Moravian Church摩拉維亞教會

General Information 一般資料

The Moravian Church is a Protestant communion closely linked to Lutheranism.該摩拉維亞教會是一個新教徒共融緊密聯繫在一起的路德教。 It has its roots in the Czech Reformation and is a direct continuation of the Bohemian Brethren.它有它的根在捷克改革,是一個直接的延續,波西米亞的謠言。

Influenced by the spiritual heritage of John Huss, Brother Gregory founded the Bohemian Unity of Brethren, which, having functioned within the Utraquist group of Hussites for a decade, separated in 1467 and established an independent ministry.受精神遺產的約翰胡斯,兄弟格雷戈里創辦波希米亞團結的兄弟們,其中有運作內部utraquist組胡斯之徒了十年,分居在1467年,並設立了一個獨立的部。 The reform movement based itself solely on the Bible, and its leaders were able to procure non Roman ordination from a bishop of the Waldenses.維新運動本身基於純粹基於聖經,它的領導人能夠購買非羅馬統籌,由一位主教的瓦勒度派。

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Occasional persecution of the Unity became systematic in the 16th century, a period marked by the theological creativity of Lukas of Prague (c. 1460 - 1528) and Jan Augusta (1500 - 72) and by contact with other Protestant reformers.偶爾迫害的團結,成為有系統,在16世紀,一個時期標誌著由神學創造性盧卡斯的布拉格(長1460 -1 528)和揚奧古斯塔( 1 500- 72 ),並通過與其他新教改革者。 Toleration obtained in 1609 was short lived as the Czech Protestants were expelled by Catholic advances in the Thirty Years' War (1627).嚴懲不貸獲得1609年是短命的,因為捷克新教徒被驅逐天主教進展三十年戰爭( 1627 ) 。 John Amos Comenius, the Unity's last bishop, led the group into exile.約翰阿莫斯美紐斯,團結的最後主教,帶領集團流亡國外。 A century later, representatives of German Pietism encouraged survivors of the Unity to migrate from Moravia to Saxony, where in 1722 the community of Herrnhut was founded.一個世紀後,代表德國pietism鼓勵倖存者團結遷移從摩拉維亞以薩克森,而在1722年的社會herrnhut成立。 Graf von Zinzendorf assumed leadership, and a spiritual awakening swept the congregation in 1727, which is often taken as the founding date of the Moravian Church.格拉夫馮辛生鐸夫擔任領導,又是精神的覺醒席捲聚集在1727 ,這是經常被視為成立日期的摩拉維亞教會。

The Moravians were pioneers in Protestant home and foreign missions, seeking renewal of European Christianity and the evangelization of the non Christian world.該moravians先驅者,在新教家庭和外國使團,尋求重建歐洲基督教與福傳事業的非基督教世界。 August Gottlieb Spangenberg, sent to America in 1735, founded churches in Georgia, Pennsylvania, and North Carolina.八月狀施潘根貝格,送往美國在1735 ,創辦教會在佐治亞州,賓夕法尼亞州和北卡羅來納等地。 Zinzendorf stimulated the church by his missionary leadership and religious genius, especially in community formation and cultic celebration.辛生鐸夫,刺激了教堂傳教,領導和宗教天才,尤其是在社會形成和邪教活動。 He also troubled the church with financial instability and devotional excesses that nearly wrecked it in the 1740s.他還困擾教會與金融不穩定和靈修的過度接近失事,它在1740年代。 After his death more moderate leadership was introduced by Spangenberg.他去世之後上較溫和的領導介紹了施潘根貝格。

Moravianism is basically presbyterian in structure, and its bishops are chosen on spiritual merit to serve in pastoral and cultic roles rather than in administrative ones. moravianism基本上是長老會在結構,它的主教都是挑選出來的精神,以優異的服務,在牧區和邪教的角色,而不是在行政措施。 Composed of approximately 360,000 members, the Moravian Church has played a major role in the development of Protestant worship, evangelism, missions, and theology in the last three centuries.組成的大約36萬成員,摩拉維亞教會方面發揮了重大作用,在發展的新教禮拜場所,傳道,任務,內容和神學在過去的三個世紀。

James D Nelson詹姆斯d納爾遜

Bibliography 參考書目
GL Gollin, Moravians in Two Worlds: A Study of Changing Communities (1967); JT / KG Hamilton, History of the Moravian Church: The Renewed Unitas Fratrum, 1722 - 1957 (1967); E Langton, History of the Moravian Church (1956).吉爾格林, moravians在兩個世界:一個研究改變社區( 1967年) ;特魯利/公斤漢密爾頓,歷史的摩拉維亞教會:重新烏尼塔斯fratrum , 1722 -1 957年( 1 967年) ;電子l angton,歷史的摩拉維亞教會( 1 956年) 。


Bohemian Brethren波希米亞弟兄

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

(MORAVIAN BRETHREN, or UNITAS FRATRUM). (摩拉維亞弟兄們,或烏尼塔斯fratrum ) 。

DEFINITION AND DOCTRINAL POSITION定義和學說上的立場

"Bohemian Brethren" and "Moravian Brethren" are the current popular designation of the Unitas Fratrum founded in Bohemia in 1457, renewed by Count Zinzendorf in 1722, and still active in our own day. "波希米亞弟兄" , "摩拉維亞弟兄" ,是當前流行的指定該烏尼塔斯fratrum成立於波西米亞,在1457 ,重新計數辛生鐸夫於1722年,至今仍活躍在我們自己的一天。 Placing life before creeds, the Moravian Church seeks "to exemplify the living Church of Christ constituted or regenerated men and women, while it affords a common meeting-point for Christians who apprehend dogmas variously".配售前的生活信條,摩拉維亞教會尋求"體現生活基督教會構成或再生的男人和女人,而它提供了一個共同的會晤點,為基督信徒們逮捕教條不同程度" 。 Personal faith in the crucified Saviour constitutes the chief foundation for the fellowship thus established.個人的信仰在釘在十字架上的救世主,構成行政基金會獎學金,因此建立。 Scripture is the only rule of faith, but "nothing is posited as to the mode of inspiration, for this partakes of the mysteries which it has not pleased God to reveal".經文是唯一的法治信仰,但"世上無難事假定,以模式的啟發,因為這參與大的奧秘,但至今未高興上帝透露" 。 The Trinity, the Fall, Original Sin, and "Total Depravity" are admitted, but "discussion about them is shunned".三位一體,秋季,原罪,和"整體沉淪" ,是承認,但"談他們是畏縮" 。 The Love of God manifested in Christ - without theories about the mode - is the centre of Moravian belief and practice.上帝的愛體現在基督裡-沒有理論關於模式-是該中心的摩拉維亞的信念和實踐。 Justification by faith alone and the necessity of regeneration "are posited as facts of personal experience".因信稱義,僅及必要性振興中華" ,是假定事實的個人經驗" 。 Sanctifying grace, the need of prayer, and other public means of grace, a complete ritual, a strict discipline, "the orders of the ministry with no conception of the functions of the episcopate", ie bishops ordain, but the episcopal office implies no further ruling or administrative power (see infra in regard to Zinzendorf), Baptism and the Lord's Supper as the only sacraments, and the common Christian eschatology: Resurrection, Judgment, Heaven, Hell; such are the tenets from which Moravians are expected not to depart, whilst they are allowed to speculate about them on Scriptural lines with entire liberty. sanctifying恩典,有需要的禱告,和其他公共手段的恩典,一個完整的禮儀,要實行嚴格的紀律" ,命令該部沒有任何的概念,職能主教" ,即主教阿拉維,但主教辦公室意味著沒有進一步裁決或行政權(見紅外對於辛生鐸夫) ,洗禮和主的晚餐作為唯一的聖禮,並共同基督教末世:復活,判斷,天堂,地獄;這些都是原理,從哪個moravians是預料不會離開同時,讓他們猜測他們對聖經的線路與整個自由。

HISTORY OF THE ANCIENT UNITAS FRATRUM (1457-1722)歷史上的古代烏尼塔斯fratrum ( 1457至1722年)

The Bohemian Brethren are a link in a chain of sects beginning with Wyclif (1324-84) and coming down to the present day.波西米亞弟兄,是一個環節連鎖教派開始wyclif ( 1324至1384年) ,並開始下降,到今天。 The ideas of the Englishman found favour with Hus, and Bohemia proved a better soil for their growth than England.理念的英國人發現,贊成與溶血尿毒綜合症,並波西米亞證明了這樣一條更好的土壤,它們的增長超過英國。 Both Wyclif and Hus were moved by a sincere desire to reform the Church of their times; both failed and, without intending it, became the fathers of new heretical bodies - the Lollards and the Hussites.雙方wyclif和溶血尿毒綜合症感動的真誠願望,以改革教會他們的時候;均告失敗,但無打算,成為父親的新的邪教組織-l ollards和胡斯之徒。 The former were persecuted out of existence in England by Catholic rulers; the latter prospered in Bohemia, thanks to royal and national support.前者遭到迫害,出於生存在英格蘭天主教統治者;後期,繁榮於波西米亞,感謝皇家和國家的支持。 The burning of John Hus at the stake for his stubborn adherence to the condemed doctrines of Wyclif (at Constance, 6 July, 1415) was considered an insult to the faith of the Bohemian nation, which, since its first conversion to Christianity, had never swerved from the truth.燃燒約翰溶血尿毒綜合症,在股權,為他的固執,堅持以condemed學說wyclif (人Constance , 1415年7月6日)被認為是一種侮辱信仰的波西米亞民族,其中,自第一次轉換,以基督教,但從未搖擺不定,前後不一,從真理。 The University of Prague came boldly forward to vindicate the man and his doctrines; the party which hitherto had worked at reforming the Church from within now rejected the Church's authority and became the Hussite sect.大學來到布拉格大膽前進,以維護該名男子和他的學說;黨迄今,曾在改革教會,從現在拒絕了教會的權威,並成為胡斯派節。 Divisions at once arose amongst its members.告一次出現,其中的成員。 Some completely set aside the authority of the Church and admitted no other rule than the Bible; others only demanded Communion under both kinds for the laity and free preaching of the Gospel, with some minor reforms.一些完全擱置管理局的教會,並承認沒有其他規則比聖經;他人只要求共融下兩種為俗人和自由傳教的福音,與一些小的改革。 The former, who met for worship at "Mount Tabor", were called Taborites; the latter received the name of Calixtines, ie, the party of the Chalice.前,他們舉行了祭拜"塔伯爾山" ,被稱為taborites ;後者收取的名字calixtines ,即黨的chalice 。 As long as they had a common enemy to fight they fought together under the leadership of that extraordinary man, John Trocznowski, known as Zizka (the one-eyed), and for fully fifteen years proved more than a match for the imperial armies and papal crusaders sent to crush them.只要他們有一個共同的敵人,以爭取他們共同戰鬥的領導下,即不平凡的人,約翰trocznowski ,稱為悉士喀(一個眼睛) ,並為充分十五年證明多於對手帝國軍隊和羅馬教皇十字軍送往粉碎他們。 Peace was at length obtained, not by force of arms, but by skilful negotiations which resulted in the "Compactata of Basle" (30 November, 1433).和平是在長度獲得,而不是通過武力,而是由熟練的談判結果在" compactata的巴塞爾" ( 1433年11月30日) 。 The compact was chiefly due to the concessions made by the Calixtine party; it found little or no favour with the Taborites.緊湊型主要是由於作出的讓步所calixtine黨,它發現,很少或根本沒有贊成與taborites 。 The discontent led to a feud which terminated at the Battle of Lippau (30 May, 1434) with the death of Procopius, the Taborite leader, and the almost total extinction of this party.不滿,引發了一場爭執,其中終止戰役lippau ( 1434年5月30日)與死亡的procopius , taborite領導人,而幾乎完全滅絕這個黨。 The small remnant, too insignificant to play a role in politics, withdrew into private life, devoting all their energies to religion.小殘,太微不足道發揮作用,在政治上,撤回到私人生活中,把自己全部的精力用宗教。 In 1457 one section formed itself into a separate body under the name of the "Brethren's Union" (Unitas Fratrum), which is now generally spoken of as the Bohemian Brethren.在第1457號一節形成自己成為一個單獨的機構名義下的"兄弟聯盟" (烏尼塔斯fratrum ) ,也就是現在普遍談到,作為波希米亞弟兄。 Their contemporaries coined for them several opprobrious designations, such as Jamnici (cave-dwellers) and Pivnicnici (beerhouse men), Bunzlau Brethren, Picards (corrupted to Pickarts), etc.他們創造了當代人,他們幾個opprobrious番號,如jamnici (洞穴居住者) ,並pivnicnici ( beerhouse男) , bunzlau弟兄們, picards (敗壞,以pickarts )等。

The originator of the new sect was a certain Gregory, a nephew of the leading Calixtine preacher, Rokyzana, whose mind was imbued with the conviction that the Roman Church was helplessly and hopelessly corrupt.發端的新教派是某格雷戈里,侄子領導calixtine佈道者, rokyzana ,其心充溢著一種信念,即羅馬教會是無奈和絕望的腐敗。 Gregory therefore decided to found a new Church in accordance with his uncle's and his own ideas of what a perfect Church should be.格雷戈里因此決定將發現一個新的教會按照他的叔叔和他自己的想法,什麼是一個完美的教會應該的。 Through Rokyzana's influence he obtained leave from the governor George von Podiebrad to organize a community in the village of Kunwald near Senftenberg.通過rokyzana的影響,他得到了休假,由總督喬治馮podiebrad舉辦一個社區,在村kunwald近senftenberg 。 Michel, the parish priest of Senftenberg, and Matthias, a farmer of Kunwald, joined Gregory, and soon the community counted several thousand members.米歇爾教區牧師senftenberg ,薩默爾,農民的kunwald ,加入格雷戈里,很快社區計數數千會員。 Their distinguishing tenets at this early period were rather vague: abolition of all distinctions of rank and fortune, the name of Christian being the one all-sufficient dignity; abolition of oaths, of military service, etc. Governor von Podiebrad kept a vigilant eye on the growing community.其判別原理,在這麼早的時期相當含糊:取消所有的區別秩和財富,人名,基督教作為一個全方位足夠的尊嚴;取消宣誓,兵役等總督馮podiebrad保持警覺,留意日益增長的社會。 In 1461 he had Gregory and several other persons arrested on suspicion of reviving the heresies of the Taborites.在1461年他曾格雷戈里和其他幾個人,涉嫌於振興異端邪說的taborites 。 The accused admitted that they did not believe in the real presence of Christ in the Holy Eucharist, but had partaken of the bread and wine at their nocturnal meetings as common food.被告承認,他們不相信在現實中存在的基督聖體聖事,但已partaken的麵包和酒,在他們的夜間會議,因為共同的食物。 They were set free, but, to avoid further interference, Gregory and his companions fled into the Lordship of Reichenau, where they lived hidden in the mountains.他們設置免費的,但是,為了避免進一步的干擾,格雷戈里和他的同伴們逃進lordship的reichenau ,他們生活在那裡隱藏在山區。 There, in 1464, was held a secret assembly consisting of Brethren from Bohemia and Moravia, who accepted as basis of their creed the doctrine that justification is obtained through faith and charity and confers the hope of eternal salvation.在那裡,在1464年,當時舉行了一次秘密集會構成的弟兄,從波希米亞和摩拉維亞,誰接納為基礎,其教義學說認為,理由是透過信仰和慈善機構並賦予希望的永恆的救贖。 The rich were requested to abandon their wealth and worldly pomp and to live in voluntary poverty.富人被要求放棄他們的財富和世俗輕車簡從,住在自願貧困。 The Brethren were to give up private property for the benefit of the Brotherhood.兄弟被放棄的私有財產,為造福於兄弟情誼。 Anyone not observing the brotherhood of faith and practice was to be separated from the community.任何人不遵守穆斯林兄弟會的信仰與實踐,是脫離社會。

Meanwhile the persecution continued.與此同時,迫害仍在繼續。 The Utraquist (Calixtine) priests refused the Sacrament to the Brethren.該utraquist ( calixtine )神父拒絕了聖餐向弟兄。 These, therefore, were forced to constitute a priesthood of their own belief.這些,因此,他們被迫在構成一個神職人員他們自己的信仰。 A bishop and a number of priests were chosen by lot, and the separation from the Utraquists became an accomplished fact.一名主教和一些神職人員以抽籤方式選定,並脫離utraquists成為既成的事實。 The head of the Austrian Waldenses, who was believed to have received consecration from a real bishop, gave episcopal orders to the ex-parish priest, Michael, and Michael consecrated his friend, Matthias, bishop and ordained several priests.總部設在奧地利瓦勒度派,他們被認為已收到consecration從一個真正的主教,讓主教的命令,以出廠價教區牧師,邁克爾,邁克爾consecrated他的朋友,薩默爾,主教晉牧幾位神父。 The new Bishop Matthias of Kunwald then reordained his consecrator, to make him a true priest of the Brotherhood.新主教薩默爾的kunwald然後reordained他consecrator ,使他真正的牧師的兄弟情誼。 This happened in 1467 at the synod of Lhotka, near Reichenau, where also all those present were rebaptized.這件事發生在1467年舉行的主教會議的勒霍特卡,近reichenau ,那裡也是所有在場的人們rebaptized 。 The breach with both Catholics and Utraquists was now completed, and the Brethren began to order their community on the model of "the primitive Church".違反同天主教徒和utraquists現在完成後,和兄弟們開始命令他們對社會的模式"的原始教會" 。 The governing power centred in a council presided over by a judge.執政權力集中在一個議會主持了由一名法官審理。 Four seniors, or elders, held the episcopal power.四個老人,或長老,舉行主教的權力。 The priests had no property and were encouraged to celibacy.祭司有沒有財產,並鼓勵獨身。 The strictest morality and modesty were exacted from the faithful.最嚴格的道德和謙虛的人付出,從忠實。 All acts subservient to luxury were forbidden; oaths and military service were only permitted in very exceptional cases.一切行為屈從於奢侈而被禁止;宣誓及兵役的人只允許在非常特殊的個案。 Public sins had to be publicly confessed, and were punished with ecclesiastical penalties or expulsion.公眾的罪過都必須公開承認,並分別處以宗教刑罰或開除學籍。 A committee of women watched with relentless severity over the behaviour of their sisters.一個委員會的婦女看著無情的嚴重程度的行為,他們的姐妹。 A new persecution quickly followed on the synod of Lhotka.一個新的迫害,緊接著就主教的勒霍特卡。 The Brethren defended their cause in copious writings, but in 1468 many of them were imprisoned and tortured, one was burnt at the stake.兄弟捍衛自己的事業,再用著作,但在1468年他們中的許多人被囚禁和折磨,一人被燒死在股份。 The death of the governor George von Podiebrad in 1471 brought some relief.死亡總督喬治馮podiebrad在第1471帶來了一些救濟。 Brother Gregory died in 1473.格雷戈里弟弟死於1473 。 From 1480 Lucas of Prague was the leading man.從1480年盧卡斯布拉格的是領導的人。 Thanks to him, and to toleration granted the Brethren by King Ladislaus II, the Brotherhood rapidly increased in numbers.感謝他,並要嚴懲不貸授予弟兄國王ladislaus二中,兄弟會迅速增加,在號碼。 By the end of the fifteenth century there were 400 communities.到去年底, 15世紀有400個社區。 Pope Alexander VI's endeavour to reconvert the Brethren (in 1499) proved futile.教皇亞歷山大六世在盡力reconvert兄弟( 1499 )證明是徒勞的。 About this time an internal feud in the "Unity of Brethren" led to a renewal of persecution.大約在這個時候一個內部爭鬥中, "團結的兄弟" ,引發了一場延續的迫害。 The Amosites, so called from their leader, Brother Amos, accused their more moderate Brethren of fomenting violent opposition to the Government in imitation of their spiritual ancestors, the Taborites.該amosites ,所謂由他們的領導人,兄弟阿莫斯,指控他們更溫和兄弟的煽動暴力反對政府在模仿他們的精神祖先, taborites 。 King Ladislaus II thereupon issued a decree prohibiting the meetings of the Brethren under heavy penalties.國王ladislaus二,於是就頒布了一項法令,禁止在該次會議對兄弟下重罰。 In many places, however, the decree was left unheeded, and powerful landowners continued to protect the Brotherhood.在許多地方,然而,該法令是左置若罔聞,強大的地主繼續保護穆斯林兄弟會。 Once more the king resorted to milder measures.再一次,國王以較溫和的措施。 In 1507 he invited the chiefs of the Brethren to meet the Utraquists in conference at Prague. 1507他請酋長的弟兄,以滿足utraquists會議在布拉格。 The Brethren sent a few rude, unlettered fellows unable to give answer to the questions of the professors.兄弟派出數粗暴,未予研究員無法作出回答的問題,教授。 The king regarded this as an insult and ordered all the meetings of the "Pickarts" to be suppressed, all their books to be burnt, and the recalcitrants to be imprisoned (1508).國王把這件事當成一種侮辱,並下令所有會議" pickarts "受壓制,其所有圖書被燒毀,並recalcitrants被囚禁( 1508 ) 。

The Brethren now began to look for foreign sympathy.兄弟,現在就開始尋找外國同情。 Erasmus complimented them on their knowledge of truth, but refused to commit himself further.伊拉斯謨感謝他們在知識的真理,但他拒絕透露表示要致力於進一步。 Luther objected to their doctrine on the Eucharist, to the celibacy of their clergy, to the practice of rebaptizing, and to the belief in seven sacraments.路德反對其學說的聖體聖事,以獨身他們的神職人員,到實踐中的rebaptizing ,並相信在七個聖禮。 Brother Lucas answered in a sharp pamphlet and, having ascertained the low standard of church discipline among the Lutherans of Wittenberg, ceased all attempts at union.弟弟盧卡斯回答了在一個尖銳的小冊子,並在查明,標準低的教會紀律,其中lutherans的維滕貝格,停止了所有的嘗試聯盟。 At the same time (1525) Lucas rejected the Zwinglian doctrines which some Brethren were trying to introduce.在同一時間內( 1525年) ,盧卡斯拒絕zwinglian學說,其中一些兄弟分別嘗試引進。 After the death of Lucas (1528) the government of the Brotherhood passed into the hands of men fond of innovations, among whom John Augusta is the most remarkable.去世後,盧卡斯( 1528 ) ,政府對穆斯林兄弟會獲得通過成為手中的男人喜歡創新,其中包括約翰奧古斯塔是最了不起的。 Augusta reopened negotiations with Luther and so modified his creed that it gained the Reformer's approbation, but the union of the two sects was again prevented by the less rigid morals of the Lutherans in Bohemia and Moravia.奧古斯塔重開談判,路德等修飾他的信條,它贏得改革者的讚許,但工會的兩個教派又阻止了由少僵化道德的lutherans在波希米亞和摩拉維亞。 Augusta pleaded for stricter church discipline, but Luther dismissed him, saying: "Be you the apostle of the Bohemians, I will be the apostle of the Germans. Do as circumstances direct, we will do the same here" (1542).奧古斯塔認罪,為更嚴格的教會紀律,但路德開除了,他說: "無論你的使徒保羅的bohemians ,我會傳道者的德國人。為所欲為的情況下直接的,我們也將這樣做,同時在這裡" ( 1542 ) 。 Soon afterwards the Bohemian Estates were requested to join Charles V in his war against the Smalkaldic league.不久之後波西米亞屋的人要求參加查爾斯五世在他的戰爭對smalkaldic聯賽。 Catholics and old Utraquists obeyed, but the Bohemian Protestants, having met in the house of Brother Kostka, established a kind of provisional government composed of eight members, four of whom belonged to the Brotherhood, and appointed a general to lead the armed rebels into Saxony against the emperor.天主教徒和舊utraquists服從了,但波希米亞新教徒,以面,在眾院的弟弟科斯特卡,建立了一種臨時政府組成的8名成員,其中4人屬於這個兄弟,並任命了一位普通帶領武裝叛亂分子進入薩克森州反對皇帝。 Charles's victory over the Smalkaldians at Muhlberg (1547) left the rebels no choice but to submit to their king, Ferdinand I. The Brethren, who had been the chief instigators of the rebellion, were now doomed to extinction.查爾斯戰勝smalkaldians在米爾貝格( 1547 )離開叛軍別無選擇,只能向自己的國王,費迪南德一弟兄,曾擔任過多年行政煽動叛亂,現在注定要滅絕的危險。 John Augusta and his associate, Jacob Bilek, were cast into prison; the Brethren's meetings were interdicted throughout the whole kingdom; those who refused to submit were exiled.約翰奧古斯塔和他的合夥人雅各布bilek ,共投入監獄服刑;兄弟的會議被停職到整個英國,那些拒絕向被流放。 Many took refuge in Poland and Prussia (1578); those who remained in the country joined, at least pro forma, the Utraquist party.許多避難,在波蘭和普魯士( 1578 ) ;那些仍然在該國的加入,至少在形式上, utraquist黨。 Owing to Maximilian II's leniency and Protestant propensities, the Bohemian diet of 1575 could draw up the "Bohemian Confession of Faith" in which the principles of the Brethren find expression along with those of the Lutherans.由於馬克西米利安二的寬大和新教propensities ,波西米亞人飲食1575年可制定"波希米亞供認信仰" ,在這種原則的弟兄找到表達隨著這些的lutherans 。 Under Rudolph II (1584) persecution was again resorted to, and lasted with more or less intensity down to 1609, when Rudolph's Charter granted the free exercise of their religion to all Protestants.根據魯道夫二(第1584 )迫害再次訴諸,並持續與更多或更少強度下降到1609年的時候,魯道夫的憲章賦予自由地行使自己的宗教所有新教徒。 No sooner, however, did external oppression relent than internal dissension broke out in the Protestant ranks.沒有早晚,但是,沒有外部壓迫放鬆比內部糾紛爆發出新教的行列。 The Consistory, composed of Lutherans and Brethren, was unable to maintain peace and union between the two parties.該一致性,組成lutherans和弟兄們,是無法維持和平與職工雙方的合作。 Ferdinand II, after his victory over the rebellious Bohemians at the white Mountain near Prague (1620), offered them the choice between Catholicism and exile.費迪南二後,他戰勝反叛bohemians在白宮附近山區布拉格( 1620年) ,提供給他們的選擇之間,天主教和流放。 Many Brethren emigrated to Hungary, but a greater number to northern Poland, where they settled in Lissa (now in Prussian Posen).許多兄弟移居匈牙利,但更大的數目,以北部波蘭,在那裡定居在墜毀(現為普魯士posen ) 。 Even to this day there are in that district seven communities calling themselves Brethren, although their confession of faith is the Helvetic.即使在今天,有在該地區7個社區,自稱兄弟,雖然他們的供認,信仰的是helvetic 。 In Prussian Silesia there are also three communities of Brethren claiming descent from the Bohemian Brotherhood.在普魯士西里西亞也有三個社區的弟兄自稱出身,從波西米亞兄弟情誼。

THE BOHEMIAN BRETHREN AND ENGLAND波西米亞兄弟和英格蘭

During the reign of Maximillian II and Rudolph II the Bohemian Brethren enjoyed a period of prosperity which allowed them to establish relations with younger Protestant churches.在位期間maximillian二和魯道夫二波希米亞弟兄享有的繁榮期,讓他們建立關係,與較年輕的新教教堂。 They sent students to Heidelberg and one at least to Oxford.他們派學生到海德堡和一個至少牛津。 In 1583 "Bernardus, John, a Moravian", was allowed to supply BD He had studied theology for ten years in German universities and was now going to the universities of Scotland. 1583 " 。 Bernardus ,約翰,摩拉維亞族" ,被允許供應屋宇署他研究了神學為十年,在德國大學,並正前往該大學的蘇格蘭。 This Bernardus, however, has left no trace but the entry in the Register of Oxford just quoted.本。 Bernardus然而,沒有留下跡,但在入職登記表,牛津剛才所引述的。 The man who brought the Brotherhood prominently before the Anglican Church was Johann Amos, of Comna, generally known as Comenius.該名男子帶來了穆斯林兄弟會突出地擺在聖公會是約翰阿莫斯, comna ,一般稱為美紐斯。 As a scholar and educationist he was invited by his English friends to assist in improving the state and administration of the universities, then under consideration in Parliament.作為一個學者和教育家,他應邀在由他的英文的朋友,以幫助改善國家管理的大學,那麼,議會正在審議。 The outbreak of the Civil War brought all these plans to naught, and Comenius returned to Germany in 1642.爆發內戰帶來的所有這些計劃化為泡影,而美紐斯回到德國1642年。 His influence in England allowed him to set on foot several collections for his severely persecuted church in Poland: the first three were failures, but the fourth, authorized by Cromwell, produced £5,900, of which sum Cambridge University contributed £56.他的影響力在英國,使他一套步行幾個收藏,為他的嚴厲迫害教會在波蘭:一是3人的失敗,但第四,授權克倫威爾,製作英鎊5900名,其中森劍橋大學貢獻£ 56 。 This was in 1658-59.這是在1658年至1659年。 Intercourse with the Anglican Church was kept up uninterruptedly until the remnants of the ancient Brotherhood had dwindled away and been swallowed up by other Evangelical confessions.與聖公會保持了不間斷,直到殘存的古代兄弟會有所減弱以外,並已吞噬了其他福音招供。 When the renewed Brotherhood was established in England it benefited by the memory of former friendly relations.當再次兄弟會成立於英格蘭,它得益於記憶前的友好關係。

HISTORY OF THE RENEWED BROTHERHOOD歷史上的重新兄弟

Persecution from without and dissension within wellnigh brought about the total extinction of the Bohemian Brethren.迫害從沒有和糾紛內部wellnigh帶來了徹底滅絕的波希米亞弟兄。 The small but faithful remnant was, however, destined to blossom into a new and vigorous religious body under the name of Moravian Brethren.小而忠實的殘餘,但是,注定要開花成一個新的有活力的宗教機構的名義下,摩拉維亞弟兄。 The founder and moulder of this second Unitas Fratrum was the pious and practical Count Zinzendorf (b. 1700, d. 1760).創始人和moulder的這第二個烏尼塔斯fratrum是虔誠和實際計數辛生鐸夫(乙1700年四器1760 ) 。 In 1722 the Lutheran Pastor Rothe, of Berthelsdorf in Upper Lusatia, introduced to the Count, from whom he held his living, a Moravian carpenter named Christian David.在1722年路德會牧師rothe ,貝特爾斯多夫上盧薩蒂亞,介紹給計數,由他舉行了他的生活,一個摩拉維亞木匠命名基督教大衛。 This man had been deputed by his co-religionists to look out for a concession of land where they could freely practise their religion.這名男子已deputed由他的同案religionists看出來了讓步的土地,他們可以自由地從事宗教活動。 Zinzendorf was so far unacquainted with the history and the tenets of the Bohemian Brethren, but in his charity, he granted them the desired land, on the slopes of the Hutberg in the parish of Bertlesdorf.辛生鐸夫是迄今為止unacquainted與歷史和原理的波希米亞弟兄們,但他在慈善事業,他給予他們所期望的土地,就斜坡的hutberg在教區的bertlesdorf 。 In a short time emigrants from Moravia founded there a colony, call Herrnhut.在很短的時間移民摩拉維亞成立,有一個殖民地,號召herrnhut 。 The colonists worshipped at the Lutheran parish church.殖民主義者崇拜在路德會教堂。 Two years later, there arrived from Zauchenthal in Moravia five young men fully conscious of being true members of the old "Bohemian Brotherhood".兩年後,有來自zauchenthal在摩拉維亞五名男青年要充分意識到作為真正的成員舊的"波希米亞兄弟情誼" 。 At once religious quarrels arose, to the annoyance of Count Zinzendorf and his friends.在一次宗教爭吵出現時,向煩擾計數辛生鐸夫和他的朋友們。 The count was not slow in perceiving that the colonists, all simple labourers and craftsmen, were more concerned with church discipline and Christian rules of life than with dogma.計數並不慢感知認為殖民主義者,一切簡單勞動者和手工業者,更關心與教會的紀律和基督教規則的生活比教條。 Accordingly he set about elaborating a constitution for a community of which religion should be the chief concern and bond of union.因此,他正在著手制定一部憲法,為一個社會的宗教應是行政的關注和認同感為紐帶的聯盟。 He left Dresden and, with the pastor's leave, began to work as a lay catechist among the Brethren at Herrnhut.他離開德累斯頓,並與牧師的休假,開始工作,作為奠定講授之間的兄弟在herrnhut 。 The community met for their religious services in their own hall where one of the Brethren, either chosen by lot or elected by the assembly, acted as minister.社會人士會面,為他們的宗教服務,在自己的大廳,其中一名兄弟,無論是通過抽籤確定或由大會選舉產生,擔任部長。 In 1731 they seceded from the parish church and added to their usual services the celebration of the Lord's Supper. 1731他們退出教區教堂,並補充說,以他們一貫的服務,為慶祝主的晚餐。 They were divided in "choirs" according to age, sex, and calling; each choir was ruled by elders (male and female), pastors, and administrators chosen among its members.他們被分在"技巧" ,根據年齡,性別,並要求每個合唱團是由統治的長者(男,女) ,牧師,並選擇管理者其成員之間。 The female choirs were distinguished by their dresses.女合唱團獲得尊敬他們的連衣裙。 Widows, unmarried young men, and young women formed separate choirs under the supervision of elders.寡婦,未婚的年輕男性,和年輕婦女單獨組成的合唱團的監督下,長者。 Everything at Herrnhut was controlled by the College of Elders, even matrimony, subject to the sanction of the lot.一切都在herrnhut控制了該學院的長輩,即使婚姻關係,但須以制裁該地段。 Provision was made for the poor and the sick, for prayer meetings and so forth.作出了規定,為窮人和病人,為祈禱會,等等。 Deacons, acting for the Elders, administered the property accruing to the community from donations.教務長,代理,為長老,掌管財產所得的,以社區來自捐款。 Great care was given to the education of the young, Zinzendorf being anxious to raise a generation that would perpetuate his work.特別慎重考慮到教育的青年,辛生鐸夫正急欲提高一代人都將維持他的工作。 The organization of the renewed Brotherhood was complete in 1731.組織這次續約兄弟完成1731 。 It bore the stamp of the personality of its founder, a man deeply religious, nurtured in Spencer's Pietism by the two noble ladies who brought him up, and well acquainted with Catholic life from his sojourn in Paris.持懷疑態度,但這郵票個性的,其創辦人,一名男子深感宗教薰陶下,在斯賓塞的pietism由兩個高貴女士們,他們又帶他了,熟悉天主教會從生活中,他寄居在巴黎舉行。 As soon as the foundations were solidly laid at Herrnhut, Zinzendorf began to think of missionary work.一旦該基金會工作打下紮實,在herrnhut ,辛生鐸夫開始認為的傳教工作。 His personal connection with the Danish Court led him to choose the Danish possessions in the West Indies and in Greenland for the field of his labours.他的個人方面與丹麥法院,促使他選擇了丹麥的遺物,在西印度群島和格陵蘭為外地的,他的勞動。 His first missionaries were sent out in 1732 and 1733.他的第一個傳教士發出了在1732年和1733年。 Feeling, however that as a simple layman he could not well confer missionary powers, he took orders at Tübingen in 1734 and, moreover, received episcopal consecration from the Reformed court-preacher Jablonsky of Berlin, in whose family the Moravian episcopacy, originated in 1467 by a validly ordained Waldensian bishop, had been - or was said to have been - preserved.感覺,但作為一個簡單的外行人,他不能好賦予的權力,傳教,他聽命於蒂賓根在1734年,而且,收到主教consecration從改革法院佈道者jablonsky的柏林,在其家人的摩拉維亞之故,起源於1467年由具有法律效力的waldensian祝聖主教,已經-或者是說已經-保存。 Persecution was not long in coming.迫害是在不久的未來。 The orthodox Lutherans became the Brethren's bitterest enemies.東正教lutherans成為兄弟的痛苦敵人。 The Imperial Government in Vienna strongly objected to their propaganda in Bohemia, which caused Austrian subjects to emigrate and sowed discontent in the country.帝國政府在維也納強烈反對他們的宣傳,在波西米亞,從而導致奧地利科目移民離間不滿,在該國。 Under imperial pressure the King of Saxony banished Zinzendorf "for ever".根據帝國壓力國王薩克森放逐辛生鐸夫"永遠" 。 The zealous count put his exile to good use.該熱心指望把他放逐到了很好的利用。 During the ten years (1737-47) of his absence from Saxony he founded congregations in Holland, England, Ireland, America; new ones also arose in Germany at Herrenhag, Neuwied, Gnadenfrei, Gnadenberg, and Neusatz.在十年( 1737至1747年) ,他的缺席從薩克森州,他創立的畢業典禮在荷蘭,英國,愛爾蘭,美國,新的又出現在德國herrenhag , neuwied , gnadenfrei , gnadenberg , neusatz 。 Zinzendorf showed a special predilection for the London establishment.辛生鐸夫顯示一個特殊偏好,為倫敦成立。 In 1750 he fixed his residence in the English capital and from there ruled the whole "Unity of Brethren". 1750年,他的固定住所,在英文資本從那裡統治著整個"團結的兄弟" 。 But in 1755 he returned to Herrnhut, which now became and remained the centre of the whole administration.但1755年,他返回herrnhut ,它現在已成為並保持該中心的整個政府。 To the present day the "Provincial Board of Elders for Germany" occupies Zinzendorf's own house at Berthelsdorf.到今天, "省董事會長老為德國"佔地辛生鐸夫的還有自己的房子,在貝特爾斯多夫。 The finishing touch of the new church system is the liberty enjoyed by those who join it to retain the Lutheran, the Reformed, or the Moravian Confession to which they belonged, and to be placed under the rule of Elders of the same belief.畫龍點睛的新的教會制度,是享有自由的人士加入,以保留路德教,改革後,還是摩拉維亞招供他們所屬的,並要放置的統治下,長老相同的信念。 This peculiar feature shows the founder's disregard for dogma and the great value he attached to Christian practice and ecclesiastical discipline.這種奇特的功能顯示了創立者的漠視教條和偉大的價值,他隸屬基督教實踐和教會的紀律。 He held that faith and justification could only be found by individuals who were, or became, members of a religious community.他認為,信仰和理由,只能是發現個別人,或成為成員,是一個宗教社會。 However much, in this and in other points, he copied the Catholic Church, yet he was to the end a faithful adherent of the Augsburg Confession and obtained from the Consistory in Dresden an official acknowledgment that the Moravian Brethren were followers of the same faith.但是不多,在這方面及其他各點,他抄了天主教教會,但他是到去年底,忠實堅持者的奧格斯堡認罪,並已取得由一致性在德累斯頓的一位官員承認,在摩拉維亞弟兄,被追隨者同樣的信念。 He also succeeded after a long struggle in securing for the Brotherhood recognition by the Saxon government.他還成功地經過長期的鬥爭,在確保為兄弟承認撒克遜人的政府。 When, regretted by all, he died in 1760, his work and his spirit lived on in the strongly organized body of the "Unity of Brethren".時,對此表示遺憾,他死於1760年,他的工作和他的精神就住在大力組織機構的安排, "團結的兄弟" 。 No material changes have taken place since.沒有物質發生了新變化,自。 In 1775 the Brethren, assembled in a synod at Barby, adopted the following statement of principles:於1775年開始營業的弟兄們,聚集在一個主教在barby ,通過了以下聲明的原則:

"The chief doctrine to which the Church of the Brethren adheres, and which we must preserve as an invaluable treasure committed unto us, is this: That by the sacrifice for sin made by Jesus Christ, and by that alone, grace and deliverance from sin are to be obtained for all mankind. We will, therefore, without lessening the importance of any other article of the Christian faith, steadfastly maintain the following five points: (1) The doctrine of the universal depravity of man: that there is no health in man, and that, since the Fall he has no power whatever left to help himself. (2) The doctrine of the Divinity of Christ: that God, the Creator of all things, was manifest in the flesh, and reconciled us to Himself; that He is before all things and that in Him all things exist. (3) The doctrine of the atonement and satisfaction made for us by Jesus Christ: that He was delivered for our offences and raised again for our justification and that by His merits alone we receive freely the forgiveness of sin, faith in Jesus and sanctification in soul and body. (4) The doctrine of the Holy Spirit and the operation of His grace: that it is He who worketh in us conviction of sin, faith in Jesus, and pureness in heart. (5) The doctrine of the fruits of faith: that faith must evidence itself by willing obedience to the commandment of God, from love and gratitude." "行政學說哪個教會的弟兄堅持,哪些是我們必須要保存一筆無價瑰寶致力於講給我們的是:由犧牲,為單發了言耶穌基督,並表示,僅恩典和救我們脫離罪惡要得到全人類的,所以我們沒有減輕的重要性,任何其他條款的基督教信仰,始終不渝地堅持了以下五點: ( 1 )學說的普遍沉淪的人:有沒有健康在男子,並說,自秋天,他沒有權力,無論左,以幫助自己。 ( 2 )中庸基督的神:上帝造物的一切事物,主要表現在肉體中,並調和我們自己這是他以前所有的東西,並在他身上所有的東西存在。 ( 3 )中庸贖罪,並取得了滿意的,為我們的耶穌基督:他是交付我們的罪行,並再次提出,為我們的理由,並指出他的優點我們僅獲得自由赦罪的,在信仰耶穌和成聖,在靈魂與身體。 ( 4 )中庸之道聖靈和運作他的恩典:這是他worketh在我們信念的罪過,信仰耶穌和純淨的心。 ( 5 )學說的成果信仰:信仰必須證據本身所願意服從的誡命神的,從愛與感激" 。

Faith in the Redemption and entire surrender of self to Christ (with Whom in 1741 a spiritual covenant was made) are held to be the very essence of religion.信仰在贖回及整個投降自我,以基督(與誰在1741年精神文明公約作了) ,認為是非常重要的宗教。 The will of Christ was ascertained by casting of lots as the final sanction in case of marriage (until 1820), in the election of superiors (until 1889), etc. Zinzendorf ruled as bishop over all the communities, both in Europe and America, but since his death the episcopal office has remained a mere title.該會的基督被確定拈鬮作為最後制裁的情況下結婚(直到1820年) ,在這次選舉中的上級(直至1889年)等。辛生鐸夫裁定為主教超過所有社區,無論是在歐洲和美洲,但由於他的去世主教辦公室仍然是一個純粹的標題。 In 1857 the British and American Unity became independent; the only bond of union being now the General Synod held once every ten years.在1857年美國和英國的團結,成為獨立;唯一債券的聯盟,現在正一般主教舉行了一次十年。

THE MORAVIANS IN ENGLAND該moravians英格蘭

The beginnings of the Brethren's Church in England are an interesting chapter in the commerce of thought between Germany and that country.開始的弟兄的教會在英格蘭是一個有趣的篇章,在商業的思路與德國及該國。 The German dynasty on the English throne had attracted a strong colony of their countrymen; towards the middle of the eighteenth century London alone numbered from 4000 to 5000 Germans among its inhabitants.德國王朝對英語寶座,吸引了強大的殖民地,他們的國人;邁向中東的十八世紀的倫敦單獨編號,從4000年至5000年間,德國人,其居民。 These would naturally be in sympathy with the Brethren.這些自然會同情與弟兄。 But the "Religious Societies" founded by Doctor Smithies, curate of St. Giles, and Dr. Horneck, of the Lower Palatinate, together with the writings of William Law-the father of the religious revival of the eighteenth century-had prepared the minds of many Englishmen for stronger spiritual food than that offered by the established religion.但是, "宗教社團"成立,由醫生smithies ,牧師的聖賈爾斯,博士和horneck ,較低的皇帝行宮遺址,連同有關的著作威廉法之父的宗教復興, 18世紀-已準備的頭腦許多英國人更強有力的精神食糧,比上所建立的宗教。 Horneck was a German Pietist, and William Law, in his "Serious Call", sets up a standard of perfection little short of Catholic monasticism. horneck是德國虔信,和威廉法,在他的"嚴重呼叫" ,建立了一個標準的完善,很少短期的天主教修道院。 John Wesley, who confesses that he was stimulated into activity by William Law, at first sought satisfaction of his spiritual cravings in the Moravian Brotherhod.約翰韋斯利,他承認,他被刺激到活動由威廉法,先尋求滿意的,他的精神渴望,在摩拉維亞brotherhod 。 He, with three other Oxford Methodists, met the Moravian Bishop Nitschmann and twenty Brethren at Gravesend, where they were waiting for the vessel that was to carry them all to Georgia (1736).他,與其他三牛津衛會見摩拉維亞主教nitschmann和第二十六弟兄在gravesend ,他們將在那裡等待著該船是進行所有出租格魯吉亞( 1736 ) 。 The Englishmen were favourably impressed with the religious fervour of the Germans, and a fruitful friendship sprang up between them.在英國人人良好的印象,與宗教狂熱的德國人,一個富有成果的友誼擺出來,他們之間。 As early as 1728 Zinzendorf had sent to England a deputation headed by the Moravian Johann Toltschig "to tell such as were not blinded by their lusts, but whose eyes God had opened, what God had wrought".早在1728辛生鐸夫已送往英國的代表由主管摩拉維亞約翰toltschig " ,以告知如不利令智昏,他們的性慾,但其眼睛上帝打開,什麼上帝緊張得要命" 。 Countess Sophia von Schaumburg-Lippe, Lady-in-Waiting at the English Court, used her influence in their behalf, but was unable to counteract the opposition of the Lutheran court-chaplain Ziegenhagen. countess上智馮紹姆堡- lippe ,夫人在等待,在英國的法院提出訴訟,用自己的影響力,他們的代表,但未能抵消反對路德法院牧師ziegenhagen 。 The embassy had little or no result.使館幾乎沒有或根本沒有效果。 Other visits followed at intervals, most of them by missionaries and emigrants on their way to America.其他訪問之後間隔,他們大多數是由傳教士和移民,他們到美國。 On the occasion of such a visit Zinzendorf himself induced some young people to form a society for the reading of the Bible, mutual edification, abstention from theological controversy, brotherly love, etc. It was the first step towards realizing his ideals in England.在紀念這樣的訪問辛生鐸夫本人誘發一些年輕的人,形成一個社會,為讀的聖經,互相啟迪,棄權從神學爭論,但兄弟般的愛,等等,實在是第一步,實現了他的理想,在英國。 The next step was Peter Boehler's zealous preaching to the "religious societies" and the working classes.下一步是彼得伯勒爾的熱心傳道,以"宗教社團"及勞工階層。

It was Boehler who founded the religious society in Fetter Lane of which John Wesley became a member, and for which he framed most of the rules; it seems also due to the influence of Boehler that John and Charles Wesley "found conversion" (June, 1738), yet not a conversion exactly of the Moravian type.這是伯勒爾,他們創立了宗教的社會中的束縛裡,其中約翰韋斯利成為會員,並為他誣陷大部分的規則,它似乎也是由於受伯勒爾說,約翰和查爾斯韋斯利, "發現轉換" ( 6月, 1738 ) ,但至今沒有一個確切的轉換的摩拉維亞類型。 A visit of John Wesley to the German centres made it clear that the Brotherhood had no room for two men like Zinzendorf and Wesley, both being born leaders of men, but having little else in common.參觀的約翰韋斯利向德國中心亦明確表示,兄弟已沒有空間,為兩男像辛生鐸夫和韋斯利,都出生領導人的男性,但幾乎沒有其他共同點。 Little by little Wesley became estranged from the Brethren, and his former friendship turned to open hostility (12 November, 1741), according to Wesley's journal).點點韋斯利疏離,從弟兄們,和他的前任友誼轉化成公開的敵意( 1741年11月12日) ,根據韋斯利的雜誌) 。 At a meeting in Fetter Lane Wesley accused the Brethren of holding false doctrines and left the hall exclaiming: "Let those who agree with me follow me."在一次會議上的束縛裡韋斯利指責兄弟控股虛假理論,並離開大廳大叫: "讓那些同意我的跟我來" 。 Some eighteen or nineteen of the members went out after him, the rest called upon the Brethren to be their leaders.一些在18或19個成員出去後,他說,其餘的呼籲弟兄,要他們的領導人。 Thus a religious society of the Church of England became a society of the Brethren.因此,宗教社會的英國教會,成為社會的謠言。 After their rupture with Wesley the Brethren began to work on their own account in England.後破裂韋斯利兄弟便開始著手自己的賬戶,在英格蘭。 Professor Spangenberg organized the young church with rare talent, and its activity spread far and wide in the provinces, even to Scotland and Ireland, but their success was greatest in Yorkshire.教授施潘根貝格有組織年輕教會與難得的人才,其活動分散面廣,在全國各省,甚至蘇格蘭和愛爾蘭,但他們的成功是最大的,在約克郡。 They also came in for some persecution from people who still confused them with the Methodists.他們還來到在一些迫害的人,還是他們的困惑與衛理。 The legal status of the Brotherhood was now to be determined.法律地位的兄弟情誼,現在能確定。 They did not wish to be classed as Dissenters, which would at once have severed them from the Anglican Church, and, on the other hand, the Anglican Church, disowned them because they neither had Anglican orders nor did they use the Boo of Common Prayer.他們不希望被歸類為異議人士,這將在一旦完成了他們從聖公會教堂,而且,在另一方面,聖公會,六親不認,因為他們都不具備英國國教訂單,也沒有使用建築物條例執行處共同祈禱。 Archbishop Potter would grant them no more than the toleration accorded to foreign Protestants.大主教波特將給予他們不超過嚴懲不貸給予外國新教徒。 To obtain a license from a Justice of the Peace they had to adopt a name, and Spangenberg decided on "Moravian Brethren, formerly of the Anglican Communion".為了得到政府授權,太平紳士,他們不得不採取姓名,及施潘根貝格決定對"摩拉維亞弟兄們,從前的英國聖公會" 。 This name implied a new denomination and led to the immediate formation of the first congregation of Brethren of English nationality (1742).這個名字隱含的一個新的面額,並導致立即成立首眾兄弟的英語國籍( 1742 ) 。 Zinzendorf greatly objected to the name of Moravians being given to his Brethren whom he considered as an ecclesiola in ecclesiâ, a select small church within a greater one, which might exist in almost any denomination.辛生鐸夫大為反對的名義moravians正考慮將他的弟兄,他被視為一個ecclesiola在ecclesiâ ,一個專責小教堂在一個更大的一個,這可能是存在於幾乎任何一個面額。 The proposed designation, "Old Lutheran Protestants", was distasteful to English members.擬議的稱號, "老路德派新教徒" ,是distasteful以英語成員。 They resolutely clung to the names "United Brethren" and "Moravians" as their official and popular designations, and the "Bill for encouraging the people known by the name of Unitas Fratrum or United Brethren to settle in His Majesty's colonies", passed in 1749, gives official sanction to the old name, recognizes that the Brethren belonged to an "ancient protestant and episcopal Church", and maintains their connection with Germany.他們堅決醉心於他們的姓名: "美國兄弟" , " moravians "作為其官方與民間番號,以及"法案,以鼓勵人們所認識的名字烏尼塔斯fratrum或美國兄弟定居在國王陛下的殖民地" ,通過在1749年給予正式制裁,以原來的名字,認識到這弟兄中,屬於一種"古老的新教和聖公會" ,並能保持其涉嫌與德國。

BEGINNINGS OF THE MORAVIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA開端的摩拉維亞教會在美國

In 1734 Zinzendorf obtained for thirty families of banished Schwenkfelders (adherents of Kaspar von Schwenkfeld) a home in Georgia which had just been carved out of the Carolina grant "to serve as an asylum for insolvent debtors and for persons fleeing from religious persecution".在1734辛生鐸夫獲得了30個家庭的放逐schwenkfelders (遺民kaspar馮schwenkfeld )一個家在格魯吉亞,其中剛剛被瓜分的南卡羅來納州金" ,以作為收容無力償債的債務人和為逃避政治迫害宗教" 。 These exiles, however, found it preferable to join an older colony in Pennsylvania.這些流亡者,但是,發現它最好是參加一個舊殖民地,在賓夕法尼亞州。 The Brethren now conceived the plan of securing for themselves in Georgia a home of refuge in time of persecution.兄弟現在所構思的計劃,確保自己在喬治亞州的家中避難,在當時的迫害。 The governor general, Oglethorpe, granted them 500 acres, and Spangenberg, the negotiator, received a present of 50 acres for himself, a part of the site on which the city of Savannah now stands.總督一般, oglethorpe ,賦予他們500英畝,施潘根貝格,談判代表,收到了,目前50英畝,為自己的一部分,該網站上市草原現已達到。 The first eleven immigrants reached Savannah 17 April, 1734, led by Spangenberg.今年首十移民已達草原1734年4月17日率領由施潘根貝格。 Bishop Nitschmann brought over another twenty, 7 February, 1736.主教nitschmann帶來另二十, 1736年2月7日。 The work of evangelizing and colonizing was at once vigorously taken in hand and carried on with more courage than success.工作的福傳和殖民化是在一次大力採取在手,並進行更多的勇氣比成功。 The climate, wars, enmities from within and without, checked the growth and cramped the organization of the Brotherhood.氣候,戰爭,仇恨,從內部和外部,檢查了增長和擁擠組織穆斯林兄弟會。

PRESENT CONDITION OF THE MORAVIAN BODY目前的狀況,以及摩拉維亞機構

The outcome of their faithful struggles during 175 years is shown in the subjoined statistics, and may be read in detail in the "Transactions of the Moravian Historical Society," Vol.結果,他們的忠實鬥爭期間一百七十五年,是表現在subjoined統計,並可以詳細閱讀,在"交易的摩拉維亞歷史社會" ,第一卷。 VI:六:

Statistics for America (from "The Moravian," 13 March, 1907).- On the 1st of January, 1907, there were in the five northern districts of America 96 congregations with 13,859 communicants, 1,194 noncommunicants, and 5,316 children; a total membership of 20,369; an increase of 228 over the previous year.統計美國(選自"摩拉維亞" , 1907年3月13日) 。 ─對1907年1月1日,有在北部五個地區的96個美國教區與13859 communicants ,第1194 noncommunicants ,和5316年的兒童;會員總數對20369 ;增加了228個,比前一年。 In Sunday schools there were 9,666 pupils under 1,156 officers and teachers, a total membership of 10,822, against 11,012 in the preceding year, implying a loss of 187.在週日的學校有9666名學生,根據1156號人員和教師,會員總數為10822 , 11012對,在此之前的一年,這意味著損失187 。 Receipts from all sources: 31 December, 1906, $145,517.67; a decrease of $8,006.19 on 1905.收益來自各方面的資料: 1906年12月31日, 145517.67美元;下跌8006.19美元於1905年。 Expenses exactly balance receipts.費用正是平衡收據。 In the Southern Province of America there were on the 1st of January, 1907, 3,703 communicants, 320 non-communicants, 1,819 children; total, 5,842.在南部省份,美國有對1907年1月1日, 3703 communicants , 320個非communicants , 1819年兒童;總額, 5842 。 Sunday schools contained 3,883 pupils, 323 officers and teachers; total, 4,206.- Total membership in both provinces: 26,211 against 25,877 in 1906- an increase of 334.週日學校載3883名學生, 323名教師,共計4206 .-會員總數在這兩個省份: 26211對25877 ,在1906年-增加了3 34。

In Great Britain and Ireland, the Moravian Church numbered on the 31st of December, 1906, 41 congregations, with a total membership of 6,343; an increase of 211 on 1905; 5,072 pupils attended Sunday schools, with 568 teachers; there were also 213 pupils, with 5 teachers, in 5 day schools, and 305 scholars, with 38 teachers, in 5 boarding schools.在大不列顛及愛爾蘭,摩拉維亞教會編號對1906年12月31日, 41歲的畢業典禮,共有成員6343年;增加了211對1905年; 5072名學生參加了週日學校,有568人的教師;此外,還有213名學生, 5個教師,在為期5天的學校,和305學者, 38個教師, 5個寄宿制學校。

The German Province, 31 December, 1905, had 25 congregations, with a total membership of 7,958, of whom 5,795 were communicants; 50 missionary centres ministered to about 70,000 (the "Diaspora").德國的省, 1905年12月31日,有25個教區,會員總數為7958名,其中5795名communicants ; 50傳教中心ministered約70000 ( "散居" ) 。

The Mission Fields of the Moravians: In North America, Labrador, begun 1771; Alaska, 1885; California, 1890.-In Central America, Mosquito Coast, 1849.-In South America, Surinam, 1735, Demerara, 1878.-In the West Indies, Jamaica, 1754; St. Thomas, 1732, St. Jan, 1754; St. Croix, 1740; Antigua, 1756; St. Kitts, 1777; Barbadoes, 1765; Tobago, 1790; Trinidad, 1890.-In Africa, Cape Colony, East and West, 1736; German East Africa, 1891.-In Asia, West Himalaya, 1853; Jerusalem, Leper House, 1867.-In Australia, Victoria, 1849; North Queensland, 1891.特派團領域的moravians :在北美,拉布拉多,開始了1771年;阿拉斯加, 1885年;加利福尼亞州, 1890. -在中美洲,蚊子海岸, 1849. -在南美洲,蘇里南, 1735 ,德梅拉拉, 1878. -在西印度群島,牙買加, 1754年,聖托馬斯, 1732年,聖揚, 1754年,聖克羅伊島, 1740年;安提瓜, 1756年,聖基茨, 1777年; barbadoes , 1765 ;巴哥, 1790 , ;特立尼達, 1890. -在非洲,歌連臣角殖民地,東方和西方, 1736年,德國東部非洲, 1891. -在亞洲,西喜馬拉雅, 1853年;耶路撒冷, leper房子, 1867. -在澳大利亞,維多利亞, 1849/2836 ;昆士蘭北部, 1891 。 The work is carried on by 470 missionaries of whom 76 are natives.這項工作進行了由470名傳教士,其中有七十六宗土人。 Bohemia and Moravia are also counted among the mission fields.波希米亞和摩拉維亞也算各團場。 The mission work there, like that of the foreign missions, is a joint undertaking of all the Provinces of the Church.特派團工作,因此這樣的外國使團,是一個共同事業的所有省份的教會。 In December, 1905, the total membership was 984; income (of which £111 was from the British Province), £1761, 16/4; outlay, £1,991, 10/9.去年12月, 1905年,共有成員984名;收入(其中111英鎊,是由英國) ,英鎊, 1761年, 16 / 4 ;支出英鎊, 1991年,第10 / 9 。

Publication information Written by J. Wilhelm.出版信息寫了J.威廉。 Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett.轉錄由托馬斯米巴雷特。 Dedicated to Christian unity in Jesus' name The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.致力於基督信仰合一委員會奉耶穌之名的天主教百科全書,第二卷。 Published 1907. 1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, 1907. nihil obstat , 1907 。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

CAMERARIUS, Historica narratio de Fratrum orthodoxorum ecclesiis in Bohemia, Moravia, et Polonia (Frankfurt, 1625); BOROWY, sv Bruder, Bohmische in Kirchenlex., II; HAMILTON, A History of the Moravian Church, or the Unitas Fratrum (Bethlehem, Pa., 1900); WAUER, The Beginnings of the Brethren's Church in England (Baildon, near Shipley, Yorks, 1901); The Moravian (official organ of the N. Prov. Of the Unitas Fratrum in America); The Moravian Messenger.- See also Bibliography prefixed to SCHWEINITZ, History of the Unitas Fratrum. camerarius , historica narratio德fratrum orthodoxorum ecclesiis在波希米亞,摩拉維亞等博羅尼亞(美因河畔法蘭克福,第1625 ) ;布羅維, sv bruder , bohmische在kirchenlex ,二;漢密爾頓,一個歷史的摩拉維亞教會,或烏尼塔斯fratrum (伯利恆,巴勒斯坦權力機構, 1900 ) ; wauer ,開始了弟兄的教會在英格蘭( baildon ,近希普利, yorks , 1901年) ;摩拉維亞(官方機構的12省的烏尼塔斯fratrum在美國) ;摩拉維亞信使.-也見書目後綴schweinitz ,歷史的烏尼塔斯fratrum 。


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