Millennialism millennialism

Millenarianism millenarianism

General Information 一般資料

In its narrowest sense millenarianism refers to belief in the Second Coming Of Christ and the establishment of his kingdom on earth as predicted in the Book of Revelation. More generally, the term refers to any religious movement that prophesies the imminent destruction of the present order and the establishment of a new order, usually reversing the relative status of the oppressed and the oppressor. 在其最窄的責任感millenarianism指信仰耶穌第二次來,並建立了他的王國在地球上預言的那樣,在這本書的啟示。一般來說,是指任何宗教運動,預言即將銷毀目前治安建立新的秩序,通常是倒車的相對地位的被壓迫者和壓迫者。

Christian millenarian beliefs were derived from Jewish apocalyptic traditions current in the centuries before and after Jesus Christ.千禧年的基督教信仰源自猶太世界末日的傳統,目前在幾個世紀之前和之後的耶穌基督。 Some scholars have, in fact, suggested that in its origins Christianity was related to such millenarian groups as the Essenes.一些學者,事實上,提議,在其起源基督教有關,例如千禧年集團為essenes 。 As Christianity developed into a stable community in the centuries after Jesus, millenarian activity became primarily a fringe movement, associated with such reform movements as Montanism and, in the 13th and 14th centuries, Joachimism and radical Franciscan movements.作為基督教發展成為一個穩定的社會,在幾百年後的耶穌,千禧年活動成為基本上是一個邊緣運動,與這些改革運動作為montanism ,並在13和14世紀, joachimism和激進的方濟各動作。 With the upheavals brought on by the Reformation in the 16th century, millenarianism increased and was found, for example, among the Anabaptists.與動盪帶來的,由改造早在十六世紀, millenarianism增加被發現,例如,其中anabaptists 。

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In the 18th century, Independents in England (for example, Joseph Mede) and Pietists in Germany advocated millenarian views.在18世紀,獨立候選人在英格蘭(例如,約瑟夫mede ) ,並虔誠主義在德國主張千禧年的看法。 Among contemporary Protestant groups believing in the millennium are the Seventh Day Adventists, the Christadelphians, the Jehovah's Witnesses, and the Plymouth Brethren.當代基督教團體認為,在千禧年是基督复臨安息日會,基督弟兄會,耶和華見證人,和普利茅斯的謠言。 Most millenarians believe that the millennium will follow the Second Coming; some, however, have defined the millennium as a period of progressive improvement in the world that will culminate in the Second Coming.最millenarians相信千禧年會後續第二次來臨時,有些人,但已確定了千年作為一個時期的逐步改善,這在世界上最終將第二次來。

Bibliography 參考書目
M Barkum, Disaster and the Millennium (1986); KOL Burridge, New Heaven, New Earth: A Study of Millenarian Activities (1969); N Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium (1970); JW Davidson, The Logic of Millennial Thought: Eighteenth Century New England (1977); RA Doan, The Miller Heresy: Millennialism and American Culture (1987); DL Russell, The Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic, 200 BC - AD 100 (1964); A Taylor, Visions of Harmony: A Study in 19th Century Millenarianism (1987); TP Weber, Living in the Shadow of the Second Coming: American Premillennialism, 1875 - 1925 (1979).米barkum ,災害和千年( 1986年) ; " Kol burridge ,新天堂,新的地球:一項研究的千禧年活動( 1969 )氮科恩,追求千年( 1970年) ;李鍾鬱戴維森,邏輯千年思想: 18世紀新英格蘭地區( 1977年) ;類風濕性關節炎doan ,米勒異端: millennialism與美國文化( 1987 ) ; dl羅素,方法和信息的猶太世界末日, 200公元前-公元1 00( 1 964) ;泰勒,理想的和諧:一項研究在19世紀millenarianism ( 1987 ) ;總磷韋伯,生活在陰影下的第二次來:美國premillennialism , 1875 -1 925( 1 979) 。


Millennium千年

General Information 一般資料

Introduction導言

A millennium is a period of 1,000 years.千禧年是一個時期的1000年。 The word millennium is derived from the Latin words mille, which means "thousand," and annus, "years."字千年,是源自於拉丁語千字,即" 1000 " ,年, "年" 。

In various Christian doctrines, millennium refers to a 1,000-year period foretold in the Bible's Book of Revelation, involving the apocalypse (the end of the world) and the reign of Jesus Christ on earth.在各個基督教教義,千禧年是指1000年期間預言在聖經中的書的啟示,其中涉及的啟示(續完的世界) ,以及在位耶穌基督的地球。 The concept of the millennium is not only associated with Christian thought, however.的概念,千禧年是不僅與基督教思想,但。 Many cultures of the world have similar beliefs about the imminent transformation or end of the world and the creation of an age in which human suffering and violence will be eliminated.許多文化中的世界也有類似的信念注意即將到來的轉型或結束時,世界和創造的時代,人類的苦難和暴力將被淘汰。 Thus, Western scholars commonly use the term millennium to refer generally to any new age of holiness, harmony, and earthly perfection. Similarly, the word millennialism is used to describe beliefs about an imminent apocalypse, the salvation of the world, or the creation of an earthly paradise.因此, 西方學者普遍使用該詞千年來泛指任何新時代的聖潔,和諧與俗世的完美,同樣地,這個詞millennialism是用來形容信念是一個迫在眉睫的啟示,拯救了世界,或建立一個人間天堂。 Such beliefs have existed throughout history and are still held by millions of people today.這種觀念已經存在,在整個歷史上,而且還在舉行,由數百萬人的今天。

The year 2000 had sparked widespread feelings that something monumental was going to occur with the flip of the calendar page. 2000年曾引起廣泛的情感,不朽的東西去發生與倒裝的日曆一頁。 Although the year 2000 is a subjective marking of the passage of time, in popular culture it has enormous symbolic and conceptual power.雖然, 2000年是一個很主觀的標記時間的推移,在流行文化,它有巨大的象徵性和概念性的權力。 For many people, it represents a pivotal moment in history, a time to reflect on the past thousand years or imagine a thousand years to come.對許多人而言,這代表著一個關鍵時刻,在歷史上,由於時間,以反映對過去1000年或想像是1000年來的。

For the past several hundred years, people in Western cultures have marked time in terms of 10-year periods (decades) and 100-year periods (centuries).在過去的幾百年裡,人們在西方文化有顯著的時間來看, 10年期( 20年)和100年的時間(世紀) 。 Westerners tend to associate eras with decades and centuries.西方人往往聯想到時代的幾十年和幾個世紀。 For example, many Americans think of the 1920s as the Roaring Twenties, and they frequently associate the 1960s with protests and social activism.舉例來說,許多美國人認為,對20世紀20年代作為呼嘯而來的二十多歲,與他們經常聯繫,與20世紀60年代的抗議和社會活動。 Many people attach special significance to years that end in a zero, because these years seem to signal a transition from one era to another.許多人的重視有著特殊的意義,以多年為此,在一個零,是因為這些年來,似乎預示著轉型,從一個時代到另一個地方。 A year that ends in triple zeros, then, suggests an even greater change.這一年結束三重零點,然後,表明一個更大的變化。 Thus, the year 2000 had evoked hope for transformation and the birth of a new age, as well as fears about potential global catastrophes.因此,到2000年已誘發希望為改造和誕生一個新的時代,以及擔心潛在的全球性大災難。

Dating the Millennium約會千年

Although January 1, 2000, was popularly celebrated as the beginning of the 3rd millennium, there are differing beliefs about when the new millennium actually began.雖然2000年1月1日,深受慶祝,因為一開始的第三屆千禧年,也有人持不同信仰的時候,新的千年,實際上開始了。 The Western dating of the millennium is based on the Gregorian calendar, which is the most globally recognized system for marking the passage of years.西部約會的千禧年是基於公曆,這是最全球公認的制度,這標誌著通過多年。

According to the Gregorian calendar, the millennium did not begin until January 1, 2001.按公曆,千禧年並沒有展開,直至2001年1月1日。 The Gregorian calendar follows the AD (Latin anno Domini, "in the year of our Lord") system introduced by Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century AD.公曆如下專案(拉丁語標註多米尼" ,在今年我們的主" )制度推出的基督教僧侶狄奧尼修斯exiguus在西元六世紀。 The AD system counts time from the year Jesus Christ was born.專案系統計數時間,從今年耶穌基督誕生了。 Dionysius dated Jesus' birth in the year AD 1 rather than in AD 0, because Roman numerals, which were still in use, had no symbol for zero.狄奧尼修斯日為耶穌誕生在今年專案一日,而不是在AD 0 ,因為羅馬數字,而仍在使用,沒有任何標誌為零。 In this dating system, each century begins with a year ending in 01 and ends with a year ending in 00.在此約會制度,每世紀伊始,與前一年結束,在01及兩端與前一年結束,在00 。 For example, the 19th century began in 1801 and ended in 1900.舉例來說, 19世紀始於1801年,結束於1900年。 Therefore, December 31, 2000, ended the old millennium, and January 1, 2001, marked the start of the new millennium in this dating system.因此, 2000年12月31日,結束了舊千年, 2001年1月1日,標誌著新千年的開始,在此約會制度。

Some people believe the new millennium, as marked by the birth of Jesus, began several years earlier than 2001.有些人認為,新千年之際,作為標誌,耶穌誕生,就開始數年前就超過2001年。 According to many scholars, Dionysius made various errors in calculating Jesus' birth date.根據許多學者,狄奧尼修斯提出了各種不同的錯誤,在計算耶穌的出生日期。 Historical evidence indicates that Jesus was actually born in 4 BC or earlier.歷史證據表明,耶穌其實是出生於公元前四或更早的版本。 As a result, the 2,000-year anniversary of the birth of Jesus may have occurred sometime in the 1990s.因此, 2000年的年誕辰紀念耶穌可能已經發生了一段時間,在20世紀90年代。

Other people believe that the change to the new millennium lasts a period of 33 years, corresponding to the life span of Jesus.其他人認為,這種轉變,以新的千禧年為止,為期33年,相對應的使用年限為耶穌。 According to some historians, the year 1033 - regarded by many people as the 1,000-year anniversary of Jesus' death - resulted in widespread millennial fervor in which people made pilgrimages to Jerusalem and anticipated the destruction or renewal of the world.據一些史學家,較上年同期1033 -被許多人作為1 000年紀念耶穌的死因-造成了普遍的千年侃侃而談,使人們作出朝聖耶路撒冷和預期的破壞或重建的世界。 Some people have predicted that the year 2033 [or maybe 2029, due to Dionysius' errors] will have millennial significance as well and will be viewed as the date that marks the beginning of the new millennium.一些人預測說,今年的2033年[或者2029年,由於狄奧尼修斯'錯誤] ,將有千年意義,因為這和將來都會被看成日期為標誌,進入新的千年。

About two-thirds of the people in the world use religious or ceremonial calendars in addition to the Gregorian calendar.大約有三分之二的人在世界上利用宗教或禮儀挂歷除了公曆。 For example, January 1, 2000, on the Gregorian calendar was the year 1420 on the Islamic calendar, 5760 on the Jewish calendar, and 4697 on the Chinese calendar.例如, 2000年1月1日,公曆是,今年有1420對伊斯蘭日曆, 5760年就猶太曆法, 4697年對中國曆法。 However, even people who use these other calendars are aware of the global significance of the Gregorian calendar years 2000 and 2001.但是,即使人們使用這些其他的日曆也意識到了這一全球性意義的陽曆年, 2000年和2001年。

Religious and Mystical Beliefs宗教和神秘信仰

Millennialist beliefs are not only related to the turn of the millennium. millennialist信念,不僅關係到千年之交。 Since the beginning of human history, people in nearly every society have told sacred stories about worldly destruction, the regeneration of the earth, and the creation of a terrestrial paradise.年初以來,在人類歷史上,人們幾乎在每一個社會都告訴神聖的故事,世俗的破壞,再生的地球,並創建一個地面天堂。 Scholars have documented these types of stories from Zoroastrian, Babylonian, Hindu, Buddhist, Islamic, Greek, Roman, Norse, African, Maya, and Native American cultures.學者們已經證明這些類型的故事,從zoroastrian ,巴比倫,印度教,佛教,伊斯蘭教,希臘,羅馬,北歐,非洲,瑪雅,美洲原住民的文化。

Millennialist ideas are concerned with the destiny and destruction of the world, the end of time, the end of evil and suffering, and the creation of a perfect age. millennialist理念所關注的命運和世界將要毀滅的結束時間,結束罪惡和痛苦,並創造一個完美的年齡。 Millennialist belief systems have an enduring appeal because they assert that there is an underlying plan for history, that human existence is meaningful, and that a new world of peace and justice will be created. millennialist信仰體系都具有持久的吸引力,因為他們聲稱,有一個潛在的計劃,為歷史上,即人的存在是有意義的,並表示,一個新的世界的和平與正義的良好風氣。

Book of Revelation本書的啟示

In the Christian Bible, the concept of the millennium is introduced toward the end of the Book of Revelation (sometimes called the Apocalypse).在基督教聖經的概念,千禧年是實施對書的最後的啟示(有時稱為啟示) 。 According to Revelation 19:11-21, 20:1-10, and other passages, Jesus Christ will return to earth and defeat Satan at the battle of Armageddon ( Second Coming ).據啟示19:11-21 , 20:1-10 ,和其他旅費,耶穌基督將返回地球,並擊敗撒旦在戰鬥中的世界末日( 第二次來 ) 。 Christ will then throw Satan into a bottomless pit for 1,000 years and will reign during this millennium of peace on earth.基督會,然後再丟撒旦變成一個無底洞,為1000年將在位期間,在這個千年的地球上的和平。 However, at the end of those 1,000 years, Satan and the forces of evil will rise up to do battle with Christ once again.然而,截至去年底,這些千年,撒旦和邪惡勢力重新崛起,做戰與基督一遍。 In this final battle, Christ will defeat Satan forever and throw Satan into a lake of fire to suffer eternal torment.在這最後的戰役中,基督戰勝魔鬼,永遠丟撒旦成湖消防遭受永恆的折磨。 God will then resurrect all human beings and judge them according to their beliefs and actions.上帝會復活,然後所有的人,以及法官,他們根據自己的信念和行動。 This event is often referred to as the Last Judgment. According to Revelation, God will give the righteous people eternal life in paradise and will send the evil ones to hell.這項活動是經常被稱為最後的審判,據啟示,上帝會站在正義的人永恆的生命在天堂裡,並會發出邪惡的地獄之路。

Types of Christian Millennialism各類基督教millennialism

The concept of the millennium and the apocalypse referred to in Revelation has been an important part of certain Christian sects, but it has held less significance for most Roman Catholic and Protestant groups. Believers in Christian millennialism differ about when Christ will return to earth, how the millennium will start, and the nature of the millennium. 的概念,在千禧年的啟示中提到在啟示一直是一個重要的部分,某些基督教教派,但也有少舉行的意義對於大多數羅馬天主教和新教團體的信徒們在基督教millennialism不同,約當基督將返回地球,又如何千禧年會開始,和大自然的千年。 The three major types of Christian millennialism are premillennialism, postmillennialism, and amillennialism.三大類型的基督教millennialism是premillennialism , postmillennialism , amillennialism 。

The Year 1000 1000年

In studying the various forms of millennialism, historians have debated whether people recognized the turn of the millennium around the year 1000.在研究了各種形式的millennialism ,歷史學家們討論人們是否承認,千年之交的約1000年。 Some scholars believe that an apocalyptic fever had gripped Europe by the year 999.有學者認為,從一個世界末日高燒更深歐洲,由今年的999 。 According to these scholars, many people converted to Christianity, stopped planting their crops, confessed their sins, and forgave each other their debts.據這些學者,有很多人皈依基督教,停止種植農作物,交代了他們的罪孽,並原諒了對方的債務。 Others abandoned their families to make pilgrimages to Jerusalem in hope of witnessing the Second Coming of Christ, or they knelt in church in terror as they anticipated an apocalypse.別人放棄自己的家庭,使朝聖在耶路撒冷的希望見證耶穌第二次來,或者他們跪下,在教堂的恐怖,因為他們預期的一個啟示。

However, most historians argue that the accounts of millennial hysteria are the romantic concoctions of overly imaginative writers.不過,大多數歷史學家認為,帳目千年癔症是浪漫concoctions的過於富有想像力的作家。 These historians note that the doctrines of the Catholic Church at the end of the 1st millennium were opposed to any teachings about imminent apocalypse. Furthermore, most people living in the years 999 and 1000 were not even aware that it was the end of the 1st millennium. However, there is considerable historical evidence that after the year 1000, millennialism became more widespread.這些歷史學家注意到,該學說的天主教教會在去年底的首屆千年反對任何教誨,對即將發生的啟示,而且,大多數人都生活在999年和1000人甚至不知道它是去年底第1千年但是 ,有相當多的歷史證據後, 1000年, millennialism變得更為普遍。 It gained followers during the Crusades (wars between Western European Christians and Muslims that began in 1095) and throughout the latter part of the Middle Ages.它獲得的追隨者,在十字軍東征(戰爭與西歐基督教徒和回教徒開始於1095年)和整個下半年的中世紀。

Contemporary Religious and Mystical Beliefs當代宗教和神秘信仰

Today many mainline religious organizations reject the concept of an apocalypse or a Christian millennium.今天,許多主線宗教組織排斥的概念是一個啟示還是一個基督教千禧年。 However, millennialist beliefs are still integral to the worldviews of some denominations of Protestantism.不過, millennialist信念仍在積分到世界觀的一些不同面值的新教。 For example, a number of Evangelical denominations hold premillennialist beliefs, including the Southern Baptist Convention, the Assemblies of God, and the Church of the Nazarene (see Evangelicalism).舉例來說,一些福音面額舉行premillennialist信仰,包括美南浸信會的公約,該集會的上帝,教會的拿撒勒(見evangelicalism ) 。 Many members of these and other Evangelical denominations claim that recent wars, plagues, famines, and earthquakes are signs that an apocalypse is imminent and that Christ will return.許多成員的這些問題和其他福音面額聲稱近代戰爭,瘟疫,飢荒和地震,種種跡象表明,一個啟示是迫在眉睫和基督會回來。 According to these groups, the world will experience a seven-year period of misery and massive destruction, but Christians will be removed from the Earth unharmed.據這些團體,世界將經歷一個7年期的苦難和大規模破壞的,但基督徒會被清理,從地球安然無恙。 [This involves the concept of "the Rapture".] [這涉及到概念的"破裂" 。 ]

Adventism is another Protestant branch that holds millennialist views (see Adventists). adventism是另一個新教科表示,持有millennialist意見(見复臨安息日會) 。 Adventist groups grew out of the religious Millerite movement, led by American Baptist preacher William Miller, who predicted that the world would end by 1843 or 1844.台安集團前身的宗教millerite運動,導致了美國浸信會傳教士威廉米勒,他就預言,世界將結束,由1843年或1844年。 After his predictions proved false, some disenchanted Millerites formed into various Adventist groups, such as the Seventh-day Adventists. Adventists maintain that various apocalyptic predictions have been fulfilled and that Christ will return in the near future. The Seventh-day Adventists assert that an invisible, spiritual apocalypse occurred in 1844 with the "cleansing of heaven," and they believe that it will eventually be followed by world destruction in which only the faithful will be saved.之後,他的預言證明是虛假的,有些幻想millerites形成各種台安群體,如第七屆-基督复臨安息日會。 复臨安息日會保持各世界末日的預言已經得到履行,並表示,基督會在不久的將來返回。第七屆-基督复臨安息日會斷言一個無形的,精神的啟示發生在1844年與"潔淨天堂" ,他們認為,它最終必將被隨後世界毀滅,只有忠實地將被保存。

Jehovah's Witnesses, another group formed from the Millerite movement, claim the spiritual, invisible Second Coming of Christ occurred in 1874 and that Christ's invisible reign started in 1914.耶和華見證人,另一批人,形成從millerite運動,索賠精神的,無形的耶穌第二次來發生在1874年和基督的無形統治開始於1914年。 The group believes an apocalypse will come in the near future.該集團認為,一個啟示會在不久的將來。 The religious group's founder, Charles Taze Russell, declared that the fulfillment of Christ's millennial kingdom would be completed only after the foreordained destruction of nations, governments, churches, and world leaders, all of which Russell considered representations of Satan's rule.宗教集團的創辦人,查爾斯taze羅素宣稱,實現基督的千禧年王國將會完成後,才foreordained的破壞,各國政府,教會,以及世界各國領導人,所有這些羅素考慮交涉撒旦的統治。 The Jehovah's Witnesses rejected formal religious and governmental organizations, and they developed the practice of door-to-door evangelism in an attempt to convert nonbelievers.耶和華見證人拒絕正式宗教和政府組織,他們開發的實踐門到門傳道中,企圖轉換nonbelievers 。

Millennial beliefs are also an important part of the theology of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, better known as Mormonism.千年信仰也是一個重要部分的神學教會耶穌基督後期聖徒,更好地稱為mormonism 。 The religion was founded by Joseph Smith in 1830.宗教創始人約瑟夫史密斯在1830年。 Smith claimed an angel told him that Christ's Second Coming was imminent, and Smith believed he had been chosen to prepare humanity for the millennium.史密斯聲稱,一個天使向他表示,耶穌的第二次來臨是迫在眉睫,史密斯認為他已被選定準備,為人類的新紀元。 According to Smith's visions, the millennial kingdom will be established in the United States.根據史密斯的願景,千禧年王國將設在美國。 Today, Mormonism does not stress millennialism as much as it did in the past.今天, mormonism並不強調millennialism高達過去那樣。 However, many Mormons interpret some world events as the fulfillment of prophecies that foretell an apocalyptic period.然而,許多摩門教解釋一些世界大事,作為實現的預言說,預知世界末日的一個時期。

Many other contemporary religious groups have millennialist views.其他許多當代宗教群體millennialist意見。 These include the Unification Church, Hare Krishna, Baha'i, Rastafarianism, and other religious movements.這些措施包括統一教會,克利須那,巴哈教, rastafarianism ,和其他的宗教運動。 Millennialist prophecy, once central to the early Jewish faith, continues today among members of the Chabad Lubavitch movement, an Orthodox Hasidic sect of Judaism. millennialist預言,一旦中央到早期猶太信仰,一直持續到今天成員之間的chabad盧巴維特奇運動,是一個正統教派哈西德派猶太教。 In the late 1980s and early 1990s many followers of Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson of Brooklyn, New York, believed that he was the Messiah who would bring about the redemption of the world.在20世紀80年代末和90年代初,許多信徒的拉比貝京孟德爾schneerson的紐約布魯克林,認為他是彌賽亞的人會帶來贖回對世界的看法。 Schneerson never claimed to be the Messiah, but he interpreted current events as apocalyptic signs that foretold the Messiah's appearance in the near future. schneerson從未自稱為彌賽亞,但他的解釋,目前發生的事件作為世界末日的跡象,預示著彌賽亞的外觀,在不久的將來。

Millennialist beliefs also exist at a grassroots level as a form of popular or folk belief, apart from the sanction of formal religious institutions. millennialist信仰,也存在於基層作為一種形式的流行或民間信仰,除了有關制裁的正式宗教機構。 For instance, there is popular interest in the apocalyptic predictions of Nostradamus, a 16th-century French physician and astrologer, and Edgar Cayce, an American who lived in the early 20th century and claimed to have psychic and healing abilities.例如,現在有一些受歡迎感興趣,在世界末日的預言家諾查丹馬斯,一座16世紀法國內科醫生和算命,並埃德加cayce ,美國一位住在20世紀初,並聲稱有心理和癒合的能力。 Some people also believe that alleged apparitions of the Virgin Mary warn of imminent worldly destruction.有些人還認為,被指控的幻影的聖母瑪利亞,警告即將發生的人間毀滅。

Recent Millennialist Movements最近millennialist運動

Apocalyptic and millennialist movements not affiliated with established religious institutions are often depicted in stereotypical ways as doomsday cults, involving violent activities, mass suicides, and "brainwashed fanatics" with bizarre beliefs.世界末日並millennialist動作,不屬既定的宗教機構,往往描繪的定型方式作為世界末日的邪教,所涉及的暴力活動,邪教徒集體自殺事件,並"強迫洗腦的狂熱分子"的怪誕信仰。 Of the hundreds of contemporary millennialist groups that exist, relatively few movements have been motivated to acts of violence or suicide.該數以百計的當代millennialist群體存在的,相對數的變動已動機的暴力行為或自殺。 But there have been some exceptions in recent years, including apocalyptic groups such as the Branch Davidians, Aum Shinrikyo, and Heaven's Gate.但也有一些例外,近年來,包括世界末日的群體,如大衛教,奧姆真理教和天堂之門。

Although these groups differ in their doctrines, aspects of their belief systems share certain common ideas.雖然這些群體不同,他們的學說,這方面他們的信仰體系都有一些共同的想法。 These ideas include a sense of fatalism for a world regarded as completely evil and doomed, and a desire for planetary escape and salvation.這些設想包括責任感宿命論為世界視為徹底邪惡的,注定,並渴望行星逃生和救贖。 Some people predict that the dawning of the 3rd millennium may motivate other apocalyptic groups with similar beliefs to embrace and enact violent scenarios as well.有人預言,曙光的第三屆千年可激勵其他世界末日群體具有類似信仰的懷抱,並制定暴力情景一樣。

Secular Attitudes世俗態度

Until recently, most people believed that an apocalypse would involve deities or divine forces.直到最近,大多數人都認為是一個啟示,將牽涉到神或神的力量。 However, during the 20th century, more people developed secular theories about an apocalypse.然而,在剛剛過去的二十世紀裡,更多的人開發的世俗化理論的一個啟示。 Some believe the world will end due to nuclear warfare, new technologies, environmental destruction, epidemic diseases, global famine and overpopulation, or an Earth collision with a large asteroid or comet.一些人認為,世界將結束因核戰爭中,新技術,對環境的破壞,流行疾病,全球飢荒和人口過多,或地球相撞的一個大的小行星或彗星。 Secular beliefs about inevitable societal destruction reflect a sense of helplessness, despair, or fatalistic resignation.世俗的信仰,對社會必然破壞反映感到無助,絕望,或聽天由命辭職。

The creation of nuclear weapons in particular has fundamentally altered contemporary apocalyptic thought, evoking widespread fatalism about the future of humanity.會製造核武器,特別是從根本上改變了當代世界末日的思路,引起了廣泛的宿命論對人類的未來。 When the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in August 1945, the event initiated an era of fear about global destruction.當美國投下原子彈轟炸廣島和長崎,日本,在1945年8月,這項活動發起一個時代的恐懼,全球銷毀。 Despite the end of the Cold War, concerns about the possibility of nuclear annihilation persist today, stemming from fear that nuclear weapons will be developed and used by hostile nations or extremist organizations.儘管冷戰結束後,關注的可能性,核毀滅的堅持,今天產生的,免於恐懼的核武器將得到發展和使用的敵對國家或極端組織。

Specific secular beliefs about catastrophe occurring at the beginning of 2000 were associated with what was known as the year 2000 computer problem, the Y2K problem, or the millennium bug.具體的世俗信仰的災難發生在2000年初,都與被稱為計算機2000年問題, Y2K問題,或千年蟲。 Many [older] computers were programmed to recognize the year by the last two numbers of the year instead of by all four digits.許多[舊]計算機編程的人認識到這一年的最後兩個數字的一年,而是由所有四個數字。 On January 1, 2000, these computers registered the year as the digits 00.對2000年1月1日,這些電腦註冊了一年,因為該位00 。 Computers that had not been fixed, understood these digits as representing the year 1900 and generated some error messages or shut down.電腦,沒有固定的,相互理解,這些數字代表了1900年,並產生了一些錯誤訊息或關機。 Some people believed that many computer systems worldwide would crash when the date changed from 1999 to 2000.有些人相信,許多計算機系統,將全世界墜毀時的日期改為從1999年至2000年。 They feared these computer crashes would spark economic, political, and social catastrophes that would involve the malfunction of missile systems, hospital equipment, satellites, air transportation, and other major technologies.他們擔心這些電腦當機,可能引發的經濟,政治和社會災難,將涉及故障的導彈系統,醫院設備,衛星,空中運輸和其他主要技術。

Daniel N Wojcik丹尼爾n wojcik


Views of the Millennium意見千年

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The word "millennium" is derived from the Latin for a thousand (at times the word "chiliasm" taken from the Greek and meaning the same thing is used).加上"千禧年" ,是源自於拉丁語,為1000名(有時用" chiliasm "取自希臘文的意思,同一件事,是用) 。 It denotes a doctrine taken from a passage in Revelation (20:1 - 10) in which the writer describes the devil as being bound and thrown into a bottomless pit for a thousand years.它是指一種理論,從一個通道中的啟示( 20:1 -1 0) ,其中,作者描述了魔鬼被捆綁,扔進一個無底洞,為1 000年。 The removal of Satanic influence is accompanied by the resurrection of the Christian martyrs, who reign with Christ during the millennium.清除撒旦的影響,是伴隨著復活的基督教殉道者,他們的統治已經與基督同在的千年。 This period is a time when all of humankind's yearning for an ideal society characterized by peace, freedom, material prosperity, and the rule of righteousness will be realized.這一時期的時候,所有人類的嚮往理想社會的特點是和平,自由,物質繁榮和法治精神,正義的力量必將會實現。 The vision of the OT prophets who foretold a period of earthly prosperity for the people of God will find fulfillment during this era.遠見的城市旅遊局先知預言一段俗世的繁榮,為人民的上帝會找到圓滿,在這個時代。

Millennialism addresses problems that are often overlooked in other eschatological views. millennialism地址的問題,往往忽略了其他eschatological意見。 Although most Christian theologians discuss death, immortality, the end of the world, the last judgment, the rewards of the just, and the punishment of the damned, they often limit themselves to the prospects for the individual in this world and the next.雖然大多數的基督教神學家,討論死亡,不死的,世界的末了,最後的裁決,但獎勵的公正,處罰的該死,他們常常限制自己的前景,讓個人在這個世界和未來。 In contrast, millennialism is concerned with the future of the human community on earth. It is concerned with the chronology of coming events just as history is involved with the study of the record of the past.相比之下, millennialism是有關未來的人類社會,在地球上,它是與時序即將開展的活動,正如歷史是參與研究的紀錄只能說明過去。

Millennialism has appeared within both Christian and non Christian traditions. millennialism出現了兩個基督教和非基督教傳統。 Anthropologists and sociologists have found millennialist belief among non Western people, but they have debated as to whether or not these appearances of the teaching are based upon borrowing from the teaching are based upon borrowing from Christian preaching.人類學家和社會學家發現millennialist信仰之間的非西方的人,但他們的辯論,以決定是否或不是這些外表的教學是根據借款,從教學,是根據借款後,從基督教的說教。 Most Christian theologians believe that millennialism is based on material written by Judeo Christian authors, especially the books of Daniel and Revelation.大部分基督教神學家認為millennialism是根據書面材料,由猶太教基督教作家,尤其是書籍的丹尼爾和啟示。 The ideas, events, symbols, and personalities introduced in these writings have reappeared countless times in the teachings of prophets of the end of the world.理念,活動,符號,及人物介紹,在這些著作都重新出現在無數次的遺訓先知的世界的末了。 Each new appearance finds these motifs given fresh significance from association with contemporary events.每一個新的面貌認定,這些圖案賦予新鮮的意義,由協會與當代盛事。

Major Varieties of Millennialism主要品種millennialism

For purposes of analysis and explanation Christian attitudes toward the millennium can be classified as premillennial, postmillennial, and amillennial. These categories involve much more than the arrangement of events surrounding the return of Christ.為宗旨的分析和解釋基督教態度千年,可以列為premillennial , postmillennial , amillennial這些類別涉及較安排的活動圍繞著回報的喊聲。 The thousand years expected by the premillennialist is quite different from that anticipated by the postmillennialist.在1000年可望由premillennialist頗為不同預期由postmillennialist 。 The premillennialist believes that the kingdom of Christ will be inaugurated in a cataclysmic way and that divine control will be exercised in a more supernatural manner than does the postmillennialist.該premillennialist認為,英國基督教會開幕的災難性方式和神控制能力將行使在更超自然方式比是否postmillennialist 。

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Premillennialism premillennialism

The premillennialist believes that the return of Christ will be preceded by signs including wars, famines, earthquakes, the preaching of the gospel to all nations, a great apostasy, the appearance of Antichrist, and the great tribulation.premillennialist認為,回歸基督之前,將標誌,其中包括戰爭,飢荒,地震,宣揚福音,使所有國家,偉大的變節,外觀箴,偉大的磨難。 These events culminate in the second coming, which will result in a period of peace and righteousness when Christ and his saints control the world.這些活動的高潮在第二次來臨的時候,這將導致在一個時期內和平與正義的時候,基督和他的聖人控制世界。 This rule is established suddenly through supernatural methods rather than gradually over a long period of time by means of the conversion of individuals.這一規則的確立,突然透過超自然的方法,而不是逐步在相當長的一段時間,方式轉換的個人。 The Jews will figure prominently in the future age because the premillennialist believes that they will be converted in large numbers and will again have a prominent place in God's work.猶太人將佔有突出的,在未來的時代,因為premillennialist認為,他們將被轉換成大量將再次有一個突出的地方,在上帝的工作。 Nature will have the curse removed from it, and even the desert will produce abundant crops, Christ will restrain evil during the age by the use of authoritarian power.性質,將有詛咒,撤職,甚至沙漠中會產生豐富的作物,基督會抑制邪惡,在年齡所使用的專制政權。 Despite the idyllic conditions of this golden age there is a final rebellion of wicked people against Christ and his saints.儘管田園詩般的條件,這個黃金時代是有最後的反抗十惡不赦的人對基督和他的聖人。

This exposure of evil is crushed by God, the non Christian dead are resurrected, the last judgment conducted, and the eternal states of heaven and hell established.這暴露了邪惡,是壓死了上帝,非基督教死者復活,最後的審判進行的,永恆的國天堂與地獄成立。 Many premillennialists have taught that during the thousand years dead or martyred believers will be resurrected with glorified bodies to intermingle with the other inhabitants of the earth.許多premillennialists有教導說,在1000年死亡或烈屬,信教的人將被復活與榮耀機構互與其他居民地球。

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Postmillennialism postmillennialism

In contrast to premillennialism, the postmillennialists emphasize the present aspects of God's kingdom which will reach fruition in the future.相比之下,以premillennialism , postmillennialists強調,目前各方面的上帝的王國將達到的成果在未來。 They believe that the millennium will come through Christian preaching and teaching.他們認為,千禧年會通過基督教傳教和教學。 Such activity will result in a more godly, peaceful, and prosperous world.此類活動將導致一個更神聖,和平,繁榮的世界。 The new age will not be essentially different from the present, and it will come about as more people are converted to Christ.新的時代將不會有本質的不同,現在,它會出現,為更多的人會被轉換基督。 Evil will not be totally eliminated during the millennium, but it will be reduced to a minimum as the moral and spiritual influence of Christians is increased.邪惡不會被完全淘汰,在千禧年的來臨,但它會降低到了最低程度,作為道德和精神的影響,基督徒是增加了。 During the new age the church will assume greater importance, and many economic, social, and educational problems can be solved.在新的時代,教會將承擔更重要的,並有許多經濟,社會,教育等問題都可以得到解決。 This period is not necessarily limited to a thousand years because the number can be used symbolically.這一時期,不一定限於1000年,因為有多少可以用來象徵。 The millennium closes with the second coming of Christ, the resurrection of the dead, and the last judgment.千年閉幕耶穌第二次來,死人復活,以及最後的判決。

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Amillennialism amillennialism

The third position, amillennialism, states that the Bible does not predict a period of the rule of Christ on earth before the last judgment.第三位, amillennialism發表聲明聖經沒有預言一個時期法治基督地球前的最後判決。 According to this outlook there will be a continuous development of good and evil in the world until the second coming of Christ, when the dead shall be raised and the judgment conducted.根據這一面貌將有一個持續發展的善良與邪惡,在世界上,直到耶穌第二次來時,死者應提出和判斷進行。 Amillennialists believe that the kingdom of God is now present in the world as the victorious Christ rules his church through the Word and the Spirit. amillennialists相信神的國度,現在目前在世界上作為戰勝國基督規則,他的教會,透過文字與精神。 They feel that the future, glorious, and perfect kingdom refers to the new earth and life in heaven.他們認為,未來的,光榮,完美英國是指以新的地球和生活在天上。 Thus Rev. 20 is a description of the souls of dead believers reigning with Christ in heaven.因此,修訂版20是一個描述的亡靈死執政信徒與基督在天上。

The Rise of Millennialism崛起millennialism

Early millennial teaching was characterized by an apocalyptic emphasis.早在千禧年的教學特點是世界末日的重點。 In this view the future kingdom of God would be established through a series of dramatic, unusual events.這種觀點認為未來的神的國度,將設立通過一系列戲劇性的,不尋常的事件。 Such teaching has been kept alive throughout the Christian era by certain types of premillennialism.這種教學一直維持生命整個基督教時代,是由某些類型的premillennialism 。 Apocalyptic interpretation is based upon the prophecies of Daniel and the amplification of some of the same themes in the book of Revelation.世界末日的解釋,是基於預言丹尼爾和功放的一些相同的主題,在這本書的啟示。 These works point to the imminent and supernatural intervention of God in human affairs and the defeat of the seemingly irresistible progress of evil.這些工程點,以即將與超自然干預上帝在人類事務和失敗的,貌似不可阻擋的進步的邪惡。 Numerology, theme figures, and angelology play a major role in these presentations. numerology ,主題人物,並angelology發揮了重要作用,在這些演講。 The apocalyptic world view was very influential among the Jews in the period that elapsed between the OT and the NT.世界末日世界的看法是非常有影響力的其中猶太人在該期限已過之間城市旅遊局及新界。 Consequently the audiences to which Jesus preached were influenced by it.因此觀眾進入耶穌所宣揚的影響所左右。 The early Christians also embraced this outlook.早期的基督徒,也接受了這個前景。

The book of Revelation, composed during a period of persecution in the first century, used the Jewish apocalyptic interpretation to explain the Christian era.這本書的啟示,在組成一個時期的迫害,在第一世紀,用猶太世界末日的解釋,解釋基督教時代。 Daniel's Son of man was presented as Christ, numerological formulas were restated, and the dualistic world of good and evil was provided with a new set of characters.丹尼爾的人子是作為基督, numerological公式重,二元世界的善良與邪惡提供了一個新的字符集。 Despite these changes the essential apocalyptic message remained as the book taught the living hope of the immediate direct intervention of God to reverse history and to overcome evil with good.儘管這些變化的本質世界末日的訊息,仍是這本書教的生活,希望立即進行直接干預的上帝,以扭轉歷史,並克服以善勝惡。 Such an outlook brought great comfort to believers who suffered from persecution by the forces of Imperial Rome.這樣的前景帶來了極大的安慰信徒遭受迫害的力量,羅馬帝國。 Expressed in a form that has been called historic premillennialism, this hope seems to have been the prevailing eschatology during the first three centuries of the Christian era, and is found in the works of Papias, Irenaeus, Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Hippolytus, Methodius, Commodianus, and Lactantius.表達形式,也被稱為歷史性premillennialism ,這個希望似乎已被普遍末世在首三個世紀的基督教時代的制高點上,被發現在該工程的papias ,愛任紐,賈斯汀烈士,戴爾都良, hippolytus , methodius , commodianus , lactantius 。

Several forces worked to undermine the millennialism of the early church.幾個部隊工作,以削弱millennialism的初期教會。 One of these was the association of the teaching with a radical group, the Montanists, who placed a great stress on a new third age of the Spirit which they believed was coming among their number in Asia Minor.其中之一是該協會的教學與激進集團, montanists ,誰把一個很大的壓力就新的第三個時代的精神,他們相信這是他們之間的未來,他們的人數在亞洲未成年人。 Another influence which encouraged a change of eschatological views was the emphasis of Origen upon the manifestation of the kingdom within the soul of the believer rather than in the world.另一個影響鼓動下改變eschatological意見的重點淵源後,體現了英國內部的靈魂,信仰,而不是在世界上。 This resulted in a shift of attention away from the historical toward the spiritual or metaphysical.這就產生了一個轉移注意力,從歷史走向精神或形而上學。 A final factor that led to a new millennial interpretation was the conversion of the Emperor Constantine the Great and the adoption of Christianity as the favored Imperial religion.最後一個因素導致了一個新的千年的解釋是轉換皇帝君士坦丁大,並通過了基督教青睞帝國宗教。

Medieval and Reformation Millennialism中世紀與改造millennialism

In the new age brought in by the acceptance of Christianity as the main religion of the Roman Empire it was Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, who articulated the amillennial view which dominated Western Christian thought during the Middle Ages.在新的歷史時期所帶來的,在接受基督教為主體的宗教,羅馬帝國,它是奧古斯丁主教,河馬,他們闡明了amillennial共識,這是主導的西方基督教思想在中世紀。 The millennium, according to his interpretation, referred to the church in which Christ reigned with his saints.千禧年的來臨,根據他的解釋,轉介到教會在基督的氣氛與他的聖徒。 The statements in the book of Revelation were interpreted allegorically by Augustine.聲明在這本書的啟示解釋allegorically由奧古斯丁。 No victory was imminent in the struggle with evil in the world.沒有勝利,是即將在鬥爭與邪惡,在世界上。 On the really important level, the spiritual, the battle had already been won and God had triumphed through the cross.對真正重要的層面,精神,戰鬥已經贏得了與神了五十五年,透過交叉。 Satan was reduced to lordship over the City of the World, which coexisted with the City of God.撒旦減少到lordship以上城市的世界中,共存與上帝的聖城。 Eventually even the small domain left to the devil would be taken from him by a triumphant God.最終,連小域留給魔鬼,將採取從他由一個戰無不勝的神。

Augustine's allegorical interpretation became the official doctrine of the church during the medieval period.奧古斯丁的寓言詮釋成了官方學說的教會在中世紀時期。 However, in defiance of the main teaching of the church the earlier apocalyptic premillennialism continued to be held by certain counterculture groups.然而,在藐視主要教學教會早前世界末日premillennialism繼續舉行,由某些反傳統群體。 These millenarians under charismatic leaders were often associated with radicalism and revolts.這些millenarians下,有魅力的領袖,往往與激進主義和反抗。 For example, during the eleventh century in regions most affected by urbanization and social change thousands followed individuals such as Tanchelm of the Netherlands, causing great concern to those in positions of power.例如,在11世紀的地區,受影響最嚴重的,由城市化和社會變革的數千其次是個人如tanchelm的荷蘭,造成了極大的關注,對那些在權力地位的。 In the twelfth century Joachim of Fiore gave fresh expression to the millennial vision with his teaching about the coming third age of the Holy Spirit.在12世紀約阿希姆的胡世忠了新鮮的,體現了千年的遠見與他的教學,未來第三年齡的聖靈。 During the Hussite Wars in fifteenth century Bohemia the Taborites encouraged the resistance to the Catholic Imperial forces by proclaiming the imminent return of Christ to establish his kingdom.在胡斯派戰爭在15世紀波希米亞的taborites鼓勵抵抗天主教皇國部隊宣布即將回歸基督建立他的王國。 These outbreaks of premillennialism continued during the Reformation era and were expressed most notably in the rebellion of the city of Munster in 1534.這些疫情的premillennialism繼續在改革時代,並表示,最引人注目的是在暴動的城市明斯特在第1534 。

Jan Matthys gained control of the community, proclaiming that he was Enoch preparing the way for the second coming of Christ by establishing a new code of laws which featured a community of property and other radical reforms.揚matthys控制了社區,宣稱他是伊諾克準備,就是為耶穌第二次來設立一個新的法典,其中精選的社會財產和其他激進的改革。 He declared that Munster was the New Jerusalem and called all faithful Christians to gather in the city.他宣稱,明斯特是新的耶路撒冷,並呼籲所有忠實的基督徒聚集在城市。 Many Anabaptists answered his summons, and most of the original inhabitants of the town were forced to flee or to live in a veritable reign of terror.許多anabaptists回答了他的傳票,而且大部分的原鎮居民被迫逃離或生活在一個名副其實的恐怖統治。 The situation was so threatening to other areas of Europe that a combined Protestant and Catholic force laid siege to the place and after a difficult struggle captured the town, suppressing the wave of millennial enthusiasm.局勢如此嚴峻,威脅到其他地區,歐洲的一個聯合新教和天主教的力量包圍的地點和經過艱難的鬥爭,抓獲城市,壓制波的千年熱情。

Perhaps the Munster episode led the Protestant Reformers to reaffirm Augustinian amillennialism.也許明斯特插曲領導新教改革者重申augustinian amillennialism 。 Each of the three main Protestant traditions of the sixteenth century, Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican, had the support of the state and so continued the same Constantinian approach to theology.每三個主要的新教傳統, 16世紀,路德會, calvinist ,聖公會,有國家的支持,因此繼續同constantinian辦法神學。 Both Luther and Calvin were very suspicious of millennial speculation.雙方路德和卡爾文非常可疑的千年投機活動。 Calvin declared that those who engaged in calculations based on the apocalyptic portions of Scripture were "ignorant" and "malicious."卡爾文說得很清楚,那些從事計算的基礎上,世界末日的部分經文被"無知"和"惡意" 。 The major statements of the various Protestant bodies such as the Augsburg Confession (1, xvii), the Thirty nine Articles (IV), and the Westminister Confession (chs. 32, 33), although professing faith in the return of Christ, do not support apocalyptic millenarian speculation.主要陳述了許多新教團體,例如作為奧格斯堡自白( 1 ,第十七章) , 39條(四) ,以及westminister自白( chs. 32 , 33 ) ,雖然自稱信仰在返回基督的,不支持世界末日千禧年的投機活動。 In certain respects, however, the Reformers inaugurated changes which would lead to a revival of interest in premillennialism.在某些方面,但是,改革者上台變化,這將導致死灰復燃興趣premillennialism 。 These include a more literal approach to the interpretation of Scripture, the identification of the papacy with Antichrist, and an emphasis on Bible prophecy.這些措施包括更字面的方法來解釋經文,確定教宗與箴,並著重對聖經預言。

Modern Millennialism現代millennialism

It was during the seventeenth century that premillennialism of a more scholarly nature was presented.那是在17世紀即premillennialism一個更加學術性質的。 Two Reformed theologians, Johann Heinrich Alsted and Joseph Mede, were responsible for the renewal of this outlook.兩項改革的神學家,約翰海因里希阿爾斯特和約瑟夫mede ,負責重建的這個前景。 They did not interpret the book of Revelation in an allegorical manner but rather understood it to contain the promise of a literal kingdom of God to be established on earth before the last judgment.他們沒有解釋這本書的啟示,在一個寓言的方式,而是理解,它包含的承諾字面神的國度必須建立在地球前的最後判決。 During the Puritan Revolution the writings of these men encouraged others to look for the establishment of the millennial kingdom in England.在清教徒革命的著述,這些男人鼓勵別人看的,為建立千禧年王國在英格蘭。 One of the more radical of these groups, the Fifth Monarchy Men, became infamous for their insistence on the reestablishment of OT law and a reformed government for England.其中一個比較激進的這些團體,第五君主立憲男人,成為臭名昭著的,他們堅持對重構城市旅遊局和法制改革政府為英格蘭。 The collapse of the Cromwellian regime and the restoration of the Stuart monarchy discredited premillennialism.倒塌的cromwellian政權和恢復國家的斯圖亞特王室抹黑premillennialism 。 Yet the teaching continued into the eighteenth century through the work of Isaac Newton, Johann Albrecht Bengel, and Joseph Priestley.然而,教學一直持續到18世紀通過的工作,牛頓,約翰Albrecht其後bengel ,約瑟夫priestley 。

As the popularity of premillennialism wanted, postmillennialism rose to prominence.隨著人氣的premillennialism通緝, postmillennialism上升到突出的位置。 First expressed in the works of certain Puritan scholars, it received its most influential formulation in the writings of the Anglican commentator Daniel Whitby.首先表現在工程的某些清教徒的學者,它收到了其最有影響力的提法,著述聖公會評論員丹尼爾whitby 。 It seemed to him that the kingdom of God was coming ever closer and that it would arrive through the same kind of effort that had always triumphed in the past.在他看來,神的國度,是未來任何時候都更加密切,並表示將通過到達同一種工作,一直勝利,在過去的。 Among the many theologians and preachers who were convinced by the arguments of Whitby was Jonathan Edwards.在眾多神學家和傳教士的人信服的論點whitby是喬納森愛德華茲。 Edwardsean postmillennialism also emphasized the place of America in the establishment of millennial conditions upon the earth. edwardsean postmillennialism還強調了地方的,在美國設立的條件千年後,地球。

During the nineteenth century premillennialism became popular once again.在十九世紀premillennialism成為熱門一遍。 The violent uprooting of European social and political institutions during the era of the French Revolution encouraged a more apocalyptic climate of opinion.暴力拔除歐洲社會和政治機關在時代的法國大革命,鼓勵更多的世界末日的輿論環境。 There was also a revival of interest in the fortunes of the Jews.此外,還有復活感興趣,在命運的猶太人。 A new element was added to premillennialism during this period with the rise of dispensationalism.一項新的內容加入premillennialism在此期間與崛起dispensationalism 。 Edward Irving, a Church of Scotland minister who pastored a congregation in London, was one of the outstanding leaders in the development of the new interpretation.愛德華伊榮,一所教堂的蘇格蘭部長pastored聚集在倫敦,是一個懸而未決的領導人在發展新的詮釋。 He published numerous works on prophecy and organized the Albury Park prophecy conferences, thus setting the pattern for other gatherings of premillenarians during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.他出版了許多作品就預言,並組織阿爾伯里公園預言會議,因此設置模式,為其他聚會的premillenarians在十九世紀和二十世紀。 Irving's apocalyptic exposition found support among the Plymouth Brethren and led many in the group to become enthusiastic teachers of dispensational premillennialism.歐文的世界末日的論述,發現支持了普利茅斯弟兄,並導致許多人在集團成為熱心的教師dispensational premillennialism 。

Perhaps the leading early dispensational expositor among the Brethren was John Nelson Darby.也許領導的早期dispensational expositor之間的兄弟是約翰納爾遜那美。 He believed that the second coming of Christ consisted of two stages, the first a secret rapture or "catching away" of the saints which would remove the church before a seven year period of tribulation devastates the earth, and the second when Christ appears visibly with his saints after the tribulation to rule on earth for a thousand years.他相信耶穌第二次來構成項目分兩個階段進行,第一個秘密破裂或"捉掉"的聖人,這將消除教堂前七年期的磨難摧毀地球,第二次當基督出現明顯的同他的聖人後磨難統治地球上是1000年。 Darby also taught that the church was a mystery of which only Paul wrote and that the purposes of God can be understood as working through a series of periods, or dispensations, in each of which God dealt with people in unique ways.那美,也教導說,教會是一個謎,其中只有保羅寫道,並施行神,可以理解為工作,通過一系列的時期,或者dispensations ,在其中的每神處理人的獨特方式。

Most premillennialists during the early nineteenth century were not dispensationalists, however.最premillennialists在19世紀初沒有dispensationalists ,不過。 More typical of their number was David Nevins Lord, who edited a quarterly journal, The Theological and Literary Review, which appeared from 1848 to 1861.更具有典型的數字是大衛nevins主,誰主編的季刊,神學和文學評論,似乎從1848年至1861年。 This periodical contained articles of interest to premillennialists and helped to elaborate a nondispensational system of prophetic interpretation.這期刊載文章,有興趣的premillennialists並協助擬訂一項nondispensational系統的先知性的解釋。 Lord believed that a historical explanation of the book of Revelation was preferable to the futurist outlook which characterized the dispensational view.勳爵認為,歷史交代,這本書的啟示是,最好到未來的前景極有特點dispensational看法。 This approach was followed by most premillennialists in the United States until after the Civil War, when dispensationalism spread among their number.這種做法是其次,最premillennialists在美國直到內戰結束後,當dispensationalism分散其數量。 Darby's interpretation was accepted because of the work of individuals such as Henry Moorhouse, a Brethren evangelist, who convinced many interdenominational speakers to accept many interdenominational speakers to accept dispensationalism.那美的解釋是接受的,因為這項工作的個人,如亨利moorhouse ,一個弟兄,傳道者,他們深信許多interdenominational發言者接受許多interdenominational發言者接受dispensationalism 。

Typical of those who came to believe in Darby's eschatology were William E Blackstone, "Harry" A Ironside, Arno C Gaebelein, Lewis Sperry Chafer, and CI Scofield.典型的人士前來,相信在那美的末世人威廉e黑石, "哈利" ironside ,在Arno c gaebelein ,劉易斯斯佩里金龜子,與詞史高菲。 It is through Scofield and his works that dispensationalism became the norm for much of American evangelicalism.它是通過史高菲和他的作品dispensationalism成為規範的大部分時間,美國evangelicalism 。 His Scofield Reference Bible, which made the new eschatological interpretation an integral part of an elaborate system of notes printed on the same pages as the text, proved so popular that it sold over three million copies in fifty years.他的史高菲參考聖經,這使得新eschatological解釋的一個組成部分,是一個複雜系統的筆記印載於同一網頁的文本,證明是非常受歡迎,銷量超過3萬冊,在五十年。 Bible schools and seminaries such as Biola, Moody Bible Institute, Dallas Theological Seminary, and Grace Theological Seminary, along with the popular preachers and teachers who have utilized the electronic media, have made this interpretation popular among millions of conservative Protestants.聖經學校和神學院等biola ,穆迪聖經學院,達拉斯神學院,和恩典神學院,隨流行的傳教士和教師已利用電子媒體,有這樣的解釋,深受千百萬保守的新教徒。 The new view replaced the older premillennial outlook to such an extent that when George Ladd restated the historic interpretation in the midtwentieth century it seemed like a novelty to many evangelicals.新觀點取代舊premillennial展望到這樣的程度,當喬治雷德重申了歷史性的詮釋,在midtwentieth世紀好像新鮮事了,許多新教徒。

While the various forms of premillennialism competed for adherents in nineteenth century America, a form of postmillennialism that equated the United States with the kingdom of God became very popular.而各種形式的premillennialism競相爭取的信徒,在十九世紀的美國,一種形式的postmillennialism即等同於美國與英國的上帝成為很受歡迎。 Many Protestant ministers fed the fires of nationalism and Manifest Destiny by presenting the coming of the golden age as dependent upon the spread of democracy, technology, and the other "benefits" of Western civilization.許多新教徒部長助長了大火的民族主義和命運所介紹來的黃金時代取決於民主的傳播,技術,和其他一些"實惠"的西方文明。 Perhaps the most complete statement of this civil millennialism was presented by Hollis Read.也許最完整的陳述,這民間millennialism是由霍利斯閱讀。 Ordained to the Congregational ministry in Park Street Church, Boston, he served as a missionary to India but was forced to return to the United States because of his wife's poor health.晉堂部在公園街教堂,波士頓,他曾擔任過宣教士到印度,但被迫返回美國,因為他的妻子的健康狀況不佳。 In a two volume work, The Hand of God in History, he attempted to prove that God's millennial purposes were finding fulfillment in America.在一項為期兩卷工作,上帝的手,在歷史上,他試圖證明上帝的千年目的是尋求實現在美國。 He believed that geography, politics, learning, the arts, and morality all pointed to the coming of the millennium to America in the nineteenth century.他表示相信,地理,政治,學習,藝術,道德都指出,以未來的千禧年,美國在十九世紀。 From this base the new age could spread to the entire earth.從這個基地的新時代可能蔓延到整個地球。

As Ps.由於聚苯乙烯。 22:27 stated, "All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the Lord; and all the families of the nations shall worship before him." 22:27指出, "所有的兩端地球應記住並轉入主及所有家屬表達最應按照聯合國崇拜他面前的" 。 In order to accomplish the purpose of global evangelism Read favored imperialism because the extension of Anglo Saxon control over other nations ensured the spread of the gospel.為了完成這個目的,全球傳道閱讀最惠國待遇,因為帝國主義的延伸盎格魯撒克遜人控制的其他國家,保證了傳播福音。 He cited the prevalence of the English language, which made it easier to preach the Word and to teach the native people the more civilized Western culture, as one example of the benefits of Western control.他舉流行的英語能力,使得它更容易宣講Word和教導母語的人越多,文明的西方文化,作為一個例子的好處,西方控制的。 Technological improvements such as the steam press, the locomotive, and the steamship were also given by God to spread enlightenment and the Christian message to all peoples.改良技術,如蒸汽新聞界,機車,輪船也被上帝所散佈的啟示和基督信仰信息,以所有人民。

Whenever the United States has faced a time of crisis, there have been those who have revived civil postmillennialism as a means to encourage and comfort their fellow citizens.每當美國面臨危機時刻,有那些復活民間postmillennialism作為一種手段,以鼓勵和安慰他們的同胞。 The biblical content of this belief has become increasingly vague as the society has become more pluralistic.聖經中的內容,這個信念已越來越模糊,隨著社會變得更加多元化。 For example, during the period of the Civil War many agreed with Julia Ward Howe's "Battle Hymn of the Republic," which described God as working through the Northern forces to accomplish his ultimate purpose.舉例來說,這期間的內戰,許多國家同意與朱莉婭沃德豪的"戰鬥聖歌的共和國" ,其中敘述了上帝作為工作通過北方勢力,以完成他的最終目的。 President Wilson's crusade to "make the world safe for democracy," which led his country into World War I, was based upon a postmillennial vision that gave American ideals the major role in establishing peace and justice on earth.威爾遜總統的十字軍東征" ,使世界安全民主" ,而導致他的國家變成世界戰爭,我是基於一項postmillennial眼光了美國理想主要角色,在建立和平與正義的地球。 Since World War II several groups have revived civil millennialism to counter communism and to resist domestic changes such as those brought about by the moves for equal rights for women.自第二次世界大戰以來,有幾批有死灰復燃民間millennialism為了對付共產主義,並抵制國內的變化,例如那些所帶來的舉動,為婦女的平等權利。

In addition to the premillennial, amillennial, and postmillennial interpretations there have been groups such as the Shakers, the Seventh Day Adventists, the Jehovah's Witnesses, and the Latter day Saints (Mormons) who tend to equate the activities of their own sect with the coming of the millennium.除上述premillennial , amillennial , postmillennial表述有群體,如搖動,基督复臨安息日會,耶和華見證人的,而後者天聖徒教會(摩門教)的人往往等同於活動,他們自己的教派與未來聯合國千年。 There are also movements including the Nazis and the Marxists who teach a kind of secular millennialism when they speak of the Third Reich or the classless society.也有一些動作,包括納粹黨和馬克思主義者,教導的一種世俗millennialism當他們發言的第三帝國或無類別的社會。

RG Clouse麗晶花園clouse
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
RG Clouse, ed., The Meaning of the Millennium: Four Views; ER Sandeen, The Roots of Fundamentalism; GE Ladd, The Blessed Hope; A Reese, The Approaching Advent of Christ; N West, Studies in Eschatology; R Anderson, The Coming Prince; WE Blackstone, Jesus Is Coming; R Pache, The Return of Jesus Christ; CC Ryrie, Dispensationalism Today; JF Walvoord, The Millennial Kingdom; L Boettner, The Millennium; D Brown, Christ's Second Coming; JM Kik, An Eschatology of Victory; OT Allis, Prophecy and the Church; AA Hoekema, The Bible and the Future; P Mauro, The Seventy Weeks and the Great Tribulation; G Vos, The Pauline Eschatology.麗晶花園clouse ,版,意思千年:四點看法;呃俄勒岡,根部的原教旨主義;葛雷德,有福了希望;雷斯,即將到來的來臨,基督氮西,研究在末世與r安德森,未來王子,我們黑石,耶穌是未來與r pache ,送回耶穌基督;消委會ryrie , dispensationalism今天;怡富walvoord ,千禧年王國;升boettner ,千年; d褐色,基督的第二次來臨; jm kik ,末世勝利酒店allis ,預言和教會;機管局赫克瑪,聖經和未來; p莫羅, 70個星期和大磨難的100你,寶蓮末世。


Millennium and Millenarianism千禧年millenarianism

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

The fundamental idea of millenarianism, as understood by Christian writers, may be set forth as follows: At the end of time Christ will return in all His splendour to gather together the just, to annihilate hostile powers, and to found a glorious kingdom on earth for the enjoyment of the highest spiritual and material blessings; He Himself will reign as its king, and all the just, including the saints recalled to life, will participate in it.基本理念millenarianism ,所理解的基督教作家,可以闡述如下:去年底的時候耶穌會返回他在所有冠冕堂皇地凝聚起來,以公正,以消滅敵對的權力,並發現一名光榮的英國地球對於享受最高的精神上和物質上的祝福,他本人也將統治作為國王,以及所有正義,包括聖人召回生活中,將參加辯論。 At the close of this kingdom the saints will enter heaven with Christ, while the wicked, who have also been resuscitated, will be condemned to eternal damnation.結束時,這個英國聖徒將進入天國與基督,而惡人,他們也已復甦,將注定永恆damnation 。 The duration of this glorious reign of Christ and His saints on earth, is frequently given as one thousand years.期限這一光榮的統治基督和他的聖人,在地球上,是經常給予千年。 Hence it is commonly known as the "millennium", while the belief in the future realization of the kingdom is called "millenarianism" (or "chiliasm", from the Greek chilia, scil. ete).因此,這是俗稱的"千禧年" ,而相信在未來實現的王國,是所謂的" millenarianism " (或" chiliasm " ,從希臘chilia , scil 。酬酢及交通開支) 。 This term of one thousand years, however, is by no means an essential element of the millennium as conceived by its adherents.這一屆千年,但絕不是台灣的一個基本要素千年構想及其黨羽。 The extent, details of the realization, conditions, the place, of the millennium were variously described.程度,細節的實現,條件,地點,千年受到不同程度形容。

Essential are the following points:重要的是以下幾點:

the early return of Christ in all His power and glory,儘早返回基督在他的所有權力和榮耀,

the establishment of an earthly kingdom with the just,建立一個俗世的英國與公正,

the resuscitation of the deceased saints and their participation in the glorious reign,復甦的死者聖人,並參與在輝煌時期,

the destruction of the powers hostile to God, and,銷毀的權力敵視神,並且,

at the end of the kingdom, the universal resurrection with the final judgment,在結束對英國,普遍復活,與最後裁決,

after which the just will enter heaven, while the wicked will be consigned to the eternal fire of hell.之後,剛剛將進入天堂,而惡人將委託給日本的永恆之火地獄。

The roots of the belief in a glorious kingdom, partly natural, partly supernatural, are found in the hopes of the Jews for a temporal Messiah and in the Jewish apocalyptic.根的信念,在光榮的英國,這部分是自然的,這部分是超自然的,是發現在希望的,猶太人為顳彌賽亞,並在猶太人世界末日。 Under the galling pressure of their political circumstances the expectation of a Messiah who would free the people of God had in the Jewish mind, assumed a character that was to a great extent earthly; the Jews longed above all for a saviour who would free them from their oppressors and restore the former splendour of Israel.根據難堪的壓力,他們的政治情況下,期望一個救世主,他們將自由人民的上帝在猶太人心目中,假設一個人物,這是一個在很大程度上俗世;猶太人期盼上述所有為救世主,他們將免除他們的他們的壓迫者,並恢復前的輝煌以色列。 These expectations generally included the belief that Jehovah would conquer all powers hostile to Himself and to His chosen people, and that He would set up a final, glorious kingdom of Israel.這些期望一般包括相信耶和華會戰勝一切權力敵視本人和他所選擇的人,他將成立一個決賽中,英國光榮的以色列。 The apocalyptic books, principally the book of Henoch and the fourth book of Esdras, indicate various details of the arrival of the Messiah, the defeat of the nations hostile to Israel, and the union of all the Israelites in the Messianic kingdom followed by the renovation of the world and the universal resurrection.世界末日的書籍,主要是這本書的過敏性和第四本書的埃斯德拉斯,表明各個細節的到來彌賽亞,中失敗的國家,敵視以色列,和聯盟的所有以色列人在彌賽亞英國,其次是翻新整個世界和世界復活。

The natural and the supernatural are mingled in this conception of a Messianic kingdom as the closing act of the world's history.自然和超自然的,是相互交織,在這個構想一個救世主英國閉幕的行為,世界的歷史。 The Jewish hopes of a Messiah, and the descriptions of apocalyptic writers were blended; it was between the close of the present world-order and the commencement of the new that this sublime kingdom of the chosen people was to find its place.猶太人期望一個救世主,並說明世界末日作家共混,它是介乎於結束當前的世界秩序,並展開新的,這壯美英國所選擇的人是要找到它的位置。 That many details of these conceptions should remain indistinct and confused was but natural, but the Messianic kingdom is always pictured as something miraculous, though the colours are at times earthly and sensuous.很多細節,這些觀念應保持模糊和混亂的,但自然的,但是救世主英國始終圖案為神奇的東西,雖然顏色,有時俗世和感性。 The evangelical accounts clearly prove how fervently the Jews at the time of Christ expected an earthly Messianic kingdom, but the Saviour came to proclaim the spiritual kingdom of God for the deliverance of man from his sins and for his sanctification, a kingdom which actually began with His birth.福音帳目清楚地證明,如何熱切猶太人在當時的基督教會期盼著人間的救世主,英國,但救世主來宣告精神神的國度,為救我們的男子,從他的罪孽,並感謝他成聖,一個獨立王國,實際上開始他的出生地。 There is no trace of chiliasm to be found in the Gospels or in the Epistles of St. Paul; everything moves in the spiritual and religious sphere; even the descriptions of the end of the world and of the last judgment bear this stamp.有沒有踪影, chiliasm被發現在福音還是在書信的聖保祿;一切舉動,在精神和宗教領域,甚至描述世界的末了,以及最後的審判背負這個郵票。 The victory over the symbolical beast (the enemy of God and of the saints) and over Antichrist, as well as the triumph of Christ and His saints, are described in the Apocalypse of St. John (Revelation 20-21), in pictures that resemble those of the Jewish apocalyptic writers, especially of Daniel and Henoch.戰勝了具有象徵意義的野獸(敵人的神和聖人) ,並超過箴,以及為凱旋的基督和他的聖人,介紹這方面的啟示聖約翰(啟示20-21 ) ,在圖片相似的猶太世界末日的作家,尤其是丹尼爾和過敏性。 Satan is chained in the abyss for a thousand years, the martyrs and the just rise from the dead and share in the priesthood and kingship of Christ.撒旦是用鐵鍊在深淵,為1000年,烈士和剛剛崛起從死裡復活,並分享神職人員和王權的喊聲。 Though it is difficult to focus sharply the pictures used in the Apocalypse and the things expressed by them, yet there can be no doubt that the whole description refers to the spiritual combat between Christ and the Church on the one hand and the malignant powers of hell and the world on the other.雖然難以集中大幅照片用在啟示和東西表達他們的,但不可能有任何疑問時表示,整個描述是指以精神打擊與基督和教會就一方面和惡性權力地獄和世界上其他。 Nevertheless, a large number of Christians of the post-Apostolic era, particularly in Asia Minor, yielded so far to Jewish apocalyptic as to put a literal meaning into these descriptions of St. John's Apocalypse; the result was that millenarianism spread and gained staunch advocates not only among the heretics but among the Catholic Christians as well.不過,也有大量的基督徒後使徒時代,尤其是在亞洲未成年人,取得了迄今為猶太人世界末日,因為把字面意思到這些描述的聖約翰的啟示;結果是millenarianism蔓延,並得到堅強的倡導者不僅各異端,但其中天主教教徒等。

One of the heretics, the Gnostic Cerinthus, who flourished towards the end of the first century, proclaimed a splendid kingdom of Christ on earth which He would establish with the risen saints upon His second advent, and pictured the pleasures of this one thousand years in gross, sensual colours (Caius in Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", III, 28; Dionysius Alex. in Eusebius, ibid., VII, 25).其中的異端,諾斯替克林妥,誰興盛接近年底第一世紀,宣告了一個別具特色的英國基督教會在地球上,他將建立與復活的聖徒後,他的第二次到來,並合照,你這一千年中毛,感官色彩( caius在尤西比烏斯"的歷史。 eccl " ,第三, 28個;狄奧尼修斯徐家,在尤西比烏斯,同上,第七章, 25條) 。 Later among Catholics, Bishop Papias of Hierapolis, a disciple of St. John, appeared as an advocate of millenarianism.後來天主教徒,主教papias的hierapolis ,弟子的聖約翰,似乎是一個主張millenarianism 。 He claimed to have received his doctrine from contemporaries of the Apostles, and Irenaeus narrates that other "Presbyteri", who had seen and heard the disciple John, learned from him the belief in millenarianism as part of the Lord's doctrine.他聲稱曾接到他的學說,從當代人的使徒,和愛任紐敘述說,其他" presbyteri " ,他們曾看到和聽到的門徒約翰,據悉,從他的信仰millenarianism一部分主的教義。 According to Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., 111, 39) Papias in his book asserted that the resurrection of the dead would be followed by one thousand years of a visible glorious earthly kingdom of Christ, and according to Irenaeus (Adv. Haereses, V, 33), he taught that the saints too would enjoy a superabundance of earthly pleasures.據尤西比烏斯( hist. eccl , 111 , 39 ) papias在他的書中聲稱,從死中復活之後將千年的有形光榮俗世的英國基督教會,而據愛任紐( adv. haereses ,五, 33 ) ,他告訴我們,聖徒也能夠享受superabundance的俗世的快樂。 There will be days in which vines will grow, each with 10,000 branches, and on each branch 10,000 twigs, and on each twig 10,000 shoots, and in each shoot 10,000 clusters, and on each cluster 10,000 grapes, and each grape will produce 216 gallons of wine etc.會有天中藤蔓會增加,每一萬個分支機構,並就各分行10000樹枝,對每個枝條10000枝,並在每拍10000聯網,並就每一組10000葡萄,每個葡萄將產生216加侖葡萄酒等。

Millenarian ideas are found by most commentators in the Epistle of St. Barnabas, in the passage treating of the Jewish sabbath; for the resting of God on the seventh day after the creation is explained in the following manner.千禧年的想法是,發現多數評論家在墳墓的聖巴納巴斯,在通過治療的猶太安息日;為休息上帝在第七天後,創作就是在下文闡述的方式。 After the Son of God has come and put an end to the era of the wicked and judged them, and after the sun, the moon, and the stars have been changed, then He will rest in glory on the seventh day.經過上帝的兒子已到,並停止時代的惡人和判斷,並經過太陽,月亮和星星都變了,那麼他會在休息耀眼的第七天。 The author had premised, if it is said that God created all things in six days, this means that God will complete all things in six millenniums, for one day represents one thousand years.作者的前提是,如果說,上帝創造萬物,在六天,這意味著上帝將完成所有的事情,在6個千年,為一天,代表千年。 It is certain that the writer advocates the tenet of a re-formation of the world through the second advent of Christ, but it is not clear from the indications whether the author of the letter was a millenarian in the strict sense of the word.可以肯定的是,作者主張特尼特的重新形成世界上通過第二次來臨的救世主,但目前尚不清楚,從現有跡象顯示,不論作者的信是一個千禧年,在嚴格意義上的字。 St. Irenæus of Lyons, a native of Asia Minor, influenced by the companions of St. Polycarp, adopted millenarian ideas, discussing and defending them in his works against the Gnostics (Adv. Haereses, V, 32).聖irenæus的里昂,一個土生土長的小亞細亞,受同伴的聖利卡爾普致斐利千禧年通過的想法,討論和捍衛他們在他的作品中對gnostics ( adv. haereses ,五, 32 ) 。 He developed this doctrine mainly in opposition to the Gnostics, who rejected all hopes of the Christians in a happy future life, and discerned in the glorious kingdom of Christ on earth principally the prelude to the final, spiritual kingdom of God, the realm of eternal bliss.他發展了這一理論主要是在反對以gnostics ,他拒絕了所有的希望基督徒在一個幸福的未來生活,並察覺到光榮英國基督教會在地球上主要的序幕,最後,精神神的國度,境界的永恆極樂世界。 St. Justin of Rome, the martyr, opposes to the Jews in his Dialogue with Tryphon (ch. 80-1) the tenet of a millennium and asserts that he and the Christians whose belief is correct in every point know that there will be a resurrection of the body and that the newly built and enlarged Jerusalem will last for the space of a thousand years, but he adds that there are many who, though adhering to the pure and pious teachings of Christ, do not believe in it.聖賈斯汀的羅馬,烈士,反對向猶太人在他的對話與tryphon (章80-1 )特尼特一個千年,並聲稱他和基督徒的信仰是正確的,在每一個點都知道有一個復活的身體,並新建和擴耶路撒冷將是去年為太空的是1000年,但他補充說,有很多人,雖然堅持以純潔和虔誠的教誨基督,不相信這一點。 A witness for the continued belief in millenarianism in the province of Asia is St. Melito, Bishop of Sardes in the second century.證人為繼續信仰millenarianism在省亞洲是聖melito主教,撒得斯在公元二世紀。 He develops the same train of thought as did St. Irenæus.他的發展同樣的思路像聖irenæus 。

The Montanistic movement had its origin in Asia Minor.該montanistic運動有其原產地在亞洲未成年人。 The expectation of an early advent of the celestial Jerusalem upon earth, which, it was thought, would appear in Phrygia, was intimately joined in the minds of the Montanists with the idea of the millennium.期望早日來臨,天耶路撒冷後,地球,它是思想,將出現在phrygia ,密切加入在人的頭腦中的montanists與理念的新紀元。 Tertullian, the protagonist of Montanism, expounds the doctrine (in his work now lost, "De Spe Fidelium" and in "Adv. Marcionem", IV) that at the end of time the great Kingdom of promise, the new Jerusalem, would be established and last for the space of one thousand years.戴爾都良,主角的montanism ,闡述了原則(在他的工作,現在失去了, "德固相萃取形的教會" ,並在"副marcionem " ,第四章)表示,在去年底的時候,英國偉大的諾言,新的耶路撒冷,將建立和去年為太空的千年。 All these millenarian authors appeal to various passages in the prophetic books of the Old Testament, to a few passages in the Letters of St. Paul and to the Apocalypse of St. John.所有這些千禧作者呼籲各通道的預言書的舊約,到幾個段落,在書聖保羅和啟示的聖約翰。 Though millenarianism had found numerous adherents among the Christians and had been upheld by several ecclesiastical theologians, neither in the post-Apostolic period nor in the course of the second century, does it appear as a universal doctrine of the Church or as a part of the Apostolic tradition.雖然millenarianism已經找到了無數的信徒當中,基督徒,並一直堅持的幾個教會神學家,無論是在後使徒時期,也沒有在這個過程中的第二個世紀裡,是否會出庭,以一種普遍主義的教會或作為一個部分的使徒傳統。 The primitive Apostolic symbol mentions indeed the resurrection of the body and the return of Christ to judge the living and the dead, but it says not a word of the millennium.原始的使徒象徵提到確實復活的身體和歸還基督判斷活人與死人,但它說,沒有片言只字的千年。 It was the second century that produced not only defenders of the millennium but pronounced adversaries of the chiliastic ideas.它是世界上第二個世紀製作的,不僅捍衛千年,但明顯是對手的chiliastic想法。 Gnosticism rejected millenarianism.靈知拒絕millenarianism 。 In Asia Minor, the principal seat of millenarian teachings, the so-called Alogi rose up against millenarianism as well as against Montanism, but they went too far in their opposition, rejecting not only the Apocalypse of St. John, alleging Cerinthus as its author, but his Gospel also.在小亞細亞,主要所在地千禧年的教義,即所謂爾羅基奮起反對millenarianism以及對montanism ,但他們走的太遠,在他們的反對,拒絕不僅啟示聖約翰,指控克林妥,因為它的作者,但他的福音也。 The opposition to millenarianism became more general towards the end of the second century, going hand in hand with the struggle against Montanism.反對派millenarianism變得更為普遍接近年底在公元二世紀,要攜手合作,鬥爭montanism 。 The Roman presbyter Caius (end of the second and beginning of the third century) attacked the millenarians.羅馬presbyter caius (五月底的第二次,並開始了第三個世紀)的攻擊millenarians 。 On the other hand, Hippolytus of Rome defended them and attempted a proof, basing his arguments on the allegorical explanation of the six days of creation as six thousand years, as he had been taught by tradition.另一方面,關於hippolytus羅馬替他們辯護,並試圖證明,根據他的論點對寓言的解釋,為期六天的創造作為六千年,正如他一直所教的傳統。

The most powerful adversary of millenarianism was Origen of Alexandria.最強大的對手。 millenarianism是淵源亞歷山大。 In view of the Neo-Platonism on which his doctrines were founded and of his spiritual-allegorical method of explaining the Holy Scripture, he could not side with the millenarians.鑑於新柏拉圖對他的學說的成立以及他的精神-寓言的方法解釋聖經,他不能一邊與millenarians 。 He combatted them expressly, and, owing to the great influence which his writings exerted on ecclesiastical theology especially in Oriental countries, millenarianism gradually disappeared from the idea of Oriental Christians.他對抗他們明確,而且,由於巨大的影響力,他的著作始終保持對宗教神學尤其是在東方國家, millenarianism逐漸消失,從構思,東方基督徒。 Only a few later advocates are known to us, principally theological adversaries of Origen.只有極少數後來主張是眾所周知的,我們主要是神學對手的淵源。 About the middle of the third century, Nepos, bishop in Egypt, who entered the lists against the allegorism of Origen, also propounded millenarian ideas and gained some adherents in the vicinity of Arsino .約中的第三個世紀, nepos主教,在埃及,人進入名單,對allegorism的淵源,也是千禧年提出的構想,並得到了一些信徒們在附近的arsino 。 A schism threatened; but the prudent and moderate policy of Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria, preserved unity; the chiliasts abandoned their views (Eusebius "Hist. Eccl.", VII, 14).裂威脅,但謹慎的和溫和的政策,狄奧尼修斯,主教亞歷山德里亞,維護團結; chiliasts放棄自己的意見(尤西比烏斯"的歷史。 eccl " ,第七章, 14條) 。 Egypt seems to have harboured adherents of millenarianism in still later times Methodius, Bishop of Olympus, one of the principal opponents of Origen at the beginning of the fourth century, upheld chiliasm in his Symposion (IX, 1, 5).埃及似乎有包庇遺民millenarianism仍然在稍後的時間methodius主教,奧林巴斯,其中一個主要對手的淵源,在四世紀初,堅持chiliasm在他的symposion (九, 1 , 5 ) 。 In the second half of the fourth century, these doctrines found their last defender in Apollinaris, Bishop of Laodicea and founder of Apollinarism (qv).在今年下半年的四世紀,這些學說,發現他們的最後捍衛者,在亞坡理納主教勞迪西亞和創始人apollinarism (請參閱) 。 His writings on this subject, have been lost; but St. Basil of Caesarea (Epist. CCLXIII, 4), Epiphanius (Haeres. LXX, 36) and Jerome (In Isai. XVIII) testify to his having been a chiliast.他的著作對這個問題,已經喪失;但聖羅勒的caesarea ( epist. cclxiii , 4 ) , epiphanius ( haeres. lxx , 36歲)和杰羅姆(小井。十八)作證,他成了一個chiliast 。 Jerome also adds that many Christians of that time shared the same beliefs; but after that millenarianism found no outspoken champion among the theologians of the Greek Church.杰羅姆還補充說,許多基督徒的,當時有著相同的信念,但此後millenarianism沒有發現敢言冠軍之間的神學家對希臘教會。

In the West, the millenarian expectations of a glorious kingdom of Christ and His just, found adherents for a long time.在西方,千禧年所預期的光榮英國基督和他的公正,發現信徒們在相當長的時間。 The poet Commodian (Instructiones, 41, 42, 44) as well as Lactantius (Institutiones, VII) proclaim the millennial realm and describe its splendour, partly drawing on the earlier chiliasts and the Sybilline prophecies, partly borrowing their colours from the "golden age" of the pagan poets; but the idea of the six thousand years for the duration of the world is ever conspicuous.該詩( instructiones , 41 , 42 , 44 ) ,以及lactantius ( institutiones ,第七章)宣布千年境界,並描述它的輝煌,這部分是借鑒了先前chiliasts和sybilline預言,這部分是借用其顏色從"黃金時代"的異教詩人,但構思了六千年為期限的,世界是以往任何時候都突出。 Victorinus of Pettau also was a millenarian though in the extant copy of his commentary on the Apocalypse no allusions to it can be detected. victorinus的pettau又是千禧年,雖然在現存的副本,他的評論就沒有啟示,以典故,可以發現。 St. Jerome, himself a decided opponent of the millenial ideas, brands Sulpicius Severus as adhering to them, but in the writings of this author in their present form nothing can be found to support this charge.聖杰羅姆,自己是一個決定對手的millenial理念,品牌sulpicius塞維魯的堅持,但在寫作的作者,這在他們目前的形式沒有能夠找到支持這項指控。 St. Ambrose indeed teaches a twofold resurrection, but millenarian doctrines do not stand out clearly.聖劉漢銓確實任教雙重復活,但千禧年的教義並不清楚。 On the other hand; St. Augustine was for a time, as he himself testifies (De Civitate Dei, XX, 7), a pronounced champion of millenarianism; but he places the millennium after the universal resurrection and regards it in a more spiritual light (Sermo, CCLIX).在另一方面,聖奧古斯丁,曾經有一段時間,正如他自己證明了(德奇維塔特dei ,第二十條, 7 ) ,一個突出的冠軍millenarianism ;但他的地方千年後,世界復活,並把它放在更加精神輕( sermo , cclix ) 。 When, however, he accepted the doctrine of only one universal resurrection and a final judgment immediately following, he could no longer cling to the principal tenet of early chiliasm.但是,當他接受教義只有一個普遍的復活和最後判決後立即,他可以不再死抱主要特尼特早期chiliasm 。 St. Augustine finally held to the conviction that there will be no millennium.聖奧古斯丁終於舉行了一個信念,將不會有任何的來臨。 The struggle between Christ and His saints on the one hand and the wicked world and Satan on the other, is waged in the Church on earth; so the great Doctor describes it in his work De Civitate Dei.之間的鬥爭基督和他的聖人就一方面和壞蛋的世界和撒旦就其他,是蕭裕在教會地球上,所以這項偉大的醫生形容他的作品德奇維塔特dei 。 In the same book he gives us an allegorical explanation of Chapter 20 of the Apocalypse.在同一本書,他給了我們一個寓言解釋第20章的啟示。 The first resurrection, of which this chapter treats, he tells us, refers to the spiritual rebirth in baptism; the sabbath of one thousand years after the six thousand years of history is the whole of eternal life -- or in other words, the number one thousand is intended to express perfection, and the last space of one thousand years must be understood as referring to the end of the world; at all events, the kingdom of Christ, of which the Apocalypse speaks, can only be applied to the Church (De Civitate Dei, XX 5-7).第一次復活,其中本章待人,他告訴我們,是指以屬靈的重生洗禮;安息日的千年後,六千年的歷史,是整個永恆的生命-或者換句話說,有多少1000 ,是為了表達完美,和上次太空的千年一定要理解,這是指去年底,世界上所有的事件,英國基督教會,其中的啟示講的,只能適用於教會(德奇維塔特dei ,某某5-7 ) 。 This explanation of the illustrious Doctor was adopted by succeeding Western theologians, and millenarianism in its earlier shape no longer received support.這解釋了傑出的醫生通過接替西方神學家,並millenarianism在其先前的形狀不再得到支持。 Cerinthus and the Ebionites are mentioned in later writings against the heretics as defenders of the millennium, it is true, but as cut-off from the Church.克林妥和ebionites提到,在後來的著作對異端作為辯護人的千禧年的來臨,這是事實,但作為截斷,從教堂。 Moreover, the attitude of the Church towards the secular power had undergone a change with closer connection between her and the Roman empire.此外,態度教會對世俗政權曾經歷了一個變化的密切聯繫,她與羅馬帝國。 There is no doubt that this turn of events did much towards weaning the Christians from the old millenarianism, which during the time of persecution had been the expression of their hopes that Christ would soon reappear and overthrow the foes of His elect.這是毫無疑問的這一事態發展做了很多對斷奶基督徒從舊millenarianism ,這在當時的迫害已表達了他們希望耶穌會很快重現,推翻敵人他的當選。 Chiliastic views disappeared all the more rapidly, because, as was remarked above, in spite of their wide diffusion even among sincere Christians, and in spite of their defence by prominent Fathers of the early Church, millenarianism was never held in the universal Church as an article of faith based on Apostolic traditions. chiliastic意見消失了,所有愈快,因為,正如有人以上,儘管其在廣泛擴散,即使是真誠的基督徒,儘管他們的辯護,由著名的父親早期教會, millenarianism從未舉行普世教會作為文章信仰的基礎上使徒傳統。 The Middle Ages were never tainted with millenarianism; it was foreign both to the theology of that period and to the religious ideas of the people.中世紀從未沾染millenarianism ;那是外國,無論對神學的這段時間,並以宗教思想的人。 The fantastic views of the apocalyptic writers (Joachim of Floris, the Franciscan-Spirituals, the Apostolici), referred only to a particular form of spiritual renovation of the Church, but did not include a second advent of Christ.神奇的意見世界末日作家(約阿希姆的佛洛里斯,濟- spirituals , apostolici ) ,指的只是某種特定形式的精神文明改造教會,但不包括第二次來臨的基督。 The "emperor myths," which prophesied the establishment of a happy, universal kingdom by the great emperor of the future, contain indeed descriptions that remind one of the ancient Sybilline and millenarian writings, but an essential trait is again missing, the return of Christ and the connection of the blissful reign with the resurrection of the just. "天皇神話" ,預言了建立一個幸福,普遍由英國大皇帝的未來,的確包含的描述可以看出,提醒其中的古代sybilline和千禧年的著作,而是其一個重要特點是再次失踪,送回基督和連接的幸事統治與復活的正義。 Hence the millennium proper is unknown to them.因此,千年適當的,是未知給他們。 The Protestantism of the sixteenth century ushered in a new epoch of millenarian doctrines.在新教的16世紀,迎來了一個新時代的千禧年的教義。 Protestant fanatics of the earlier years, particularly the Anabaptists, believed in a new, golden age under the sceptre of Christ, after the overthrow of the papacy and secular empires.新教狂熱分子的前幾年,尤其是anabaptists認為,在一個新的黃金時代下權杖的基督,被推翻後,教宗和世俗帝國。 In 1534 the Anabaptists set up in Münster (Westphalia) the new Kingdom of Zion, which advocated sharing property and women in common, as a prelude to the new kingdom of Christ.在第1534該anabaptists成立明斯特(威斯特伐利亞) ,新王國錫安,主張分享財產和婦女共同的,作為一個前奏,新英國的基督。 Their excesses were opposed and their millenarianism disowned by both the Augsberg (art. 17) and the Helvetian Confession (ch. 11), so that it found no admission into the Lutheran and Reformed theologies.他們的過激行為,反對和他們millenarianism六親不認都augsberg (第17條)和helvetian自白(章11 ) ,所以它並沒有發現接納路德和改革神學。 Nevertheless, the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries produced new apocalyptic fanatics and mystics who expected the millennium in one form or another: in Germany, the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren (Comenius); in France, Pierre Jurien (L'Accomplissement des Propheties, 1686); in England at the time of Cromwell, the Independents and Jane Leade.不過,十七世紀和十八世紀產生新的世界末日的狂熱分子和神秘主義者,他們預期千年一種或另一種形式:在德國,波希米亞和摩拉維亞弟兄(美紐斯) ,在法國,皮埃爾jurien ( l' accomplissement萬propheties , 1686年) ;在英格蘭的時候,克倫威爾,獨立人士和Jane leade 。 A new phase in the development of millenarian views among the Protestants commenced with Pietism.一個新的階段,在發展的意見,千禧年間新教徒展開與pietism 。 One of the chief champions of the millennium in Germany was IA Bengel and his disciple Crusius, who were afterwards joined by Rothe, Volch, Thiersch, Lange and others.其中行政冠軍的千禧年,在德國被保監bengel和他的弟子克魯修斯,他們隨後加入rothe , volch , thiersch ,蘭格等。 Protestants from Wurtemberg emigrated to Palestine (Temple Communities) in order to be closer to Christ at His second advent.新教徒從wurtemberg移居巴勒斯坦(廟社區) ,以便更好地貼近於基督,在他的第二次來臨。 Certain fantastical sects of England and North America, such as the Irvingites, Mormons, Adventists, adopted both apocalyptic and millenarian views, expecting the return of Christ and the establishment of His kingdom at an early date.某些舞蹈教派的英格蘭和北美,如irvingites ,摩門教,复臨安息日會,通過了這兩項世界末日的千禧年和意見,期待回歸基督,並建立了他的王國,在早日實現。 Some Catholic theologians of the nineteenth century championed a moderate, modified millenarianism, especially in connection with their explanations of the Apocalypse; as Pagani (The End of the World, 1856), Schneider (Die chiliastische Doktrin, 1859), Rohling (Erklärung der Apokalypse des hl. lohannes, 1895; Auf nach Sion, 1901), Rougeyron Chabauty (Avenir de l'Eglise catholique selon le Plan Divin, 1890).有些天主教神學家對19世紀倡導的一個溫和,改良millenarianism ,特別是在結合自己的解釋啟示; pagani (世界的末了, 1856 ) ,施奈德(模具chiliastische doktrin , 1859 ) , rohling ( erklärung明鏡apokalypse萬的HL 。 lohannes , 1895年; auf nach錫永, 1901年) ,魯熱伊龍沙博蒂( avenir德l' eglise天主教的特別樂計劃divin , 1890 ) 。

Publication information Written by JP Kirsch.出版信息書面由JP基爾希。 Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.轉錄由現任j.好事。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.天主教百科全書,體積十, 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. nihil obstat , 1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


Also, see:此外,見:
Imminence 急迫性
Adventism adventism

London (Westminster) Confession 倫敦(西敏寺)不打自招
Augsburg Confession 奧格斯堡自白
Thirty-Nine Articles 39條

Second Coming of Christ 耶穌第二次來
Eschatology 末世
Dispensation, Dispensationalism 配藥, dispensationalism
Last Judgement 最後審判
Rapture, Tribulation 破裂,磨難
Tribulation, Great Tribulation 磨難,偉大的磨難


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