Methodism methodism

General Information 一般資料

Methodism is the name given to a group of Protestant churches that arose from the 18th century Wesleyan movement in England led by John and Charles Wesley and George Whitefield. methodism是名字給一組新教教堂,是由18世紀的衛斯理運動,在英國為首的約翰和查爾斯韋斯利和喬治Whitefield的。 Although centered in the British Isles and North America, Methodism has spread worldwide.雖然為本,在英倫三島和北美, methodism已蔓延世界各地。 The total world community is estimated at more than 38 million; the largest single group is the United Methodist Church in the United States, with about 10 million members.佔世界社區,估計超過38萬人;最大單一集團,是美國基督教衛理公會在美國,大約有1000萬成員。

The origins of Methodism are inseparable from the careers of the Wesley brothers.起源methodism是分不開的,從職業的韋斯利兄弟。 In 1738, influenced by the Moravians, they organized small "societies" within the Church of England for religious sharing, Bible study, prayer, and preaching.在1738年,受moravians ,他們就組織了小規模的"社團"與英國教會的宗教交流,研究聖經,祈禱,及傳教。 Doctrine was based on an Arminian interpretation of the Thirty Nine Articles but emphasized personal experience of conversion, assurance, and sanctification.學說,是基於對arminian解釋的39條,但強調個人經驗的轉換,保證和成聖。 The Wesleys and their associate Whitefield traveled widely, preaching to large and enthusiastic crowds of working people.該wesleys及其協理Whitefield的走過廣泛,鼓吹大和熱心群眾的勞動人民。 The movement spread through most of England.運動傳遍大部分英格蘭。 A striking growth took place in Ireland, and to lesser extent in Wales and Scotland.一個突出的增長發生在愛爾蘭,並在較小程度上在威爾士和蘇格蘭。 To preserve personal fellowship, "bands" and "class meetings" were formed, and the whole was brought together (1744) by John Wesley in the British Conference.維護個人團契, "階" , "主題班會"的形成,以及整個被聚集在一起( 1744 ) ,由約翰韋斯利在英國會議。

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When John Wesley died in 1791 the relationship between the Methodists and the Church of England was unclear, although Wesley's ordination of "clergy" for work in America made a breach likely.當約翰韋斯利死於1791年之間的關係,衛理和英國教會目前還不清楚,雖然韋斯利的排序的"神職人員" ,為美國工作作出了違約的可能性。 The separation was formalized when the Conference of 1795 asserted that Methodist preachers could administer sacraments without ordination by the Church of England.分離被正式確定時,大會1795年斷言,循道衛理傳教士可治聖禮,沒有統籌,由英國教會。

A number of divisions soon took place among the Methodists.一些師即將發生的各衛。 The Methodist New Connection, the Primitive Methodist Church, and the Bible Christians separated from the Conference between 1797 and 1815.循道衛理新的方面,原始基督教衛理公會,與聖經的基督徒脫離會議之間的1797年和1815年。 They were reunited in two mergers (1907, 1932) with the main branch to form the Methodist Church in Britain, which today has a membership of about 800,000.他們團圓,在兩項合併( 1907年, 1932年)與主要分支形成循道衛理聯合教會在英國,其中今天有會員約80萬人。 The central organization is the British Conference.中央組織是英國會議。 This church has recently engaged in ecumenical negotiations with the Church of England.這個教會最近從事合一談判與英國教會。

Whitefield conducted several preaching tours in North America and was an influential figure in the Great Awakening. Whitefield的進行了多次大規模布道之旅,在北美和是一個有影響力的人物,偉大的覺醒。 Wesleyan Methodism was later established in America by unofficial lay missionaries such as Philip Embury, Barbara Heck, Robert Strawbridge, and Thomas Webb; and by missionaries appointed by John Wesley, of whom the chief were Francis Asbury, Richard Boardman, Joseph Pilmore, and Thomas Rankin.衛斯理methodism後來被確立在美國由非官方奠定傳教士如弘恩伯里,芭芭拉heck ,羅伯特strawbridge ,托馬斯韋伯,並通過任命傳教士約翰韋斯利名,其中行政人弗朗西斯asbury ,理查德Boardman同時,約瑟夫pilmore ,和托馬斯倫肯。 In 1784, Wesley's actual ordination of two missionaries and appointment of Thomas Coke as "superintendent" for America led to the formation of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Baltimore.可以追溯到1784年,韋斯利的實際運作兩個傳教士,並任命托馬斯焦炭為"警" ,為美國主導,以形成對衛理公會在巴爾的摩。 (Coke's adoption of the title bishop was not approved by Wesley; the British church did not adopt an episcopal structure.) (焦的通過標題主教不獲批准,由韋斯利;英國教會沒有採取主教結構) 。

In 1830, in a controversy over episcopal authority, the Methodist Protestant Church was formed by a strongly liberal minority.在1830年,在爭議主教管理局,循道衛理基督教教會形成了強有力的自由黨少數。 In 1843 the Wesleyan Methodist Church of America was started by a group of antislavery Methodists.在1843年的衛斯理循道衛理教會的美國是一個由一群antislavery循道。 The next year the General Conference split over issues related to slavery and episcopal authority, and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, was formed at the Louisville convention in 1845.下一年度大會分裂有關問題的奴役和主教的權力,並在衛理公會,南,形成於路易斯維爾公約於1845年。 In 1860 came the Free Methodist Church, which was antislavery and theologically perfectionist.在1860年來到自由循道衛理教會,這是antislavery和theologically完美主義者。 The Methodist Episcopal Church was troubled by controversy over sanctification and interpretation of the Bible (fundamentalism).循道衛理聖公會是困擾爭議成聖和解釋聖經(原教旨主義) 。 Three large black churches were also organized, largely in protest against racial prejudice: the African Methodist Episcopal Church (1816), the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (1820), and the Colored (later Christian) Methodist Episcopal Church (1870). 3個大型黑人教堂還組織了,這主要是為了抗議種族偏見:非洲衛理公會( 1816 ) ,非洲衛理主教錫安堂( 1820 ) ,以及有色(後來基督教)衛理公會( 1870年) 。

With the formation of the Methodist Church in 1939 by the Northern and Southern branches and the Methodist Protestants, reunion was achieved.與成立衛理公會於1939年由該國北部和南部分行及循道衛理新教徒,留尼汪島達到了。 A racially identified central jurisdiction remained a source of controversy until its abolition in 1968.一個種族中央確定的司法管轄權仍然是一個來源的爭議,直至取消其在1968年。 In that year the church merged with the Evangelical United Brethren Church to form the United Methodist Church.正是這一年,教會合併與美國福音教會的弟兄組成聯合衛理公會。 The church maintains a large Methodist publishing house, Abingdon Press, hospitals and homes, and institutions of higher learning, including 13 theological seminaries.教會保持著一個大循道衛出版社, abingdon記者,醫院和居所,並為高等院校,其中包括13名神學修道院。

Both the British Methodist Missionary Society and the American Board of Global Ministries have conducted worldwide missionary efforts.中英雙方循道傳教士協會和美國全球教會理事會進行了世界各地的傳教努力。 The Methodist churches stand in close relation to each other in the World Methodist Conference, which elects the World Methodist Council, as well as in the World Council of Churches.循道衛理教會的立場,密切相互關係,在世界循道衛理會議,選出新的世界循道會中,以及在世界基督教協進會。

Frederick A Norwood馮一諾伍德

Bibliography 參考書目
F Baker, From Wesley to Asbury (1976); CS Bucke, ed., The History of American Methodism (1964); RE Davies, Methodism (1976); RE Davies, ed., A History of the Methodist Church in Great Britain (1965); FA Norwood, The Story of American Methodism (1974); H Richardson, Dark Salvation (1976); B Semmel, The Methodist Revolution (1973). f貝克,從韋斯利到asbury ( 1976年) ;政務司司長bucke ,版,歷史上美國methodism ( 1964 ) ;重新戴維斯methodism ( 1976年) ;再度戴維斯版,史衛理公會在大不列顛( 1965年) ;發諾伍德,故事美洲methodism ( 1974年) ; h理查森,黑暗救贖( 1976條) , b semmel ,循道衛理革命( 1973年) 。


Methodism methodism

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Methodism is a name designating several Protestant groups. methodism是一個名稱,指定幾個新教團體。 Methodism has its roots in the work of John and Charles Wesley, sons of an Anglican rector and his wife, Susannah. methodism ,其根源在於工作的約翰和查爾斯韋斯利,兒子的聖公會大學校長和他的妻子, susannah 。 A friend and Oxford classmate of the Wesleys, George Whitefield, was also instrumental in forming the Holy Club (c. 1725), which stressed "inward religion, the religion of the heart."朋友和牛津大學的同班同學的wesleys ,喬治Whitefield的,還幫助組建聖地俱樂部(長17時25分) ,其中強調, "外來宗教的自由,宗教的心" 。 These awakenings coupled with the club's insistence on exacting discipline in scholastic as well as spiritual matters earned its members the jeering title of "Methodists" by 1729.這些awakenings再加上俱樂部的堅持嚴格的紀律,在學校以及屬靈的事情上贏得了大家嘲笑的標題: "循道" , 1729 。

In 1735 the Wesleys sailed to America as missionaries, but not before John, a somewhat troubled young Anglican priest, noted: "My chief motive is the hope of saving my own soul."在1735年該wesleys駛往美國的傳教士,不過在此之前,約翰,有點困擾,年輕的英國聖公會牧師,指出: "我國的行政動機,是希望挽救我自己的靈魂" 。 In the spring of 1738 John Wesley returned to England filled with a troubled sense of failure.在春季的1738年約翰韋斯利回到英格蘭充滿了一種不安感,失敗的。 He was attracted to the piety and feelings of inward assurance so notably evidenced among the Moravians.他被吸引到了孝道和感受外來保證,所以特別是明證之一moravians 。 Wesley knew this was lacking in his own life despite his outward discipline.韋斯利知道這是缺乏珍惜自己的生命,儘管他的外向紀律。 He saw himself failing to bear fruits of "inward holiness."他看到自己未能開花結果的"外來成聖" 。 Convinced of the necessity for faith and the inner witness, Wesley passed through a torturous spring, fearing that at the advanced age of thirty five both life and God were passing him by.深信有必要為信仰和黨內證人,韋斯利走過曲折的春天,他們擔心在先進年齡35無論生活和上帝路過他的。

Unwillingly, he writes later, he was persuaded to attend a Bible study meeting on May 24, 1738, in Aldersgate Street, where an unknown layman was expounding on Luther's commentary on Romans.情願,他寫道,他後來被說服參加一個聖經學習會議上, 1738年5月24日,在aldersgate街,那裡是一個未知的門外漢,是闡述路德的評入鄉隨俗。 There, Wesley writes, "I felt my heart strangley warmed. I felt I did trust Christ, Christ alone for salvation; and an assurance was given me that He had taken away my sins."在那裡,韋斯利寫道, "我覺得我的心strangley回暖,我覺得我確實相信基督,基督是不夠的救贖;保證給我說,他拿走我的罪過" 。 The Aldersgate experience, definitely a turning point in Wesley's life, was not so much an outright conversion experience of the type that came to be associated with the revival movements of England and America as it was a firm receiving of assurance of this priest's own salvation.該aldersgate經驗,絕對是一個轉折點,韋斯利的生活,就沒有那麼多徹頭徹尾轉換的經驗,該類型來被認為是與復興運動的英格蘭和美國,因為這是一個堅定的接收保證本祭司自己的救贖。 Aldersgate was what Wesley needed. aldersgate是什麼韋斯利需要。

By 1739 the distinct and aggressively evangelistic and highly disciplined Methodist movement spread like wildfire through field preaching, lay preaching, bands, and societies.由1739年的獨特和積極的福音和高度紀律循道衛理運動的蔓延,像野火一樣通過實地傳道,奠定說教,樂隊,和社會作出貢獻。 The "Rules of Bands" demanded a highly disciplined life, an exacting schedule of meetings in which the society members were expected to share intimate details of their daily lives, to confess their sins to one another, to pray for each other, and to exhort members of the class toward inner holiness and good works. "規則的樂隊"的要求,高度紀律的生活,是一個艱辛的會議日程,其中社會成員可望分享親密的詳細介紹他們的日常生活中,供認自己的罪孽給對方,祈求對方,並為了告誡成員階級對黨內成聖和好的作品。 The enthusiasm of the revivals came under the control of the bands or societies.熱情的復甦來控制之下的樂隊或社團。 The weekly prayer meetings; the use of an itinerary system of traveling preachers; the annual conferences; the establishment of chapels; the prolific outpouring of tracts, letters, sermons, and hymns; and the general superintendency of John Wesley became the hallmark of what emerged as a worldwide Methodist movement.每週祈禱會;使用一個行程系統的旅行傳教士;年度會議;設立教堂;多產流露的傳單,信件,布道,和聖詩及一般監管局約翰韋斯利成了標誌,出現了什麼作為一個世界性的循道衛理運動。

Beginning with Church of England congregations banning John Wesley from their pulpits in 1738, before Aldersgate, tensions with the Established Church were inevitable and eventually disruptive.首先是英國教會的教友禁止約翰韋斯利從他們pulpits在1738年之前, aldersgate ,緊張與既定教會是不可避免的,並最終造成干擾。 Wesley's penchant for organization and discipline likely hastened the series of breaks that gave the people called Methodists their several denominations.韋斯利的嗜好組織紀律觀念可能催生出一系列的休息,這給人們稱為衛理他們幾個教派。

As the revivalistic awakening came to include Methodism, work extended from England to Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, where a Calvinistically oriented minority formally established themselves in 1764.作為revivalistic覺醒來包括methodism ,延長工作從英格蘭,愛爾蘭,蘇格蘭和威爾士的地方, calvinistically面向少數民族正式成立了自己在1764年。 Soon lay preachers were active in America, establishing circuits along the midAtlantic states under the supervision of Francis Asbury, sent by Wesley in 1771.盡快打下傳教士們積極在美國,建立集成電路沿midatlantic國的監督下,弗朗西斯asbury ,派出由韋斯利於1771年。 In 1744 a conference was held in London and standards for doctrine, liturgy and discipline were adopted.在1744年舉行了一次會議,在倫敦和標準的學說,教會禮儀和紀律獲得通過。 The Wesleys maintained their personal ties (ordination) and devotion to the Church of England with its emphasis on the sacraments and its antipopery views.該wesleys保持自己的人脈關係(協調)和獻身英國教會,其重點是聖禮和其antipopery意見。 Episcopal in its organization, the Methodist Connexion was autocratically controlled by John Wesley.主教在其組織,循道衛理方面是獨裁控制的約翰韋斯利。

By 1784 Wesley concluded that no one individual would be a suitable successor.由追溯到1784年韋斯利得出結論認為,沒有任何一個單獨的將是一個合適的繼任者。 He therefore moved to record a "Deed of Declaration" in which he declared a group of one hundred of his most able leaders (the "Legal Hundred") his legal successor.因此,他提出,以創紀錄的"契約宣言" ,其中他宣布一組100的,他最能領導(所謂"法律百" )表示,他的合法繼承者。 This established that Methodist societies were now duly constituted as legal entities, conceived of as ecclesicla in ecclesia but formally separate entities from the Church of England.這確立循道衛理社團人,現在正式組成的法律實體,構想作為ecclesicla在Ecclesia的,但正式單獨的實體,從英國教會。 This also established the Annual Conference as the primary authority in the Methodist system.這也確立了屆年會成為該公司的主要權力機構在循道衛理制度。

In September of that same year Wesley yielded to American pressure to have his preachers administer the sacraments by ordaining two lay helpers as elders and Thomas Coke as general superintendent without consulting with his conference.在9月的同一年,韋斯利屈服於美國的壓力,讓他的佈道者管理聖禮由ordaining兩名業外人士助理作為長輩和托馬斯焦炭作為一般警沒有徵詢他的招待會。 He was persuaded to this act by Peter King's Account of the Primitive Church (1691) that presbyters held the same spiritual authority as bishops to ordain in the early church and by the Bishop of London's refusal in 1780 to ordain any of Methodism's preachers in America.他說服了這個法案是由彼得國王的帳的原始教會( 1691 )表示,眾長老持相同的精神權威的主教,以阿拉維在早期教會和主教的倫敦,拒絕在1780年向阿拉維任何methodism的傳教士在美國。 The three newly ordained men were dispatched to build up the full work of Methodism in America.三位新受戒官兵被派往建立起充分的工作methodism在美國。 At the Christmas Conference in Baltimore in 1784 Coke ordained Asbury, and the Methodist Episcopal Church was organized.在聖誕節會議在巴爾的摩可以追溯到1784年焦炭受戒asbury ,和衛理公會主辦。 Coke and Asbury were elected general superintendents. A Sunday Service based on the Book of Common Prayer and Twenty five Articles of Religion abridged by Wesley from the Thirty nine Articles were adopted by the new denomination.焦炭和asbury當選為總警司, 一個週日服務的基礎上,本書的共同祈禱和25條宗教縮寫,由韋斯利從39條被採納新的面額。

Continuing his work among the various societies, Wesley ordained a number of presbyters in Scotland and England, and for the mission field.繼續他的工作中的各種社團,韋斯利受戒的一些長老在蘇格蘭和英格蘭,並為團場。 Unlike Methodism in America, no formal separation was consummated in England until after Wesley's death in 1791.不像methodism在美國,並沒有正式的分離是委託英國後,才韋斯利的死亡1791年。 A conciliar effort by the Church of England in 1793 prompted a formal "Plan of Pacification" in 1795. 1 conciliar努力,由英國教會在1793年促使一個正式的"規劃安撫" ,在1795年。 But final separation occurred in 1797, as the Rubicon had been crossed in 1784, and the formal organization of Methodism was well under way by the beginning of the nineteenth century.但最後的分離發生在1797 ,由於盧比孔河已經跨過可以追溯到1784年,並正式組織的methodism正在順利進行,由19世紀初葉。

In England a number of Methodist bodies splintered from the main Methodism movement.在英國的一些循道衛理機構分散,從主要methodism運動。 The Ecumenical Methodist Conferences formalized a renewed conciliar spirit.基督教衛理會議正式重新conciliar精神。 From 1907 to 1933 various groups united to become part of the Methodist Church.從1907年至1933年各團體團結起來,成為部分循道衛理聯合教會。 On July 8, 1969, a plan calling for merger of the Methodist and Anglican communions faced defeat at the hands of the Anglican Convocations where the concept of historic episcopacy as an office and not an order proved unacceptable.對1969年7月8日,一項計劃,要求合併的循道衛理和英國聖公會communions面對敗在手中聖公會convocations那裡的概念,歷史之故,作為辦公室,而不是為了證明,是不能接受的。 In Canada the Methodist Church of Canada joined with the Presbyterian Church and selected Union Churches together with the Congregational Churches to form the United Church of Canada.在加拿大循道衛理教會的加拿大加入與長老教會和選定的聯盟教堂連同堂教堂,以形成統一教會加拿大。

In the United States numerous Methodist - oriented bodies exists.在美國眾多的循道衛理-面向機構存在。 Some came into being in disputes over doctrinal issues.一些應運而生,在糾紛的理論問題。 Others arose out of social concerns.別人也引發出社會問題。 The Wesleyan Methodist Church, organized in the 1840s, drew its inspiration from Orange Scott, a New Englander lacking formal education but committed to the Abolitionist movement.該衛斯理衛理公會,有組織的,在19世紀40年代,提請其靈感來自Orange斯科特,新englander缺乏正規教育,而要致力於廢除死刑的運動。 The Methodist Protestant Church, opposing the episcopacy, separated in 1828.循道衛理新教教會,反對之故,分居在1828年。 By 1860 both doctrinal and social tensions were intense, and the Free Methodist Church was founded, largely under the inspiration of BT Roberts. 1860年,由這兩個理論和社會緊張局勢加劇,自由衛理公會成立時,主要是根據故事的靈感Bt基因羅伯茨。 In 1844 the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, was formed over the slavery issue.在1844年的衛理公會,南,形成了奴隸制問題。

Other significant Methodist denominations in the United States are the African Methodist Episcopal (1816), the African Methodist Episcopal Zion (1820), and the Christian Methodist Episcopal (1870), all black, totaling more than 2.5 million members.其他重大循道面額的,在美國是非洲衛理主教( 1816 ) ,非洲衛理主教錫安( 1820 ) ,和基督教衛理主教( 1870年) ,全黑色,共計超過250萬成員。 The year 1939 brought the reunion of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, the Methodist Protestant Church, and the Methodist Episcopal Church to form The Methodist Church.今年, 1939年帶來了團聚的衛理公會,南,循道衛理基督教教會及循道衛理聖公會形成循道衛理聯合教會。

A group of German pietists under Jacob Albright were attracted to Methodism and in 1807 organized the Newly Formed Methodist Conference or the German Methodist Conference.一組德國虔誠根據雅各布奧爾布賴特被吸引到methodism ,並於1807年舉辦了新成立的循道衛理會議或德語循道衛理會議。 The English speaking Methodist lay preachers were unable to serve this German speaking immigrant group, so the Evangelical Association was formed in 1816.在以英語為母語的循道衛理奠定傳教士無法服務於這個德語發言移民集團,使福音協會成立於1816年。 During this same period Phillip Otterbein, friend of Asbury, together with Martin Boehm founded the United Brethren in Christ among German speaking immigrants with its organizing General Conference in 1815.在同一期間內菲利普奧特伯恩,朋友asbury ,加上馬丁boehm創立美國弟兄,在基督其中德國移民及其組織大會於1815年。 In 1946 these two German immigrant churches merged to form the Evangelical United Brethren (EUB) Church.在1946年,這兩名德國移民教會合併組建為福音事工促進會聯合兄弟( eub )教堂。 With its ethnic distinctiveness on the wane, and clearly Methodist in polity and theology, the EUB merged in 1968 with The Methodist Church to form The United Methodist Church.其民族獨特性就減弱,並明確循道在政體和神學, eub合併,在1968年與衛理公會組成聯合衛理公會。

Active in social concerns, Methodism has followed in the footsteps of the Wesleys and Richard Watson.活躍在社會的關注, methodism一直遵循的腳步,該wesleys和理查德沃森。 The theological mandate espoused in the 1908 Social Creed continues as a challenge to Methodists and other Christian fellowships in the struggle for social justice.神學主張的任務,在1908年的社會信條仍然是一個挑戰,以衛理和其他基督教獎學金在爭取社會公義。 In ecumenical circles G Bromley Oxnam (1891 - 1963) and Frank Mason North (1850 - 1935) were instrumental in developing the Federal and National Council of Churches.在基督教界克bromley oxnam ( 1891 -1 963年)和弗蘭克梅森北( 1 850- 19 35)分別在發展,聯邦和民族教會理事會。 E Stanley Jones (1894 - 1973), evangelist extraordinary, was also instrumental in the worldwide ecumenical and evangelistic efforts of Methodism. e斯坦利瓊斯( 1894 -1 973) ,傳道者不平凡的,也是在世界範圍內基督教和福音的努力m ethodism。 Former EUB bishop Reuben H Mueller (1897 - 1982) and Glenn R Phillips (1894 - 1970) were principals in the formative days of the Consultation on Church Union.前eub主教reuben h穆勒( 1897 -1 982年)和格倫r菲利普斯( 1 894- 19 70)被校長形成幾天的協商,對教會聯盟。 John R Mott (1865 - 1955) figured prominently in the formation of the World Council of Churches, and Methodist Philip Potter is current general executive secretary of the council.約翰r的Mott ( 1865 -1 955)佔有突出地位,在形成世界基督教協進會,循道衛理弘波特是目前一般行政理事會的秘書。 Within Methodism, the World Methodist Council meets at five year intervals and is composed of some fifty delegates representing some fifty million Methodists.內部methodism ,世界循道會會見在五年時間間隔和組成,約五十名代表出席了一些50000000循道。

Long distinguished by an emphasis on practical faith, Methodism and its various offshoots have sought to avoid a strict confessionalism.只要尊敬的是強調實踐信念, methodism及其各個分支都設法規避嚴格的自白。 The addition of a new section to the 1972 Discipline, "Our Theological Task," which formalizes a posture of doctrinal pluralism that appeals to Wesley's sermon "Catholic Spirit", was an acknowledgment of the wide diversity of views within modern Methodism over the proper balance of Wesleyan orthodoxy and a theology of experience.加入一項新條文, 1972年的紀律, "我們的神學思想建設的任務" ,正式拉開架勢的理論多元論,上訴到韋斯利的說教, "天主教精神" ,是一種認同的種種不同的看法與現代methodism超過了適當的平衡衛斯理的正統和神學的經驗。

Concurrent with this development North American Methodism is undergoing the emergence of a neo Wesleyan theology associated with J Robert Nelson, Albert Outler, Robert Cushman, and Carl Michalson.並行與這一發展北美methodism正在出現一個新衛斯理神學的聯繫與J羅伯特納爾遜,何俊仁outler ,羅伯特cushman ,和卡爾michalson 。 African Methodist Episcopal minister James Cone combines the insights of black theology with his Methodist heritage.非洲衛理主教部長詹姆斯錐相結合的見解黑色神學與他的循道衛理遺產。 John B Cobb, Jr, and Schubert M Ogden explore their Wesleyan theology from the perspective of process modes of thought.人John B科布,紅外光譜,及舒伯特米奧格登探索其衛斯理從神學的角度過程中的思維方式。 Finally, the Methodist Federation for Social Action urges Methodism to retain its social conscience, and the Good News movement, an evangelically based Methodist renewalist group, seeks to call Methodism to its traditional Wesleyan theological heritage.最後,循道衛理聯合會社會行動敦促methodism以保存其社會良知,好消息運動, evangelically基於循道renewalist組,其目的是號召methodism其傳統衛斯理神學遺產。

PA Mickey壩米奇

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
FA Norwood, ed., Sourcebook of American Methodism; ES Bucke, ed., The History of American Methodism; H Bett, The Spirit of Methodism; H Carter, The Methodist Heritage; WJ Townsend, HB Workman, G Eayrs, eds., A New History of Methodism; CH Crookshank, History of the Methodist Church in Ireland; G Smith, History of Wesleyan Methodism; WF Swift, Methodism in Scotland; WW Sweet, Methodism in American History; M Simpson, ed., Cyclopedia of Methodism; M Edwards, Methodism and England; GG Findlay and W W Holdsworth, The History of the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Church; FF MacLeister, History of the Wesleyan Methodist Church of America; R Chiles, Theological Transition in American Methodism; TA Langford, Practical Divinity.發諾伍德版,原始資料的美國methodism ;中文bucke ,版,歷史上美國methodism ; h更好的,精神methodism ; h卡特,循道衛理遺產; WJ通信公司湯森,血紅蛋白工人地下埃爾斯合編,一個新的歷史methodism ;甲烷克魯克香克,史衛理公會在愛爾蘭的100史密斯,史衛斯理methodism ; WF號迅速, methodism在蘇格蘭;第一次世界大戰甜, methodism在美國歷史;米辛普森版, cyclopedia的methodism ;米愛德華茲, methodism和英格蘭;千噸範達和W瓦特holdsworth ,歷史的衛斯理循道衛理教會的傳教;法郎macleister ,歷史的衛斯理循道衛理教會的美國與r chiles ,神學過渡,在美國methodism ;電訊局長弗朗西斯,實用神。


Methodism methodism

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

A religious movement which was originated in 1739 by John Wesley in the Anglican Church, and subsequently gave rise to numerous separate denominations.是一個宗教運動,它是在1739年由約翰韋斯利在聖公會,並隨後引起了許多獨立的教派。

I. DOCTRINAL POSITION AND PECULIARITIES一,學說上的地位和特殊性

The fact that John Wesley and Methodism considered religion primarily as practical, not dogmatic, probably accounts for the absence of any formal Methodist creed.事實上,約翰韋斯利和methodism考慮宗教,主要是由於實際的,而不是教條式的,大概佔了沒有任何正式的循道衛理信條。 The "General Rules", issued by John and Charles Wesley on 1 May, 1743, stated the conditions of admission into the societies organized by them and known as the "United Societies". "一般規則" ,所發出的約翰和查爾斯韋斯利於1743年5月1日,申明的條件加入社團組織,他們被稱為"美國社會" 。 They bear an almost exclusively practical character, and require no doctrinal test of the candidates.他們承擔了一個幾乎完全是實踐品格,而且無需理論測試的候選人。 Methodism, however, developed its own theological system as expressed in two principal standards of orthodoxy. methodism ,但是,開發出了自己的神學體系表現在兩個主要標準的正統。

The first is the "Twenty-five Articles" of religion.首先是" 25條"的宗教。 They are an abridgment and adaptation of the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England, and form the only doctrinal standard strictly binding on American Methodists.它們是abridgment和改編了39條的英國教會,並形成唯一的教義標準嚴格約束美國衛理。 Twenty-four of these articles were prepared by John Wesley for the Church in America and adopted at the Conference of Baltimore in 1784. 2004年的這些物品是準備由約翰韋斯利對於教會在美國,並通過在這次會議上的巴爾的摩可以追溯到1784年。 The article which recognizes the political independence of the United States (Article XXIII) was added in 1804.文章承認政治獨立的美國(第二十三條)的補充,在1804年。 The second standard is the first fifty-three of Wesley's published sermons and his "Notes on the New Testament".第二個標準是首個53的韋斯利公佈的說教和他的"債券在新約全書" 。 These writings were imposed by him on the British Methodists in his "Deed of Declaration" and accepted by the "Legal Hundred".這些著作被強加給他的英國衛理在他的"契約宣言" ,並接受由"法律百" 。 The American Church, while not strictly bound to them, highly esteemed and extensively uses them.美國教堂,而沒有嚴格的約束,他們高度評價和廣泛的用途。

More fundamental for all Methodists than these standards are the inspired Scriptures, which are declared by them to be the sole and sufficient rule of belief and practice.更根本的,為所有循道超過這些標準,是激勵著經文,這是他們所申報的,以成為唯一和足夠的法治信仰和實踐。 The dogmas of the Trinity and the Divinity of Jesus Christ are upheld.該教條的三位一體和神性的耶穌基督是堅持。 The universality of original sin and the consequent partial deterioration of human nature find their efficacious remedy in the universal distribution of grace.普遍性的原罪和相應局部惡化人性找到自己的有效的補救辦法,在世界分佈的恩典。 Man's free co-operation with this Divine gift is necessary for eternal salvation, which is offered to all, but may be freely rejected.人的自由合作事宜,共與這個神聖的禮物是必要的,為永恆的救贖,這是提供給所有的,但可以自由地拒絕了。 There is no room in Methodism for the rigorous doctrine of predestination as understood by Calvinism.有沒有空間,在methodism為嚴格教義的宿命理解加爾文。 While the doctrine of justification by faith alone is taught, the performance of good works enjoined by God is commended, but the doctrine of works of supererogation is condemned.雖然該理論的因信稱義,僅是教導,表現好的作品是受命於上帝,是讚揚,但該學說的作品supererogation是譴責。 Only two sacraments are admitted: Baptism and the Lord's Supper.只有兩個聖禮都承認:洗禮和主的晚餐。 Baptism does not produce sanctifying grace in the soul, but strengthens its faith, and is the sign of a regeneration which has already taken place in the recipient.洗禮,並不會產生sanctifying恩典在靈魂的,但強化了其信仰,是簽署一項再生已發生了收件人。 Its administration to infants is commanded because they are already members of the Kingdom of God.其政府向嬰兒是指揮者,因為他們已經參加的神的國度。 The Eucharist is a memorial of the Passion and Death of Jesus Christ, who is not really present under the species of bread and wine, but is received in a spiritual manner by believers.聖體聖事是一個紀念的激情和死亡的耶穌基督,他是不是真的下,目前該品種的麵包和酒,但收到的是一個精神的方式,由信眾。 The sacrament is administered under both kinds to the laity.聖事是管理下的兩種向俗人。 The "witness of the Spirit" to the soul of the individual believer and the consequent assurance of salvation are distinctive doctrines of Methodism. "證人的精神"的靈魂,個人的信奉者和相應的保證救恩是有明顯區別的學說methodism 。 This assurance is a certainty of present pardon, not of final perseverance.這項保證是必然的,目前赦免,而不是最終的毅力。 It is experienced independently of the sacraments through the immediate testimony of the Holy Spirit, and does not preclude the possibility of future transgressions.這是經驗豐富的獨立的聖禮渡過當前的證詞聖靈,不排除可能性,未來的越軌。 Transgressions of an involuntary character are also compatible with another characteristic doctrine of Methodism, that of perfection or complete sanctification.越軌的一個自願性質還與另一個特點是中庸methodism ,完美的或完全成聖。 The Christian, it is maintained, may in this life reach a state of holiness which excludes all voluntary offence against God, but still admits of growth in grace.基督教,它是保持下去,可能這輩子達到一國的聖德是卸除所有自願冒犯天主,但仍坦承增長的恩典。 It is therefore a state of perfectibility rather than of stationary perfection.因此,它是國家的完善,而不是靜止的完善。 The invocation of saints and the veneration of relics and images are rejected.援引聖人和敬仰的遺物和圖片都是拒絕。 While the existence of purgatory is denied in the Twenty-five Articles (Article XIV), an intermediate state of purification, for persons who never heard of Christ, is admitted today by some Methodists.雖然存在煉獄,是無可否認,在2005年的文章(第十四條) ,是一個中間狀態的淨化,為的人從未聽說過基督的,是承認今天的一些衛。 In its work of conversion Methodism is aggressive and largely appeals to religious sentiment; camp-meetings and revivals are important forms of evangelization, at least in America.在其工作中的轉化methodism具有侵略性,並在很大程度上呼籲宗教情操;難民營會議和復甦的重要形式的福傳事業,至少在美國。 Among the practices which Wesley imposed upon his followers were the strict observance of the Lord's Day, the use of few words in buying and selling, and abstinence from all intoxicating drinks, from all purely worldly amusements and from costly apparel.其中做法韋斯利強加給他的追隨者被嚴格遵守上帝的一天後,其使用的幾句話,在買一賣,和禁慾都陶醉的飲品,從各個方面,純粹世俗的娛樂和從昂貴的服裝。 The church service which he prepared for them was an abridgment and modification of the Book of Common Prayer, but it never came into universal use, sentiment among Methodists being rather unfavourable to any set form of liturgy.教會服務,他願意為他們是一個abridgment和修改這本書的共同祈禱,但它從未進入普及使用,情緒循道正頗為不利,以訂定任何形式的禮拜儀式。 In America the ministry is divided into two orders; the deacons and the elders or presbyters; in Great Britain and her colonies only one order exists, the elders.在美國財政部是分為兩個命令;執事和長老或長老,在英國和她的殖民地,只有一個秩序存在,長老們。 The name of bishop used in the episcopal bodies is a title of office, not of order; it expresses superiority to elders not in ordination, but in the exercise of administrative functions.姓名的主教在主教機構是一個所有權的辦公室,而不是程序問題,它體現了優勢,以長輩不顧,但在行使行政職能。 No Methodist denomination recognizes a difference of degree between episcopal and presbyterial ordination.沒有循道衛理教派承認差別的程度之間的主教和presbyterial統籌。 A characteristic institution of Methodism are the love-feasts which recall the agape of Christian antiquity.一個特點,學會methodism是愛宴,其中記得愛德基督教古物。 In these gatherings of believers bread and water are handed round in token of brotherly union, and the time is devoted to singing and the relating of religious experiences.在這些聚會的信徒麵包和水交給輪在象徵性的兄弟聯盟,時機和場合,是專門唱歌和有關的宗教體驗。

II.二。 ORGANIZATION組織

Admission to full membership in the Methodist bodies was until recently usually granted only after the successful termination of a six months' probationary period.接納正式成員的循道衛理機構,是直到最近,通常只批准後,順利終止了為期6個月的試用期。 The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, has completely done away with this system.循道衛理聖公會,南,已經完全擺脫了這種系統。 Both probationers and full members are divided into small bands known as "classes".既感化和正式成員分為小樂隊被稱為"班" 。 These hold weekly meetings under the direction of the "class-leader".這些舉行每週一次的會議上的指示下, "一流的領導者" 。 They secure for each member individual spiritual care and facilitate the collection of church funds.他們爭取到每個成員的個人精神關懷和方便收集教會資金。 The financial contributions taken up by the class-leader are remitted to the "stewards" of the society, which is the next administrative unit.財政貢獻,採取了由工人階級領導的是匯給"董事"的社會,這將是未來的行政單位。 The "society" corresponds to the parish or local church in other denominations. "社會"的對應教區或地方教會在其他教派。 The appropriateness of the term will readily appear, if it be remembered that Methodism was originally a revival movement, and not a distinct denomination.是否恰當的任期將隨時出現,如果它記住methodism本來是一個復興運動,而不是一個獨特的面額。 Several societies (or at times only one) form a "circuit".幾個社團(或有時只有一個) ,形成"電路" 。 Among the officially recognized officers of this twofold division are: (1) the "exhorters", who are commissioned to hold meetings for exhortation and prayer; (2) the "local preachers", laymen who, without renouncing their secular avocation, are licensed to preach; (3) the "itinerant preachers", who devote themselves exclusively to the ministry.其中正式承認的人員的這種雙重分工是: ( 1 ) " exhorters " ,他們是受委託召開會議囑咐和祈禱; ( 2 )條的規定, "地方佈道者" ,是外行的人,沒有放棄他們的世俗業餘愛好,是領有牌照傳教; ( 3 ) "巡迴宣講員" ,他們專門致力於財政部。 At the head of the circuit is the superintendent.在總的電路是警。 In some American Methodist branches the "circuit", in the sense described, does not exist.但在美國一些循道衛理黨支部"電路" ,在某種意義上所描述,是不存在的。 But they maintain the division into "districts", and the authority over each of these is vested in a "presiding elder", or "district superintendent".但他們保持分設成"區" ,並有權超過上述各屬於一個"老主持" ,或"區警司" 。 In the Methodist Episcopal Church his appointment is limited to a period not exceeding six years, and is in the hands of the bishop.在衛理公會他的任命是有限的,以期不超過6年,是在政府手中的主教。 The latter is the only church official who is named for life.後者是唯一的官方教會的人名字命名的生活。 The permanent character of his position is the more remarkable from the fact that "itinerancy" has from the very beginning been a distinctive feature of Methodism.常設性質的地位卻顯得格外出色,從一個事實: " itinerancy " ,從一開始就得到的一個顯著特點methodism 。 This peculiarity denotes the missionary character of the Wesleyan movement, and calls for the frequent transfer of the ministers from one charge to another by the bishop or the stationing committee.這種特殊性是指傳教性質的衛斯理運動,並呼籲為頻繁轉移的部長們從一個負責向另一名由主教或派駐委員會。 In the English Wesleyan Church ministers cannot be continued for more than three years in the same charge.在英語衛斯理教會部長不能繼續三年以上在同一收費。 In the Methodist Episcopal Church the pastoral term, originally for one year in the same place, was successively extended to two years (1804), three years (1864), and five years (1888).在衛理公會牧區來說,原本為一年,在同一地點,先後被延長至兩年( 1804年) ,三年( 1864 ) ,和五年( 1888 ) 。 In 1900 all limit was removed.在1900年所有這些都限制已被取消。

The administrative authority is mainly exercised by a system of assemblies, called meetings or conferences.行政機關,主要是行使由一個系統的集會,呼籲會議或大會。 Among English Methodists they are: (1) "the quarterly meeting of the circuit", composed of all the ministers, local preachers, class-leaders, steward, Sunday-school superintendents of the circuit; (2) "the district meeting", consisting of all the ministers of the subordinate circuits, some lay delegates, and, for financial matters, the stewards and such officials; (3) the "Annual Conference", which in 1874 legally succeeded John Wesley in the direction of the Methodist movement and was originally composed of one hundred itinerant preachers (the Legal Hundred") At present it includes lay delegates and meets in two sections: (a) the "pastoral session", which settles pastoral and disciplinary questions, and from which laymen are excluded; (b) the "representative session" in which clergy and laity discuss financial affairs and external administrative questions. In the American Methodist Episcopal bodies the administrative system is organized as follows: (1) the "Quarterly Conference" similar in composition to the circuit-meeting. It controls the affairs of every individual church, and holds its deliberations under the direction of the "district superintendent" or his representative; (2) the "Annual Conference", at which several "districts" are represented by their itinerant preachers under the presidency of the bishop. It elects preachers, pronounces upon candidates for ordination, and enjoys disciplinary power; (3) the "Quadrennial General Conference", endowed with the highest legislative and judicial authority and the right of episcopal elections. In recent years the holding of Ecumenical Methodist conferences has been inaugurated. They are representative assemblies of the various Methodist denominations, but have no legislative authority. The first conference of this type convened in London in 1881, the second met in Washington in 1891, and the third again in London in 1901. Toronto, Canada, was to be the meeting place of the fourth conference in 1911.其中英語衛理,他們是: ( 1 ) "按季召開的電路"組成,所有的部長,地方的宣講員,班主任領袖,斯圖爾德,週日與學校督導員制度的電路; ( 2 ) "的區會議" ,構成的所有部長的下屬線路,一些業外人士代表,並為財務事項,董事等官員; ( 3 ) "的年度會議" ,其中在1874年成功地在法律上約翰韋斯利在方向的循道衛理運動和原本組成的百巡迴宣講員(法律百" ) ,目前它包括打下代表和會見,在兩個部分: (一) "的牧靈會議" ,解決了牧民和紀律問題,並從其中外行都排除在外; (二) "代表會議" ,在這教士和俗人討論財經事務及對外行政問題,在美國循道衛理主教機構行政系統的組織結構如下: ( 1 ) "季刊大會" ,在類似的組成,以電路會議它控制的事務,每一個人教會,並認為其審議的領導下, "警區"或其代表( 2 ) "的年度會議" ,在這幾個"大區"是代表他們的巡迴宣講員下擔任的主教由它選舉產生的宣講員,判決後,候選人排序,並享有懲戒權; ( 3 )的"四年大會" ,它賦予最高的立法和司法權力和權利的主教選舉,在近年舉行普世循道衛理會議已宣誓就職,他們是代表大會的各項循道面額的,但沒有法律依據。第一次會議這種類型的召開,在倫敦,在1881年,第二次在華盛頓舉行會議,在1891年,第三次又在倫敦在1901年,多倫多,加拿大,是為了會場的第四次會議於1911年。

III.三。 HISTORY歷史

(1) In the British Isles ( 1 )在英倫三島

The names of three ordained clergymen of the Anglican Church stand out prominently in the early history of the Methodist movement: John Wesley, its author and organizer, Charles Wesley, his brother, the hymn-writer, and George Whitefield, the eloquent preacher and revivalist.姓名三名受戒神職人員的聖公會站出來突出,在早期歷史上的循道衛理運動:約翰韋斯利,其作者和組織者,查爾斯韋斯利,他的弟弟,聖歌-作家,和喬治Whitefield的,雄辯的佈道者和復興。 John and Charles Wesley were born at Epworth, Lincolnshire, the former on 17 June, 1703, and the latter on 18 December, 1707 (OS).約翰和查爾斯韋斯利分別出生於epworth ,林肯郡,前對1703年6月17日,而後者於1707年12月18日( OS )的。 In 1714 John entered the Charterhouse School in London, and in 1720 went to Oxford to continue his studies.在1714年約翰進入charterhouse學校在倫敦,並在17時20分前往牛津大學,繼續他的研究工作。 He was ordained to the diaconate in 1725, and chosen fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, in the following year.他受戒向diaconate在17時25分,並選擇研究員林肯學院,牛津,可以在下一年度。 His ordination on 22 September, 1728, was both preceded and followed by a period of ministerial activity in his father's parish at Epworth.他的排序就1728年9月22日,是雙方之前和之後一個時期的部長級活動,在他父親的教區在epworth 。 On his return to Oxford (22 November 1729) he joined the little band of students organized by his brother Charles for the purpose of studying the Scriptures, and practising their religious duties with greater fidelity.他返回牛津( 1729年11月22日)他加入了小樂隊的學生組織,他的弟弟查爾斯為目的的學習經文,並實行自己的宗教職責,有更大的保真度。 John became the leader of this group called in derision by fellow-students "the holy club", "the Methodists".約翰成為領導這個小組的要求,在揶揄由老鄉學生"聖地俱樂部" , "衛" 。 It is to this that Methodism owes its name, but not its existence.它是如此methodism欠它的名字,但沒有它的存在。 When in 1735 the association disbanded, John and Charles Wesley proceeded to London where they received a call to repair as missionaries to the Colony of Georgia.當在1735年該協會被解散,約翰和查爾斯韋斯利接著前往倫敦,他們接到電話維修作為傳教士,以殖民地的格魯吉亞。 They sailed from Gravesend on 21 October, 1735, and on 5 February, 1736, landed at Savannah.他們的一艘由Gravesend於1735年10月21日,並於1736年2月5日,降落在薩凡納。 The deep religious impression made upon John by some Moravian fellow-voyagers and a meeting with their bishop (Spangenberg) in Georgia were not without influence on Methodism.該深厚的宗教印象約翰後,由一些摩拉維亞老鄉Voyagers公司和會議,與主教(施潘根貝格) ,在格魯吉亞人不無影響methodism 。 Returning to England in 1738, whither his brother had preceded him, he openly declared that he who had tried to covert others was himself not yet converted.回到英格蘭,在1738年,著他的哥哥曾在此之前他時,他公開宣稱,他的人曾試圖秘密別人是自己尚未轉化。 In London he met another Moravian, Peter Boehler, attended the meetings of the Moravian Fetter Lance Society, and was converted (ie, obtained and experienced saving faith) on 24 May, 1738.在倫敦,他遇到另外摩拉維亞,彼得伯勒爾,出席會議的摩拉維亞束縛蘭斯社會,並轉換成(即獲得和經驗豐富的儲蓄信仰) ,對1738年5月24日。 He then proceeded to Herrnhut in Saxony to make a study of the chief settlement of the Moravians.他接著以herrnhut在薩克森州,以作研究的首席解決這一moravians 。

In 1739 Wesley organized the first Methodist Society, laid the foundation of the first separate place of worship at Bristol, and also opened a chapel (The Foundry) in London.在1739韋斯利舉辦了首次循道衛理的社會,奠定了基礎,首次單獨禮拜場所,在布里斯托,還開設了一個小禮拜堂(代工)在倫敦。 As the pulpits of the Established Church were closed against the Wesleys and Whitefield, the latter took the decisive step of preaching in the open air in the colliery district of Kingswood near Bristol.作為pulpits所建立的教堂被關閉,對wesleys和Whitefield ,後者採取決定性步驟的說教,在露天進行,在煤礦區的嘉湖英國布里斯托附近。 His success was enormous, and the Wesleys almost immediately followed his example.他的成功是巨大的,和wesleys幾乎緊接著他的榜樣。 At the very inception of the Methodist movement an important doctrinal difference arose between Whitefield and John Wesley regarding predestination.在一開始的循道衛理運動的一個重要的理論差異之間出現了Whitefield和約翰韋斯利關於宿命。 The former held Calvinistic views, believing in limited election and salvation, while the latter emphasized the doctrine of universal redemption.前舉行calvinistic的看法,認為在有限的選舉和救贖,而後者則強調中庸普遍贖回權。 The difference in opinion placed a permanent characteristic doctrinal difference between Arminian Methodism and the Calvinistic Lady Huntingdon Connection.分歧意見放置一個永久的特徵教義區別arminian methodism和calvinistic夫人亨廷頓連接。 Whitefield gave his support to the latter movement which owed it name to the protection and liberal financial assistance of the Countess of Huntingdon (1707-91). Whitefield的給予他支持,後者運動,其中欠它的名字,以保護和自由經濟援助的countess亨廷頓( 1707至1791年) 。 Although Wesley always intended to remain within the Church of England, circumstances gradually led him to give his evangelistic movement a separate organization.雖然韋斯利總是打算繼續留在英國教會的情況下,逐步促使他給他的福音運動的一個獨立的組織。 The exclusion of his followers from the sacraments by the Anglican clergy in 1740 overcame his hesitation to administer them in his own meeting-rooms.排除他的信徒由聖禮由聖公會神職人員在1740年克服了,他毫不猶豫地來管理這些在他自己的會議室。 The increase in the number of Societies led the following year to the institution of the lay preachers, who became an important factor in the success of the Methodist propaganda.人數的增加,社會的主導下一年該機構的裁員傳教士,成為一個重要因素,在取得成功的循道衛理的宣傳。 The year 1742 saw the creation of the "class" system, and two years later the first annual conference was held.今年1742認為,建立"一類"的制度,並在兩年後的第一次年度會議召開。 Desirous of ensuring the perpetuation of his work, he legally constituted it his successor in 1784.切望確保延續他的工作,他在法律上構成了他的繼任者可以追溯到1784年。 By a deed of declaration filed in the High Court of Chancery, he vested the right of appointing ministers and preachers in the conference composed of one hundred itinerant preachers.由契約宣言提出,在高等法院的chancery ,他的既得利益有權任命部長和傳教士在會議組成的百巡迴宣講員。 This "Legal Hundred" enjoyed, in respect to the conference, the power of filling vacancies and of expelling unworthy members.這種"法律百"的豐碩成果,在尊重該會議中,電源的,填補空缺,並驅逐卑微的成員。 On the refusal of the Bishop of London to ordain two ministers and a superintendent for America, Wesley, convinced that bishop and presbyter enjoyed equal rights in the matter, performed the ordination himself (1784).對拒不主教倫敦阿拉維的兩名部長和一名警司為美國,韋斯利,深信主教和presbyter享有平等的權利,在這一問題上履行自己作出( 1784 ) 。

Important problems calling for solution arose immediately after Wesley's death.重要的問題,要求解決出現後,立即韋斯利的死因。 In the first place the want of his personal direction had to be supplied.擺在首位,本想他的個人方向都必須供應。 This was effected in 1791 by the division of the country into districts and the institution of the district committees with full disciplinary and administrative power under the jurisdiction of the conference.這是影響1791年,由該司在該國成為地區和機構的地區委員會,在充分的紀律和行政權力的管轄之下了會議。 As the administration of the sacraments by Methodist clergymen had not yet become the universal rule, the churches that did not enjoy this privilege insisted upon its concession.由於政府當局的聖禮,由循道衛理基督教廣大教牧尚未成為普遍規則,教會認為,當年未享受這項特權,堅持要其讓步。 The question was permanently settled by the "Plan of Pacification" in 1795.問題是永久定居的,由"計劃的綏靖" ,在1795年。 It granted the right of administering the sacraments to all churches in which the majority of the trustees, stewards, and leaders pronounced in favour of such practice.它理所當然的權利管理聖禮所有教會當中,多數的受託人,董事等領導同志,突出贊成這種做法。 The insistent demand of Alexander Kilham (1762-98) and his followers for more extensive rights for the laity received a temporary and partly favourable answer at the important conference of Leeds in 1797.該堅持的要求,亞歷山大基勒姆( 1762至1798年)和他的追隨者,為更廣泛的權利,為俗人收到暫時和局部有利的答案,在這次重要的會議利茲在1797 。 Lay representation in the conference was, however, emphatically refused and Kilham seceded.奠定派代表參加會議,但是,強調拒絕,並基勒姆跟著退出。 Since 1878 they have been admitted as delegates. 1878年以來,他們已被接納為代表。

The spread of liberal opinions was also at the bottom of several controversies, which were intensified by the dissatisfaction of some members with the preponderating influence of Dr. Jabez Bunting (1779-1858) in the denomination.傳播的自由意見,又在底部的幾次爭論,而被激化,由不滿的一些成員與preponderating影響葉文日Xiaobian鹀( 1779至1858年)在面額。 The introduction of an organ in Brunswick Chapel at Leeds (1828) and the foundation of a theological school for the formation of young preachers (1834) were merely occasions which brought to a head the growing discontent with Bunting and the central authority.引進一種器官在布倫瑞克禮拜堂在利茲( 1828 )和基礎神學學校成立青年傳教者( 1834年)只是其中的場合帶至頭部日益不滿鹀和中央權威。 The controversies which resulted in these two cases were of but minor importance, when compared with the agitation of the years 1849-56.爭議,而導致這兩個案件的,但小規模的重要性,與激盪,多年的1849年至1856年。 This period of strife witnessed the circulation of the so-called "Fly-Sheets", directed against Bunting's personal rule, the expulsion of the persons responsible for their publication, and the loss of at least 100,000 members to the Wesleyan Methodist Connection.這一時期的內亂目睹流通的,所以所謂的"飛單" ,針對鹀的個人統治,驅逐負責人,為他們的出版物,以及失去至少10萬名成員向衛斯理循道衛理方面。 Some of these affiliated with minor branches, but the majority was lost to Methodism.部分這些附屬小分支,但多數是輸給methodism 。 These controversies were followed by a period of more peaceful evolution extending to our own day.這些爭議之後進行了一段更加和平演變延伸到我們自己的一天。 The increase in the number of theological seminaries among British Methodists has emphasized the distinction between clergy and laity and points to more complete internal organization.人數的增加,神學修道院中英衛強調區分神職人員及平信徒和點,以較完整的內部組織。 A fact which reveals a similar tendency is the institution of deaconesses.這一事實揭示了類似的趨勢,是該機構的deaconesses 。 They were introduced in the Wesleyan Methodist Church in 1890.他們分別介紹了在衛斯理衛理公會於1890年。

(2) Methodism in the United States ( 2 ) methodism在美國

The history of Methodism in the United States does not date back to the visit of John and Charles Wesley to Georgia, but begins only in 1766.歷史methodism在美國並不可追溯至訪問的約翰和查爾斯韋斯利,以格魯吉亞,而且開始只有1766年。 In that year Philip Embury, a local preacher, at the request of Mrs. Barbara Heck, delivered his first sermon in his own house at New York.在這一年弘恩伯里,當地的傳道者的請求,於夫人芭芭拉heck ,發表了他的第一次講道中,在自己的房子在紐約舉行。 They had both come to America in 1760 from Ireland, whither their Palatine ancestors had fled from the devastating wars of Louis XIV.他們都來美國在1760年從愛爾蘭,他們向何處去腭祖先逃離了毀滅性戰爭的路易十四。 Only four persons were present at the first sermon, but the number soon increased, especially after the arrival of Captain Thomas Webb, another local preacher.只有4人出席了第一次講道中,但是數量增加很快,尤其是入住後隊長托馬斯韋伯,另一個地方的佈道者。 The latter displayed a stirring zeal, and in 1768 the first Methodist chapel in America was dedicated.後者表現出一種震撼人心的熱情,那麼在1768年第一衛理教堂,在美國專門討論。 Almost simultaneous with this introduction of Methodism into New York was its planting in Maryland.幾乎同時發生的,這與引進methodism到紐約,其種植在美國馬里蘭州。 Webb introduced it in Philadelphia, and it spread to New Jersey and Virginia.韋伯介紹,它在費城,並蔓延至新澤西州和維吉尼亞州。 In 1769 Wesley, in response to repeated appeals for helpers, sent over two preachers, Joseph Pilmoor and Richard Boardman; others followed, among them Francis Asbury (1771) and Thomas Rankin (1772). 1769年韋斯利,為響應一再呼籲,為助理員,派遣了兩名傳教士,約瑟夫pilmoor和Richard Boardman同時,其他其次,其中弗朗西斯asbury ( 1771年)和托馬斯倫肯( 1772 ) 。 The first conference convened at Philadelphia in 1773, recognized the authority of John Wesley, and prohibited the administration of the sacraments by Methodist preachers.第一次會議召開,在費城1773年,公認的權威約翰韋斯利,並禁止政府當局的聖禮,由循道衛理的宣講員。 The total membership reported was 1160.該會員總數據報導,這是第1160 。 An increase was recorded in the two succeeding conferences, also held at Philadelphia, in 1774 and 1775 respectively.錄得升幅,在兩次成功的會議,還舉行了在費城,在1774年和1775年分別。 But the Revolution impeded the progress of Methodism.但革命阻礙進步的methodism 。 Owing to the nationality of most of its preachers and to the publication of Wesley's pamphlet against the independence of the colonies, it was looked upon as an English product and treated accordingly.由於國籍,其大部分的傳教士,並出版韋斯利的小冊子,反對獨立的殖民地,它被看作為一個英語產品,並進行相應治療。 When peace was restored, the need of a separate church organization made itself felt.當和平恢復,需要有一個獨立的教會組織作出自己的感受。 Wesley now heeded Asbury's appeal for an independent ecclesiastical government and the administration of the sacraments by Methodist ministers.韋斯利現在聽從asbury的呼籲,為一個獨立的教會和政府當局的聖禮,由循道衛理部長。 In 1784 he ordained the preachers Whatcoat and Vasey as elders, and Dr. Thomas Coke as superintendent for America.可以追溯到1784年他受戒的講道whatcoat和雀稗,作為長輩,博士和托馬斯焦炭作為警為美國。

Coke arrived in New York on 3 November, 1784, and that same year what has become known as the Christmas conference was convened at Baltimore.焦炭抵達紐約1784年11月3日,並在同一年已經成為眾所周知的,因為聖誕召開,會議在巴爾的摩。 From it dates the organization of the Methodist Episcopal Church.從它的日期組織的衛理公會。 Wesley's plans and instructions were laid before this assembly, and his articles of faith and his liturgy adopted.韋斯利的部署和指示,乃在此之前,集會與他的文章的信仰和他的禮儀中通過。 As Asbury refused to be ordained without previous election he was unanimously chosen superintendent, a title for which, against Wesley's will, that of bishop was substituted in 1788.作為asbury拒絕被祝聖上次大選中,他被一致選定的警司,這個名稱,其中,對韋斯利的意志為轉移,即主教取代了在1788年。 The rapid increase of the denomination about this time is indicated by the membership of 66,000 reported to the conference of 1792.急速增加的面額大約在這個時候,是表示,由成員66000向會議報告了1792年。 The growth of the Church continued with the increase in population; but questions of expediency, race, and government caused secessions.生產總值的增長率相教會繼續與人口的增加,但問題的權宜之計,種族,和政府造成secessions 。 The slavery agitation especially resulted in momentous consequences for the denomination.奴隸制激盪,尤其是造成重大後果的,為面值。 It began at a very early date, but reached a crisis only towards the middle of the nineteenth century.它開始在非常早的日期,但到了危機不僅對十九世紀中葉。 At the general conference held in New York in 1844, Bishop JO Andrew was suspended from the exercise of his office owing to his ownership of slaves.出席大會在紐約舉行,在1844年,主教,然後安德魯被暫停行使他的辦公室,由於他擁有奴隸。 This decision met with the uncompromising opposition of the Southern delegates, but was just as staunchly upheld by its supporters.這一決定遭到了不妥協的反對南方代表,但只是作為堅守其支持者。 The withdrawal of the slave-holding states from the general body now appeared unavoidable, and a "Plan of Separation" was elaborated and accepted.撤回奴隸控股國從一般的身體,現在看來不可避免, "計劃分離" ,是闡述和接受。 The Southern delegates held a convention at Louisville, Kentucky, in 1845, at which the "Methodist Episcopal Church, South" was formed.南方代表們進行了一項公約,在肯塔基州路易斯維爾,在1845年,在其中"衛理公會,南方"的形成。 The new organization, after a period of progress, suffered heavily during the Civil War.這個新組織的,經過一段時間的進展情況,遭受沉重內戰期間。 Since then the relations between the Northern and Southern branches of Episcopal Methodism have assumed a very friendly character.自那時以來,兩國關係的北部和南部分支主教methodism都擺出了非常友好的性格。 There is a large measure of co-operation particularly in the foreign mission field.現在有大量的措施,協調行動,特別是在外國使團場。 A joint commission on federation is in existence and in May, 1910, it recommended the creation of a federal council (ie, a joint court of last resort) to the general conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.一個聯合委員會,對聯邦,是在生存和今年5月, 1910年,它建議設立一個聯邦委員會(即一個聯合法庭的最後手段)向大會提交的衛理公會,南。

(3) Methodism in Other Countries ( 3 ) methodism在其他國家

(a) American (一)美國

The first apostle of Methodism in Newfoundland was Lawrence Coughlan, who began his work there in 1765.第一使徒的methodism在紐芬蘭是勞倫斯coughlan ,他開始了他的工作,有1765年。 It was only in 1785, however, that the country received a regular preacher.它僅是在1785年,但是,該國政府是否接受定期的佈道者。 The evangelization of Nova Scotia, where the first Methodists settled in 1771, was begun later (1781), but was carried on more systematically.在福傳事業的新斯科舍,那裡的第一衛理解決,在1771年開始實施之後( 1781 ) ,而且進行了較系統地進行。 In the year 1786 a provincial conference was held in Halifax.在1786年的省舉行這次會議是在新斯科舍省。 In spite of their early relations with American Methodism, Newfoundland and the eastern provinces of Canada were after 1799 supplied with preachers from England, and came under English jurisdiction.儘管他們早日與美國methodism ,紐芬蘭和東部省份的加拿大分別為1799年之後供應的傳教士從英國,並於下英語管轄權。 In 1855 they were constituted a separate conference, the Wesleyan Methodist Conference of Eastern British America.在1855年,他們構成了一個單獨的會議中,衛斯理循道衛理會議東區英國,美國。 The Provinces of Ontario and Quebec received Methodism at an early date from the United States.省,安大略省和魁北克省methodism收到早日在一個來自美國。 Philip Embury and Barbara Heck moved to Montreal in 1774, and William Losee was in 1790 appointed preacher to these provinces by the New York Conference.弘恩伯里和芭芭拉heck搬到蒙特利爾,在1774年,威廉losee於1790年獲委任為佈道者這些省份由設在紐約的會議。 The War of 1812-14 interrupted the work undertaken by the Methodist Episcopal Church in this section.戰後的1812年至1814年中斷的工作,由衛理公會在這一節。 The settlement of numerous English Methodists in these provinces after the restoration of peace brought about difficulties respecting allegiance and jurisdiction between the English and American branches.解決眾多英語循道在這些省份後,恢復該國的和平所帶來的困難,尊重效忠和管轄權之間的英語和美國分行。 The result was that the Methodists Episcopal Church organized its congregations into a separate conference in 1824, and two years later granted them complete independence.其結果是,該衛理聖公會組織的畢業典禮成為一個單獨的會議,在1824年,兩年後給予他們完全的獨立性。 Immigration also brought members of the minor Methodist bodies to Canada: The Wesleyan New Connection, the Bible Christians, and the Primitive Methodists.入境事務處也帶來了大家的未成年人的循道衛理機構,以加拿大:衛斯理新的連接,聖經的基督徒,與原始衛理。 But in 1874 the Wesleyan Methodist Church and the Wesleyan New Connection combined.但在1874年該衛斯理循道衛理教會和衛斯理新連接的總和。 The other separate bodies joined the union a little later (1883-4), thus forming the "Methodist Church of Canada", which includes all the white congregations of the Dominion.其他獨立機構加入聯盟有點遲( 1883-4 ) ,從而形成"循道衛理教會的加拿大" ,其中包括了所有的白人教會的統治。 The "British Methodist Episcopal Church", which still maintains a separate existence, has only coloured membership. "英國衛理公會" ,即仍然保持著一個單獨的存在,只是顏色會籍。 It was formerly a part of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, and gained complete independence in 1864.它的前身是一部分非洲衛理公會,並獲得完全獨立於1864年。 Bermuda, where George Whitefield preached in 1748 and J. Stephenson appeared as first regular preacher in 1799, forms at present a district of the Methodist Church of Canada.百慕大,而喬治Whitefield的鼓吹,在1748年及J斯蒂芬森出現第一次定期的佈道者在1799年形式,目前有一區的循道衛理教會的加拿大。 South American was entered in 1835, when the Rev. FE Pitts visited Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Ayres, and other places, and organized several societies.南美是進入1835年,當牧師鐵皮茨訪問了里約熱內盧,布宜諾斯艾利斯艾培德等地,並舉辦了數個社團。 The special South American Conference was established in 1893, and supplemented in 1897 by the Western South American Mission Conference.特別南美會議成立於1893年,並補充了1897年由西方南美團會議。 Missionary work was inaugurated in Mexico in 1873 by William Butler.傳教工作創刊於墨西哥,在1873年由威廉巴特勒。

(b) European (二)歐洲

Methodism was introduced into France in 1790, but it has never succeeded in getting a strong foothold there. methodism是引進法國, 1790年,卻從來沒有成功地得到了一個強有力的立足點。 In 1852 France was constituted a separate conference affiliated to British Methodism. 1852年法國是構成一個單獨的會議隸屬於英國methodism 。 In 1907 the American Church organized a mission there.在1907年,美國教會組織了一個代表團。 From France Methodism spread to Italy in 1852.由法國methodism蔓延到意大利在1852年。 Some years later (1861) two missionaries, Green and Piggot, were sent from England to Florence and founded several stations in Northern Italy.一些年後( 1861年)兩個傳教士,綠色和皮戈特,被送往從英國到佛羅倫薩創立了幾站,在意大利北部。 The Methodist Episcopal Church started a missionary enterprise in Italy in 1871, but has never attained great success.循道衛理聖公會開始傳教企業在意大利在1871年,但從來沒有取得巨大的成功。 The first Methodist missionary to Germany was G. Mueller.第一衛理宣教士到德國是g.米勒。 He started his preaching in 1830 and gained some adherents mainly in Wurttemberg.他開始了他的說教,在1830年,並取得了一些信徒們主要是在符騰堡州。 Methodist missions are maintained also in Switzerland, Scandinavia, Russia, Bulgaria, Spain, and Portugal.循道衛理任務是保持亦在瑞士,斯堪的那維亞,俄羅斯,保加利亞,西班牙和葡萄牙。

(c) Australasian, Asiatic and African (三)澳大利亞,亞洲和非洲

Methodism has had considerable success in Australasia. methodism產生了相當大的成功,在澳大利西亞。 It appeared at an early date, not only on the Australian continent but also in some of the South Sea Islands.它出現在早日實現,而不是只對澳洲大陸,而且在一些南海群島。 The first class was formed in Sydney in 1812, and the first missionary in the country was S. Leigh.第一類是成立於悉尼在1812 ,和第一次傳教,在該國的美國的速度增長。 Methodism spread to Tasmania in 1820, to Tonga in 1822, to New Zealand in 1823, and in 1835 Cargill and Cross began their evangelistic work in the Fiji Islands. methodism蔓延到塔斯馬尼亞州在1820年,湯加1822年,新西蘭在1823年,並於1835年嘉吉公司和跨開始其傳教工作,在太平洋島國斐濟。 In 1854 Australian Methodism was formed into an affiliated conference of England, and in 1876 became independent.在1854年澳大利亞methodism是形成了一個附屬會議的英格蘭,並在1876年成為獨立的。 The foundation of the first Methodist missions in Asia (1814) was due to the initiative of Thomas Coke.該基金會的第一衛理任務,在亞洲( 1814年)是由於主動的托馬斯焦炭。 Embarking on 30 December, 1813, at the head of a band of six missionaries, he died on the voyage, but the undertaking succeeded.走出了1813年12月30日,在頭一個帶6個傳教士,他的去世對航程,但事業的成功。 The representatives of English Methodism were joined in 1856 by William Butler of the Methodist Episcopal Church.代表英語methodism一起於1856年由威廉巴特勒的衛理公會。 In 1847 this same Church sent JD Collins, MC White, and RS Maclay to China.在1847年,這同樣會發出聯合聲明柯林斯,管委會白色,和RS maclay中國。 Stations have also been founded in the Philippine Islands and in Japan, where the Methodist Church of Japan was organized in 1907.車站還成立於菲律賓群島,並在日本,循道衛理教會的日本舉辦了1907年。

George Warren left England for Sierra Leone in 1811.喬治華倫離開英格蘭,為塞拉利昂提供1811 。 The American Church entered the field in 1833.美國聖公會進入場1833年。 South Africa, where Methodism is particularly well represented, was erected in 1882 into an affiliated conference of the English Wesleyan Church.南部非洲,那裡的methodism是特別好代表,是建於1882年成為一個附屬會議的英語衛斯理教堂。

IV.四。 OTHER METHODIST BODIES其他循道衛理機構

Secessions from the main bodies of Methodism followed almost immediately upon Wesley's death. secessions從主體methodism緊接著後,韋斯利的死因。 The following originated in England:以下發源於英格蘭:

The Methodist New Connection was founded at Leeds in 1797 by Alexander Kilham (1762-98); hence its members are also known as "Kilhamites".循道衛理新的連接創建於利茲在1797由Alexander基勒姆( 1762至1798年) ,因此其成員也被稱為" kilhamites " 。 It was the first organized secession from the main body of English Methodism, and started its separate existence with 5000 members.這是第一次有組織脫離主體的英語methodism ,並開始單獨存在與現有會員5000家。 Its foundation was occasioned by the conference's refusal to grant laymen the extensive rights in church government claimed for them by Kilham.其基礎是由裁談會的拒絕給予外行了廣泛的權利,在教會政府宣稱,他們所基勒姆。 The sect never acquired any considerable importance.該教派從來沒有獲得任何有相當的重要性。

The Primitive Methodists, who met with greater success than the New Connextion, were organized in 1810.原始衛理,誰見了更大的成功,而非新connextion ,舉辦了1810年。 Camp-meetings had been introduced into England from America, but in 1807 the conference pronounced against them.在難民營的會議已被引入英格蘭分別來自美國,但1807年裁談會宣判對付他們。 Two local preachers, Hugh Bourne and William Clowes, disregarding this decision, publicly advocated the holding of such meetings and were expelled.兩名當地傳教士,休看起來和威廉clowes ,無視這一決定,公然鼓吹舉行這樣的會議和被驅逐。 They then established this new body, characterized by the preponderating influence it grants laymen in church government, the admission of women to the pulpit, and great simplicity in ecclesiastical and private life.然後,他們建立了這一新的機構,其特點是由preponderating影響它的贈款是外行,在教會政府,對婦女講壇,偉大的簡易性,在教會和私人生活。 According to the "Methodist Year-book" (1910) it has 219,343 members.要按照"循道一年書" ( 1910 )有219343成員。 The Irish Primitive Wesleyan Methodists must not be confounded with the "Primitive Methodists" just spoken of.愛爾蘭的原始衛斯理衛理不容混淆與"原始衛理" ,剛才發言的。 The former were founded in 1816 by Adam Averell, and in 1878 again united with the Wesleyan Methodists.前者是成立於1816年,由亞當averell ,而在1878年,美國再次與衛斯理循道。

The Bible Christians, also called Bryanites from the name of their founder William O'Bryan, were organized as a separate sect in Cornwall in 1816.聖經的基督徒,也稱為bryanites從名稱及其創始人威廉o'bryan ,組織作為一個單獨的教派在康在1816年。 Like the Primitive Methodists, they grant extensive influence in church affairs to laymen and liberty of preaching to women.像原始衛理,給予他們廣泛的影響力,在教會事務的學問和自由傳教給婦女。 Although they spread from England to the colonies, their aggregate membership was never very large.雖然他們的蔓延,從英國殖民地,它們的合計成員從來沒有非常大。 The Wesleyan Reform Union grew out of the great Methodist disruption of 1850-2, and numbers but 8489 members.該衛斯理改革聯盟前身的偉大循道中斷1850-2 ,電話號碼,但8489成員。

The United Methodist Free Churches represent the combination of the Wesleyan Association, the Protestant Methodists, and large quota of the secession from the main Methodist body caused by the unpopularity of Dr. Bunting's rule.美國衛理免費教會代表結合本衛斯理協會,基督教衛理,大型配額的分裂從主衛體所造成的不受歡迎的博士鹀的統治。 The Wesleyan Methodist Association was organized in 1836 by Dr. Samuel Warren, whose opposition to the foundation of a theological seminary resulted in his secession from the parent body.該衛斯理循道衛理公會舉辦了1836年由博士塞繆爾沃倫,他們反對以基金會的神學修道院導致他脫離母體。 At an earlier date opposition to the installation of an organ in a church at Leeds ended in the formation of the "Protestant Methodists" (1828).在一個較早的日期反對安裝一個機關,在一所教堂在利茲結束形成的"基督教衛理" ( 1828年) 。 These were the first to join the Wesleyan Methodist Association, the opponents of Bunting following in 1857.這些人是首先加入衛斯理循道衛理公會,反對者鹀以下,在1857年。 The Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church is Methodist almost solely in name.威爾士calvinistic循道衛理教會是循道衛理幾乎完全有名無實。 As an evangelistic movement it chronologically preceded Methodism dating back to the preaching of Howell Harris and Daniel Rowlands in 1735-6; as an organization it was partly established in 1811 by Thomas Charles, and completed in 1864 by the union of the Churches of North and South Wales and the holding of the first General Assembly.作為一個福音運動,它在時間上先於methodism可遠溯至鼓吹的霍維爾哈里斯和丹尼爾羅蘭茲在1735-6 ;作為一個組織,這部分是成立於1811年由托馬斯查爾斯,並完成於1864年,由聯盟的各教會的北部和南威爾士州和舉行第一次大會。 Whitefield's influence on Welsh Methodism was not of primary importance. Whitefield的的影響力威爾士語methodism不是最重要的。 In doctrine the church is Calvinistic and in constitution largely Presbyterian.在教義教會是calvinistic並在憲法主要是長老會。 It is today frequently called the "Presbyterian Church of Wales".這是今天經常被稱為"長老教會威爾士" 。

In the United States, besides the Methodist Episcopal Church, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and the Primitive Methodists, which have been spoken of above, the following denominations exist:在美國,除了衛理公會,衛理公會,南,與原始衛理,已談及上述情況,以下面額的存在:

The Methodist Protestant Church was founded on 2 November, 1830, at Baltimore by members of the Methodist Episcopal Church who had been expelled or had freely withdrawn from that body.循道衛理基督教教會成立於1830年11月2日,在巴爾的摩成員的衛理公會的人已被開除或自願退出該機構。 The separation was due to the refusal to extend the governmental rights of laymen.分離是由於拒絕延長政府的權利是外行。 The Methodist Protestant Church has no bishops.循道衛理基督教教會沒有主教。 It divided in 1858 on the slavery question, but the two branches reunited in 1877 (number of communicants, 188,122).它分為在1858年就奴隸制問題,但兩地分行團圓在1877年(人數communicants , 188122 ) 。 This figure is given by Dr. Carroll (Christian Advocate, 27 January, New York, 1910), whose statistics we shall quote for all the Methodist bodies of the United States.這個數字是由博士卡羅爾(基督教提倡者, 1月27日,紐約, 1910年) ,其統計的,我們應引為所有循道衛理機構的美國。

The Wesleyan Methodist Connection of America was organized in 1843 at Utica, New York, by advocates of a more radical attitude against slavery in the Methodist Episcopal Church.該衛斯理循道衛理方面,美國舉辦了1843年在尤蒂卡,紐約,由主張一個更激進的態度,反對奴役,在衛理公會。 It has neither episcopate nor itinerancy, and debars members of secret societies (communicants, 19,485).它既不主教也不itinerancy , debars成員秘密社團( communicants , 19485 ) 。

The Congregational Methodist Church dates back to 1852; it sprang from the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and is Methodist in doctrine and congregational in polity (membership, 15,529).堂衛理公會可以追溯到1852年,它的源泉來自衛理公會,南,是循道衛理在教義和堂在政體(會員, 15529 ) 。

The Free Methodist Church was organized in 1860 at Pekin, New York, as a protest against the alleged abandonment of the ideals of ancient Methodism by the Methodist Episcopal Church.自由衛理公會組織於1860年在北京,紐約,以抗議對涉嫌遺棄的理想古代methodism由衛理公會。 There are no bishops; members of secret societies are excluded; the use of tobacco and the wearing of rich apparel are prohibited (membership 32,166).有沒有主教團成員,秘密社團都排除在外;利用煙草和服裝的豐富的服裝被禁止(會籍32166 ) 。

The New Congregational Methodists originated in Georgia in 1881 and in doctrine and organization closely resemble the Congregational Methodist Church (membership, 1782).新堂衛理起源於格魯吉亞於1881年,並在理論和組織密切合作,類似於堂衛理公會(會員, 1782年) 。

The Independent Methodists maintain no central government.獨立循道保持沒有中央政府。 Each congregation among them enjoys supreme control over its affairs (communicants, 1161).每一堂當中享有最高控制其內政( communicants , 1161 ) 。

The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, with which we begin the treatment of the following exclusively coloured denominations, may be traced back to the year 1796.非洲衛理主教錫安教會,我們與該開始治療下列專用彩色面額的,可追溯至1796年。 Some coloured Methodists in New York organized themselves at that date into a separate congregation and build a church which they called "Zion".一些有色衛在紐約組織起來,在那個日期到一個單獨的聚集,並建立一所教堂,他們所謂的"錫安" 。 They remained for a time under the pastoral supervision of the Methodist Episcopal Church, but in 1820 formed an independent Church differing but little from the parent body (communicants, 545,681).他們依然今後一個時期,根據牧靈監督的衛理公會,但在1820年形成了獨立自主自辦教會的不同,但卻很少從母體( communicants , 545681 ) 。 The Union American Methodist Episcopal Church, organized in 1813 at Wilmington, Delaware, had for its founder the coloured preacher, Peter Spencer (membership, 18,500).歐盟,美國衛理公會,舉辦1813年在威爾明頓,特拉華,已為它的創始人有色佈道者,彼得斯賓塞(會員, 18500 ) 。

The African Methodist Episcopal Church has existed as an independent organization since 1816.非洲衛理公會已經存在,作為一個獨立的組織,自1816年。 Its foundation was due to a desire for more extensive privileges and greater freedom of action among a number of coloured Methodists of Philadelphia.其基礎是由於渴望更廣泛的特權和更大的行動自由激起了許多彩色衛費城。 It does not differ in important points from the Methodist Episcopal Church (membership, 452,126).它沒有差別,在重要的點,由衛理公會(會員, 452126 ) 。

The African Union Methodist Protestant Church also dates back to 1816; it rejects the episcopacy, itinerancy, and a paid ministry (membership, 4000).非洲聯盟循道新教教會也可以追溯到1816年,它拒絕之故, itinerancy ,有償部(會籍, 4000 ) 。

The Zion Union Apostolic Church was founded in Virginia in 1869.錫安聯盟使徒教會成立於弗吉尼亞州於1869年。 In its organization it closely resembles the Methodist Episcopal Church (communicants, 3059).在其組織的密切關注它類似於衛理公會( communicants , 3059 ) 。

The Coloured Methodist Episcopal Church is merely a branch of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, organized independently in 1870 for negroes (membership, 233,911).有色衛理公會只是一個分支的衛理公會,南,有組織的,獨立於1870年,為黑人(會籍, 233911 ) 。

The Congregational Methodists, Coloured, differ only in race from the Congregational Methodists (communicants, 319).堂衛理,有色,差別只在賽事堂衛理( communicants , 319 ) 。

The Evangelist Missionary Church was organized in 1886 in Ohio by members of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church.福音教會的傳教組織於1886年在俄亥俄州的成員,非洲衛理主教錫安教會。 It has no creed but the Bible, and inclines to the admission of only one person in God, that of Jesus Christ.它沒有教條,但聖經,並傾向接納,只有一個人在上帝,也就是耶穌基督。

V. EDUCATIONAL AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES五,教育和社會活動

The founders of Methodism had enjoyed the advantages of a university training, and must have realized the priceless value of education.開國元勳methodism享有的優勢,一所大學的培訓,並且必須實現無價教育的價值。 The fact, however, that John Wesley laid almost exclusive stress on the practical element in religion tended to make a deep and extensive knowledge of doctrinal principles seem superfluous.一個事實,但是,約翰韋斯利奠定了幾乎是唯一脅迫對現實因素,宗教往往作出了深刻而廣泛的知識理論性的原則似乎是多餘的。 The extraordinary success of his preaching which urgently demanded ministers for the ever-increasing number of his followers, led to the appointment, in the early history of Methodism, of preachers more commendable for their religious zeal than remarkable for their theological learning.非凡的成功,他的說教,迫切要求部長們為日益增加他的一些追隨者,導致任命,在早期歷史methodism ,傳教士,更加難能可貴,為自己的宗教熱情,比了不起的,他們的神學學習。 Indeed, for a comparatively long period, the opposition of Methodists to schools of theology was pronounced.事實上,在一個比較長的時間內,反對派的衛理學校的神學宣判。 The establishment of the first institution of the kind in 1834 at Haxton, England, caused a split in the denomination.即將成立的首個事業單位的類型,在1834年和小哈,英格蘭,造成了分裂面額。 At the present day, however, the need of theological training is universally recognized and supplied by numerous schools.在現今社會,不過,有必要的神學訓練,是公認的,並提供了許多學校。 In England the chief institutions are located at Richmond, Didsbury, Hedingley, and Handsworth.在英國行政機構設在里士滿, didsbury , hedingley ,漢茲沃思。 American Methodists founded their first theological school in 1841 at Newbury, Vermont.美國衛理創立自己的第一個神學院1841年在紐伯里,佛蒙特州。 It was removed to Concord, New Hampshire, in 1847, and has formed since 1867 part of Boston University.它被拆除,以康科德,新罕布什爾州,在1847年,並已形成了自1867年的一部分,波士頓大學。 Numerous other foundations were subsequently added, among them Garrett Biblical Institute (1854) at Evanston, Illinois, and Drew Theological Seminary (1867) at Madison, New Jersey.許多其他基金會隨後補充說,其中有蓋瑞特聖經學院( 1854年)在埃文斯頓,伊利諾伊州,並提請神學院( 1867 )在麥迪遜分校,新澤西網隊。 While Methodism has no parochial school system, its first denominational institution of learning dates back to 1740, when John Wesley took over a school at Kingswood.而methodism沒有狹隘的學校制度,其第一次教會學會學習,可以追溯到1740年,當約翰韋斯利接管了一所學校,嘉湖。 It was not until the beginning of the nineteenth century, however, that a vigorous educational movement set in to continue up to the present day.只是到了19世紀初葉,但是,一個有力的教育運動定在繼續上升到現在的一天。 An idea of the efforts made in this direction by Methodists may be gained by a reference to the statistics published in the "Methodist Year-Book" (1910), pp.一個想法所作的努力,這個方向是由衛理可能贏取的一個參考,以公佈的統計,在"衛一年書" ( 1910 ) ,頁。 108-13. 108-13 。 According to the reports there given, the Methodist Episcopal Church alone (the other branches also support their schools) maintains 197 educational institutions, including 50 colleges and universities, 47 classical seminaries, 8 institutions exclusively for women, 23 theological institutions (some of them forming part of the universities already mentioned), 63 foreign mission schools, and 4 missionary institutes and Bible training schools.據報導,有鑑於,衛理公會獨自(其他分行也支持他們的學校)設有197個教育機構,其中包括50名高校, 47古典修院,八機構專門為婦女, 23神學院校(他們中的一些人形成部分高校已經提到) , 63個外國代表團的學校,和4個傳教機構和聖經培訓學校。 An educational project which appeals for support and sympathy to all branches of American Methodism, is the exclusively post-graduate "American University".一個教育計劃,呼籲美國民眾給予支持和同情,向所有分行的美國methodism ,是專畢業後, "美國大學" 。 A site of ninety-two acres was purchased in 1890 in the suburbs of Washington, DC, and the university was organized the following year.一幅92英畝購買了於1890年在市郊的華盛頓特區,以及大學舉辦了下一年。 It was not to be opened in any of its departments until its endowment "be not less than $5,000,000 over and above its present real estate" (which happened in 1893, World Almanac, 1997).這是不被打開,在其任何部門,直至其捐贈"不會少於5000000美元超出其當前房地產" (即發生在1893年,世界年鑑, 1997年) 。 The dissemination of religious literature is obtained by the foundation of "Book Concerns" (located at New York and Cincinnati for the Methodist Episcopal Church; at Nashville, Tennessee, for the Methodist Episcopal Church South) and a periodical press, for the publications of which the titles of "Advocates" is particularly popular.傳播宗教文獻,是獲得由基金會"圖書的關注, " (設在紐約和辛辛那提,為衛理公會,在美國田納西州納什維爾,為衛理公會南部) ,並定期報刊,出版物,其中授予"主張" ,是特別受歡迎。 The young people are banded together for the promotion of personal piety and charitable work in the prosperous Epworth League founded in 1889 at Cleveland, Ohio, for the Methodist Episcopal Church, and organized in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in 1891.年輕的人糾集在一起,為促進個人的虔誠和慈善工作,在繁盛的epworth聯盟於1889年成立於美國俄亥俄州克利夫蘭,為衛理公會,有組織地在衛理公會,南,於1891年。 In the second half of the nineteenth century, the denomination extended its social work considerably by the foundation of orphanages and homes for the aged.在第二十九世紀下半葉,面額為擴大其社會工作相當由基金會的孤兒院和老人院。 Hospitals were introduced in 1881 with the incorporation of the Methodist Episcopal Hospital at Brooklyn.醫院介紹,在1881年同團的循道衛理主教醫院,在布魯克林區。

VI.六。 GENERAL STATISTICS一般統計

According to the "Methodist Year-book" (New York, 1910) the Wesleyan Methodists have 520,868 church members (including probationers) in Great Britain, 29,531 in Ireland, 143,467 in their foreign missions, and 117,146 in South Africa.要按照"循道年出版的" (紐約, 1910年)衛斯理循道有520868教會成員(包括感化) ,在英國, 29531在愛爾蘭, 143467 ,在其外國使團, 117146在南非舉行。 The Australasian Methodist Church ha a membership of 150,751, and the Church of Canada one of 333,692.澳洲基督教衛理公會公頃,會員150751 ,教堂的加拿大之一333692 。 In the United States Methodism (all branches numbers, according to Dr. Carroll 6,477,224 communicants. Of these 3,159,913 belong to the Methodist Episcopal Church and 1,780,778 to the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.在美國methodism (所有分行的數目,據醫生卡羅爾6477224者。這些3159913屬於該衛理公會和1780778向衛理公會,南。

Publication information Written by NA Weber.出版信息寫娜韋伯。 Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.轉錄由現任j.好事。 Dedicated to the Rev. Julius Byrd Payton (1875-1960) The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.專為牧師戲劇,伯德,佩頓( 1875年至1960年)天主教百科全書,體積十, 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. nihil obstat , 1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


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