Mennonites門諾教派

General Information 一般資料

The Mennonites, a Protestant religious group descended from the 16th century Anabaptists, take their name from Menno Simons, a Dutch Roman Catholic priest converted to the Anabaptist faith, whose moderate leadership, after the militant excesses of the fanatical Anabaptist Kingdom of Munster (1534 - 35), restored balance to the movement.該門諾教派,新教團體的後裔, 16世紀anabaptists ,以他們的名義,從緬諾西蒙斯,一名荷蘭天主教神父轉換為anabaptist信仰,其溫和的領導下,經過激進的過度狂熱anabaptist英國的穆斯特(第1534 - 35 ) ,恢復平衡運動。 He was active in the Netherlands and also developed a following in Holstein and along the lower Rhine and the Baltic.他是活躍在荷蘭和還制定了以下荷斯坦奶牛,並沿下萊茵和波羅的海。

The Mennonites rejected infant baptism, the swearing of oaths, military service, and worldliness. 該門諾教派拒絕嬰兒的洗禮,宣誓就職的宣誓,兵役,和世俗性。 They practiced strong church discipline in their congregations and lived simple, honest, loving lives in emulation of the earliest Christians. As summarized by the Dordrecht Confession of 1632, Mennonite theological principles stress the direct influence of the Holy Spirit on the heart of the believer and the importance of the Bible, with its message of salvation through the mystical experience of Christ's presence in the heart. 他們實行強有力的教會紀律,在他們的畢業典禮和生活的簡單,誠實,熱愛生命,在仿真的最早的基督徒。概括了多德雷赫特供述的1632年,門諾派的神學原則,強調直接的影響,聖靈對心臟的信徒和重要的是聖經,其信息的救恩透過神秘經驗基督的存在,在心臟。

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Because Mennonites refused to assume state offices, to serve as police or soldiers, or to take oaths of loyalty, they were considered subversive and as such severely persecuted.因為門諾教派拒絕承擔國家辦事處,以作為警察或士兵,或採取宣誓的忠誠度,他們被視為顛覆,正因如此嚴重迫害。 These persecutions led at various times to the emigration of Mennonite groups: to the American colonies (1683), where they settled in Pennsylvania; to Russia (1788); and, in the 20th century, from Russia and North America to Latin America.這些迫害,導致在不同時期向移民的門諾集團:向美國殖民地( 1683 ) ,他們定居在賓夕法尼亞州;訪俄( 1788 ) ,以及在20世紀,來自俄羅斯和北美,拉丁美洲。 In Europe they gradually gained a measure of toleration in Holland, Switzerland, the Palatinate, and northern Germany.在歐洲,他們漸漸有了一個衡量的,嚴懲不貸,荷蘭,瑞士,皇帝行宮遺址,和德國北部。

In the New World the Mennonites branched into several factions, of which the (Old) Mennonite Church - still the largest - is the parent group.在新的世界的門諾教派分支分成幾個派別,其中以(舊)門諾教會-仍然是最大的-是集團母公司。 Other groups include the General Conference Mennonite Church and the Mennonite Brethren Church.其他群體包括大會門諾教會和門諾弟兄教會。 The Amish Church, named for Jacob Ammann, a 17th century Swiss Mennonite bishop, remains insular and conservative.阿米緒教堂,命名為雅各布ammann ,一個17世紀的瑞士門諾派的主教,仍然是狹隘和保守。 Old Order Amish avoid modern technology in farming and manufacturing, wear old fashioned clothing fastened by hooks and eyes instead of buttons, worship in private homes, and continue to speak a German English amalgam (Pennsylvania Dutch).舊秩序阿米甚避免現代技術在農業和製造業,穿老式服裝系由鉤和眼睛而不是按鈕,崇拜在私人居所,並為繼續講德語英語汞合金(賓夕法尼亞荷蘭語) 。 The Conservative Amish differ only in their adoption of English and Sunday schools.保守的阿米甚差別只在其通過的英語和週日學校。 The churches meet together once every 6 years at the Mennonite World Conference.教會聚會一次,六年,在門諾世界會議。 American Mennonites reside principally in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Kansas.美國門諾教派主要居住在賓夕法尼亞,俄亥俄,印第安納州,堪薩斯。 Significant numbers also live in Canada.大量還住在加拿大。

Lewis W Spitz劉易斯瓦特Spitz也

Bibliography 參考書目
HS Bender and HC Smith, Mennonites and Their Heritage (1964) and, as eds., Mennonite Encyclopedia (1954 - 59); B Davies, String of Amber: The Heritage of the Mennonites (1973); CJ Dyck, ed., Introduction to Mennonite History (1981); JW Fretz, The Waterloo Mennonites (1989); R Friedmann, Mennonite Piety Through the Centuries (1949); JA Hostetler, Mennonite Life (1983); CW Redekop, Mennonite Society (1989); CH Smith, The Story of the Mennonites (1950); GH Williams, The Radical Reformation (1962).房協德及HC史密斯,門諾教派和他們的遺產( 1964年) ,並作為編,門諾大百科全書( 1954年-5 9) , B期戴維斯,一串琥珀:遺產的門諾教派( 1 973年) ;終審法院首席法官d yck,版,導言以歷史的基督教門諾會( 1981年) ;李鍾鬱fretz ,窩門諾教派( 1989 )與r弗里德曼,門諾虔誠透過百年的時間( 1949年) ; JA部hostetler ,門諾人壽( 1983 ) ;連續redekop ,門諾社會( 1989年) ;甲烷史密斯故事的門諾教派( 1950年) ;生長激素威廉姆斯,激進改革( 1962年) 。


Mennonites門諾教派

General Information 一般資料

Introduction導言

Mennonites are a Protestant evangelical religious group, which originated in Switzerland and the Netherlands at the time of the Protestant Reformation.門諾教派是基督教福音派宗教組織,起源於瑞士和荷蘭舉行的時候,新教改革。

Tenets原理

Mennonites are divided into a number of separate bodies, some of them more conservative and withdrawn from modern society than others; but they hold in common the ideal of a religious community based on New Testament models and imbued with the spirit of the Sermon on the Mount.門諾教派都分為若干個獨立的機構,他們中的一些人更保守和退出現代社會比其他人,但他們持有共同的理想,是一個宗教以社區為基礎對新約聖經的模式和充滿精神的山上寶訓。 Most of the principal tenets of the Mennonites are found in a confession of faith promulgated at Dordrecht, the Netherlands, in 1632.大部分的主要原則的門諾教派是指一個認罪的信仰頒布了多德雷赫特,荷蘭, 1632年。 The Bible as interpreted by the individual conscience is regarded as the sole authority on doctrinal matters, and no powers of mediation between an individual and God are conceded to the ministry.聖經的詮釋,是由個人的良知被視為是唯一有權對教義事宜,並沒有權力之間進行調解個人與神是不能讓步,以財政部。 Baptism is administered only on the profession of faith; infant baptism is rejected.洗禮管理不僅是對專業的信念,嬰兒的洗禮,予以駁回。 The Lord's Supper (see Eucharist) is celebrated, although not as a sacrament, and the rite of foot washing is sometimes observed in connection with it.主的晚餐(見聖體聖事) ,是慶祝了,雖然不是作為一個聖餐,並成年禮的腳洗,有時觀察結合。

Mennonites were among the first to espouse the principle of separation of church and state and to condemn slavery.門諾教派的第一批國家之一擁護分立的原則,教會與國家,並譴責奴隸制。 They have traditionally obeyed the civil laws, but many refuse to bear arms or to support violence in any form (see Pacifism), to take judicial oaths, and to hold public office.他們歷來服從了民事法律的,但很多人不攜帶武器或支持任何形式的暴力行為(見和平主義) ,以接替司法宣誓,並擔任公職。 The more conservative Mennonite groups are distinguished by plain living and simplicity of dress.較為保守的基督教門諾集團是由傑出的艱苦樸素和簡潔的禮服。

History歷史

The Mennonites emerged in Switzerland in the 1520s as radical Protestants who went beyond the positions held by the Swiss reformer Huldreich Zwingli. They broke with him over the issue of infant baptism, and so were called Anabaptists, or "rebaptizers." Because these Swiss Brethren rejected the concept of a state church and refused to sanction war or to accept military service, they were regarded as subversive and were persecuted.該門諾教派出現在瑞士,在1520年代由於激進新教徒,他們超越了陣地舉行,由瑞士改革者huldreich zwingli , 他們打破了他的問題,嬰兒的洗禮,因此,被稱為anabaptists ,或" rebaptizers " ,因為這些瑞士兄弟拒絕概念的國家教會,並拒絕制裁戰爭或接受兵役,他們被視為顛覆,並遭到迫害。

A parallel movement emerged at about the same time in the Netherlands, led by Menno Simons, from whom the name Mennonite is derived.一個平行運動出現在大約同一時間,在荷蘭,帶領緬諾西蒙斯,從誰的名字,是基督教門諾會得出的。 Educated for the priesthood and ordained in 1524, Menno Simons gradually moved to a radical position, until by 1537 he was preaching believer's baptism and nonresistance.學歷為神職人員,並受戒,在1524年,緬諾西蒙斯逐漸轉移到了一個激進立場,直到1537年,由他的說教信奉的洗禮和不抵抗。 As they did in Switzerland, Anabaptists in the Netherlands experienced years of persecution.像瑞士, anabaptists在荷蘭經歷了多年的迫害。 Similar groups sprang up in southern Germany and also in Austria, where they were led by Jakob Hutter and called Hutterites or Hutterian Brethren.類似團體興起,在德國南部,並在奧地利,他們將在那裡領導的雅各布胡特,並呼籲哈特萊特人hutterian謠言。

The Swiss Brethren continued to suffer harassment and persecution into the 18th century, and many fled to the Rhineland and the Netherlands, others to America (Pennsylvania), and still others to eastern Europe.瑞士弟兄繼續遭受騷擾和迫害,到18世紀時,許多人逃到了萊茵蘭和荷蘭,其他人到美國(賓夕法尼亞州) ,還有東歐。 In the Netherlands outright persecution ceased by the end of the 16th century, although some coercion and discrimination in favor of the state church persisted.在荷蘭奪標迫害停止到去年底的16世紀,雖然有些人脅迫和歧視,有利於有關國家的教會存在。 Like the Swiss Brethren, many Dutch Mennonites immigrated, some to Pennsylvania, others eastward to Prussia and Poland, reaching, by the early 19th century, the Ukraine and other parts of Russia.像瑞士的弟兄們,許多荷蘭人門諾教派移民,有的是為了賓夕法尼亞,別人東移,普魯士和波蘭,達到了,由十九世紀初,烏克蘭和其他部分的俄羅斯。

In Pennsylvania Mennonites were among those who settled Germantown in 1683.在賓夕法尼亞州的門諾教派屬於那些定居Germantown的,在1683年。 Both Swiss and Dutch Mennonites went to the colony in the following years.無論瑞士和荷蘭的門諾教派到殖民地,在以後的幾年。 Distinctive among them, although not numerically the most important, were followers of a 17th-century Swiss Mennonite bishop, Jakob Amman, who were called Amish or Amish Mennonites. Their very conservative dress and other customs - especially their use of shunning as a method of discipline - set them apart from the surrounding society.鮮明的,其中雖然不是數值最重要的是,被追隨者一個17世紀的瑞士門諾派的主教,雅各布安曼,他們被稱為阿米甚阿米甚門諾教派,他們是非常保守的服裝與其他海關-尤其是其使用的迴避作為一種方法紀律-設定他們除了從周圍的社會。

Later waves of emigration from Europe introduced variant strands of the Mennonite tradition into the United States.後來波移民潮,從歐洲引進變束的門諾派的傳統,進入美國。 In each case the tendency was to take up land on what was at the time the western frontier.在每一種情況下的趨勢是採取了土地就什麼是在當時的西部邊疆地區。 In the first half of the 19th century Mennonites from Switzerland and southern Germany settled in Ohio and other states westward to Missouri.在第一個19世紀下半葉門諾教派從瑞士和德國南部定居在俄亥俄州和其他國家向西至密蘇里州。 After the American Civil War Mennonites from Russia, primarily of Dutch stock, settled in Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota.經過美國內戰門諾教派來自俄羅斯,主要是荷蘭語的股票,定居在堪薩斯州,內布拉斯加州和南達科他州。 Following World War I Russian Mennonites migrated to Canada, especially Saskatchewan.第一次世界大戰後俄羅斯門諾教派移民到加拿大,尤其是薩斯喀徹溫省。 More came after World War II, but the destinations of the most recent Mennonite emigrants have been Mexico, Paraguay, and Brazil.更來到二次世界大戰結束後,但目的地的最近期的門諾移民紛紛被墨西哥,巴拉圭和巴西。

In North America the largest Mennonite bodies are the Mennonite Church ("Old Mennonites"), with roots in colonial Pennsylvania, and the General Conference Mennonite Church, organized in Iowa in 1860.在北美最大的門諾機構是門諾教會 ( "舊門諾教派" ) ,植根於殖民賓州,並在大會門諾派教會,有組織在艾奧瓦州於1860年。 In 1980 the Mennonite Church had about 109,000 members in the US and Canada and 33,000 in related overseas churches; the General Conference Mennonite Church had about 60,000 members in the US and Canada. 1980年,門諾教會有大約10.9萬會員,在美國和加拿大,以及33000名在海外相關的教堂;大會門諾教會有大約60000名成員,在美國和加拿大。 Local churches are organized into district conferences, which send delegates to a general conference, or assembly.地方教會組織成區會議,派代表向大會,或組裝。 Many of the clergy serve their churches part time while engaged in secular employment.許多神職人員服務,其教堂的一部分時間,而從事世俗就業。

Throughout much of their history, Mennonites have been a rural people, traditionally farmers.各地,他們的大部分歷史上,門諾教派已成為農村人,傳統上的農民。 In the 20th century the largest Mennonite bodies in the US have begun to play a significant role in society at large.在剛剛過去的二十世紀規模最大的門諾機構,在美國已經開始發揮著重要作用,在全社會的前列。 The traditional use of the German language in worship survives only in the most conservative groups.傳統使用的德語語言崇拜才得以流傳下來,在最保守的群體。 Both the Mennonite Church and the General Mennonite Church sponsor institutions of higher education.無論是門諾教會和一般門諾教會贊助的高等教育機構。 The Mennonite Central Committee, with representatives from 17 Mennonite bodies, is a cooperative relief and service agency dedicated to advancing the cause of peace and alleviating human suffering throughout the world.門諾派中央委員會,其代表來自17門諾機構,是一個合作的救濟和服務機構,致力於推進和平事業和減輕人類痛苦的整個世界。


Mennonites門諾教派

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Mennonites are a large body of Anabaptist groups today, descendants of the Dutch and Swiss Anabaptists (the Swiss Brethren, as they came to be known) of the sixteenth century.門諾教派是一個大機構的anabaptist團體,今天的後裔,荷蘭和瑞士anabaptists (瑞士弟兄們,因為他們後來被稱為)的16世紀。 The basic doctrines of the original Swiss Anabaptists, as well as the Peace Wing of the Dutch Anabaptists, are reflected in the 1524 Programmatic Letters of Conrad Grebel; in the Seven Articles of Schleitheim, 1527; in the voluminous writings of Pilgram Marpeck (d. 1556); in the writings of Menno Simons and of Dirk Philips (Enchiridion or Handbook of the Christian Doctrine); in the Swiss Brethren hymn book, the Ausbund (1564); and in the huge Martyrs Mirror of 1660.基本教義的原始瑞士anabaptists ,以及為和平聯隊的荷蘭anabaptists ,反映在1524綱領性信件康拉德格列伯,在七篇文章的施萊特海姆時27分,在浩繁的著作pilgram marpeck (四1556 ) ;在著作緬諾西蒙斯和德克飛利浦( enchiridion或手冊中的基督教教義) ,在瑞士兄弟在聖歌書中, ausbund (第1564 ) ,而且在巨大的烈士的一面鏡子, 1660 。

The Swiss Brethren were the Free Church wing of the Zwinglian Reformation.瑞士兄弟分別是自由教會翼的zwinglian改造。 Initially the pioneer leaders such as Conrad Grebel and Felix Mantz had nothing but praise for Zwingli.最初的先驅領導人如康拉德格列伯和Felix mantz無關,但稱讚zwingli 。 But by the fall of 1523 they became increasingly uneasy about the tempo of the Reformation in Zurich, and particularly about Zwingli's practice of allowing the Great Council of the 200 to decide what Catholic forms of doctrine, piety, and practice were to be dropped.但秋季1523年,他們越來越感到不安節奏的改革,在蘇黎世,特別是關於zwingli的做法,容許大會的200決定什麼天主教形式的學說,虔誠和實踐被撤銷。 These young radicals felt that Zwingli was too lukewarm and slow in carrying out his strongly biblical vision for an evangelical Reformed Church in Zurich.這些年輕的激進派認為zwingli過於冷淡,並緩慢在履行他的強烈聖經的願景是一個福音教會改革後,在蘇黎世。 But they did nothing until they were ordered to have their infants baptized and forbidden to conduct any more Bible study sessions.但他們沒有採取任何行動,直到他們被命令有其嬰兒受洗,並禁止進行任何更多的聖經學習班。 It was then that they met, and after earnest prayer ventured to inaugurate believer's baptism and to commission each other to go out as preachers and evangelists.這是當時說,他們會晤,並經過認真禱告誰敢在開幕信奉的洗禮,並委託對方走出去,因為傳教士和傳道士。 The date of organization of this Swiss Free Church was January 21, 1525.日起組織了這次瑞士自由教會是1525年1月21日。

At this organization meeting the three strongest leaders were Conrad Grebel, who died in 1526; Felix Mantz, who died as a martyr early in 1527; and George Blaurock, who was severely beaten and banished from Zurich in 1527, only to be burned to death in the Tirol in 1529.在這個組織會議的三個最強的領袖康拉德格列伯,死於1526年;菲利克斯mantz ,死於成為烈士早在1527年和喬治blaurock ,那些被嚴重毆打和被流放到蘇黎世,在1527年中,只有被燒死在查看地圖1529年。 After the original leaders were off the scene, the mantle of leadership fell upon a former Benedictine monk of South Germany named Michael Sattler.經過原領導人小康現場後,地幔的領導下跌後,原本篤會僧侶的德國南部任命Michael增多。 It was Sattler who helped the scattered and sometimes differing Swiss Brethren to settle upon what was a biblical faith and way of life.這是美國海軍陸戰隊的人,幫助這些分散的,有時是不同的瑞士弟兄定居後,什麼是聖經的信仰和生活方式。 This was realized at a village in Schaffhausen called Schleitheim in 1527.這是認識上的一個村莊在Schaffhausen所謂施萊特海姆在1527年。 Seven articles were worked over and finally adopted unanimously by the "brethren and sisters" who were present.七篇文章被工作,並最後一致通過了"兄弟姐妹"誰出席了會議。 These seven articles may be summarized thus:這七條可概括為:

(1) Baptism is to be given to people who have repented and believed on Christ, who manifest a new way of life, who "walk in the resurrection," and who actually request baptism. ( 1 )的洗禮,是考慮到人的懺悔,並相信基督,他們表現出一種新的生活方式,那些"走在復活" ,究竟是誰要求的洗禮。 (Infants and children are considered saved without ceremony, but infants are often "dedicated.") (嬰兒和兒童被認為是保存儀式,但嬰幼兒往往以"專用" ) 。

(2) Before the breaking of bread (the Lord's Supper), special effort shall be made to reclaim from any form of sin any brothers or sisters who may have strayed from Christ's way of love, holiness, and obedience. ( 2 ) ,然後打破麵包(主的晚餐) ,特別的努力,應予以填平,以防任何形式的罪過任何兄弟或姐妹,他們可能已偏離了基督的方式愛,純潔,服從。 Those who are overtaken by sin should be twice warned privately, then publicly admonished before the congregation.那些超越了單應兩次警告,在私底下,然後公開告誡前聚集。 The rite of exclusion of impenitent sinners the Swiss Brethren called the ban.這項成年禮的排斥impenitent罪人瑞士弟兄所謂的禁令。

(3) The Lord's Supper is to be celebrated by those who have been united into the body of Christ by baptism. ( 3 )主的晚餐是值得慶祝那些已團結起來,基督的身體受到洗禮。 The congregation of believers must keep themselves from the sinful ways of the world in order to be united in the "loaf" of Christ.眾信徒們必須保持從罪孽深重的方式,向世界,以團結一致的"麵包"的喊聲。

(4) Disciples of Christ must carefully avoid the sins of a Christ - rejecting world. ( 4 )門徒的基督,必須小心避免罪孽一個基督-拒絕世界。 They cannot have spiritual fellowship with those who reject the obedience of faith.他們不能有精神團契與那些拒絕服從的信念。 Accordingly there are two classes of people: those who belong to the devil and live in sin, and those who have been delivered by Christ from this evil way of life.因此,有兩類人:那些屬於魔鬼和罪惡的生活,而那些已經交付由基督從這個邪惡的生活方式。 We must break with every form of sin, and then he will be our God and we will be his sons and daughters.我們必須打破一切形式的罪,那麼他將是我們的上帝,我們就會被他的兒子和女兒。

(5) Every congregation of true Christians needs a shepherd. ( 5 )每名會眾的真正的基督徒需要有一個牧羊人。 The shepherd (or pastor) shall meet NT qualifications, "the rule of Paul."牧羊人(或牧師)必須符合新台幣資格, "香港的法治保羅" 。 He is to read God's Word, exhort, teach, warn, admonish, discipline or ban in the congregation, properly preside in the congregational meetings and in the breaking of bread.他是讀神的話語,勸告,教導,警告,告誡,紀律處分或禁止在會眾,妥善主持,在堂會會議,並在破門的麵包。 If he has financial needs the congregation shall give him support.如果他有經濟需要的會眾應給他的支持。 Should he be led away to martyrdom, another pastor shall be ordained in "the same hour."如果他帶出去殉道,另一個牧師應受戒,在"同一時間" 。

(6) The section on being nonresistant suffers is entitled "The Sword." ( 6 )一節被nonresistant患有標題是"劍" 。 The sword is ordained of God "outside the perfection of Christ" (the church).劍受戒上帝"之外的完善的基督" (教會) 。 The only method the church has to deal with transgressors is the ban (exclusion).唯一的方法,教會,以應付transgressors是禁止(豁免) 。 Disciples of Christ must be utterly nonresistant.弟子基督必須完全nonresistant 。 They cannot use the sword to cope with the wicked or to defend the good.他們不能使用刀,以應付壞蛋或捍衛好的方向發展。 Nonresistant Christians cannot serve as magistrates; rather, they must react as Christ did: he refused when they wished to make him king. nonresistant基督徒不能充當裁判,而是他們必須作出反應,正如基督所做過的事:他拒絕的時候,他們希望使他國王。 Under no circumstances can Christians be other than Christlike.在任何情況下,基督信徒被其他較christlike 。

(7) Finally, by the word of Christ, Christians cannot swear any kind of oath. ( 7 )最後,由字的基督,基督徒不能宣誓任何形式的誓言。 Christian disciples are finite creatures; they cannot make one hair grow white or black.基督的門徒是有限的動物,他們不能作出一個頭髮生長的黑色或白色。 They may solemnly testify to the truth, but they shall not swear.他們可以鄭重地證明了的真理,但他們不得宣誓。

In the covering letter accompanying the Seven Articles, Sattler acknowledges that some of the brothers had not fully understood God's will aright, but now they do.在採訪函所附的七篇文章,美國海軍陸戰隊承認,有些兄弟沒有充分理解上帝的意志的戒律,但現在他們做的。 All past mistakes are truly forgiven when believers offer prayer concerning their shortcomings and guilt; they have perfect standing "through the gracious forgiveness of God and through the blood of Jesus Christ."所有過去的錯誤,真正原諒的時候,信徒們禱告,提供有關他們的缺點和內疚,他們有完善常委會"透過慈悲寬恕的上帝,並通過血液循環中的耶穌基督" 。

In 1693 Jakob Ammann, a Swiss elder in Alsace, founded the most conservative wing of the Mennonites, the Amish.在1693年雅各布ammann ,瑞士一名老在阿爾薩斯,創立了最保守的右翼的門諾教派,阿米緒。

Down through the centuries the Mennonites have produced numerous confessions of faith, catechisms, printed sermons, and hymn books.歷經幾個世紀的門諾教派已經製作了大量的供述中的信念, catechisms ,印刷布道,並聖歌書籍。

Mennonites hold to the major doctrines of the Christian faith and feel free to confess the Apostles' Creed. They are dissatisfied, however, with the creed's moving directly from the birth of Christ to his atoning death. They feel that it is also important to study Christ's way of life, his beautiful example of love, obedience, and service. They cannot believe that seeking to be faithful to both the letter and the spirit of the NT is legalism, if such obedience is based on love for God and love for man. 門諾教派舉行向各大教義的基督教信仰和感覺免費招供使徒們的信條,他們也很不滿意,但是,隨著信仰的移動直接從耶穌的誕生,以他的atoning死刑,他們覺得這也是很重要的研究基督的生活方式,他的美麗的例子,愛,服從,服務等,他們可以不相信謀求互相忠實,無論是文字和精神的新台幣是法家,如果這種順從是基於對上帝的愛和愛文。 Indeed, Michael Sattler wrote a moving essay in 1527: Two Kinds of Obedience.事實上,邁克爾鮑威爾寫了一動雜文1527 : 2種服從。 They are (1) slavish obedience, which is legalism; it involves a low level of performance and produces proud "Pharisees."他們是: ( 1 )盲目服從,這是法家,它涉及到一個低層次的表現,並產生驕傲"法利賽" 。 (2) Filial obedience, which is based on love for God and can never do enough, for the love of Christ is so intense Mennonites see the will of God revealed in a preparatory but nonfinal way in the OT but fully and definitively in Christ and the NT. ( 2 )孝,這是基於對上帝的愛和永遠做不夠的,基督的愛是那麼激烈門諾教派見上帝的意志透露,在籌備,但nonfinal方式,在職能治療,但充分和明確,在基督和新台幣。

Violent suppression of the Mennonites practically led to their extermination in Germany.暴力鎮壓的門諾教派幾乎導致其滅絕在德國。 In Switzerland they survived chiefly in two areas, the Emme valley of Berne and the mountainous areas of the Jura.在瑞士,他們存活,主要在兩個方面, emme河谷伯爾尼和山區的( Jura 。 William I of the House of Orange brought toleration of a sort to the "Mennists" (the name coined by Countess Anna in Friesland in 1545 to designate the Peace Wing of the Dutch Anabaptists) of the Netherlands about 1575.威廉本人眾議院橙帶來的容忍是一種以" mennists " (名稱創造countess安娜在friesland於1545年劃定的和平聯隊的荷蘭anabaptists ) ,荷蘭約1575年。 The severe persecution of the Swiss Taufgesinnten, the Dutch Doopsgezinden, and the Frisian Mennists effectively silenced their evangelistic and mission concerns for several centuries, but these were revived slowly in the nineteenth century, first in Europe and then in North America.嚴重迫害的瑞士taufgesinnten ,荷蘭人doopsgezinden ,弗里斯蘭mennists有效地壓制他們的福音和使命感,關注的幾百年了,但這些都慢慢復甦,在19世紀,首先是在歐洲,然後在北美。 Mennonite missions have been most successful in Africa, Indonesia, and in India, and have started in Latin America.門諾派代表團一直最為成功的,在非洲,印度尼西亞,而在印度,並已開始在拉丁美洲。

JC Wenger時三十分溫格

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
Mennonite Encyclopedia; TJ van Braght, Martyrs Mirror; CJ Dyck, ed., Introduction to Mennonite History; J Horsch, Mennonites in Europe; GF Hershberger, War, Peace, and Nonresistance; M Jeschke, Discipling the Brother; JA Hostetler, Amish Society; SF Pannabecker, Open Doors; JA Toews, Mennonite Brethren Church; JC Wenger, Introduction to Theology and Mennonite Church in America.門諾大百科全書; TJ音樂範braght ,烈士鏡;終審法院首席法官dyck ,版,導言,以門諾史; j horsch ,門諾教派在歐洲;綠,赫司波格,戰爭,和平,不抵抗;米jeschke , discipling兄弟; JA部hostetler ,阿米甚社會;證券及期貨pannabecker ,打開大門; JA部toews ,門諾弟兄教會;時三十分溫格概論,神學與基督教門諾教會在美國。


Mennonites門諾教派

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

A Protestant denomination of Europe and America which arose in Switzerland in the sixteenth century and derived its name from Menno Simons, its leader in Holland.一名新教教派的歐洲和美洲,其中發生在瑞士,在16世紀和派生它的名字從緬諾西蒙斯,其領導人在荷蘭結束。 Menno Simons was born in 1492 at Witmarsum in Friesland.緬諾西蒙斯出生於1492年在維特馬瑟姆在friesland 。 In 1515 or 1516 he was ordained to the Catholic priesthood and appointed assistant at Pingjum not far from Witmarsum.中, 1515或1516年,他被祝聖為天主教神職人員,並任命助理平於姆不遠處維特馬瑟姆。 aater (1532) he was named pastor of his native place, but 12 January, 1536, resigned his charge and became an Anabaptist elder. aater (第1532 ) ,他被任命為牧師對他的籍貫,但1536年1月12日辭職,由他負責,並成為一個anabaptist長輩。 The rest of his life was devoted to the interests of the new sect which he had joined.餘生專門的利益,也符合新的教派,他加入了。 Though not an imposing personality he exercised no small influence as a speaker and more particularly as a writer among the more moderate holders of Anabaptist views.雖然不是一個強加的個性,他行使了不小的影響,作為議長,特別是作為一個作家,其中較溫和持有anabaptist意見。 His death occurred 13 January, 1559, at Wustenfelde in Holstein.他的死亡發生在1559年1月13日,在wustenfelde荷斯坦。 The opinions held by Menno Simons and the Mennonites originated in Switzerland.意見,召開由緬諾西蒙斯和門諾教派起源於瑞士。 In 1525 Grebel and Manz founded an Anabaptist community at Zurich.在1525年格列伯和曼茨成立了anabaptist社區在蘇黎世。 Persecution followed upon the very foundation of the new sect, and was exercised against its members until 1710 in various parts of Switzerland.其次迫害後,很基礎的新教派,並行使對成員,直到1710年,在各部分的瑞士。 It was powerless to effect suppression and a few communities exist even at present.它是無能為力的效果鎮壓和少數社區存在,即使在目前。 About 1620 the Swiss Mennonites split into Amish or Upland Mennonites and Lowland Mennonites.關於1620年瑞士門諾教派分裂成阿米甚或旱稻門諾教派和低地門諾教派。 The former differ from the latter in the belief that excommunication dissolves marriage, in their rejection of buttons and of the practice of shaving.前者不同於後者,認為禁教溶化婚姻,在他們拒絕接受按鈕,並根據實踐的剃須。 During Menno's lifetime his followers in Holland divided (1554) into "Flemings" and "Waterlanders", on account of their divergent views on excommunication.在緬諾的一生他的追隨者在荷蘭劃分( 1554年)到" flemings "和" waterlanders " ,就到他們的意見分歧禁教。 The former subsequently split up into different parties and dwindled into insignificance, not more than three congregations remaining at present in Holland.前者後來分裂成不同黨派和縮減到渺小時,不超過3個,其餘的畢業典禮,目前在荷蘭。 Division also weakened the "Waterlanders" until in 1811 they united, dropped the name of Mennonites and called themselves "Doopsgezinde" (Baptist persuasion), their present official designation in Holland.師裡還削弱了" waterlanders " ,直到在1811年,他們團結起來,下降的名稱和門諾教派的人稱自己是" doopsgezinde " (浸會勸導) ,他們目前的官方指定在荷蘭。 Menno founded congregations exclusively in Holland and Northwestern Germany.緬諾創立的畢業典禮專門在荷蘭和德國西北部。 Mennonite communities existed at an early date, however in South Germany where they were historically connected with the Swiss movement, and are found at present in other parts of the empire, chiefly in eastern Prussia.門諾社區存在於早日,但是,在德國南部地方,他們在歷史上與瑞士運動,而被發現,目前在其他部分的帝國,主要是在東部普魯士。 The offer of extensive land and the assurance of religious liberty caused a few thousand German Mennonites to emigrate to Southern Russia (1788).提供大片土地,並保證宗教自由造成幾千元德國門諾教派移民到俄羅斯南部( 1788 ) 。 This emigration movement continued until 1824, and resulted in the foundation of comparatively important Mennonite colonies.這一移民運動一直持續到1824年,並在此基礎上的比較重要的基督教門諾會殖民地。 In America the first congregation was founded in 1683 at Germantown, Pennsylvania.在美國第一次聚集,成立於1683年,在Germantown的賓夕法尼亞州。 Subsequently immigration from Germany, Holland, Switzerland, and since 1870 from Russia, considerably increased the number of the sect in North America.隨後入境事務由德國,荷蘭,瑞士,並自1870年開始從俄羅斯,出現越來越多的該教派在北美。 There are twelve different branches in the United States in some of which the membership does not reach 1000.有12種不同分支機構,在美國,其中一些成員沒有達到1000人。 Among the peculiar views of the Mennonites are the following: repudiation of infant baptism, oaths, law-suits, civil office-holding and the bearing of arms.其中奇特意見的門諾教派有以下幾方面:否定嬰兒洗禮,宣誓,依法訴訟,民事廳控股,並攜帶武器。 Baptism of adults and the Lord's Supper, in which Jesus Christ is not really present, are retained, but not as sacraments properly so-called.洗禮的成年人和主的晚餐,其中耶穌基督是不是真的,目前都得以保留,但不作為聖禮妥當,所以所謂的。 Non-resistance to violence is an important tenet and an extensive use is made of excommunication.不抵抗,以暴力,是一個重要的宗旨,並廣泛運用了禁教。 All these views, however, are no longer universally held, some Mennonites now accepting secular offices.所有這些意見,不過,不再是普遍,一些門諾教派現已接受世俗辦事處。 The polity is congregational, with bishops, elders, and deacons.政體是堂會,主教,長老,和執事。 The aggregate membership of the Mennonites is now usually given as about 250,000; of these there are some 60,000 in Holland; 18,000 in Germany; 70,000 in Russia; 1500 in Switzerland; 20,000 in Canada, and according to Dr. Carroll (Christian Advocate, New York, 27 January, 1910), 55,007 in the United States.總結會籍的門諾教派的是,現在通常是為約25萬人;其中有一些60000在荷蘭; 18000名在德國; 70000個,在俄羅斯, 1500人,在瑞士, 20000名在加拿大,而據醫生卡羅爾(基督教主張,新紐約, 1910年1月27日) , 55007在美國。

Publication information Written by NA Weber.出版信息寫娜韋伯。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.天主教百科全書,體積十, 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. nihil obstat , 1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

CRAMER, Bibliotheca Reformatoria Neerlandica, II and V (The Hague, 1903, sqq.); CARROLL, Religious Forces of the United States (New York, 1896), 206-220; WEDEL, Geschichte der Mennoniten (Newton, Kansas, 1900-1904); SMITH, The Mennonites of America (Goshen, Indiana, 1909); CRAMER and HORSCH in New Schaff-Herzog Encycl.克萊姆,書目reformatoria neerlandica , II和V (海牙, 1903年, sqq ) ;卡羅爾,宗教勢力的美國(紐約, 1896 ) , 206-220 ; wedel ,歷史館明鏡mennoniten (牛頓,堪薩斯, 1900年- 1904年) ;史密斯,門諾教派的美國( goshen ,印第安那, 1909年) ; Cramer與horsch在新schaff -赫爾佐克encycl 。 sv (New York, 1910). sv (紐約, 1910年) 。


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Menno Simons 緬諾西蒙斯

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