德特惠聖體,屬X的長二席平方米) ,也教上帝欽點了從馬薩damnata全人類的一個組成部分,以永恆的極樂世界,另一個是永恆的痛苦,頒布於同時否定了那些積極該死必要的青睞,其中,他們可能會被轉換,並保持誡命;基於這個理由,他說,基督的死不僅為命中註定(參見登青格" , enchiridion " , 12月31日1092-6 ) 。 Against such blasphemous teachings the Second Synod of Orange in 529 and again the Council of Trent had pronounced the ecclesiastical anathema (cf. Denzinger, nn. 200, 827).針對這種褻瀆了教義第二次主教會議的橙529 ,並再次安理會的遄了宣判:教會詛咒(參見登青格,神經網絡200 , 827 ) 。 This condemnation was perfectly justified, because the heresy of Predestinarianism, in direct opposition to the clearest texts of Scripture, denied the universality of God's salvific will as well as of redemption through Christ (cf. Wisdom 11:24 sq.; 1 Timothy 2:1 sq.), nullified God's mercy towards the hardened sinner (Ezekiel 33:11; Romans 2:4; 2 Peter 3:9), did away with the freedom of the will to do good or evil, and hence with the merit of good actions and the guilt of the bad, and finally destroyed the Divine attributes of wisdom, justice, veracity, goodness, and sanctity.這種譴責是天經地義的,因為邪的predestinarianism ,直接對立的最清晰的文本的經文,否認普遍性的上帝的salvific會以及作為贖回透過基督(參見智慧11:24平方1蒂莫西2 :一平方) ,無效上帝的憐憫,對淬硬罪人(以西結書33:11 ;入鄉隨俗2時04分, 2彼得3時09分) ,革除不適應生產力的自由意志做善事或惡,因此與優點良好的行動和有罪壞的,並最終摧毀了神聖屬性的智慧,正義,真實性,善,和聖潔。 The very spirit of the Bible should have sufficed to deter Calvin from a false explanation of Rom., ix, and his successor Beza from the exegetical maltreatment of I Pet., ii, 7-8.很精神的聖經應該足以嚇阻卡爾文從一個虛假的解釋光碟,第九,和他的繼任者beza從訓詁虐待的I寵物。第一,二, 7-8 。 After weighing all the Biblical texts bearing on eternal reprobation, a modern Protestant exegete arrives at the conclusion: "There is no election to hell parallel to the election to grace: on the contrary, the judgment pronounced on the impenitent supposes human guilt .... It is only after Christ's salvation has been rejected that reprobation follows" ("Realencyk. für prot. Theol.", XV, 586, Leipzig, 1904).權衡輕重後,所有聖經文本,事關永恆reprobation ,一個現代化的新教exegete得出結論: "絕對不存在選舉地獄平行選舉,以恩典:正好相反,判決之前就impenitent支撐人類內疚...它是唯一經過基督的救贖已經拒絕了這一reprobation如下: " ( " realencyk 。 f黵質子。 theol " , 15 , 586 ,萊比錫, 1904年) 。 As regards the Fathers of the Church, there is only St. Augustine who might seem to cause difficulties in the proof from Tradition.至於教會的神父們,是不是只有聖奧古斯丁的人似乎可以造成困難證明,從傳統。 As a matter of fact he has been claimed by both Calvin and Jansenius as favouring their view of the question.作為一個問題,事實上,他一直都宣稱卡爾文和jansenius作為偏袒自己的觀點的問題。 This is not the place to enter into an examination of his doctrine on reprobation; but that his works contain expressions which, to say the least, might be interpreted in the sense of a negative reprobation, cannot be doubted.這是不適合進入審查他的學說reprobation ;但他的作品中包含表達式,其中,至少可以這樣說,可能會被解釋,在意義上的負面reprobation ,不能受到懷疑。 Probably toning down the sharper words of the master, his "best pupil", St. Prosper, in his apology against Vincent of Lerin (Resp. ad 12 obj. Vincent.), thus explained the spirit of Augustine: "Voluntate exierunt, voluntate ceciderunt, et quia præsciti sunt casuri, non sunt prædestinati; essent autem prædestinati, si essent reversuri et in sanctitate remansuri, ac per hoc prædestinatio Dei multis est causa standi, nemini est causa labendi" (of their own will they went out; of their own will they fell, and because their fall was foreknown, they were not predestined; they would however be predestined if they were going to return and persevere in holiness; hence, God's predestination is for many the cause of perseverance, for none the cause of falling away).大概淡化尖銳的話,師父,他的"最佳學生" ,聖昌,在他的道歉,對文森的lerin (或專案12個目標。文森) ,因此解釋的精神,奧古斯丁說: " voluntate exierunt , voluntate ceciderunt等quia præsciti必須遵守casuri ,非約束性prædestinati ; Essent聯合autem prædestinati ,矽Essent聯合reversuri ET的sanctitate remansuri ,交流電每責prædestinatio dei multis預測病因地位的, nemini預測病因labendi " (他們自己的意願,他們出去;其自己的意願,他們跌倒,而且由於其屬於被foreknown ,他們並非命中註定,他們會然而,命中註定,如果他們要回報,並堅持成聖,所以神的宿命是,對許多人造成的毅力,沒有人的事業下降以外) 。 Regarding Tradition cf.對於傳統的CF 。 Petavius, "De Deo", X, 7 sq.; Jacquin in "Revue de l'histoire ecclésiastique", 1904, 266 sq.; 1906, 269 sq.; 725 sq. petavius , "德迪奧" , X代表, 7平方米; jacquin "雜誌l' ecclésiastique史" , 1904年, 266平方米; 1906年, 269平方米; 725平方 We may now briefly summarize the whole Catholic doctrine, which is in harmony with our reason as well as our moral sentiments.我們現在可以簡單地概括了整個天主教教義,這是在和諧與我們的理由,以及我們的道德情操。 According to the doctrinal decisions of general and particular synods, God infallibly foresees and immutably preordains from eternity all future events (cf. Denzinger, n. 1784), all fatalistic necessity, however, being barred and human liberty remaining intact (Denz., n. 607).根據該理論決定的一般和特殊主教會議,上帝infallibly預見和一成不變preordains從永恆所有未來事件(參見登青格,可以追溯到1784年12月31日) ,所有聽天由命的必要性,但是,被禁止與人的自由則保持不變( denz. , n 。 607 ) 。 Consequently man is free whether he accepts grace and does good or whether he rejects it and does evil (Denz., n. 797).因此男子是免費的,他是否接受恩典,並沒有很好的,還是他拒絕它,並沒有邪惡( denz. , 12月31日797 ) 。 Just as it is God's true and sincere will that all men, no one excepted, shall obtain eternal happiness, so, too, Christ has died for all (Denz., n. 794), not only for the predestined (Denz., n. 1096), or for the faithful (Denz., n. 1294), though it is true that in reality not all avail themselves of the benefits of redemption (Denz., n. 795).只是因為它是上帝的真實和真誠的意願,所有男人,沒有一個例外,即取得永恆的幸福,所以,太,基督已經去世,為所有( denz. , 12月31日794 ) ,不僅是為了命中註定( denz. , n 。 1096 ) ,或為忠實( denz. , 1294年12月31日) ,雖然這是事實,實際上,並非所有利用自己的好處,贖回( denz. , 12月31日795 ) 。 Though God preordained both eternal happiness and the good works of the elect (Denz., n. 322), yet, on the other hand, He predestined no one positively to hell, much less to sin (Denz., nn. 200, 816).雖然上帝欽點兩永恆的幸福和優秀作品的選( denz. , 12月31日322 ) ,然而,在另一方面,他命中註定沒有一個積極的地獄,更不用說單( denz. ,神經網絡200 , 816 ) 。 Consequently, just as no one is saved against his will (Denz., n. 1363), so the reprobate perish solely on account of their wickedness (Denz., nn. 318, 321).因此,正如沒有一個是節省了對他的意志( denz. , 12月31日第1363 ) ,所以reprobate亡僅僅考慮他們的邪惡( denz. ,神經網絡。 318 , 321 ) 。 God foresaw the everlasting pains of the impious from all eternity, and preordained this punishment on account of their sins (Denz., n. 322), though He does not fail therefore to hold out the grace of conversion to sinners (Denz., n. 807), or pass over those who are not predestined (Denz., n. 827).上帝預見到永恆的痛苦的impious從所有永恆,並欽點這種處罰是考慮到他們的罪孽( denz. , 12月31日322 ) ,但他並沒有失敗,所以堅持到恩典的轉化,以罪人( denz. , n 。 807 ) ,或通過超過那些並非命中註定( denz. , 12月31日827 ) 。 As long as the reprobate live on earth, they may be accounted true Christians and members of the Church, just as on the other hand the predestined may be outside the pale of Christianity and of the Church (Denz., nn. 628, 631).只要把reprobate活在地球上,他們可能佔了真正的基督信徒和教會的成員,正如另一方面命中註定,可能超出了蒼白的基督教和教會( denz. ,神經網絡。 628 , 631 ) 。 Without special revelation no one can know with certainty that he belongs to the number of the elect (Denz., nn. 805 sq., 825 sq.).如果沒有特別的啟示,沒有人可以肯定地知道,他是屬於有多少選( denz. ,神經網絡。 805平方米, 825平方米) 。

III.三。 THEOLOGICAL CONTROVERSIES神學爭論

Owing to the infallible decisions laid down by the Church, every orthodox theory on predestination and reprobation must keep within the limits marked out by the following theses: (a) At least in the order of execution in time (in ordine executionis) the meritorious works of the predestined are the partial cause of their eternal happiness; (b) hell cannot even in the order of intention (in ordine intentionis) have been positively decreed to the damned, even though it is inflicted on them in time as the just punishment of their misdeeds; (c) there is absolutely no predestination to sin as a means to eternal damnation.由於對犯錯的決定訂下的教會,每一個正統學說的宿命和reprobation必須保持內部的限制,標誌著由以下論文: (一)至少在該命令的執行時間(在ordine executionis )優良工程該命中註定是部分原因,他們永恆的幸福; (二)地獄,甚至不能在該命令的意圖(在ordine intentionis )已頒布法令,積極向該死,即使是對他們在時間,因為剛剛處罰對其違法行為; (三) ,是絕對不存在的宿命,以單作為一種手段,以永恆damnation 。 Guided by these principles, we shall briefly sketch and examine three theories put forward by Catholic theologians.遵循這些原則,我們會簡單素描和審議三個理論所提出的天主教神學家。

A. The Theory of Predestination ante prœvisa merita答:理論的宿命前廳prœvisa merita

This theory, championed by all Thomists and a few Molinists (as Bellarmine, Francisco Suárez, Francis de Lugo), asserts that God, by an absolute decree and without regard to any future supernatural merits, predestined from all eternity certain men to the glory of heaven, and then, in consequence of this decree, decided to give them all the graces necessary for its accomplishment.這個理論,倡導所有thomists和少數molinists ( bellarmine ,弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯,弗朗西斯德盧戈) ,聲稱上帝,以絕對法令,並沒有考慮到今後的任何超自然的優點,注定了從所有永恆的某些男人是為了榮耀天堂,然後,在後果的這項法令,決定給予他們一切必要的青睞,為自己的成績。 In the order of time, however, the Divine decree is carried out in the reverse order, the predestined receiving first the graces preappointed to them, and lastly the glory of heaven as the reward of their good works.在該命令的時間,不過,神聖的法令是在逆向一聲令下,注定了先接收恩寵preappointed壓給他們,最後榮耀的天堂,作為獎勵,他們的優秀作品。 Two qualities, therefore, characterize this theory: first, the absoluteness of the eternal decree, and second, the reversing of the relation of grace and glory in the two different orders of eternal intention (ordo intentionis) and execution in time (ordo executionis).兩個素質,因此,表徵這一理論:第一,絕對的永恆的法令,二是倒車的關係恩典和榮耀,在這兩個不同的命令永恆的意圖(集體訴訟intentionis )和執行時間(集體訴訟executionis ) 。 For while grace (and merit), in the order of eternal intention, is nothing else than the result or effect of glory absolutely decreed, yet, in the order of execution, it becomes the reason and partial cause of eternal happiness, as is required by the dogma of the meritoriousness of good works (see MERIT).雖然寬限期(擇優) ,在該命令的永恆的意圖,也沒有辦法比,結果或效果的榮耀,絕對命令,但該命令的執行,它成為理由和部分事業永恆的幸福,因為需要由教條的meritoriousness的優秀作品(見好處) 。 Again, celestial glory is the thing willed first in the order of eternal intention and then is made the reason or motive for the graces offered, while in the order of execution it must be conceived as the result or effect of supernatural merits.再次,天體的榮耀是一回事意志,首先在命令永恆的意圖,然後再提出理由或動機恩寵提供的,而在該命令的執行,它必須被視為結果或效果的超自然的可取之處。 This concession is important, since without it the theory would be intrinsically impossible and theologically untenable.這項優惠是重要的,因為如果沒有它的理論,將在本質上是不可能的,並theologically站不住腳的。

But what about the positive proof?但對於正面的證明呢? The theory can find decisive evidence in Scripture only on the supposition that predestination to heavenly glory is unequivocally mentioned in the Bible as the Divine motive for the special graces granted to the elect.該理論能找到決定性的證據,在經文中,不僅對假定宿命,以天朝榮耀,是毫不含糊地提到,在聖經中,作為神聖的動機,為特別青睞批給選出。 Now, although there are several texts (eg Matthew 24:22 sq.; Acts 13:48, and others) which might without straining be interpreted in this sense, yet these passages lose their imagined force in view of the fact that other explanations, of which there is no lack, are either possible or even more probable.如今,雖然有好幾個文本(如馬修24:22平方米;行為, 13時48分,和其他人)可能沒有緊張的解釋,在這個意義上,但這些通道失去了想像的力量,鑑於這一事實,即其他解釋,其中不存在任何不可逾越的,是不是可能或更可能的。 The ninth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans in particular is claimed by the advocates of absolute predestination as that "classical" passage wherein St. Paul seems to represent the eternal happiness of the elect not only as the work of God's purest mercy, but as an act of the most arbitrary will, so that grace, faith, justification must be regarded as sheer effects of an absolute, Divine decree (cf. Romans 9:18: "Therefore he hath mercy on whom he will; and whom he will, he hardeneth").第九章的書信向羅馬人,特別是宣稱所主張的絕對宿命,因為這"經典"通道,其中聖保羅似乎代表著永恆幸福的當選不僅是上帝做事的精純的憐憫,但正如行為最武斷的意志,使恩典,信仰,理由必須被視為純粹的影響,是一個絕對的,神聖的法令(參見羅馬書9時18分: "所以祂所憐憫他將與誰,以及他將與誰,他hardeneth " ) 。 Now, it is rather daring to quote one of the most difficult and obscure passages of the Bible as a "classical text" and then to base on it an argument for bold speculation.現在,它是相當大膽引用的一個最困難的,模糊通道,聖經是一個"經典文本" ,然後將立足於這一個論點進行大膽猜測。 To be more specific, it is impossible to draw the details of the picture in which the Apostle compares God to the potter who hath "power over the clay, of the same lump, to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour" (Romans 9:21), without falling into the Calvinistic blasphemy that God predestined some men to hell and sin just as positively as he pre-elected others to eternal life.為了更具體的說,這是不可能制訂詳細的圖片中,使徒上帝給哈利波特的人歸服"的力量超過了粘土,同時整,使一艘船舶所不欲,榮譽,和另一所不欲,拒付" (羅馬書9時21分) ,而不落入calvinistic褻瀆神是命中註定有的男人地獄和罪孽,正如積極的,因為他前當選為他人永恆的生命。 It is not even admissible to read into the Apostle's thought a negative reprobation of certain men.現在甚至不能受理閱讀到使徒的思想產生負面reprobation某些男人。 For the primary intention of the Epistle to the Romans is to insist on the gratuity of the vocation to Christianity and to reject the Jewish presumption that the possession of the Mosaic Law and the carnal descent from Abraham gave to the Jews an essential preference over the heathens.為小學意向的書信向羅馬人,就是堅持酬金的天職,以基督教和反對猶太推定,即藏鑲嵌法和肉慾的後裔,從亞伯拉罕到了猶太人的一個重要偏好超過heathens 。 But the Epistle has nothing to do with the speculative question whether or not the free vocation to grace must be considered as the necessary result of eternal predestination to celestial glory [cf.但書信已完全與投機的問題,還是不免費的天職,以恩典必須被視為必然結果永恆的宿命,以天體的榮耀[比照。 Franzelin, "De Deo uno", thes. franzelin , "德迪奧起UNO " , thes 。 lxv (Rome, 1883)]. lxv (羅馬, 1883年) ] 。 It is just as difficult to find in the writings of the Fathers a solid argument for an absolute predestination.它只是作為,很難找到在著作的父親了堅實的論據,是一個絕對的宿命。 The only one who might be cited with some semblance of truth is St. Augustine, who stands, however, almost alone among his predecessors and successors.只有1人可能舉出一些假象的事實是,聖奧古斯丁,他們的立場,但是,幾乎是獨自在他的前任和繼任者。 Not even his most faithful pupils, Prosper and Fulgentius, followed their master in all his exaggerations.連他最忠實的學生,繁榮和傅箴修,其次是自己的主人在他的所有誇張。 But a problem so deep and mysterious, which does not belong to the substance of Faith and which, to use the expression of Pope Celestine I (d. 432), is concerned with profundiores difficilioresque partes incurrentium quœstionum (cf. Denz., n. 142), cannot be decided on the sole authority of Augustine.而是一個問題,讓他們深切和神秘,它不屬於物質的信仰,它與使用的表達教宗天青石(四432 ) ,是有關profundiores difficilioresque當事人之間incurrentium quœstionum (參見denz , 12月31日142 ) ,不能決定在鞋底上的權威奧古斯丁。 Moreover, the true opinion of the African doctor is a matter of dispute even among the best authorities, so that all parties claim him for their conflicting views [cf.此外,真正的民意,非洲的醫生,是一個有爭議的,甚至在全球名列前茅,使各方都要求他為他們的互相矛盾的觀點[比照。 O. Rottmanner, "Der Augustinismus" (Munich, 1892); Pfülf, "Zur Prädestinationslehre des hl. Augustinus" in "Innsbrucker Zeitschrift für kath. Theologie", 1893, 483 sq.].澳rottmanner , "明鏡augustinismus " (慕尼黑, 1892年) ; pfülf , " zur prädestinationslehre萬的HL 。奧古斯丁" , " innsbrucker : Zeitschrift f黵kath 。 theologie " , 1893年, 483平方米] 。 As to the unsuccessful attempt made by Gonet and Billuart to prove absolute predestination ante prœvisa merita "by an argument from reason", see Pohle, "Dogmatik", II, 4th ed., Paderborn, 1909, 443 sq.至於不成功的嘗試取得戈內特和billuart證明絕對宿命前廳prœvisa merita "的論調,從理性" ,見pohle , " dogmatik " ,第二章,第4版,帕德博恩, 1909年, 443平方

B. The Theory of the Negative Reprobation of the Damned二,理論的負面reprobation的該死

What deters us most strongly from embracing the theory just discussed is not the fact that it cannot be dogmatically proved from Scripture or Tradition, but the logical necessity to which it binds us, of associating an absolute predestination to glory, with a reprobation just as absolute, even though it be but negative.是什麼阻礙了我們最強烈地從概括性的理論,只是討論的是不是事實,即它不能被證明是教條主義,從經文或傳統,但合乎邏輯的必要性,因為它把我們聯繫,締絕對宿命走向輝煌,以reprobation正如絕對,即使它只是消極的。 The well-meant efforts of some theologians (eg Billot) to make a distinction between the two concepts, and so to escape the evil consequences of negative reprobation, cannot conceal from closer inspection the helplessness of such logical artifices.小康意味著努力的一些神學家(如billot )作出區分這兩個概念,因此,為了躲避邪惡的後果負reprobation ,並不能掩蓋更緊密檢查的無奈,例如邏輯的手腕。 Hence the earlier partisans of absolute predestination never denied that their theory compelled them to assume for the wicked a parallel, negative reprobation - that is, to assume that, though not positively predestined to hell, yet they are absolutely predestined not to go to heaven (cf. above, I, B).因此較早黨派絕對的宿命從來沒有否認他們的理論,強迫他們承擔起為惡人一個平行的,消極reprobation ,那就是-假設,雖然沒有正面命中註定地獄,但他們絕對是命中註定不要去天國(比照上述各點,我,乙) 。 While it was easy for the Thomists to bring this view into logical harmony with their prœmotio physica, the few Molinists were put to straits to harmonize negative reprobation with their scientia media.雖然它易於為thomists把這種觀點邏輯上的和諧與prœmotio物理,數molinists分別向海峽兩岸統一的負面reprobation與知識傳播媒介。 In order to disguise the harshness and cruelty of such a Divine decree, the theologians invented more or less palliative expressions, saying that negative reprobation is the absolute will of God to "pass over" a priori those not predestined, to "overlook" them, "not to elect" them, "by no means to admit" them into heaven.為了掩飾嚴厲和殘酷的這種神聖的法令,神學家發明了更多或更少的姑息表情,說負面reprobation是絕對的上帝的意志,以"通行證"先驗那些不是命中註定, "忽略"他們, "的人,不要選" , "絕不承認" ,他們到天堂。 Only Gonet had the courage to call the thing by its right name: "exclusion from heaven" (exclusio a gloria).只有戈內特了勇氣,打電話的事,其姓名權說: "被排除在天堂" ( exclusio入微) 。

In another respect, too, the adherents of negative reprobation do not agree among themselves, namely, as to what is the motive of Divine reprobation.在另一個方面,也持負面reprobation不同意在它們之間,即以動機是什麼神聖的reprobation 。 The rigorists (as Alvarez, Estius, Sylvius) regard as the motive the sovereign will of God who, without taking into account possible sins and demerits, determined a priori to keep those not predestined out of heaven, though He did not create them for hell.該rigorists (阿爾瓦雷斯, estius ,西爾維於斯)方面的工作,因為動機主權意志的上帝,沒有考慮到可能的罪孽和缺點,確定了先驗把這些不是命中註定出的天堂,但他並沒有創造他們的地獄。

A second milder opinion (eg de Lemos, Gotti, Gonet), appealing to the Augustinian doctrine of the massa damnata, finds the ultimate reason for the exclusion from heaven in original sin, in which God could, without being unjust, leave as many as He saw fit.第二個溫和的見解(例如:羅納爾多的前女友,戈蒂,戈內特) ,為了吸引augustinian學說的馬薩damnata ,認定最終的理由被排斥在天國的原罪,其中上帝,沒有任何不公正的,假期多他認為合適的。 The third and mildest opinion (as Goudin, Graveson, Billuart) derives reprobation not from a direct exclusion from heaven, but from the omission of an "effectual election to heaven"; they represent God as having decreed ante prœvisa merita to leave those not predestined in their sinful weakness, without denying them the necessary sufficient graces; thus they would perish infallibility (cf. "Innsbrucker Zeitschrift für kath. Theologie", 1879, 203 sq.).第三,溫和的見解(如古丹,格雷夫森, billuart )源於reprobation不是從直接排除在天堂,而是從遺漏的一個"有效的選舉升天" ,他們所代表的上帝有命令前廳prœvisa merita離開那些不命中註定在其罪孽深重的軟弱,不否認他們提供必要的足夠青睞,因此他們將亡infallibility (參見" innsbrucker : Zeitschrift f黵kath 。 theologie " , 1879年, 203平方米) 。

Whatever view one may take regarding the internal probability of negative reprobation, it cannot be harmonized with the dogmatically certain universality and sincerity of God's salvific will.無論大家認為可以採取關於內部概率負reprobation ,我們不能把統一與教條一定的普遍性和誠意上帝的salvific會。 For the absolute predestination of the blessed is at the same time the absolute will of God "not to elect" a priori the rest of mankind (Suarez), or which comes to the same, "to exclude them from heaven" (Gonet), in other words, not to save them.為絕對宿命的有福了,是在同一時間,絕對上帝的意志" ,不選"先驗其他人類(蘇亞雷斯) ,或到了同一" ,以排除他們從天上" (戈內特)或者換句話說,並非為了營救他們。 While certain Thomists (as Bañez, Alvarez, Gonet) accept this conclusion so far as to degrade the "voluntas salvifica" to an ineffectual "velleitas", which conflicts with evident doctrines of revelation, Francisco Suárez labours in the sweat of his brow to safeguard the sincerity of God's salvific will, even towards those who are reprobated negatively.雖然某些thomists ( bañez ,阿爾瓦雷斯,戈內特)接受這個結論,到目前為止,以貶低" voluntas salvifica " ,以一個無效的" velleitas " ,即衝突明顯教義的啟示,弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯在辛勤的汗水,他眉頭,以保障誠意上帝的salvific意願,即使對那些reprobated負面影響。 But in vain.但不成功。 How can that will to save be called serious and sincere which has decreed from all eternity the metaphysical impossibility of salvation?如何才能將拯救被稱為認真和真誠的,其中已經頒布法令,從所有永恆的形而上學不可能的救贖? He who has been reprobated negatively, may exhaust all his efforts to attain salvation: it avail's him nothing.他的人已reprobated否定的,則可能會用盡一切努力實現救贖:它是徒勞的,他一無所獲。 Moreover, in order to realize infallibly his decree, God is compelled to frustrate the eternal welfare of all excluded a priori from heaven, and to take care that they die in their sins.此外,為了實現infallibly他的法令,神是迫使挫敗永恆的福祉,所有預先排除來自天堂,以照顧他們死在自己的罪孽。 Is this the language in which Holy Writ speaks to us?這是語文在聖令狀講話給我們嗎? No; there we meet an anxious, loving father, who wills not "that any should perish, but that all should return to penance" (2 Peter 3:9).沒有有我們應付焦慮,愛父親,他的遺囑不是"任何人亡,但一切應回歸懺悔" ( 2彼得3時09分) 。 Lessius rightly says that it would be indifferent to him whether he was numbered among those reprobated positively or negatively; for, in either case, his eternal damnation would be certain. lessius正確地說,這將是無動於衷,他是否也被列其中reprobated產生正面或負面,因為,在這兩種情況下,他永恆damnation這會導致某些。 The reason for this is that in the present economy exclusion from heaven means for adults practically the same thing as damnation.這一現象的原因是,在目前的經濟排斥從天上手段,為成人,幾乎同樣的事情,因為damnation 。 A middle state, a merely natural happiness, does not exist.中間狀態,只是一個自然的幸福,是不存在的。

C. The Theory of Predestination post prœvisa merita三,理論的宿命後prœvisa merita

This theory defended by the earlier Scholastics (Alexander of Hales, Albertus Magnus), as well as by the majority of the Molinists, and warmly recommended by St. Francis de Sales "as the truer and more attractive opinion", has this as its chief distinction, that it is free from the logical necessity of upholding negative reprobation.這個理論辯護,由早前的scholastics (亞歷山大的hales , : Albertus思) ,以及被多數人的molinists ,並熱烈推薦的聖弗朗西斯德賣" ,因為更真實,更具吸引力的意見" ,這是否為行政區別的,它是免費的,從邏輯上的必要性,堅持消極reprobation 。 It differs from predestination ante prœvisa merita in two points: first, it rejects the absolute decree and assumes a hypothetical predestination to glory; secondly, it does not reverse the succession of grace and glory in the two orders of eternal intention and of execution in time, but makes glory depend on merit in eternity as well as in the order of time.它不同於宿命前廳prœvisa merita有兩點:第一,它否定了絕對的政令,並假定一個假設性的宿命走向輝煌;其次,它並不逆向演替的恩典和榮耀,在這兩項命令的永恆的意圖和執行時間,但使榮耀依靠優異在永恆以及在該命令的時間。 This hypothetical decree reads as follows: Just as in time eternal happiness depends on merit as a condition, so I intended heaven from all eternity only for foreseen merit.這個假設性的法令,其內容如下:正如在時間永恆的幸福取決於優異以此作為條件,所以,我打算從天上所有永恆只預見不無道理。 -- It is only by reason of the infallible foreknowledge of these merits that the hypothetical decree is changed into an absolute: These and no others shall be saved. -這是唯一的理由,該不會犯錯誤f oreknowledge的這些優點,即假設法令轉變為一項絕對的:這些沒有其他人應被保存。

This view not only safeguards the universality and sincerity of God's salvific will, but coincides admirably with the teachings of St. Paul (cf. 2 Timothy 4:8), who knows that there "is laid up" (reposita est, apokeitai) in heaven "a crown of justice", which "the just judge will render" (reddet, apodosei) to him on the day of judgment.這一觀點不僅保障了普遍性和誠意上帝的salvific會,但恰逢欽佩與教義的聖保羅(參看提摩太4時08分) ,誰知道有" ,是奠定了" ( reposita預測, apokeitai )天國"的冠冕司法" ,其中"正義的法官,會令" (雷代, apodosei ) ,以他在當天的判決。 Clearer still is the inference drawn from the sentence of the universal Judge (Matthew 25:34 sq.): "Come, ye blessed of my Father, possess you the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. For I was hungry, and you gave me to eat" etc. As the "possessing" of the Kingdom of Heaven in time is here linked to the works of mercy as a condition, so the "preparation" of the Kingdom of Heaven in eternity, that is, predestination to glory is conceived as dependent on the foreknowledge that good works will be performed.清晰的仍然是推理得出的,從原句的普遍判斷(馬太25:34平方)說: "來,葉有福了我的父親,你擁有王國為你們所預備的,從基礎的世界,因為我餓了,你們給我吃"等,作為"藏"的天國的時間是在這裡相連工程的慈悲以此作為條件,因此, "準備"的天國的永恆,這就是宿命走向輝煌的設想為依賴於foreknowledge認為好的作品將演出。 The same conclusion follows from the parallel sentence of condemnation (Matthew 25:41 sq.): "Depart from me, you cursed, into everlasting fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels. For I was hungry, and you gave me not to eat" etc. For it is evident that the "everlasting fire of hell" can only have been intended from all eternity for sin and demerit, that is, for neglect of Christian charity, in the same sense in which it is inflicted in time.相同的結論如下從並行一句譴責(馬太25:41平方)說: "離開我,你詛咒,成為永恆的火警是為魔鬼和他的天使,為我餓了,你們給我不吃"等等,這是顯而易見的"永恆之火地獄" ,只能已打算從所有永恆,為罪惡和記過處分,即是疏忽基督教慈善組織,在同樣的意義在其中,這是出現在26時。 Concluding a pari, we must say the same of eternal bliss.締結一項享有同等權益,我們必須說同樣的永恆的極樂世界。 This explanation is splendidly confirmed by the Greek Fathers.這個解釋是返鄉證實,由希臘教父。 Generally speaking, the Greeks are the chief authorities for conditional predestination dependent on foreseen merits.一般來說,希臘人是行政機關有條件宿命依賴預見的可取之處。 The Latins, too, are so unanimous on this question that St. Augustine is practically the only adversary in the Occident.該拉丁人,也有一致的,所以在這個問題上,聖奧古斯丁幾乎是唯一的對手在歐美。 St. Hilary (In Ps. lxiv, n. 5) expressly describes eternal election as proceeding from "the choice of merit" (ex meriti delectu), and St. Ambrose teaches in his paraphrase of Rom., viii, 29 (De fide, V, vi, 83): "Non enim ante prædestinavit quam præscivit, sed quorum merita præscivit, eorum præmia prædestinavit" (He did not predestine before He foreknew, but for those whose merits He foresaw, He predestined the reward).聖希拉里(在PS 。 lxiv ,注5 )明確闡述了永恆當選為出發, "選擇的好處" (當然meriti delectu ) ,和聖劉漢銓教授在他的意譯的光碟,八, 29 (德正當,五,六, 83 )說: "非單一前廳prædestinavit怎麼præscivit文,而法定人數merita præscivit , eorum præmia prædestinavit " (他沒有predestine之前他foreknew ,但對於那些優點,他預見到,他命中註定賞金) 。 To conclude: no one can accuse us of boldness if we assert that the theory here presented has a firmer basis in Scripture and Tradition than the opposite opinion.結束:沒有人可以指責我們的勇氣,如果我們斷言理論在這裡提出了一個更穩固的基礎上的經文和傳統比相反的意見。

Publication information Written by J. Pohle.出版信息寫了J. pohle 。 Transcribed by Gary A. Mros.轉錄由加里甲mros 。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.天主教百科全書,體積十二。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. nihil obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

Besides the works quoted, cf.除了作品被引用,比照。 PETER LOMBARD, Sent., I, dist.彼得倫巴第,發送,我的dist 。 40-41: ST. 40-41 :聖。 THOMAS, I, Q. xxiii; RUIZ, De prœdest.托馬斯,我,問:二十三;魯伊斯,德prœdest 。 et reprobatione (Lyons, 1828); RAMÍREZ, De prœd.等reprobatione (里昂, 1828年) ;拉米雷斯,德prœd 。 et reprob.等reprob 。 (2 vols., Alcalá, 1702); PETAVIUS, De Deo, IX-X; IDEM, De incarnatione, XIII; LESSIUS, De perfectionibus moribusque divinis, XIV, 2; IDEM, De prœd. ( 2卷,的Alcalá 1702 ) ; petavius ,德迪奧,第九至第十同上,德incarnatione ,十三; lessius ,德perfectionibus moribusque divinis ,第十四條, 2條;同上,德prœd 。 et reprob., Opusc.等reprob , opusc 。 II (Paris, 1878); TOURNELY, De Deo, qq.二(巴黎, 1878年) ; tournely ,德迪奧, QQ的。 22-23; SCHRADER, Commentarii de prœdestinatione (Vienna, 1865); HOSSE, De notionibus providentiœ prœdestinationisque in ipsa Sacra Scriptura exhibitis (Bonn, 1868); BALTZER, Des hl. 22-23 ; schrader , commentarii德prœdestinatione (維也納, 1865年) ; hosse ,德notionibus providentiœ prœdestinationisque在ipsa骶scriptura exhibitis (波恩, 1868 ) ;巴爾策,對HL萬。 Augustinus Lehre über Prädestination und Reprobation (Vienna, 1871); MANNENS, De voluntate Dei salvifica et prœdestinatione (Louvain, 1883); WEBER, Kritische Gesch.奧古斯丁教黚er prädestination und reprobation (維也納, 1871 ) ; mannens ,德voluntate dei salvifica等prœdestinatione (魯汶, 1883年) ;韋伯, kritische gesch 。 der Exegese des 9 Kap.明鏡exegese萬九甲。 des Römerbriefes (Würzburg, 1889).萬römerbriefes (維爾茨堡, 1889年) 。 Besides these monographs cf.除了這些專著的CF 。 FRANZELIN, De Deo uno (Rome, 1883); OSWALD, Die Lehre von der Gnade, di Gnade, Rechtfertigung, Gnadenwahl (Paderborn, 1885); SIMAR, Dogmatik, II, section 126 (Freiburg, 1899); TEPE, Institut. franzelin ,德迪奧起UNO (羅馬, 1883年) ;奧斯瓦爾德,模具教馮明鏡gnade邸gnade , rechtfertigung , gnadenwahl (帕德博恩, 1885年) ; SIMAR鑑, dogmatik第一,第二,第126條(弗賴堡, 1899年) ; tepe學院。 theol., III (Paris, 1896); SCHEEBEN-ATZBERGER, Dogmatik, IV (Freiburg, 1903); PESCH, Prœl. theol ,三(巴黎, 1896年) ; scheeben - atzberger , dogmatik ,四(弗賴堡, 1903年) ; pesch , prœl 。 Dogmat., II (Freiburg, 1906); VAN NOORT, De gratia Christi (Amsterdam, 1908); P0HLE, Dogmatik, II (Paderborn, 1909). dogmat ,二(弗賴堡, 1906年) ;車noort ,德特惠基督教(阿姆斯特丹, 1908年) ; p0hle , dogmatik ,二(帕德博恩, 1909 ) 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Salvation 救贖
Sanctification 成聖
Justification 理由
Conversion 轉換
Confession 自白

Arminianism arminianism
Supralapsarianism supralapsarianism
Infralapsarianism infralapsarianism
Amyraldianism amyraldianism

Determinism 宿命論
Fatalism 宿命論



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