Lutheranism, Lutheran Church路德教,路德教會

General Information 一般資料

Lutheranism is the branch of Protestantism that generally follows the teachings of the 16th century reformer Martin Luther.路德教是分行的基督新教,一般遵循的遺訓16世紀的改革家馬丁路德。 The Lutheran movement diffused after 1517 from Saxony through many other German territories into Scandinavia.路德運動擴散後, 1517份來自薩克森州通過其他許多德國領土上到斯堪的納維亞半島。 In the 18th century it spread to America and, thereafter, into many nations of the world, and it has come to number more than 70 million adherents.在十八世紀傳入美國,此後,為許多世界民族之林,而且已經到了人數7000多萬附和。 As such, it lays claim to being the largest non Roman Catholic body in the Western Christian church.因此,它規定了索賠,以作為世界上最大的非羅馬天主教團體在西方的基督教教堂。

Lutheranism appeared in Europe after a century of reformist stirrings in Italy under Girolamo Savonarola, in Bohemia under John Huss, and in England under the Lollards.路德教出現在歐洲一個世紀之後的改革派stirrings在意大利下girolamo savonarola ,在波西米亞根據約翰胡斯進行,並在英國下lollards 。 The personal experience of the troubled monk Luther gave shape to many of the original impulses of the Protestant Reformation and colors Lutheranism to the present.親身經歷了多事之秋和尚路德從而形成了許多原始的衝動的新教改革和顏色路德教到現在。 Like many people of conscience in his day, Luther was disturbed by immorality and corruption in the Roman Catholic church, but he concentrated more on reform of what he thought was corrupt teaching.像許多人的良心,他在一天,路德感到不安的不道德和腐敗現象在羅馬天主教會,但他更集中於改革,他的想法是腐敗的教學。 After he experienced what he believed to be the stirrings of Grace, he proclaimed a message of divine promise and denounced the human merits through which, he feared, most Catholics thought they were earning the favor of God.之後,他經歷了什麼,他相信被stirrings的恩典,他宣布了一項訊息的神聖諾言,並譴責人類的優點,通過它,他擔心,大多數天主教徒認為他們贏得了上帝的恩賜。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
Lutheranism soon became more than the experience of Luther, but it never deviated from his theme that people are made right with God sola gratia and sola fide - that is, only by the divine initiative of grace as received through God's gift of faith. Because Luther came across his discoveries by reading the Bible, he also liked to add to his motto the exhortation sola scriptura, which means that Lutherans are to use the Bible alone as the source and norm for their teachings.路德教很快就成了以上的經驗,路德,但它從來沒有偏離主題,他的人是在正確與上帝索拉特惠和索拉真正的,那就是-只受神的倡議,寬限期為收到上帝的禮物,信仰,因為路德。來到他的新發現所讀的聖經,他還喜歡添加到他的格言告誡,唯獨聖經,這意味著lutherans是用聖經僅作為源和準則,他們的教誨。

The Lutheran movement gained popularity quickly in Germany at a time of rising nationalism among people who resented sending their wealth to Rome.路德運動普及很快,在德國舉行的時候,民族主義上升當中的人反感,將自己的財富去羅馬。 The early Lutherans were strongly based in the universities and used their learning to spread the faith among an international community of scholars.早期lutherans強烈設在大學,用他們的學習,以傳播信仰之間的國際學者。 By 1530 they were formulating their own Confessions of Faith and proceeding independently amid the non Lutheran reform parties that proliferated across most of northern Europe.由15時30分,他們分別制定自己的供述中的信仰和獨立訴訟中,非路德改革各方繁衍全國最北部的歐洲。 By 1580 and through the next century, these confessions became increasingly rigid scholastic expressions, designed to define the church in formal terms. Ever since, Lutheranism has been known as a doctrinal and even dogmatic church.由1580年,並通過了下個世紀,這些供詞成為日益僵化的學業表現形式,旨在確定教堂正式條款。 此後,在路德教已被稱為是一種學理上的,甚至教條式的教堂。

Lutheranism did not and could not live only by the teaching of its professors.路德教沒有也不可能只生活所教學的教授。 In the late 17th century its more gentle side, which grew out of the piety of Luther, appeared in the form of a movement called Pietism.在晚17世紀它更溫柔的一面,它的前身是對虔誠的路德,的形式出現,一個運動,所謂pietism 。 Nominally orthodox in belief and practice, the Pietists stressed Bible reading, circles of prayer and devotion, and the works of love.名義上和東正教信仰與實踐,虔誠強調聖經讀,圈子的祈禱和奉獻精神,以及作品的熱愛。 This pietism was somewhat unstable; in its downgrading of doctrine it helped prepare Lutherans for the age of Enlightenment, when many leaders and some of the faithful turned to rationalism.這pietism有點不穩,在降級的學說,它對於準備lutherans為啟蒙時代的時候,許多領導和部分忠實轉向理性主義。 Subsequently, theology under Lutheran influence has often taken on a radical character, especially in Germany.後來,神學根據路德的影響,往往採取激進的性格,尤其是在德國。 As a result, there is often a considerable gap between intellectual expressions of Lutheranism and the liturgy and preaching of its congregations.因此,經常存在著相當大的差距之間的智力表現路德教和禮儀,並鼓吹其畢業典禮。

From the beginning, Lutheranism had to wrestle with the problem of its relation to civil authorities.從一開始,路德教不得不角力與問題,它關係到民事當局。 Although Luther was a rebel against papal teaching, he was docile about reforming the civil order and rejected radical revolts by the peasants (Peasants' War).雖然路德是一個反抗教皇教學中,他被馴服,對改革民事秩序和拒絕激進反抗,由農民(農民戰爭) 。 Fearing anarchy more than authoritarianism, the Lutherans gravitated to biblical teachings that stressed the authority of the state more than the civil freedom of its citizens.不怕無政府狀態以上的威權, lutherans gravitated以聖經的教義,它強調了國家的權力,比民間的自由,它的公民。 Most of them were content not to separate church and state, and in the Peace of Augsburg (1555) approved the principle that the ruler determined the faith of the ruled.他們大多是內容不分開教會與國家,在和平的奧格斯堡( 1555 )核定的原則是:統治者決定了信仰的統治。 Later Lutherans have enthusiastically embraced republican and democratic government as applications of the principle that God is active in different ways through the two realms of civil and churchly authority.後來lutherans熱情擁抱的共和黨政府和民主黨政府作為應用的原則,即上帝是活躍在以不同的方式,通過這兩個領域的民事及churchly權威。 Many German Lutherans were silent or cooperative, however, when the Nazi regime took over the church; only the Confessing Church, led by Martin Niemoller, opposed the regime outright.許多德國lutherans保持沉默或合作的,但是,當納粹政權接管了教堂,只有承認的教會,帶領馬丁尼默勒,反對該政權買斷。

Lutherans have been more ready than many other Christians to see the permanence of evil in the powers of the created and fallen world, that is, the world under the influence of sin. lutherans已準備就緒,更比其他許多基督徒看到耐久性邪惡的,在權力範圍,創造了大跟頭世界,那就是,世界的影響下單。 Consequently, they have put more of their energies into works of welfare and charity - into orphanages, hospitals, and deaconesses' movements - than into social schemes to transform the world.因此,他們把更多的精力到工程的社會福利和慈善-到孤兒院,醫院,並d eaconesses'運動-比納入社會計劃,以改造世界。

In Europe most Lutheran churches are episcopal, that is, ruled by bishops, and the churches of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden are established.在歐洲最路德教會主教,也就是統治的主教,和教會的丹麥,芬蘭,冰島,挪威和瑞典都成立。 In North America and elsewhere Lutherans prefer congregational and synodical forms of government, in which local churches link together for common purposes.在北美和其他地區的lutherans寧願堂和synodical形式的政府,在這種地方教會聯繫在一起,為共同的目的。 In the United States, Lutherans have united in three main bodies: the Lutheran Church in America (membership, 2.9 million), the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (2.6 million), and the American Lutheran Church (2.3 million).在美國, lutherans曾在美國三個主要機構:路德教會在美國(會員2.9萬美元) ,路德教會-密蘇里州主教( 2 .6萬美元) ,和美國路德教會( 2 .3萬美元) 。 The American Lutheran Church, the Lutheran Church in America, and a third group, The Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches, united in 1987 to form the Evangelical Lutheran Church of America.美國路德教會,路德教會,在美國,第三組,該協會的基督教香港信義教會,聯合國在1987年成立了基督教香港信義會的報導。

Lutheranism is generally friendly to the Ecumenical Movement, and with some exceptions, Lutheran churches have participated in worldwide gatherings of Christians across confessional and denominational boundaries. Lutherans consider themselves to be both evangelical and catholic because they have points in common with the other Protestant churches on the one hand, and with Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Anglican Christians on the other. In the ecumenical age, however, they have kept a very distinct identity through their general loyalty to the teachings of 16th century Lutheranism.路德教是一般的友好,向基督信仰合一運動,並有一些例外,路德會教堂參加聚會,世界各地的基督徒跨教派和教會的界限。 lutherans認為自己既是福音派和天主教的,因為他們有共同點,與其他基督教一方面,並與東正教,羅馬天主教和聖公會教徒對其他在合一的年齡,不過,他們都保持了非常獨特的身份,通過他們的一般忠誠的教誨, 16世紀的路德教。

Martin E Marty馬丁e馬蒂

Bibliography 參考書目
ET / M Bachmann, Lutheran Churches in the World: A Handbook (1989); C Bergendoff, The Church of the Lutheran Reformation (1967); E Lueker, ed., Lutheran Cyclopedia (1987).內皮素/米巴赫曼,路德教會在世界上:一本手冊( 1989條) , c伯根多夫,教會的路德改革( 1967 ) ;電子lueker ,教育署,香港信義cyclopedia ( 1987 ) 。


The Lutheran Tradition路德傳統

Advanced Information 先進的信息

This term, or "Lutheranism," is employed to refer to the doctrine and practices authoritative in the Lutheran Churches and as a broad term for those churches throughout the world in general.這個名詞,即"路德教" ,是用來指理論和實踐的權威,在路德教會和作為一個廣義的名詞,對於那些教會整個世界一般。 The name "Lutheran" was not self chosen but was initially applied by the enemies of Martin Luther in the early 1520s.命名為"路德派" ,並不是自我選擇的,但最初是適用的敵人馬丁路德在1520年代初。 Only when he felt that the identification was understood to mean recognition of the truth of his teaching did Luther suggest, "If you are convinced that Luther's teaching is in accord with the Gospel,...then you should not discard Luther so completely, lest with him you discard also his teaching, which you nevertheless recognize as Christ's teaching."只有當他認為這個鑑定的理解,就是承認真理,他的教學路德建議, "如果你確信路德的教學是符合福音, … …那麼,你不應該拋棄路德須徹底,以免與他,你也拋棄他的教學,你不過承認基督對他的教誨" 。

This teaching of Luther, forged from his discovery that the righteousness of God is not a righteousness that judges and demands but the righteousness given by God in grace, found its systematic expression in the formularies incorporated in the Book of Concord.這種教學的路德,偽造,從他發現了正義的,神是不是一個正義的法官和要求,但義所給予的上帝的恩典,發現其系統性表現在處方藥納入該書的和諧。 All these documents, with the exception of the Formula of Concord, were written between 1529 and 1537 by Luther and Philip Melanchthon.所有這些文件,除公式的康科德,寫之間的第1529和1537年由路德和菲利普梅蘭希頓。 They reflect the emphasis on justification by grace and the correction of abuses in the life of the church while at the same time "conserving" the church's catholic heritage (through explicit commitment to the ancient creeds, traditional forms of worship, church government, etc.).他們反映,強調理由,由恩典和糾正濫用,在教會生活中,而在同一時間, "節約"教會的天主教文物(通過明確承諾古老信條,傳統形式的崇拜,教會,政府等。 ) 。

During the years following Luther's death in 1546, theological conflicts increasingly plagued his followers.在隨後幾年中路德的死亡在1546 ,神學衝突日益困擾他的追隨者。 The Formula of Concord, composed of the Epitome of the Articles in Dispute and the Solid Declaration of Some Articles of the Augsburg Confession, sought to resolve those disputes in terms of the authentic teaching of Luther.該公式的康科德組成的一個縮影條款爭議和固體宣言的一些文章的奧格斯堡供述,設法解決這些紛爭的角度真實教學路德。 Subscription to these "symbolical" writings of the Book of Concord as true expositions of the Holy Scriptures has historically marked the doctrinal positions of Lutheranism.訂閱這些"具有象徵意義"的著作這本書的康科德作為真正的論述聖經歷來標誌著學說上的立場路德教。

Doctrines教義

The distinctive doctrines of Lutheran theology have commonly been related to the classical leitmotifs of the Reformation: sola Scriptura, sola gratia, sola fide. 與眾不同的學說路德神學有常見的是與古典leitmotifs的改革:唯獨聖經,索拉特惠,索拉誠意。

The theology of Lutheranism is first a theology of the Word. Its principle of sola Scriptura affirms the Bible as the only norm of Christian doctrine. The Scripture is the causa media by which man learns to know God and his will; the Word is the one and the only source of theology.神學路德教首先是一名神的字, 其原理唯獨聖經申明聖經為唯一的規範,基督教的教義。聖經,是起因媒體,其中男子得知知道上帝和他的意志;一詞,是一個而且唯一來源神學。 Lutheranism pledges itself "to the prophetic and apostolic writings of the Old and New Testaments as the pure and clear fountain of Israel, which is the only norm according to which all teachers and teachings are to be judged and evaluated" (Formula of Concord, Epitome).To be sure, the authority of Scripture had been emphasized prior to Luther and the Reformation.路德教承諾本身" ,以先知書和使徒的著作舊約及新約,因為純粹而明確的噴泉的以色列,因為這是唯一的準則,根據這是所有教師和教誨,是衡量和評價" (公式康科德,縮影) ,可以肯定的是,權力的經文中已強調,之前路德和改造。 However, when Lutheranism referred to the Bible as the divine Word, brought to man through the apostles and prophets, it spoke with a new conviction regarding the primacy of the Word.然而,當路德教轉介到聖經,因為神的一句話,使男子透過使徒和先知,它以一種新的信念,就至高無上的字眼。 Luther recognized that the authority of Scripture was valid even where it was opposed by pope, council, or tradition.路德承認的權威經文是有效的,即使它反對由羅馬教皇,理事會,或傳統。

The Lutheran understanding of this principle should be distinguished from bibliolatry.路德了解這一原則應有別於bibliolatry 。 Historic Lutheranism viewed Scripture as the organic foundation of faith.歷史路德教看經文作為有機基礎的信仰。 It is the source of theology in an instrumental sense.它的根源在於神學在器樂常識。 It is not the cause of the being of theology; that would truly be a deification or worship of a book.這是不是導致了目前的神學,這將真正成為神化或崇拜的一本書。 Rather, God is the first cause of theology; he is the principium essendi, its foundation, its beginning, and its end.相反,上帝是第一個原因的神學;他是essendi原理,它的地基,它的開端,但它的盡頭。 The Scripture is the principium cognoscendi, for from Scripture theology is known and understood.聖經是cognoscendi原理,從聖經神學的認識和了解。 Furthermore, the Lutheran view of the Bible is to be distinguished from a legalistic orientation.此外,路德會期的聖經,是有所區別,從法律上的定位。 Christ is at the center of the Bible.基督是在該中心的聖經。 Essential to understanding the Word of God is accepting the promises of the gospel by faith.有必要了解上帝的話,正是接受了許諾的福音信仰。 If this faith is lacking, the Scriptures cannot be correctly understood.如果這種信仰是匱乏的,念經,不能正確理解。

The second doctrinal distinctive of Lutheranism is the doctrine of justification. According to Luther there are two kinds of righteousness, an external righteousness and an inner righteousness. 第二個理論鮮明的路德教是中庸的理由,據路德有兩種,一種是正義的,正義的外在和內在正義。 External righteousness, or civil righteousness, may be acquired through just conduct or good deeds.對外正氣,或民事義,可通過收購剛剛行為或好人好事。 However, inner righteousness consists of the purity and perfection of the heart.不過,黨內正義構成的純度和完善的心臟。 Consequently, it cannot be attained through external deeds.因此,它不能達到通過外部事蹟。 This righteousness is of God and comes as a gift of his fatherly grace.這是正義的,是上帝的,並且作為禮物,他慈父般的恩典。 This is the source of justification.這是從源頭上的理由。

The ground for justification is Christ, who by his death made satisfaction for the sins of mankind. The Apology of the Augsburg Confession defines justification as meaning "to absolve a guilty man and pronounce him righteous, and to do so on account of someone else's righteousness, namely, Christ's." 地面為理由,是基督,誰對他的逝世作出滿意為罪孽的人類。道歉的奧格斯堡供認界定的理由為"為開脫心虛男子,並宣告他的正義,這樣做是考慮到別人的正義,即基督的" 。 Thus God acquits man of all his sins, and he does this not because man is innocent; rather God justifies us and declares man to be righteous for Christ's sake, because of his righteousness, his obedience to God's law, and his suffering and death.因此上帝acquits男子的他的所有罪過,而他這樣做,因為人是無辜的,而是上帝證明我們並宣布男子被正義為基督的緣故,是因為他的正義感,他服從真主的法律,以及他的痛苦和死亡。 When God justifies, he not only forgives sins, but he also reckons to man Christ's perfect righteousness. God declares sinners to be righteous, apart from human merit or work, for the sake of Christ (forensic justification).當上帝的理由,他不僅寬恕罪孽,但他也研判,以人為基督的完美正義, 上帝宣告罪人受到正義的,除了人的優點或工作,為了基督的 (法醫理由) 。

Related to this teaching is the third significant hallmark of Lutheranism: sola fide. 與此相關的教學是第三個顯著標誌,路德教:索拉誠意。 The means whereby justification accrues to the individual is faith. The gospel, as Lutheranism confessed it, made faith the only way by which man could receive God's grace. 該方法的理由,歸個人信仰。福音,因為路德教供述,作了真誠的唯一途徑,由哪些人可以得到上帝的恩典。 In the medieval scholastic tradition theologians spoke of faith as something that could be acquired through instruction and preaching (fides acquisita).在中世紀的學術傳統神學以信仰為東西可以後天通過指令和說教(惹人獲得性) 。 This was distinguished from infused faith (fides infusa), which is a gift of grace and implies adherence to all revealed truth.這是有別於注入信仰(惹人infusa ) ,它是一個禮物的寬限期,並且意味著遵守所有發現的真理。 Lutheranism repudiated this distinction.路德教推翻了這種區別。 The faith which comes by preaching coincides with that which is justifying; it is wholly a gift of God. Justifying faith is not merely a historical knowledge of the content of the gospel; it is acceptance of the merits of Christ.信仰,這是由說教,剛好與這其中的理由是,它是全天主的恩寵。 辯護信仰不單單是一個歷史知識的內容福音,它是接受的優點基督。 Faith, therefore, is trust in the mercy of God for the sake of his Son. 信仰,因此,這是信任,在慈悲的上帝,為他的兒子。

Lutheranism has persistently refused to see faith itself as a "work". Faith is receptivity, receiving Christ and all that he has done. It is not man's accomplishment that effects his justification before God.路德教堅持不肯見信仰本身作為一個"工作" 。 信仰是感受性,接受基督和所做的一切,這是不是人為的成果,影響他的理由上帝面前。 Faith is instead that which accepts God's verdict of justification: "Faith does not justify because it is so good a work and so God - pleasing a virtue, but because it lays hold on and accepts the merit of Christ in the promise of the holy Gospel" (Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration).信仰是說,而是接受上帝的判決理由: "信念沒有理由,因為它是那麼好一項工作,所以上帝-令人欣慰的是一種美德,但是,因為它規定,堅持和接受的優點,在基督的許諾聖福音" (公式康科德,固體宣言) 。

The article of justification by grace through faith challenged the Roman Catholic tradition, which asserted that faith was pleasing to God only if it were accompanied by good works and perfected by love. At the Council of Trent in 1545 the Lutheran view was condemned and the medieval Roman Church reiterated its doctrine that justification is a state of grace in which human good works have merit. For Lutheranism, faith and works certainly cannot be separated; however, they must be distinguished. The righteousness of faith refers to man in his relation to God (coram Deo). 這篇文章的理由,由恩典透過信仰的挑戰羅馬天主教的傳統,宣稱信仰是令人高興的上帝只有當它伴隨著好的作品並完善了由愛在安理會的遄達於1545年路德的看法是譴責和中世紀羅馬教會重申了其學說的理由是一個國家的寬限期,在這人類的優秀作品有其可取的。路德教,信仰和工程肯定不能分開,但是,他們必須有所區別。正義的信念,是指男子在他的天主間的關係( coram迪奧) 。 The righteousness of good works refers to man in relation to his neighbor (coram hominibus).該公義的好工程,是指男子在與他的鄰居( coram hominibus ) 。

These must not be confused so as to intimate that man will seek to become just in the sight of God on the strength of his good deeds, nor in such a way that he will attempt to conceal sin with grace.這些絕不能混淆等,以體內,該名男子將謀求成為剛剛在神看對強度,他的善行,也以這樣一種方式說,他將試圖掩蓋罪惡與恩典。 Thus, with respect to justification strictly speaking, good works must be clearly distinguished.因此,恕我直言,以理由嚴格來說,好的作品必須有明確的區分。 But faith cannot be apart from works. Where there is faith in Christ, love and good works also follow.但是,信仰不能除了工程。 只要有信心,在基督裡,愛情和好的作品也跟進。

In one way or another the three fundamental doctrines of Lutheranism, sola Scriptura, sola gratia, sola fide, determine the shape of other distinctive teachings.一種或另一種方式的三個基本教義路德教,唯獨聖經,索拉特惠,索拉真正的,確定的形狀等獨特的教義。 For example, the position of Lutheranism on man's free will is understood in the light of the doctrine of justification.舉例來說,地位路德教對人的自由意志了解,在參照該學說的理由。 Man is completely without a free will with respect to the "spiritual sphere" (that which concerns salvation).男子是完全沒有自由意志與尊重,以"精神領域" (即涉及救贖) 。 Salvation depends exclusively on the omnipotent divine will of grace.救贖完全取決於全能的神的意志的恩典。 Man does not have freedom to do the good in the spiritual sense.男子沒有自由,這樣做很好,在精神意義。 Similarly, the Lutheran understanding of the Lord's Supper must be viewed in light of the principle of sola Scriptura.同樣,路德的認識主的晚餐都必須被結合的原則,唯獨聖經。 Lutheranism has consistently battled against every denial of the real and essential presence of Christ's body and blood in the Supper.路德教一貫爭奪對每剝奪了真正的和必要駐留的基督身體和血液中的晚餐。

An important element of Lutheran biblical interpretation is that one takes words of command and promise literally unless there is some compelling reason for not doing so. If the words of institution at the Supper were to be taken figuratively, simply because they appear to conflict with reason or common sense (eg, the Reformed axiom of the finite being incapable of the infinite), one could do so with any command or promise of God. 的一個重要因素路德聖經的解釋是一個單詞的指揮系統,並承諾從字面上來看,除非有一些令人信服的理由,認為不應該如此做,如果說話的機構在晚飯都是將要採取的形象,只是因為他們似乎有衝突原因或常識(例如,在改革公理有限被無能的無限) ,就可以這樣做任何指揮或承諾的上帝。 Thus, Lutheranism has insisted on the doctrine of the "real presence" on the basis of Christ's plain words.因此,路德教,堅持中庸的"真實存在"基於基督的平原話。 Also, the Lutheran view of grace contributed to the retention of infant baptism.此外,路德會期的寬限期有助於保留嬰兒的洗禮。 Baptism expresses the participation of the Christian in the death and resurrection of Christ.洗禮,表達了參與的基督教在死亡與復活的基督。 Baptism, like the gospel, is powerful to confer the very faith it calls for with its promises, and in each case the Holy Spirit works faith through the instruments of his choosing, namely baptism and the gospel.洗禮,像福音,是強大的,授予十分真誠地呼籲大家與自己的諾言,並在每一種情況下聖靈工程通過真誠的文書,他的選擇,即洗禮和福音。 In Lutheran understanding it is no more difficult for him to work faith in infants through the gospel promise attached to the water of baptism than in adults alienated from God through the proclamation of the gospel in preaching.在路德會了解它已不再是他難以工作,真誠地在嬰兒透過福音的承諾,重視水的洗禮,比成人疏離上帝通過文告的福音傳道。

History歷史

These doctrines of Lutheranism were subject to a variegated history in the centuries following the Reformation era.這些學說路德教,曾受到一個雜色歷史,在數百年後的改革時代。 In the seventeenth century they were elaborated in a scholastic mold.在17世紀裡,他們分別闡述了在學術上的模具。 Lutheran orthodoxy, whose classical period began about the year 1600, was an extension of the tradition represented by the Lutheran confessional writings.路德正統,其古典時期開始,對今年1600 ,是一個延續的傳統派路德自白著作。 It was, however, profoundly influenced by the neo Aristotelianism which had secured a foothold in the German universities.但是,它深刻地影響了新亞里士多德曾擔保立足於德國大學。 This German scholastic philosophy accented the intellectual strain which characterized Lutheran orthodoxy and prompted a more pronounced scientific and metaphysical treatment of theological questions.這德語士林哲學口音的智力應變特點路德正統,並促使有更深刻的科學和形而上學治療神學問題。 However, scholastic methodology did not lead to the surrender of Lutheran emphasis on the Bible.但是,在學術上的方法,並沒有導致投降的路德會側重於聖經。

The dogmatic works of the orthodox period were based on the principle of sola Scriptura.教條式的作品,正統時期的原則基礎上唯獨聖經。 There was an effort to systematize an objective form of theology (theology defined as a "teaching about God and divine things").有努力,系統化的客觀形式的神學(神學界定為"教學上帝和神聖的東西" ) 。 Revelation, as codified in the Bible, provided the point of departure for the orthodox theologians.啟示,編纂成聖經,只要出發點是為東正教神學家。 The chief representatives of this period of Lutheranism included Johann Gerhard, Nikolaus Hunnius, Abraham Calov, and David Hollaz.首席代表在此期間的路德教包括約翰總理, nikolaus亨尼厄斯,亞伯拉罕卡洛夫,和大衛hollaz 。

The period of Lutheran orthodox gave way to the pietist movement in the latter part of the seventeenth century.期間,路德正統作了方式向虔信運動中的一部分,後者的17世紀。 Pietism was a reaction to what was perceived as an arid intellectualism in the orthodox theologians. pietism是一個反應是什麼感覺是一個乾旱知識分子在東正教神學家。 Philipp Jakob Spener's Pia desideria called for a reform movement within Lutheranism.菲利普雅各布spener的軟腦膜desideria要求進行的改革運動與路德教。 According to Spener, experience is the basis of all certainty.據spener ,經驗是基礎,所有確定性。 Therefore, the personal experience of the pious is the ground of certainty for theological knowledge.因此,個人經驗的虔誠,是地面上的確定性神學知識。 This led to the pietist critique of the metaphysical questions treated by the orthodox fathers as well as their traditional philosophical underpinnings.這導致了以虔信批判形而上學的問題,處理由東正教的父親以及他們的傳統的哲學依據。 For the pietist Lutherans inner spiritual phenomena and individual experiences elicited the greatest interest.為虔信lutherans內在精神現象和個人的遭遇引起了極大的興趣。 Since Spener and his followers assumed that theological knowledge could not be acquired apart from the experience of regeneration, their theological expositions dealt mainly with empirical religious events.自spener和他的追隨者假定神學知識不能被收購,除了從經驗中的再生,他們的神學論述,主要處理與實證的宗教活動。

In the eighteenth century theological rationalism appeared in Germany.在十八世紀的神學理性主義出現在德國。 Christian Wolff, utilizing the Leibnizian principle of "sufficient reason," argued that learning must be based on clear and distinct concepts and that nothing should be set forth without proof.基督教沃爾夫,利用leibnizian原則的"充足的理由" ,認為學習的基礎必須是堅定和清楚的概念,並沒有什麼應該定出來,沒有一個證明。 Wolff's thought had a great impact on theological activity.沃爾夫的思想產生了很大的影響,對神學的活動。 Harmony between faith and reason was assumed, and the natural knowledge of God led to the idea of special revelation while the rational proofs for the truth of Scripture demonstrated that the Bible is the source of this revelation.和諧信仰與理性之間的假設是,人與自然知識的上帝導致的想法特別啟示,而理性的證明為真理的經文證明聖經的根源在於這個啟示。 While Wolff intended to defend traditional doctrine, the consequence of his method was the acceptance of reason as a final authority.而沃爾夫打算捍衛傳統學說認為,其後果的,他的方法是接受的理由,作為一個最終的權力。 This conclusion was extended by Johann Semler, who applied a historicocritical method to the Bible and inserted it totally into the framework of human development.這個結論是延長兩個月semler ,他們應用了historicocritical方法聖經,並插入它完全納入框架的人的發展。

Many Lutherans saw the influence of rationalism behind the Prussian Union of 1817.許多lutherans看到的影響,理性的背後,普魯士聯盟, 1817 。 Frederick William III announced the union of the Lutherans and the Reformed into one congregation at his court in celebration of the three hundredth anniversary of the Reformation and appealed for similar union throughout Prussia.馮威廉三宣布,該聯盟的lutherans和改革成一個聚集在他的法庭在慶祝的第三百週年,改革,並呼籲類似的聯盟在整個普魯士。 The union was the impetus for a revival of Lutheran confessionalism which reacted to an increasing doctrinal indifference in some quarters of German Lutheranism as well as a growing interest in biblical criticism that threatened to remove the doctrinal foundations of Luther's church.該聯盟是推動復甦的路德自白這反應了越來越學說上的冷漠在一些宿舍的德國路德教以及越來越感興趣聖經的批評,揚言要罷免理論基礎路德教會。 Prominent figures in the effort to restore historical Lutheranism were CP Caspari, EW Hengstenberg, and CFW Walther.頭面人物在努力恢復歷史路德教被處長caspari ,電子戰韓斯坦堡,並cfw Walther稱。 Walther joined an emigration of Saxons to the United States in 1838 to escape the theological legacy of rationalism and the union. Walther稱加入移民的撒克遜人到美國, 1838年為了躲避神學遺產的理性主義和歐洲聯盟。

Apart from Germany, where two thirds of the population had accepted Lutheranism by the end of the sixteenth century, the expansion of Lutheranism through Sweden, Denmark, and Norway left national churches that have endured in strength.除了德國,在那裡三分之二的人口已經接受了路德教到去年底的16世紀,擴大路德教通過瑞典,丹麥和挪威等國家留下的教堂已經忍受了實力。 From these nations Lutherans migrated to the United States and Canada.從這些國家的lutherans移民到美國和加拿大。 The earliest Lutherans in America can be traced back to the seventeenth century.最早lutherans在美國可以追溯到17世紀。 In Delaware, Swedish Lutherans had settled as early as 1638.在美國特拉華州,瑞典語lutherans已經解決了,因為早在1638年。 In Georgia, almost a hundred years later, a group of refugee Lutherans from Salzburg established residence.在佐治亞州,將近百年後,一群難民lutherans從薩爾茨堡成立的居住地。 Colonies of Lutherans also settled in upper New York and in Pennsylvania by the time of the Revolution.菌落lutherans也定居在上紐約和賓夕法尼亞州的,由當時的革命。 Henry Melchoir Muhlenberg organized the first synod of Lutherans on American soil.亨利melchoir muhlenberg舉辦了第一次主教會議的lutherans在美國的國土上。

Contemporary Lutheranism seems to have entered on an age of unification.當代路德教似乎已經進入了上一個時代的統一。 The various waves of immigrants to America led to a proliferation of Lutheran bodies.各種波的移民到美國,引發了一場擴散路德機構。 However, there have been a number of mergers between these groups, which are now mainly included in the Lutheran Church in America (1962), the American Lutheran Church (1960), and the Lutheran Church, Missouri Synod (1847).但也有一些兼併這些集團之間,而現在主要包括在路德教會在美國( 1962年) ,美國路德教會( 1960 ) ,和路德教會,密蘇里州主教會議( 1847年) 。 The Lutheran World Federation, founded in 1947.世界路德教會聯合會,成立於1947年。 cultivates world unity and mutual assistance among its fifty or more member churches.培育世界團結,互助第五十二或更多的教會成員。 Lutheranism throughout the world constitutes the largest of the churches that have come out of the Reformation, numbering some seventy million members, of whom between nine and ten million live in the United States and Canada.路德教在整個世界構成了最大的教堂,已走出了改造,約七千萬名成員組成,其中9至一千萬人住在美國和加拿大。

JF Johnson怡富約翰遜
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
W Elert, The Structure of Lutheranism; EW Gritsch and RW Jenson, Lutheranism; B Hagglund, History of Theology; CP Krauth, The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology; RD Preus, The Theology of Post - Reformation Lutheranism; TG Tappert, ed., The Book of Concord; RC Wolf, ed., Documents of Lutheran Unity in America; EC Nelson, ed., The Lutherans in North America.瓦特elert ,結構路德教; EW向gritsch和rw簡森,路德教, B期hagglund ,歷史上的神學;處長krauth ,保守的改革及其神學;號普羅伊斯,神學的職位-改造路德教;甘油三酯t appert,版,這本書的康科德;鋼筋狼,版,文件的路德會團結在美國;歐共體納爾遜版, lutherans在北美。


Lutheranism路德教

General Information 一般資料

Lutheranism is a major Protestant denomination, which originated as a 16th-century movement led by Martin Luther.路德教是一個重大的新教教派,它最初是作為一本16世紀的運動為首的馬丁路德。 Luther, a German Augustinian monk and professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg in Saxony (Sachsen), originally had as his goal the reformation of the Western Christian church.路德,一個德國augustinian和尚及教授神學在大學的維滕貝格在薩克森州( sachsen ) ,原本為他的目標改造西方的基督教教堂。 Because Luther and his followers were excommunicated by the pope, however, Lutheranism developed in a number of separate national and territorial churches, thus initiating the breakup of the organizational unity of Western Christendom.因為路德和他的追隨者被驅逐由教宗,不過,路德教發達,在一些單獨的國家和領土的教堂,從而開創了解體組織統一的西方基督教的。

The term Lutheran was deplored by Luther, and the church originally called itself the Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession or simply the Evangelical Church.任期路德是痛惜路德,和教會最初叫本身福音派教會的奧格斯堡認罪,或乾脆福音派教會。 Scandinavian Lutherans adopted the names of their countries for their churches (for example, the Church of Sweden).斯堪的納維亞lutherans通過的名字,他們的國家為他們的教會(例如,教會瑞典) 。 As a result of the missionary movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, Lutheranism has become a worldwide communion of Christians and the largest Protestant denomination in the world, with about 80 million members.由於傳教運動的18世紀和19世紀,路德教已成為一個世界性的共融的基督信徒和世界上最大的新教教派,在世界上大約80萬成員。

Doctrine and Practices理論與實踐

Lutheranism affirms the ultimate authority of the Word of God (as found in the Bible) in matters of faith and Christian life and emphasizes Christ as the key to the understanding of the Bible.路德教申明的最終權威的神的話語(如發現在聖經中)在信仰和基督信徒生活,並強調基督為關鍵要了解聖經。

Salvation by Faith由救國信念

Salvation, according to Lutheran teaching, does not depend on worthiness or merit but is a gift of God's sovereign grace.救贖,據路德教學,不依賴於老有所為或好處,而是一個神的恩賜的主權的恩典。 All human beings are considered sinners and, because of original sin, are in bondage to the powers of evil and thus unable to contribute to their liberation (see Justification).所有的人都認為是罪人,而且因為原罪,是在與束縛的權力的邪惡,因此無法作出貢獻自己的解放(見理由) 。 Lutherans believe that faith, understood as trust in God's steadfast love, is the only appropriate way for human beings to respond to God's saving initiative. lutherans相信真誠,相互理解,因為信靠上帝的堅定的愛,是唯一適當的方式,為人類作出回應上帝的節能倡議。 Thus, "salvation by faith alone" became the distinctive and controversial slogan of Lutheranism.因此, "救贖信仰單" ,成為獨特而具爭議性的口號路德教。

Opponents claimed that this position failed to do justice to the Christian responsibility to do good works, but Lutherans have replied that faith must be active in love and that good works follow from faith as a good tree produces good fruit.反對者稱,這一立場沒有做到,正義,以基督教的責任,要切實做好工作,但效果lutherans都回答說,信念,必須積極參與愛心和良好的後續工程,從信仰是一個好樹產生良好的成果。

Worship崇拜

The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).路德教會將自己界定為"世界大會的信眾,其中福音,是倡導和教廷聖禮是經管據福音" (奧格斯堡供述,七) 。 From the beginning, therefore, the Bible was central to Lutheran worship, and the sacraments were reduced from the traditional seven to baptism and the Lord's Supper (see Eucharist), because, according to the Lutheran reading of the Scriptures, only these two were instituted by Christ (see Sacrament).從一開始,因此,聖經是中央向路德崇拜,聖禮減少了從傳統的7至洗禮和主的晚餐(見聖體聖事) ,因為,按路德讀了聖經中,只有這兩個被提起由基督(見聖餐) 。 Worship was conducted in the language of the people (not in Latin as had been the Roman Catholic tradition), and preaching was stressed in the divine service.崇拜進行了語言的人(而不是在拉丁語作為一直是羅馬天主教的傳統) ,並鼓吹強調,在神聖的服務。 Lutheranism did not radically change the structure of the medieval mass, but its use of vernacular language enhanced the importance of the sermons, which were based on the exposition of the Scriptures, and encouraged congregational participation in worship, especially through the singing of the liturgy and of hymns.路德教沒有從根本上改變結構的中世紀質量,但其使用的鄉土語言強化重要的是布道,這是基於對世界博覽會的經文,並鼓勵堂參加禮拜,尤其是通過學唱禮儀和的讚美詩。 Luther himself contributed to this development by writing popular hymns (for instance, "A Mighty Fortress Is Our God").路德親自促成了這一發展所寫作流行聖歌(例如, "威武之堡壘是我們的上帝" ) 。

In the Lutheran celebration of the Eucharist, the elements of bread and wine are given to all communicants, whereas Roman Catholics had allowed the wine only to priests.在路德會慶祝聖體中,元素的麵包和葡萄酒是給所有communicants ,而羅馬天主教會曾允許葡萄酒只有神父。 In contrast to other Protestants, particularly the Anabaptists, however, Lutherans affirm the real bodily presence of Christ "in, with, and under" the elements of bread and wine at the Lord's Supper.相比之下其他新教徒,尤其是anabaptists ,不過, lutherans申明真正身體在場的基督" ,並根據"分子的麵包和酒,在主的晚餐。 Christ is sacramentally present for the communicant in the bread and the wine because of the promise he gave at the institution of Holy Communion, when he said, "This is my body" and "This is my blood" (Matthew 26:26-28).基督是sacramentally目前為communicant在麵包和酒,因為承諾了,他在該機構的聖餐時,他說: "這是我的身體" , "這是我的血" (馬太26:26 ) 。

Baptism洗禮

Lutheranism affirms the traditional practice of infant baptism as a sacrament in which God's grace reaches out to newborn children.路德教申明的傳統做法,嬰兒的洗禮,作為一個聖餐中上帝的恩典展,以新生兒童。 For Lutherans, baptism signifies God's unconditional love, which is independent of any intellectual, moral, or emotional achievements on the part of human beings.為lutherans ,洗禮標誌著上帝的無條件的愛,這是獨立於任何智力,道德,或情緒上的成就,對一部分人的人。

Christian Life For Lutheranism基督教生活路德教

Saints do not constitute a superior class of Christians but are sinners saved by grace through faith in Jesus Christ; every Christian is both saint and sinner.聖人不構成優越階層的基督徒,但都是罪人得救的恩典,透過相信耶穌基督;每一個基督徒既是聖人和罪人。 The Lutheran doctrine of the priesthood of all believers is related to baptism, by which all Christians, both male and female, are made priests of God, serving him during their entire life in their chosen vocations, all of which are to be understood as equal opportunities for discipleship.路德教義的神職人員對所有信徒是與洗禮,其中所有基督徒,無論是男性還是女性,都是神的祭司,他在職期間,他們的整個生活在自己選擇的職業,所有這些都是可以理解為平等機會門徒。 The office of the pastor is a special office in Lutheranism based on a call from God and from a congregation of Christians.辦公室的牧師是一個特殊的辦公室,在路德教的基礎上,請上帝以及聚集的基督徒。 Unlike Roman Catholic priests, Lutheran clergy may marry.不像羅馬天主教神父,路德會神職人員可以結婚。

Doctrinal Texts理論文本

Although Lutherans accept the canonical books of the Bible as "the only rule and norm according to which all doctrines and teachers alike must be judged" (Formula of Concord), they also recommend the books of the Apocrypha of the Old Testament for Christian edification and have traditionally included them in vernacular versions of the Bible.雖然lutherans接受典型的帳簿聖經作為"唯一的規則和準則,根據所有的教義和教師都必須作出判斷" (公式康科德) ,他們還推薦書籍的apocrypha的舊約為基督教和啟迪傳統上包括他們在白話文版本的聖經。 Lutherans accept the authority of the three ecumenical creeds (Apostles', Nicene, Athanasian) and use the first two regularly in worship services. lutherans接受監督的三個合一信條(使徒' , nicene ,阿他那修信經) ,並用頭兩個經常在禮拜服務。 The special doctrinal statements of Lutheranism are Luther's Schmalkald Articles (1537), Small Catechism (1529), and Large Catechism (1529); Melanchthon's Augsburg Confession (1530), Apology of the Augsburg Confession (1531), and Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope (1529); and the Formula of Concord (1577), which was written by a commission of theologians after the deaths of the original reformers.特別教義報表路德教是路德的schmalkald文章( 1537 ) ,小問答( 1529 ) ,和大問答( 1529 ) ;梅蘭希頓的奧格斯堡自白( 1530 ) ,道歉的奧格斯堡自白( 1531 ) ,以及傷寒論權力和至高無上對教宗( 1529年)和公式的康科德( 1577 ) ,它是由一個委員會的神學家後死亡的原改革者。 Together with the creeds, these documents constitute The Book of Concord, adopted by Lutheran princes and cities in 1580.同信條,這些文件構成了這本書的和諧,通過路德王子和城市1580年。 Only the creeds, the Augsburg Confession, and Luther's two catechisms, however, have been recognized by all Lutheran churches.只有信條,奧格斯堡供述,並路德的兩個catechisms不過,有少數被大家公認的路德教會。

Church Organization and Government教會組織和政府

Because of their origin in the 16th century, the older European Lutheran churches are closely tied to their respective governments as established churches, either exclusively, as in the Scandinavian countries, or in a parallel arrangement with Roman Catholicism, as in Germany.因為其出身早在十六世紀時,舊歐洲路德教會息息相關給各自的政府確立的教堂,要么完全,因為在斯堪的納維亞國家,或在一個平行的安排與羅馬天主教,因為在德國。 (In both situations other religious groups have complete freedom of worship but not the same support and supervision from the government.) In non-European countries, Lutheran churches are voluntary religious organizations. (在這兩種情況下其他宗教團體擁有完全的信仰自由,但並不等於支持和監督下,由政府) ,在非歐洲國家,路德教會都是自願的宗教組織。 A uniform system of church government has never developed in Lutheranism; congregational, presbyterian, and episcopal structures all exist, although a tendency has emerged in the 20th century to give the title of bishop to elected leaders of judicatories (synods, districts, churches).統一系統的教會,政府從來沒有研製過,在路德教;公理會,長老會,聖公會和結構都存在,但一種趨勢已經出現,在20世紀,讓標題主教當選領導人的judicatories (主教會議的,區,教堂) 。

History and Influence歷史和影響力

The early development of Lutheranism was greatly influenced by political events.早期開發路德教是影響很大的政治事件。 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was unable to undertake the forceful suppression of Lutheranism because the empire was being threatened by the Turks.神聖羅馬帝國查爾斯五世無法進行有力的制止路德教,因為帝國正在受到威脅土耳其人。 Despite the Edict of Worms (1521), which placed the Lutherans under imperial ban, the movement continued to spread.儘管在公告中的蠕蟲( 1521年) ,它放在lutherans下帝國禁令,不結盟運動繼續蔓延。 Intermittent religious wars followed, ending in the Peace of Augsburg (1555), which stipulated that the religion of the ruler of each territory within the Holy Roman Empire was to be the religion of his subjects, thus in effect sanctioning the Lutheran churches and also establishing the territorial princes as primates of their churches.間歇性的宗教戰爭之後,結束了在和平的奧格斯堡( 1555 ) ,其中規定了宗教的統治者,每個領土神聖羅馬帝國被視為宗教,他的科目,因此,在制裁生效路德教會,並確立領土王子作為靈長類動物,他們的教堂。 The Formula of Concord (1577), prepared by theologians to resolve disputes among Lutherans, was signed by political leaders to ensure Lutheran unity at a time when renewed religious warfare threatened.該公式的康科德( 1577 ) ,準備由神學家,以解決糾紛,其中lutherans ,簽署了政治領袖,以確保香港信義團結在這個時候,重新宗教戰爭的威脅。 The survival of Lutheranism after the Thirty Years' War was the result of the intervention of the Lutheran Swedish king Gustav II Adolph and of Roman Catholic France on the side of the Protestants.生存路德教經過三十年戰爭是因干預的路德瑞典國王古斯塔夫阿道第二和羅馬天主教法國對一邊的新教徒。 The Peace of Westphalia (1648) brought an end to the religious wars in Europe.和平的威斯特伐利亞( 1648 )帶來結束了宗教戰爭在歐洲。

Beginning in the late 17th century, the reform movement called Pietism, which stressed individual conversion and a devout way of life, revitalized Lutheranism in Germany and spread to other countries.開始,在晚17世紀,改革運動中的所謂pietism ,即強調個人的轉化率和是一個虔誠的生活方式,振興路德教在德國和蔓延到其他國家。 Lutheran theology, during the 18th century, reflected the rationalism of the Enlightenment.路德神學的,在18世紀,這也反映了理性主義的啟蒙運動。 During the 19th century, the German theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, who emphasized universal religious experience, exercised a major influence on liberal Lutheran theologians.在十九世紀,德國神學家弗里德里希施萊爾馬赫,他強調,世界宗教的經驗,實行了一項重大的影響,對自由路德神學家。 At the same time, idealism, the dominant movement of modern German philosophy, had a profound effect on Lutheran theological thought.在同一時間內,唯心論,主導運動的近代德國哲學產生了深刻影響,對路德的神學思想。 In the 20th century, the neoorthodoxy of the Swiss theologian Karl Barth and existentialism have been the most prominent theological developments.在剛剛過去的二十世紀裡, neoorthodoxy的瑞士神學家卡爾巴特和存在主義,一直是最突出的神學思想建設的發展。

The political ascendancy of Prussia among the German states by the early 19th century led to the establishment (1817) of the Church of the Prussian Union, which united Calvinists and millions of German Lutherans into one church.政治向上提升的普魯士之間德語國家最遲於19世紀初,導致成立( 1817年)的教會的普魯士聯盟,其中美國calvinists和數以百萬計的德國lutherans成一個教會。 This development was bitterly opposed by a large number of Lutherans, some of whom broke away to establish a separate church.這一事態發展,寒風反對大量lutherans ,其中有些人打破,以建立一個獨立的教會。 The crisis of German politics in the 20th century gravely affected German Lutheranism.這場危機對德國政治的,在20世紀嚴重影響了德國路德教。 Hitler's attempt to control German churches led to the split of the German Lutheran Church and to the internment of some Lutherans (such as Martin Niemöller) in concentration camps and the execution of others (notably the theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer).希特勒試圖控制德國教會造成分裂的德國路德教會,並以該拘留的一些lutherans (如李柱銘niemöller )關進集中營,並執行其他(尤其是神學家迪特里希朋霍費爾) 。 Lutheran leaders in Norway and Denmark took major roles in the resistance to Nazi occupation of their countries, and the German Confessing Church, which had resisted Hitler, made an important contribution to the reconstruction of West Germany (now part of the united Federal Republic of Germany) after World War II.路德教會領袖在挪威和丹麥發生重大作用,在抵抗納粹佔領他們的國家,以及德國懺悔教會,其中有反抗希特勒,作出了重要貢獻,有助於推動重建的西德(現為美國的一部分,德意志聯邦共和國)在第二次世界大戰後。

Lutheranism in America路德教在美國

Lutheranism arrived in America with the early European settlers.路德教抵達美國與歐洲早期的定居者。 In 1625 some Dutch, German, and Scandinavian Lutherans settled in New Amsterdam (now New York City). 1625一些荷蘭語,德語和斯堪的納維亞lutherans定居在新阿姆斯特丹(現在的紐約市) 。 In 1638 another early Lutheran settlement was founded by Swedes in what is now Delaware.在另外的1638年初路德沉降是由瑞典人在現在的美國特拉華州成立。 At the beginning of the 18th century German Lutherans settled in large numbers in Pennsylvania.在十八世紀初德國lutherans定居在大批在賓夕法尼亞州。 In 1742 Pastor Henry Melchior Muhlenberg arrived from Germany and soon founded (1748) the first Lutheran synod in North America.在1742牧師亨利梅爾希奧muhlenberg抵達來自德國和即將成立( 1748 )第一屆路德主教在北美。 After the American Revolution (1775-1783), each successive group of Lutheran immigrants founded its own churches and synods and conducted its services in the language of its country of origin.之後,美國獨立戰爭( 1775年至1783年) ,各組連續的路德教會移民創立自己的教會和主教會議,並進行了服務語言,它的原產國。 Because of the large numbers of immigrants to the United States and Canada in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the integration of Lutherans into North American society went slowly, and Lutheranism was divided into numerous German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, and Slovak groups.由於大量的移民到美國和加拿大早在19月初和20世紀,整合lutherans到北美社會中去慢慢地,並路德教被分成無數德國,瑞典,挪威,丹麥,芬蘭,斯洛伐克群體。 Following World War I (1914-1918), however, unification and integration proceeded rapidly.第一次世界大戰後( 1914-1918 ) ,但是,統一和一體化接著迅速。 The process accelerated after World War II (1939-1945), and by the early 1980s mergers had consolidated most Lutherans in the United States and Canada into five major bodies: the Lutheran Church in America (LCA), Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (LCMS), the American Lutheran Church (ALC), the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS), and the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches (AELC).這一進程加快了二次世界大戰後( 1939年至1945年) ,並且在80年代初兼併合併最lutherans在美國和加拿大到五個主要機構: 路德教會在美國 (的LCA ) , 路德教會主教密蘇里州 ( lcms ) , 美國路德教會 ( ALC )和, 威斯康辛基督教香港信義主教 (韋爾斯) ,以及該協會的福音派路德教會 ( aelc ) 。 In 1988 the LCA, ALC, and AELC merged after five years of preparatory work, forming the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA). 1988年,生命週期分析,酒精含量,並aelc合併,經過五年的籌備工作,最終形成了基督教香港信義會在美洲 ( elca ) 。 In the early 1990s the ELCA reported a membership of more than 5.2 million in about 11,000 churches.我國早在20世紀90年代elca報,會員有超過520萬美元,約11000座教堂。 Membership in the LCMS was about 2.6 million, and in the WELS about 417,000.會員在lcms約為260萬,而在韋爾斯約41.7萬。 Lutheranism is the third largest Protestant denomination in the United States.路德教是全球第三大的新教教派在美國。

In 1997 the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America agreed to share full communion with three other Protestant denominations - the Presbyterian Church (USA), the United Church of Christ, and the Reformed Church in America. 1997年,基督教香港信義會在美國同意共享,充分交流,與其他三間新教教派-基督教長老會(美國) ,美國基督教會,並經過改革的教會在美國。 The agreement meant that the churches could exchange clergy and that members could worship and receive sacraments at the other churches.該協議意味著教會可以交換神職人員和大家能崇拜,並接受聖禮在其他教會。

Canadian Churches加拿大教會

The Lutheran churches in the United States have Canadian counterparts.路德教會,在美國有加。 The newly formed Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, composed of wings of the former LCA and ALC churches, reported membership of 199,600 in the early 1990s.新成立的基督教香港信義會在加拿大,組成聯隊的前LCA及的ALC教堂,報會員199600在20世紀90年代初。 The Lutheran Church-Canada was originally a member of the LCMS but became autonomous in 1988.路德教會-加拿大本來是一個會員的lcms反而變得自治縣於1988年。 Reported membership is about 79,400.報導會員約79400 。

World Lutheranism世界路德教

Although a majority of the world's Lutherans still live in the traditionally Lutheran countries of central and northern Europe, Lutheranism has been growing most rapidly in Africa and Asia.雖然世界上大多數的lutherans仍然生活在傳統路德國家的中部和北部歐洲,路德教一直持續增長最為迅速,在非洲和亞洲。 Indeed, the only country outside of Europe where a majority of the population is Lutheran is Namibia in southern Africa.事實上,只有國家在歐洲以外的地方人口的大多數,是路德納米比亞是南部非洲。 The Lutheran World Federation (LWF), headquartered in Geneva, coordinates the activities of almost all Lutheran churches in the world.世界路德教會聯合會(聯合會) ,總部設在日內瓦,負責協調活動的幾乎所有的路德教會,在世界上。 It oversees ecumenical relations, theological studies, and world service and is guided by an international executive committee.監管合一的關係,神學研究,為世界服務,並遵循國際執行委員會委員。 Most Lutheran churches are also members of the World Council of Churches.最路德教會的成員也是世界基督教協進會。

Cultural Influence文化的影響

Lutheranism has always been concerned with the cultural and intellectual aspects of the Christian faith.路德教一向關注的文化和智力方面的基督教信仰。 Its influence on music through such composers as Johann Sebastian Bach, Dietrich Buxtehude, Michael Praetorius, and Heinrich Schütz has been as profound as it was on philosophy.它的影響力,透過音樂這種作為作曲家約翰塞巴斯蒂安巴赫,迪特里希buxtehude ,邁克爾普雷托里亞斯,王俠schütz已為深刻,因為它是哲學。 Thinkers of Lutheran background, such as Immanuel Kant, JG Fichte, GWF Hegel, and Søren Kierkegaard, articulated their ideas in dialogue with and often in opposition to the Lutheran tradition.思想家的路德派的背景,如康德, jg費希特,黑格爾gwf ,瑟倫克爾凱郭爾,闡述了他們的想法,在與各國進行對話並經常在反對路德的傳統。 Lutheranism has also produced a number of notable biblical scholars, such as DF Strauss and Albert Schweitzer, and theologians, such as Albrecht Ritschl, Adolf von Harnack, Rudolf Otto, Rudolf Bultmann, and Paul Tillich.路德教同時也產生了一些顯著的聖經學者,如測Strauss和史懷哲,和神學家,如Albrecht其後里奇爾,阿道夫馮的Harnack ,魯道夫奧托,魯道夫布特曼,和保羅蒂里希。

George Wolfgang Forell喬治沃爾夫岡forell


Lutheranism路德教

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

The religious belief held by the oldest and in Europe the most numerous of the Protestant sects, founded by the Wittenberg reformer, Martin Luther.宗教信仰舉行,由最年長的,在歐洲是最眾多的新教教派,創辦維滕貝格的改革者,馬丁路德。 The term Lutheran was first used by his opponents during the Leipzig Disputation in 1519, and afterwards became universally prevalent.任期路德首次被他的反對者在萊比錫糾紛1519 ,後來就成了普遍盛行。 Luther preferred the designation "Evangelical", and today the usual title of the sect is "Evangelical Lutheran Church".路德推薦指定的"福音" ,而今天慣常的標題該教派是"基督教香港信義會" 。 In Germany, where the Lutherans and the Reformed have united (since 1817), the name Lutheran has been abandoned, and the state Church is styled the Evangelical or the Evangelical United.在德國,那裡lutherans和改革,有美國(自1817年) ,其名稱路德已被廢棄,和國家的教堂是風格的福音派或福音派團結。

I. DISTINCTIVE TEACHINGS一,鮮明的教誨

In doctrine official Lutheranism is part of what is called orthodox Protestantism, since it agrees with the Catholic and the Greek Churches in accepting the authority of the Scriptures and of the three most ancient creeds (the Apostles' Creed, the Nicene Creed, and the Athanasian Creed).在學說官方路德教的一部分,是所謂的正統基督教,因為它同意與天主教和希臘教會在接受權威的經文和三個最古老的信條(使徒們的信條,尼西亞,以及亞他那修信經信條) 。 Besides these formulæ of belief, Lutheranism acknowledges six specific confessions which distinguish it from other churches:除了這些formulã |信仰路德教承認六項具體的自白書,其中區別於其他教堂:

the unaltered Augsburg Confession (1530),原有的奧格斯堡自白( 1530 ) ,

the Apology of the Augsburg Confession (1531),該道歉的奧格斯堡自白( 1531 ) ,

Luther's Large Catechism (1529),路德的大問答( 1529 ) ,

Luther's Catechism for Children (1529),路德的講授兒童( 1529 ) ,

the Articles of Smalkald (1537), and該文章的smalkald ( 1537 ) ,以及

the Form of Concord (1577).形式康科德( 1577 ) 。

These nine symbolical books (including the three Creeds) constitute what is known as the "Book of Concord", which was first published at Dresden in 1580 by order of Elector Augustus of Saxony (see FAITH, PROTESTANT CONFESSIONS OF).這9個具有象徵意義的書籍(包括三個信條)的構成什麼是被稱為"書和諧" ,這是首次公佈於德累斯頓1580年以命令的選民奧古斯薩克森(見信仰新教的供詞) 。 In these confessions the Scriptures are declared to be the only rule of faith.在這些供詞聖經被宣布為唯一的法治信仰。 The extent of the Canon is not defined, but the bibles in common use among Lutherans have been generally the same as those of other Protestant denominations (see CANON OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES).程度佳能是沒有界定,但聖經,在共同使用lutherans已大致相同,因為相對於其他新教教派(見佳能的聖經) 。 The symbols and the other writings not contained in Scripture do not possess decisive authority, but merely show how the Scriptures were understood and explained at particular times by the leading theologians (Form of Concord).符號和其他著作中不包含的經文不擁有決定性的權力,而只是顯示如何念經人的理解和解釋,在特定的時代所領導的神學家(形式的康科德) 。

The chief tenet of the Lutheran creed, that which Luther called "the article of the standing and falling Church", has reference to the justification of sinful man.行政特尼特的路德派教義,其中路德所謂的"的文章,對常委會和屬於教會" ,已提及的理由罪孽深重的人。 Original sin is explained as a positive and total depravity of human nature, which renders all the acts of the unjustified, even those of civil righteousness, sinful and displeasing to God.原罪是解釋,是一個積極和徹底墮落的人性,使得所有的行為無理,甚至那些民間正義,罪孽深重不快上帝。 Justification, which is not an internal change, but an external, forensic declaration by which God imputes to the creature the righteousness of Christ, comes only by faith, which is the confidence that one is reconciled to God through Christ.理由的,而不是一個內部的變化,而是一個外來的,法醫宣言,其中神責難向受造物了正義的救世主,只能由信仰,這是有信心,一個是調和向上帝透過基督。 Good works are necessary as an exercise of faith, and are rewarded, not by justification (which they presuppose), but by the fulfilment of the Divine promises (Apology Aug. Conf.).好的作品都是必要的,因為這是一次信念,並獲得報償的,而不是由理由(即它們預先假定) ,但所履行的神聖諾言(道歉8月conf設置) 。

Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are:其他獨特的教義,路德教會是:

consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), ie the real, corporeal presence of Christ's Body and Blood during the celebration of the Lord's Supper, in, with, and under the substance of bread and wine, in a union which is not hypostatic, nor of mixture, nor of local inclusion, but entirely transcendent and mysterious; consubstantiation (雖然符號不使用這個詞) ,即真實的,有體存在於基督的身體和血液在慶祝主的晚飯,在, ,而根據物質的麵包和酒,在一個聯盟,這是不本質的,也不是混合物,也對當地的包容性,但完全是超越性和神秘;

the omnipresence of the Body of Christ, which is differently explained by the commentators of the Symbolical Books.無處不在的基督的身體,這是有不同的解釋,由評論家的象徵意義的書籍。

Since the official formulæ of faith claim no decisive authority for themselves, and on many points are far from harmonious, the utmost diversity of opinion prevails among Lutherans.由於官方formulã |信仰聲稱沒有決定性的權力,為自己,對許多問題的看法是遠遠和諧的,極其不同見解之間普遍存在lutherans 。 Every shade of belief may be found among them, from the orthodox, who hold fast to the confessions, to the semi-infidel theologians, who deny the authority of the Scriptures.每一個遮蔭的信仰可能會發現,其中從正統的,他們堅守在供述中,以半異教徒的神學家,他否認的權威會念經。

II.二。 HISTORY歷史

Lutheranism dates from 31 October, 1517, when Luther affixed his theses to the church door of the castle of Wittenberg.路德教的日期從1517年10月31日,當路德貼在他的論文送到教堂的門城堡維滕貝格。 Although he did not break with the Catholic Church until three years later, he had already come substantially to his later views on the plan of salvation.雖然他沒有打破天主教教會,直到三年後的今天,他已開始大幅向他的意見,後來就救恩計劃。 The new teachings, however underwent a great change after Luther's return from Wartburg (1521).新的教義,但經歷了巨大的變革之後,路德的回報wartburg ( 1521 ) 。 Before he died (18 Feb., 1546), his teachings had been propagated in many states of Germany in Poland, in the Baltic Provinces, in Hungary, transylvania, the Netherlands, Denmark and Scandinavia.去世前( 1546年2月18日) ,他的教誨一直宣揚的,在許多國家的德國在波蘭,波羅的海省份,在匈牙利, Transylvania的,荷蘭,丹麥和斯堪的納維亞。 From these European countries Lutheranism has been carried by emigration to the New World, and in the United States it ranks among the leading Protestant denominations.從這些歐洲國家路德教已進行了由移民到新的世界,並在美國,它躋身於領先的新教教派。

(1) The Lutherans in Germany ( 1 ) lutherans在德國

(a) First Period: From the appearance of Luther's Theses to the adoption of the Formula of Concord (1517-80) (一)第一期:從外表路德的論文,以通過該公式的康科德( 1517至1580年)

Favoured by the civil rulers, Lutheranism spread rapidly in Northern Germany.贊成由民間統治者,路德教迅速蔓延,在德國北部。 After the Diet of Speyer (1526) the Elector of Saxony and other princes established Lutheran state Churches.經過國會的斯派爾( 1526 )選民薩克森州政府和其他王子建立了路德教會國家。 An alliance between these princes was concluded at Torgau in 1526, and again at Smalkald in 1531.結盟的關係,這些王公得出的結論是,在托爾高,在1526 ,並再次smalkald在1531年。 The Protestant League was continually increased by the accession of other states, and a religious war broke out in 1546, which resulted in the Peace of Augsburg (1555).新教聯盟正在不斷增加,所加入的其他國家,和一個宗教戰爭爆發,在1546 ,結果在和平的奧格斯堡( 1555 ) 。 This treaty provided that the Lutherans should retain permanently what they then possessed, but that all officials of ecclesiastical estates, who from that time forth should go over to Protestantism would be deposed and replaced by Catholics.這一條約規定,該lutherans應保留永久什麼然後,他們擁有的,但所有官員的教會屋的,他們從這個時候提出要到基督教會被廢黜,取而代之的天主教徒。 This latter provision, known as the "Reservatum Ecclesiasticum", was very unsatisfactory to the Protestants, and its constant violation was one of the causes that lead up to the Thirty Years War (1618-48).後一項規定,被稱為" reservatum ecclesiasticum " ,是十分不理想,以新教徒,其不斷侵犯的原因之一,這導致了向三十年戰爭( 1618年至1648年) 。 At the time of the Peace of Augsburg Lutherans predominated in the north of Germany, while the Zwinglians or Reformed were very numerous in the south.在當時的社會安寧的奧格斯堡lutherans為主,在北方的德國,而zwinglians或改革的人十分眾多,在南方。 Austria, Bavaria, and the territories subject to spiritual lords were Catholic, although many of these afterwards became Protestant.奧地利,巴伐利亞州和領土受到精神上議院天主教,雖然許多這些後來成為新教徒。 Several attempts were made to effect a reunion.幾次嘗試了效果與親人團聚。 In 1534 Pope Paul III invited the Protestants to a general council.在第1534教皇保羅三,請新教徒向總理事會。 Emperor Charles V arranged conferences between Catholic and Lutheran theologians in 1541, 1546, and 1547.皇帝查爾斯五世安排會議之間的天主教和路德神學家,在第1541 ,第1546 ,第1547和。 His successor, Ferdinand I (1556-64), and many private individuals such as the Lutheran Frederick Staphylus and Father Contzen, laboured much for the same end.他的繼任者,費迪南德( 1556至1564年) ,以及許多個人如路德馮staphylus和父親康岑,辛勞花太多時間作同樣的下場。 All these efforts, however, proved fruitless.所有這些努力,但事實證明徒勞無功。 Melanchthon, Crusius, and other Lutheran theologians made formal proposals of union to the Greek Church (1559, 1574, 1578), but nothing came of their overtures.梅蘭希頓,克魯修斯和其他路德神學家提出正式的建議,聯盟向希臘教會( 1559 ,第1574 , 1578 ) ,但仍然沒有自己的序曲。 From the beginning bitter hostility existed between the Lutherans and the Reformed.從一開始的痛苦敵意之間存在lutherans和改革。 This first appeared in the Sacramentarian controversy between Luther and Zwingli (1524).這首先出現在sacramentarian之間爭議的路德和zwingli ( 1524 ) 。 They met in conference at Marburg in 1529, but came to no agreement.他們會見了在招待會上馬爾堡1529年,但最後並沒有達成協議。 The hopes of union created by the compromise formula of 1536, known as the Concordia Wittenbergensis, proved delusive.希望聯盟製造出來的折衷辦法的1536 ,命名為協和wittenbergensis ,證明過於一廂情願了。 Luther continued to make war on the Zwinglians until his death.路德繼續做出戰爭對zwinglians直到逝世。 The Sacramentarian strife was renewed in 1549 when the Zwinglians accepted Calvin's view of the Real Presence.該sacramentarian爭鬥延續,在1549年時zwinglians接受卡爾文的角度真實的存在。 The followers of Melanchthon, who favoured Calvin's doctrine (Philippists, Crypto-Calvinists), were also furiously denounced by the orthodox Lutherans.信徒梅蘭希頓,主張卡爾文的教義( philippists ,隱calvinists ) ,還拼命譴責,也遭到正統lutherans 。 During these controversies the State Church of the Palatinate, where Philippism predominated, changed from the Lutheran to the Reformed faith (1560).在這些爭議的國家教會的皇帝行宮遺址,那裡philippism為主,改為由路德向改革信仰( 1560 ) 。 From the beginning Lutheranism was torn by doctrinal disputes, carried on with the utmost violence and passion.從一開始路德教被拆除,由教義糾紛,進行了以最大的暴力和激情。 They had reference to the questions of sin and grace, justification by faith, the use of good works, the Lord's Supper, and the Person and work of Christ.他們提到的問題,單仲偕和恩典,因信稱義後,其使用的優秀作品,上帝的晚飯,和網站負責人及工作的喊聲。 The bitterest controversy was the Crypto-Calvinistic.在痛苦的爭論是隱calvinistic 。 To effect harmony the Form of Concord, the last of the Lutheran symbols, was drawn up in 1577, and accepted by the majority of the state Churches.對和諧的形式,和諧,最後的路德符號,制訂了在1577 ,並接受大多數國家教堂。 The document was written in a conciliatory spirit, but it secured the triumph of the orthodox party.該文件是寫在懷柔精神,但它獲得的勝利正統黨。

(b) Second Period: From the Adoption of the Form of Concord to the Beginning of the Pietistic Movement (1580-1689) (二)第二個時期:從通過形式的和諧,以年初的pietistic運動( 1580至1689年)

During this period Lutheranism was engaged in bitter polemics with its neighbours in Germany.在此期間,路德教是從事激烈論戰同其鄰國德國。 Out of these religious discords grew the horrors of the Thirty Years War, which led many persons to desire better relations between the churches.從這些宗教discords增長可怕的三十年戰爭,這使得很多人的願望,更好地關係的教堂。 A "charitable colloquy" was held at Thorn in 1645 by Catholic, Lutheran, and Calvinist theologians, but nothing was accomplished. "慈善座談會"舉行眼中釘1645年由天主教會,路德會,並calvinist神學家,但沒有完成。 The proposal of the Lutheran professor, George Calixtus, that the confessions organize into one church with the consensus of the first five centuries as a common basis (Syncretism), aroused a storm of indignation, and, by way of protest, a creed was accepted by the Saxon universities which expressed the views of the most radical school of Lutheran orthodoxy (1655).建議路德教授,喬治卡利克斯特斯,認為自白書,組織成一個教會與共識的首五個世紀以來作為一個共同的基礎(合) ,引起一場風波的憤慨,並透過抗議,一個信條被接受由撒克遜人所大學表達了意見,最激進的學校的路德派的正統( 1655 ) 。 The Lutheran theologians of this period imitated the disorderly arrangement of Melanchthon's "Loci Theologici", but in spirit they were with few exceptions loyal supporters of the Form of Concord.路德神學的這一時期模仿無序的安排梅蘭希頓的"軌跡theologici " ,但在精神上,他們除了少數例外的忠實支持者形式的和諧。 Although the writings of Luther abound with diatribes against the speculative sciences, his followers early perceived the necessity of philosophy for controversial purposes.雖然寫的路德比比皆是與謾罵打擊投機性科學,他的追隨者早期知覺的必要性哲學為具爭議性的目的。 Melanchthon developed a system of Aristoteleanism, and it was not long before the Scholastic method, which Luther had so cordially detested, was used by the Evangelical theologians, although the new Scholasticism was utterly different from the genuine system.梅蘭希頓開發出一種系統的aristoteleanism ,篇幅不長前,在學術上的方法,即路德有這麼親切憎惡的,是用由基督教神學家,雖然新士林哲學是迥然有別,從真正的制度。 Lutheran dogmatics became a maze of refined subtleties, and mere logomachy was considered the chief duty of the theologian.路德dogmatics成為迷宮的精緻微妙之處,而僅僅logomachy被認為是行政責任和神學家。 The result was a fanatical orthodoxy, whose only activity was heresy-hunting and barren controversy.結果,是一個狂熱的正統,而他們唯一的活動是異端-狩獵和荒蕪的爭議。 New attempts were made to unite the Evangelical Churches.新的嘗試作了團結福音派教會。 Conferences were held in 1586, 1631, and 1661; a plan of union was proposed by the Heidelberg professor Pareus (1615); the Reformed Synod of Charenton (1631) voted to admit Lutheran sponsors in baptism.會議分別於1586 , 1631和1661年;一項計劃的聯盟提議,由海德堡教授pareus ( 1615 ) ;悔改的主教的charenton ( 1631 )投票接納路德發起人的洗禮。 But again the doctrine of the Lord's Supper proved an obstacle, as the Lutherans would agree to no union that was not based upon perfect dogmatic consensus.但同樣中庸主的晚餐證明是一個障礙,為lutherans會同意,沒有工會,這是不是基於完美的教條式的共識。 By the Peace of Westphalia (1648) the concessions which had been made to the Lutherans in 1555 were extended to the Reformed.由和平的威斯特伐利亞( 1648 )的讓步已經向lutherans在1555年擴大到改革。

(c) Third Period: From the Beginning of the Pietistic Movement to the Evangelical Union (1689-1817) (三)第三個時期:從一開始的pietistic運動,以福音派聯盟( 1689年至1817年)

Pietism, which was a reaction against the cold and dreary formalism of Lutheran orthodoxy, originated with Philip Spener (1635-1705). pietism ,這是一個反應,對冷戰的悲涼形式主義的路德派的正統,起源於弘spener ( 1635至1705年) 。 In sermons and writings he asserted the claims of personal holiness, and in 1670, while dean at Frankfort-on-the-Main, he began to hold little reunions called collegia pietatis (whence the name Pietist), in which devotional passages of the Scriptures were explained and pious conversation carried on by those present.在講道和著作,他斷言,索賠的個人成聖,而在1670年,而迪安在法蘭克福發表了主,他開始進行小團聚所謂collegia虔團契(何時名稱虔信) ,其中靈修通道念經解釋和虔誠的談話進行,由在座的各位。 His follower, August Francke, founded in 1694 the University of Halle, which became a stronghold of Pietism.他的跟隨者,八月francke ,成立於1694年該大學的哈勒,從而成為一個重要據點的pietism 。 The strict Lutherans accused the Pietists of heresy, a charge which was vigorously denied, although in fact the new school differed from the orthodox not only in practice, but also in doctrine.嚴格lutherans被告虔誠的異端,收費是大力否認,但事實上,在新學年開始有別於正統的,不僅在實踐中,而且在教義。 The first enthusiasm of the Pietists soon degenerated into fanaticism, and they rapidly lost favour.首熱情的虔誠很快墮落成為狂熱的,他們很快失去了贊成票。 Pietism had exercised a beneficial influence, but it was followed by the Rationalistic movement, a more radical reaction against orthodoxy, which effected within the Lutheran, as in other Protestant communions, many apostasies from Christian belief. pietism行使了一次有益的影響,但它其次是理性主義運動,一個更激進的反應,對正統觀念的影響,其中內部路德,正如在其他新教communions ,許多apostasies從基督教信仰。 The philosophy of the day and the national literature, then ardently cultivated, had gradually undermined the faith of all classes of the people.哲學白天和民族文學,那麼殷切地栽培,已逐漸破壞了信仰的各階級的人。 The leaders in the Church adjusted themselves to the new conditions, and soon theological chairs and the pulpits were filled by men who rejected not only the dogmatic teaching of the Symbolical Books, but every supernatural element of religion.領導人在教會中調整自己以適應新環境,並盡快神學椅子和pulpits填補男子,他們拒絕了,不僅教條式的教學中的象徵意義,書籍,但每一個超自然元素的宗教。 A notable exception to this growing infidelity was the sect of Herrnhuters or United Brethren, founded in 1722 by Count von Zinzendorf, a follower of the Pietistic school (see BOHEMIAN BRETHREN).一個顯著的例外,這一日益嚴重的不忠,是該教派的herrnhuters或美國同胞們,成立於1722年,由計數馮辛生鐸夫,是追隨者的pietistic學校(見波希米亞弟兄) 。 The critical state of their churches caused many Protestants to long for a union between the Lutherans and the Reformed.臨界狀態,他們的教堂,造成許多新教徒,以長期為聯盟之間lutherans和改革。 The royal house of Prussia laboured to accomplish a union, but all plans were frustrated by the opposition of the theologians.皇家眾議院普魯士辛勞,完成了工會,但所有的計劃落空,由在野的神學家。 There were for a time prospects of a reconciliation of the Hanoverian Lutherans with the Catholic Church.有一個時期,前景和解的hanoverian lutherans與天主教教會。 Negotiations were carried on between the Catholic Bishop Spinola and the Lutheran representative Molanus (1691).進行了談判對兩國天主教會主教spinola和路德代表molanus ( 1691 ) 。 A controversy on the points at issue followed between Bossuet and Leibniz (1692-1701), but no agreement was reached.爭議,就點上的問題,其次之間bossuet和萊布尼茨( 1692至1701年) ,但沒有達成任何協議。

(d) Fourth Period: From the Evangelical Union (1817) to the Present (四)第四時期:從福音派聯盟( 1817 ) ,以目前的

The chief events in the Lutheran Churches in Germany during the nineteenth century were the Evangelical Union and the revival of orthodoxy.行政活動在路德教會,在德國,在十九世紀被福音派聯盟和復興正統。 During the celebration of the tercentenary of the Reformation in 1817, efforts were made in Prussia to unite Lutherans and Reformed.慶祝活動期間的tercentenary的改革在1817年,做出了很大的努力普魯士團結lutherans和改革。 Frederick William III recommended the use of a common liturgy by the two churches, and this proposal gradually won acceptance.馮威廉三,建議使用一個共同的禮儀中,由兩個教會,而這項建議逐步地贏得了驗收。 There was much opposition, however, to the service-book published by royal authority in 1822.有許多反對,但是,以服務業為圖書出版的英國皇家管理局1822年。 John Scheibel, deacon in Breslau, refused to accept it, and, being deposed from office, founded a separatist sect known as the "Old Lutherans" (1830).約翰scheibel ,執事在布雷斯勞,拒絕接受它,並在被廢黜,由辦公室,創立了有分裂教派被稱為"舊lutherans " ( 1830 ) 。 The Government used very oppressive measures against these nonconformists, but in 1845 the new king, Frederick William IV, recognized them as an independent Lutheran sect.政府用非常壓迫性措施,對這類nonconformists ,但在1845年新國王,馮威廉四,承認他們是作為一個獨立的路德節。 In 1860 the Old Lutherans were greatly reduced in numbers by the defection of Pastor Diedrich, who organized the independent Immanuel Synod.在1860年的舊lutherans被大大降低,數量由叛逃的牧師diedrich ,世衛組織組織獨立伊曼紐主教。 There were also separatist movements outside of Silesia.也有一些分離主義運動以外的西里西亞。 Free Lutheran Churches were established by dissenters in Hesse, Hanover, Baden, and Saxony.免費路德教會成立了由異議人士在黑森州,漢諾威,巴登和薩克森州。 A supernaturalist movement, which defended the Divinely inspired character of the Bible, started a reaction against the principle of rationalism in theology. 1 supernaturalist運動,捍衛了神聖的品格聖經,開始了對反應的原則,理性神學。 The centenary jubilees of 1817 and the following years, which recalled the early days of Lutheranism, brought with them a revival of former orthodoxy.百年jubilees的1817年和隨後的幾年中,其中回顧早年的路德教,帶來了他們的復興前的正統。 The theological faculties of several universities became strictly Lutheran in their teachings.神學系的幾所大學,成為嚴格路德派,在他們的教導。 Since then there has been a persistent and bitter struggle between rationalistic and Evangelical tendencies in the United and Free Churches.從那時起,一直持續了艱苦卓絕的鬥爭之間的理性主義和基督教的傾向,在美國和自由的教堂。

(2) The Lutherans in Denmark and Scandinavia. ( 2 ) lutherans在丹麥和斯堪的納維亞。

(a) Denmark (一)丹麥

By the Union of Calmar (1397), Sweden, Norway, and Denmark became a united kingdom under the King of Denmark.由聯盟的calmar ( 1397 ) ,瑞典,挪威,丹麥,成為聯合王國根據國王的丹麥。 The despotic Christian II (1513-23) endeavoured to introduce the Reformation, but was overthrown by his barons.專制的基督教第二卷( 1513年至1523年)致力推行改革,但被推翻後,由他的大亨。 Frederick I of Schleswig-Holstein, his successor, openly professed Lutheranism in 1526.馮本人石-荷州,他的繼任者,公然自稱路德教在第1526 。 At the Diet of Odense (1527) he obtained a measure which guaranteed equal rights to his coreligionists, and two years later he proclaimed Lutheranism the only true religion.在國會的歐登塞( 1527 ) ,他獲得了一項措施,保證平等權利,以他的coreligionists ,兩年後,他宣布路德教唯一真正的宗教。 Under his successor, Christian III (1533-59), the Catholic bishops were deprived of their sees, and the Lutheran Church of Denmark was organized with the king as supreme bishop.根據他的繼任者,基督教三( 1533年至1559年) ,天主教主教被剝奪了他們認為,路德教會的丹麥組織與國王的最高主教。 The Diet of Copenhagen (1546) enacted penal laws, which deprived Catholics of civil rights and forbade priests to remain in Denmark under pain of death.國會的哥本哈根( 1546 )頒布了刑法,剝奪天主教徒的公民權利,並禁止神職人員向留在丹麥,根據疼痛的死因。 The opposition of Iceland to the new religion was put down by force (1550).在野的冰島到新的宗教是放下武力( 1550 ) 。 German rationalism was propagated in Denmark by Clausen.德國理性主義所宣揚的是在丹麥由克勞森。 Among its opponents was Grundtvig, leader of the Grundtvigian movement (1824), which advocated the acceptance of the Apostles' Creed as the sole rule of faith.其對手是grundtvig ,領導人對grundtvigian運動( 1824年) ,其中主張接受使徒們的信條作為唯一的法治信仰。 Freedom of religious worship was granted in 1849.宗教信仰自由是理所當然的1849年。

(b) Norway (二)挪威

Norway, which was united with Denmark, became Lutheran during the reigns of Frederick I and Christian III.挪威,這是美國與丹麥,成為路德在統治馮本人及基督教三。 Rationalism, introduced from Denmark, made great progress in Norway.理性主義,介紹了來自丹麥,取得了很大的進步,在挪威舉行。 It was opposed by Hauge and by Norwegian followers of Grundtvig.它反對由hauge和挪威的追隨者grundtvig 。 A Free Apostolic Church was founded by Adolph Lammers about 1850, but later reunited with the state church.一個自由的使徒教會成立由阿拉默斯約1850名,但後來團圓與國家教會。 Norway passed laws of toleration in 1845, but still excludes the Jesuits.挪威通過法律的耐受性,在1845年,但仍然排斥耶穌。

(c) Sweden (三)瑞典

Sweden was freed from the Danish yoke by Gustavus Vasa in 1521, and two years later the liberator was chosen king.瑞典是擺脫丹麥語的羈絆,由gustavus瓦薩在1521年,兩年後的救星,被選為國王。 Almost from the outset of his reign he showed himself favourable to Lutherans, and by cunning and violence succeeded in introducing the new religion into his kingdom.幾乎從一開始就對他的統治,他表明自己有利lutherans和狡詐和暴力成功地引進了新的宗教進入他的王國。 In 1529 the Reformation was formally established by the Assembly of Orebro, and in 1544 the ancient Faith was put under the ban of the law. 1529年改革正式成立,由大會厄勒布魯,並在第1544古老的信仰被劃歸禁止殺傷人員地雷的規定。 The reign of Eric XIV (1560-8) was marked by violent conflicts between the Lutherans and the Calvinists.腥風血雨的埃里克十四( 1560-8 ) ,主要標誌是暴力衝突之間lutherans和calvinists 。 The latter party was favoured by the king, and their defeat in 1568 was followed by Eric's dethronement.後者黨是贊成由國王,他們的失敗,在第1568其次是由Eric的dethronement 。 His successor, John III (1568-92), conferred with Gregory XIII on a reunion of Sweden with the Catholic Church, but, as the pope could not grant all the concessions demanded by the king, the negotiations were unsuccessful.他的繼任者,約翰第三期( 1568年至1592年) ,賦予與格雷戈里十三,對親人團聚的瑞典與天主教會的,但是,正如教宗不能給予的一切優惠,要求由國王,談判均告失敗。 The next king, Sigismund (1592-1604), was a Catholic, but, as he lived in Poland (of which he was king from 1587), the Government of Sweden was administered by his uncle Duke Charles of Sudermanland, a zealous Lutheran, who used the power at his command to secure his proclamation as King Charles IX in the Assembly of Nordkoeping (1604).未來國王, sigismund ( 1592至1604年) ,是一名天主教徒,但是,正如他住在波蘭(其中他被國王從1587 ) ,瑞典政府是由他的叔叔查爾斯杜克大學的sudermanland ,一名熱心的路德,利用職權在他的指揮,以確保自己宣布為國王查爾斯九在大會上的nordkoeping ( 1604 ) 。 The successor of Charles was the famous general and statesman, Gustavus Adolphus (1611-32).繼承人的查爾斯是著名的一般性和政治家, gustavus adolphus ( 1611至1632年) 。 For the part he took in the Thirty Years War, he is venerated by Lutherans as the religious hero of their Church, but it is now admitted that reasons of state led Gustavus into that conflict.對於一部分,他在三十年戰爭中,他是崇敬,由lutherans作為宗教英雄,他們的教會,但現在是承認國家利益為名的理由,導致gustavus到這一衝突。 He was succeeded by his only daughter Christina, who became a Catholic and abdicated in 1654.他是接替他唯一的女兒克里斯蒂娜,他成為一名天主教徒,並宣布退位於1654年。 By a law of 1686 all persons in the kingdom were required under severe penalties to conform to the state Church.由法1686年所有的人在英國必須受到嚴厲處罰,以符合國家的教會。 A law passed in 1726 against religious conventicles was rigidly enforced against the Swedish Pietists (Läsare) from 1803 till its repeal in 1853.通過的一項法律,在1726年對宗教conventicles是硬性強迫對瑞典虔誠( lã ¤ sare ) ,從1803年至今,其廢除於1853年。 The law against religious dissidents was not removed from the statute books till 1873.依法對宗教異議人士,是不能完全取消,由成文法,直至1873年。 The Swedish Church is entirely controlled by the state, and the strict orthodoxy which was enforced prevented at first any serious inroads of Rationalism.瑞典教會是完全控制在國家手中,並嚴格正統被強迫阻止起初任何嚴重侵害的理性主義。 But since 1866 there has formed within the state Church a "progressive party", whose purpose is to abandon all symbols and to laicize the church.但自從1866年有形成國家教會"進步黨" ,其目的就是要放棄所有的符號,並laicize教會。 The two universities of Upsala and Lund are orthodox.兩所大學的烏普撒拉和隆德是東正教。 The Grand Duchy of Finland, formerly united to Sweden, but now (since 1809) a Province of Russia, maintains Lutheranism as the national Church.該大公國的芬蘭,前身是美,以瑞典的,但現在(自1809 )的一個省,俄羅斯,保持路德教為全國教堂。

(3) Lutheranism in Other Countries of Europe ( 3 )路德教在其他歐洲國家

(a) Poland (一)波蘭

Lutheranism was introduced into Poland during the reign of Sigismund I (1501-48) by young men who had made their studies at Wittenberg.路德教傳入波蘭統治期間sigismund我( 1501年至1548年) ,由年輕男子,他們曾就讀於維滕貝格。 The new teachings were opposed by the king, but had the powerful support of the nobility.新的教義都反對由國王,但有強大的科技支持的貴族。 From Danzig they spread to the cities of Thorn and Elbing, and, during the reign of Sigismund II (1548-72), steadily gained ground.從澤它們蔓延至城市的眼中釘和埃爾賓,並在位期間sigismund第二卷( 1548年至1572年) ,穩步攀升。 A union symbol was drawn up and signed by the Protestants at Sandomir in 1570, and three years later they concluded a religious peace with the Catholics, in which it was agreed that all parties should enjoy equal civil rights.工會的象徵,是制定和簽署,由新教徒在sandomir在1570年和3年後,他們得出結論,是一個宗教的和平與天主教徒,其中與會者一致認為,各方都應該享有平等的公民權利。 The peace was not lasting, and during two centuries there was almost continual religious strife which finally led to the downfall of the kingdom.和平是不會持久的,並在兩個世紀時,幾乎持續宗教紛爭終至沒落的王國。 With the connivance of Poland, Lutheranism was established in the territories of the Teutonic Order, East Prussia (1525), Livonia (1539), and Courland (1561).與縱容下的波蘭,路德教成立於領土範圍內teutonic秩序,東普魯士( 1525 ) , livonia ( 1539 ) ,和庫爾蘭( 1561 ) 。

(b) Hungary, Transylvania and Silesia (二)匈牙利, Transylvania的和西里西亞

The teachings of Luther were first propagated in these countries during the reign of King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia (1516-26).遺訓路德首先宣揚在這些國家的統治期間,國王路易斯二世的匈牙利和波西米亞( 1516至1526年) 。 The king was strongly opposed to religious innovation, but after his death civil discords enabled the new doctrine to gain headway.國王又表示強烈反對宗教革新,但在他死後民間discords使新軍事學說,以取得進展。 In Silesia Lutheranism was protected by the dukes, and in 1524 it was established in Breslau, the capital, by the municipal council.在西里西亞路德教是受保護的由腫瘤,而在1524年,它成立於布雷斯勞,首都,由市政議會。 Freedom of worship was granted in Transylvania in 1545, and in Hungary in 1606.禮拜的自由是理所當然的,在Transylvania的於1545年,在匈牙利在1606年。 The Lutherans were soon involved in quarrels with the Calvinists.該lutherans很快捲入爭吵與calvinists 。 The German element among the Protestants favoured the Augsburg Confession, but the Reformed faith had more adherents among the Hungarians and Czechs.德國元素之間的新教徒主張奧格斯堡供述,但已悔改的信仰有更多的信徒當中,匈牙利和捷克。 In Silesia the Lutherans themselves were divided on the doctrine of justification and the Eucharist.在西里西亞的lutherans自己有頗大分歧學說的理由和聖體聖事。 Gaspar Schwenkfeld (died 1561), one of the earliest disciples of Luther, assailed his master's doctrine on these points, and as early as 1528 Schwenkfeldianism had many adherents among Lutherans.加斯帕爾schwenkfeld (死於1561年) ,其中最早的門徒路德,抨擊他的主人的學說對上述各點,並早在1528 schwenkfeldianism有許多追隨者之間lutherans 。 The memory of Schwenkfeld is still held in veneration in Silesia and in some Lutheran communities of Pennsylvania.記憶schwenkfeld仍是在舉行奉祀在西里西亞,並在一些路德社區是一大打擊。 Lutheranism made some gains in the hereditary states of Austria and in Bohemia during the reigns of Ferdinand 1 (1556-64) and Maximilian II (1564-76).路德教取得了一些成果,在世襲國奧地利和波希米亞期間普遍存在的費迪南1 ( 1556年至1564年)和馬克西米利安第二卷( 1564年至1576年) 。 The Lutherans of Bohemia rebelled against the imperial authority in 1618, but were defeated, and the Catholic Faith was preserved in the Hapsburg dominions.該lutherans的波西米亞反抗帝國管理局在1618年,但被打敗,與天主教的信仰被保存在hapsburg dominions 。 (See AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHY; HUNGARY.) (見奧匈君主;匈牙利) 。

(c) Holland (三)荷蘭

Holland was one of the first countries to receive the doctrines of Luther.荷蘭是第一個國家接受教條路德。 Emperor Charles V, anxious to avert the disorders which followed the Reformation in Germany, used great severity against those who propagated Lutheranism in the Netherlands.皇帝查爾斯五世,焦慮,以避免疾病,其中遵循改革在德國,用偉大的嚴重性,對那些宣揚路德教在荷蘭。 His son, Philip II of Spain (1556-98), was still more rigorous.他的兒子菲利普二,西班牙( 1556年至1598年) ,仍然是更為嚴峻的。 The measures he employed were often despotic and unjust, and the people rose in a rebellion (1568), by which Holland was lost to Spain.這項措施,他受僱於人,往往專制和不公正的,與人民奮起叛亂(第1568 ) ,其中荷蘭是輸給了西班牙。 Meanwhile the relations between the Lutherans and Calvinists were anything but cordial.與此同時關係lutherans和calvinists被什麼,但親切。 The Reformed party gradually gained the ascendancy, and, when the republic was established, their political supremacy enabled them to subject the Lutherans to many annoying restrictions.經過改革黨逐漸取得支配地位,而且,當中華人民共和國成立後,他們的政治優勢,使他們得以受到lutherans許多惱人的限制。 The Dutch Lutherans fell a prey to Rationalism in the eighteenth century.荷蘭lutherans下降了獵物,以理性主義在十八世紀。 A number of the churches and pastors separated from the main body to adhere more closely to the Augsburg Confession.一些教會和牧師脫離主體,以更嚴格地遵守了奧格斯堡招供。 The liberal party has a theological seminary (founded in 1816) at Amsterdam, while the orthodox provide for theological training by lectures in the university of the same city.自由黨有一個神學院(成立於1816 ) ,在阿姆斯特丹,而東正教提供神學訓練所講座,在大學的同一個城市。

(4) Lutherans in America ( 4 ) lutherans在美國

(a) Period of Foundation (1624-1742) (一)申報期限基金會( 1624年至1742年)

Lutherans were among the earliest European settlers on this continent. lutherans其中最早的歐洲定居者對這個大陸。 Their first representatives came from Holland to the Dutch colony of New Netherlands about 1624.他們首先代表的是來自荷蘭的荷蘭殖民地的荷蘭新約二五九九一六二四。 Under Governor Stuyvesant they were obliged to conform to the Reformed services, but freedom of worship was obtained when New Amsterdam (New York) was captured by the English in 1664.總督下出售,他們有責任,以符合改革後的服務,但自由的崇拜,獲得當新阿姆斯特丹(紐約)被抓獲,由英語,在1,664個。 The second distinct body of Lutherans in America arrived from Sweden in 1637.第二個獨特的機構lutherans在美國抵達由瑞典在1637年。 Two years later they had a minister and organized at Fort Christina (now Wilmington, Delaware), the first Lutheran congregation in the New World.兩年後,他們有一個部長和有組織堡克里斯蒂娜(現威爾明頓,德拉瓦州) ,第一次路德會聚集在新的世界。 After 1771 the Swedes of Delaware and Pennsylvania dissolved their union with the Mother Church of Sweden.之後, 1771年,瑞典的特拉華州和賓夕法尼亞州解散工會與母親教會的瑞典。 As they had no English-speaking ministers, they chose their pastors from the Episcopalian Church.由於他們沒有以英語為母語的部長們,他們選擇了自己的牧師,從聖公會教堂。 Since 1846 these congregations have declared full communion with the Episcopalians. 1846年以來,這些教友已經宣布完全共融與episcopalians 。 The first colony of German Lutherans was from the Palatinate.第一個殖民地的德語lutherans是從皇帝行宮遺址。 They arrived in 1693 and founded Germantown, now a part of Philadelphia.他們抵達1693年創立了Germantown的,現在的一部份費城。 During the eighteenth century large numbers of Lutheran emigrants from Alsace, the Palatinate, and Würtemberg settled along the Hudson River.在18世紀,大批路德移民來自阿爾薩斯,皇帝行宮遺址,並würtemberg解決沿哈德遜河。 On the Atlantic coast, in New Jersey, Virginia, North and South Carolina, were many isolated groups of German Lutherans.對大西洋沿岸,在新澤西州,維吉尼亞州,北和南卡羅來納州,被許多孤立集團的德語lutherans 。 A colony of Lutherans from Salzburg founded the settlement of Ebenezer, Georgia, in 1734.一個殖民地的lutherans從薩爾茨堡創辦的解決,時間:格魯吉亞,在1734年。 In Eastern Pennsylvania about 30,000 German Lutherans had settled before the middle of the eighteenth century.在東部賓夕法尼亞州約有30000名德國lutherans已經解決了中前十八世紀。 Three of their congregations applied to Europe for ministers, and Count Zinzendorf became pastor in Philadelphia in 1741.三,他們的畢業典禮適用於歐洲,為部長,並指望辛生鐸夫成了牧師在費城在1741年。

(b) Period of Organization (1742-87) (二)申報期限組織( 1742年至1787年)

In 1742 Rev. Henry Muhlenberg, a Hanoverian who is regarded as the patriarch of American Lutheranism, arrived in Philadelphia and succeeded Zinzendorf in the pastorate.在1742年修訂版亨利muhlenberg , hanoverian誰是被視為元老美國路德教,抵達費城,並成功辛生鐸夫在牧師。 During the forty-five years of his ministry in America, Muhlenberg presided over widely separated congregations and erected many churches.在45年他的部在美國, muhlenberg主持了廣泛分離的畢業典禮,並建立許多教堂。 He began the work of organization among the Lutherans of America by the foundation of the Synod of Pennsylvania in 1748.他開始的工作,組織各lutherans美利堅合眾國由基金會的主教賓州在1748年。 He also prepared the congregational constitution of St. Michael's Church, Philadelphia, which became the model of similar constitutions throughout the country.他還編寫了堂憲法的聖米歇爾教堂, 76人,從而成為該型號的同類憲法及全國各地。 His son, Rev. Frederick Muhlenberg, afterwards speaker in the first House of Representatives, was the originator of the Ministerium of New York, the second synod in America (1773).他的兒子,牧師,馮檢muhlenberg ,事後一位發言者在第一次的眾議員,是發端的ministerium的紐約,第二次主教會議在美國( 1773年) 。

(c) Period of Deterioration (1787-1817) (三)申報期限惡化( 1787年至1817年)

Muhlenherg and the other German pastors of his time were graduates of the University of Halle. muhlenherg和其他德國牧師他的時間分別為大學的畢業生哈雷。 The generation that succeeded them had made their studies in the same institution.一代成功,他們提出了他們的研究報告,在同一機構。 But the Pietism of the founders of Halle had now made way for the destructive criticism of Semler.但pietism的開國元勳哈雷現已取得方式為破壞性的批評semler 。 The result was soon manifest in the indifferentism of the American Churches.結果很快就被表現在indifferentism的美國教堂。 The Pennsylvania Ministerium eliminated all confessional tests in its constitution of 1792.賓夕法尼亞州ministerium淘汰所有自白測試在其憲法中的1792年。 The New York ministerium, led by Dr. Frederick Quitman, a decided Rationalist, substituted for the older Lutheran catechisms and hymn-books works that were more conformable to the prevailing theology.設在紐約的ministerium博士的領導下,馮檢quitman ,決定理性主義,取代了舊路德catechisms和聖歌書籍作品更符合當時的神學。 The agenda, or service-book adopted by the Pennsylvania Lutherans in 1818, was a departure from the old type of service and the expression of new doctrinal standards.議程,或者服務的圖書通過了由賓夕法尼亞lutherans於1818年,是背離了老服務類別及表達新的理論標準。 The transition from the use of German to English caused splits in many congregations, the German party bitterly opposing the introduction of English in the church services.過渡到使用德語譯成英語造成分裂,在許多教友,德語黨強烈反對引入英語在教會服務。 They even felt that they had more in common with the German-speaking Reformed than with the English-speaking Lutherans, and some of them advocated an Evangelical Union such as was then proposed in Prussia.他們甚至認為,他們有更多的共同點與講德語的改革,而不是與以英語為母語的lutherans ,他們中的一些主張是一個福音派聯盟等,然後提出了在普魯士。

(d) Period of Revival and Expansion (1817-60) (四)申報期限復甦和擴張( 1817年至1860年)

To prevent the threatened disintegration, a union of all the Lutheran synods in America was proposed.為防止威脅解體,一個聯盟的所有路德主教會議在美國被提出。 In 1820 the General Synod was organized at Hagerstown, Pennsylvania, but a few of the district synods stood aloof.在1820年的總主教是有組織在hagerstown ,賓夕法尼亞州,但也有少數的地區主教會議站在超然。 The new organization was regarded with suspicion by many, and in 1823 the mother synod of Pennsylvania itself withdrew from the general body.新的組織被認為是與猜疑,許多人,並在1823年母親主教賓夕法尼亞本身退出一般機構。 From the beginning there was a considerable element within the General Synod which favoured doctrinal compromise with the Reformed Church.從一開始,有一個相當大的部分一般主教會議主張折衷理論與改革教會。 To strengthen the conservative party, the Pennsylvania Synod returned to the General Synod in 1853.加強保守黨,賓夕法尼亞主教回歸到一般主教於1853年。 Meanwhile the General Synod had established the theological seminary at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (1825), and societies for home and foreign missions.同時一般主教建立了神學院,在葛底斯堡,賓夕法尼亞州( 1825年) ,以及社會對於家庭和外國使團。 In the West several ecclesiastical organizations were formed by Lutheran emigrants from Saxony, Prussia, Bavaria, and the Scandinavian countries.在西部幾個教會組織,形成了由路德移民從薩克森州,普魯士,巴伐利亞州和斯堪的納維亞國家。 The Missouri Synod was founded by Rev. Carl Walther in 1847, and the same year opened a theological seminary at St. Louis.密蘇里主教是由牧師卡爾Walther稱,在1847年,並於同年開設了一個神學院在聖路易斯。 A band of Old Lutherans, who resisted the Prussian union, emigrated from Saxony in 1839, and two years later founded the Buffalo Synod.樂隊的老lutherans ,抵抗普魯士聯盟,移居海外,從薩克森州,在1839年,兩年後成立了水牛主教。 At first a union between the Missouri and the Buffalo synods was expected, but instead their leaders were soon engaged in doctrinal controversies which extended over many years.在第一次工會之間的密蘇里州和水牛主教會議的預期,而是他們的領導人很快就從事理論爭論,延續了多年。 In 1854 a party within the Missouri Synod, dissatisfied with what it regarded as the extreme congregationalism of that body and its denial of open questions in theology, seceded and formed the Iowa Synod with its theological seminary at Dubuque.在1854年的締約國內密蘇里州主教,不滿意什麼,它被視為極端公理的該機構及其拒絕公開問題,在神學,分裂,形成了愛荷華州主教與神學院在dubuque 。 Ever since there has been conflict between these two synods.自從出現了衝突,在這兩者之間主教會議。 Travelling preachers of the Pennsylvania Ministerium founded in Ohio a conference in connexion with the mother synod in 1805.旅行傳教士的賓夕法尼亞ministerium成立於俄亥俄州的一個會議就此與母親主教在1805年。 This conference was reorganized in 1818 into a synod which since 1833 has been known as the Joint Synod of Ohio.本次會議進行了改組,於1818年成為主教,其中1833年以來一直被稱為聯合主教俄亥俄州。 The earliest synods formed by Scandinavian emigrants were:最早的主教會議所形成的斯堪的納維亞半島的移民分別為:

the Norwegian Hauge Synod (1846),挪威hauge主教會議( 1846年) ,

the Norwegian Synod (1863), and挪威的主教會議( 1863年) ,以及

the Scandinavian Augustana Synod (1860),斯堪的納維亞augustana主教會議( 1860年) ,

all in the states of the Middle West.所有在該國的中西部。

(e) Period of Reorganization (since 1860) (五)申報期限重組(自1860年)

At the beginning of the Civil War the General Synod numbered two-thirds of the Lutherans in the United States, and hopes were entertained that soon all the organizations would be united in one body.在一開始的內戰,總主教編號的兩個三分之二的lutherans在美國,並希望獲得受理很快所有組織,將美國的一個機構。 These anticipations, however, were doomed to disappointment.這些預期的,但是,人注定要失望了。 In 1863 the General Synod lost the five southern district synods, which withdrew and formed the "General Synod of the Confederate States".在1863年的總主教失去了5個南區主教會議,其中撤回,並形成了"總主教的邦聯國" 。 A more serious break in the General Synod occurred three years later.更嚴重的突破,在總主教發生在三年之後。 The disagreements between the liberal and the conservative elements in that body had not abated with time.在國與國之間的分歧,自由和保守分子在該機構中已經沒有減弱與時間。 In 1864 the Ministerium of Pennsylvania established in Philadelphia a new seminary, thereby greatly reducing the attendance at the Gettysburg seminary of the General Synod.在1864年該ministerium賓州成立於費城一個新的修道院,從而極大地減少了出席此次葛底斯堡學院的總主教。 At the next convention (1866) it was declared that the Pennsylvania Synod was no longer in practical union with the General Synod.在下次公約( 1866年) ,它被宣布說,賓夕法尼亞主教不再實用聯盟與一般主教。 The Pennsylvania Ministerium at once sent out an invitation to all American and Canadian synods to join with it in forming a new general body.賓夕法尼亞州ministerium立即發出邀請所有美國和加拿大的主教會議,以與它一道形成一種新的全身。 In response to this invitation a convention assembled at Reading the same year, and thirteen synods were consolidated into the "General Council".為響應這一邀請一項公約集結在讀同年, 13名主教會議合併為"一般" 。 With the close of the Civil War the Southern Lutherans might have returned to fellowship with their Northern brethren, but the controversy between the Northern synods determined them to perpetuate their own organization.與密切的內戰南部lutherans可能已回到金與北方的兄弟,但爭議之間北部主教會議確定的,他們要維持自己的組織。 In 1886 they reorganized their general body, taking the name of the "United Synod in the South", and stating their doctrinal position, which is essentially the same as that of the General Council.在1886年他們重組後,他們一般身體,同時考慮"的名義,美國主教在南方" ,並聲明自己的理論立場,它在本質上是相同,即總理事會。 A fourth general body was formed in 1872, the "Synodical Conference", at present the strongest organization among the Lutheran Churches of America.第四條一般體成立於1872年, " synodical會議" ,目前最強烈的組織之間的路德教會的報導。 It takes as its basis the Formula of Concord of 1580, and comprises the Missouri and other Western synods.需,其依據是該公式的康科德1580 ,包括密蘇里州和其他西方主教會議。 A controversy on predestination led to the withdrawal of the Ohio Synod in 1881, and of the Norwegian Synod in 1884.爭議就宿命導致撤回俄亥俄主教於1881年,與挪威議會於1884年。 There are still many independent synods not affiliated with any of the general organizations.目前仍有不少獨立主教會議的,不屬任何的一般性組織。 Thus the Lutherans of the United States are divided into various conflicting bodies, each claiming to be a truer exponent of Lutheranism than the others.因此lutherans的美國分為各種相互衝突的機構,每一個自稱是一個真實的指數路德教,比其他部門。 The membership of the four principal organizations is almost exclusively of German descent.成員四種主要組織幾乎完全是德國後裔。 The main cause of separation is diversity of opinion regarding the importance or the interpretation of the official confessions.主要原因分離是持有不同見解就重要性或詮釋官方的供述。

III.三。 ORGANIZATION AND WORSHIP組織和宗教

In the early days of the Reformation the prevalent form of government was that known as the episcopal, which transferred the jurisdiction of the bishops to the civil ruler.在成立之初,改革普遍存在的政府形式,是被稱為主教,其中移送管轄的主教,以公務員的統治者。 It was followed by the territorial system, which recognized the sovereign as head of the church, in virtue of his office, both in administrative and doctrinal matters.其後由領土制度,其中承認主權作為教會的頭,憑藉他的辦公室,無論是在行政和理論研究的事宜。 The collegial system of Pfaff (1719) asserts the sovereignty and independence of the congregation, which may, however, delegate its authority to the State.合議制的相對論性Pfaff作用量( 1719 )斷言,主權和獨立的會眾,其中可,不過,授其權力交給國家。 In the Lutheran state Churches the secular power is in fact the supreme authority.在路德教會,國家世俗政權其實是至高無上的權力。 The practical determination of religious questions rests with the national legislature, or with a consistorium whose members are appointed by the government.實際測定宗教問題在於國家立法機關,還是與consistorium ,其成員由政府任命。 No Divinely constituted hierarchy is recognized, and in orders all the clergy are considered as equals.沒有神聖的構成層次,是公認的,並在命令所有神職人員都視為平等的。 The Lutheran bishops of Sweden and Denmark, like the "general superintendents" of Germany, are government officials entrusted with the oversight of the pastors and congregations.路德主教的瑞典和丹麥一樣, "總警司"的德國,都是政府官員受託監督的牧人和教友。 In Holland and the United States, as among the Free Churches of Germany, the form of organization is synodical, a system of church polity which in its main features has been derived from the Reformed Church.在荷蘭和美國之間的自由教會的德國,組織形式,是synodical ,一個制度的教會政體而在其主要特點取自已悔改的教會。 According to this plan, purely congregational matters are decided by the vote of the congregation, either directly or through the church council.根據這一計劃,純粹堂事項的決定是由投票的會眾,可直接或通過教會理事會。 In the United States the church council consists of the pastor and his lay assistants, the elders and deacons, all chosen by the congregation.在美國,教會理事會的牧師和他奠定助理,而長老和執事們,都選擇了由眾。 Affairs of more general importance and disputed questions are settled by the district synod, composed of lay and clerical delegates representing such congregations as have accepted a mutual congregational compact.國際事務更一般的重要性和有爭議的問題獲得解決後,由區主教組成,奠定文書等代表出席,如畢業典禮,因為已接受了一項相互堂緊湊。 The congregations composing a district synod may unite with other district synods to form a more general body.該教友組成的一個地區主教可能團結其他地區主教會議,以組成一個更一般的身體。 The powers of a general organization of this kind, in relation to the bodies of which it is composed, are not, however, in all cases the same.權力的一般組織這一類,涉及到機構,它的組成,都沒有,但是,在任何情況下,相同的。 The constitution of the Old Lutheran Church in Germany makes its General Synod the last court of appeal and its decisions binding.憲法的舊路德教會在德國使其總主教最後上訴法院,其決定具有約束力。 In the United States a different conception prevails, and in most instances the general assemblies are regarded simply as advisory conferences whose decisions require the ratification of the particular organizations represented.在美國不同的概念盛行,而在大多數情況下一般集會被認為是僅僅作為諮詢會議,其決定必須在批准的特定組織的代表。

Lutheran public worship is based on the service-book which Luther published in 1523 and 1526.路德公共崇拜,是基於公務員的成書,路德發表在1523和1526 。 He retained the first part of the Mass, but abolished the Offertory, Canon, and all the forms of sacrifice.他保留了第一部分的群眾性,但取消了offertory ,佳能,以及所有形式的犧牲。 The main Lutheran service is still known as "the Mass" in Scandinavian countries.主要路德服務仍然是被稱為"地下" ,在斯堪的納維亞國家。 The singing of hymns became a prominent part of the new service.唱聖詩,成了突出的一部分,該項新服務。 Many Catholic sequences were retained, and other sacred songs were borrowed from the old German poets.很多天主教序列被保留,和其他神聖的歌曲,從借來的舊德國詩人。 Luther himself wrote hymns, but it is doubtful whether he is really the author of any of the melodies that are usually ascribed to him.路德自己寫的讚美詩,但它是令人懷疑他是否真的是作者的任何唱響了一些通常歸咎於他。 Luther wished to retain the Elevation and the use of the Latin language, but these have been abandoned.路德希望保留高程和使用的拉美語言,但這些都已經放棄了。 The Collect, Epistle, and Gospel vary according to the Sundays of the year.該收集,書信,和福音依該週日的一年。 The Creed is followed by a sermon on the Scripture lesson of the day, which is the principal part of the service.該信條是其次說教,對聖經教訓的一天,這是主要的一部分,該服務。 Ordinarily the Lord's Supper is administered only a few times during the year.通常主的晚餐是經管的只有少數幾個時代在這一年中。 It is preceded, sometimes the day before, by the service of public confession and absolution, which consists in the promise of amendment made by the intending communicants, and the declaration of the minister that such as are truly penitent are forgiven.它的前面,有時在一天前,由服務的公共招供,並赦免,其中包括在承諾所作出的修訂,有意communicants ,以及宣部長表示,如真懺悔,是情有可原的。 Only two sacraments are recognized by Lutherans, Baptism and the Lord's Supper; but Confirmation, Ordination, and Confession as just described are regarded as sacred rites.只有兩個聖禮,是公認的lutherans ,洗禮和主的晚餐,但確認,排序,並供認,因為剛才所描述的是被視為神聖的儀式。 There are also ceremonies prescribed for marriage and burial.也有儀式明舉行婚禮和葬禮。 Christmas, Easter, Pentecost, the feast of the Twelve Apostles, the Commemoration of the Reformation (31 Oct.) are observed with religious services.聖誕節,復活節,五旬節,這個節日的十二使徒,紀念改革( 10月31日)是觀察與宗教服務。 Pictures are permitted in the churches, and in Denmark vestments and lighted candles are used at the communion service.圖片獲准在教堂,並在丹麥總有一套,並點燃蠟燭,並用該共融服務。 The first complete ritual or agenda was that prepared for the Duchy of Prussia in 1525.第一個完整的祭祀或議程是準備為大公國的普魯士在1525年。 There is no uniform liturgy for the churches.有沒有統一的禮儀中,為教堂。 In the United Evangelical Church of Germany the agenda of Frederick William III (1817) is the official form.在美國福音派教會的德國議程馮威廉三( 1817 ) ,是正式的形式。 The services of the American Lutherans were for many years chiefly extemporaneous, but since 1888 a common service based on the liturgies of the sixteenth century has been used by almost all English-speaking Lutherans in this country.該服務的美國lutherans分別多年,主要是即興的,但自1888年一項共同服務的基礎上, liturgies的十六世紀已用於幾乎所有以英語為母語的lutherans在這個國家。 It includes, besides the main service, matins and vespers.它包括的,除了其主要的服務,在晨禱和晚禱。

IV.四。 VARIOUS LUTHERAN ACTIVITIES各路德活動

(1) Foreign Missions and Benevolent Organizations ( 1 )外國使團和慈善組織

Foreign missionary activity has never been a very prominent characteristic of the Lutheran Church.外國傳教士的活動從來就不是一個很突出的特點,路德教會。 Its pioneer missionaries went from the University of Halle to the East Indies (Tanquebar) at the invitation of Frederick IV of Denmark in 1705.其先驅傳教士來到該大學的哈雷到東印度群島( tanquebar )的邀請,於馮四的丹麥在1705 。 During the eighteenth century Halle sent about sixty missionaries to Tanquebar.在十八世紀的哈勒派出約六十傳教士tanquebar 。 In later years the mission was supplied by the Leipzig Lutheran Mission.在多年後的使命是由萊比錫路德使命。 Another Danish mission was that of Pastor Hans Egede among the Greenlanders in 1721.另外丹麥的使命是對牧師漢斯egede其中格陵蘭在1642 。 During the nineteenth century several societies for foreign missions were founded: the Berlin Mission Society (1824), the Evangelical Lutheran Missionary Association of Leipzig (1836), the Hermansburg Society (1854), and a number of similar organizations in the Scandinavian countries.在十九世紀的幾個社團,為外國使團的成立是:柏林使命協會( 1824年) ,基督教路德派傳教士協會的萊比錫( 1836年) , hermansburg協會( 1854 ) ,和一些類似的組織在斯堪的納維亞國家。 In the United States a German Foreign Missionary Society was founded in 1837.在美國,德國的外國傳教士協會成立在1837年。 The first Lutheran missionary from the United States was Dr. Heyer, who was sent to India in 1841.第一路德教會傳教士從美國博士heyer ,被送往印度在1841 。 At present missions to the heathen in Oceania, India, and East Africa, are maintained under the auspices of various American synods.目前出差到異教徒在大洋洲,印度,非洲和東部非洲,是保持的主持下,形形色色的美國主教會議。 The sisterhood, known as the Lutheran Deaconesses, was founded by Pastor Fliedner at Kaiserwerth in 1833, its objects being the care of the sick, instruction, etc. They are now very numerous in some parts of Germany.姊妹,稱為路德deaconesses ,成立了由牧師fliedner在kaiserwerth 1833年,其宗旨即照顧病人,教學等,他們現在非常多,部分德國。 They were introduced in the United States in 1849.他們分別介紹了在美國的1849年。

(2) Sacred Learning and Education ( 2 )神聖的學習和教育

The study of exegetics, church history, and theology has been much cultivated by Lutheran scholars.研究訓詁學,教會歷史,神學已經大大培育的路德派學者。 Among the exegetes the following are well known: Solomon Glassius (Philologia Sacra, 1623); Sebastian Schmid (died 1696), translator and commentator; John H. Michaelis (Biblia Hebraica, 1720); John A. Bengel (Gnomon Novi Testamenti, 1752); Havernick (died 1845), Hegstenberg (died 1869), and Delitzsch (died 1890), commentators.其中exegetes以下是眾所周知的:所羅門glassius ( philologia骶, 1623個) ;塞巴斯蒂安施密德(死於1696年) ,翻譯家和評論家;約翰H米氏(快報hebraica , 1720 ) ;約翰甲bengel ( gnomon格testamenti , 1752名) ;哈弗尼克(死於1845年) , hegstenberg (死於1869年) ,並delitzsch (死於1890年) ,評論員。 Among the more important church historians may be mentioned: Mosheim (died 1755), sometimes called the "Father of Modern Church History", Schrockle (died 1808), Neander (died 1850), Kurtz (died 1890), Hase (died 1890).其中較重要的教會歷史學家,可提到: mosheim (死於1755 ) ,有時也被稱為"國父現代教會史" , schrockle (死於1808年) , neander (死於1850年) , Kurtz說(死於1890年) ,長谷(死於1890年) 。 The "Magdeburg Centuries" (1559) of Flacius Illyricus and his associates, the first church history written by Protestants, is very biased and has no historical value. "馬格德堡百年" ( 1559 )的弗拉齊烏斯illyricus和他的同夥,第一堂歷史寫的新教徒,這的確是非常偏頗的,也沒有歷史價值。 Numerous dogmatic works have been written by Lutheran theologians.許多教條式的作品曾先後撰寫路德神學家。 Among the dogmaticians most esteemed by Lutherans are: Melanchthon, whose "Loci Theologici" (1521) was the first Lutheran theology; Martin Chemnitz (died 1586) and John Gerhard (died 1637), the two ablest Lutheran theologians; Calovius (died 1686), champion of the strictest Lutheran orthodoxy; Quenstedt (died 1688); Hollaz (died 1713); Luthardt (died 1902); Henry Schmid, whose dogmatic theology (1st ed., 1843) in its English translation has been much used in the United States.其中dogmaticians最愛戴lutherans是:梅蘭希頓,他們的"個位點theologici " ( 1521 )是第一個路德派神學;馬丁chemnitz (死於1586年)和約翰總理(死於1637年) ,兩個ablest路德神學家; calovius (死於1686年) ,冠軍最嚴格的路德派的正統;昆施泰特(死於1688年) ; hollaz (死於1713年) ;盧特哈特(死於1902年) ;亨利施密德,其教條式的神學(第1版, 1843年)在其英文翻譯了許多美國的通用國。 The Lutheran Church still produces many dogmatic works, but very few of the modern divines hold strictly to the old formulæ of faith.路德教會仍產生許多教條式的著作,但只有極少數的現代divines進行嚴格舊formulæ信念。 The Lutheran Churches deserve great credit for the importance they have always attached to religious instruction, not only in their many universities, but also and especially in the schools of elementary instruction.路德教會應有很大的功勞,為的重要性,他們一直重視宗教教育,不僅是在他們的許多大學,而且特別是在學校的基礎教學。 In Lutheran countries the education of the children is supervised by the religious authorities, since Lutherans act on the principle that religious training is the most important part of education.在路德國家子女的教育監督,由宗教當局,因為lutherans行事原則,即宗教培訓是最重要的教育。 The catechism, Biblical study, and church music have a prominent part in the everyday instruction.該問答,聖經研究,教會音樂,有一個突出的部分,在日常教學。 In the United States the parochial school has been developed with great success among the congregations that still use the German and Scandinavian languages.在美國,狹隘的學校已經發展起來的偉大成就之一教友表示,仍採用德國和斯堪的納維亞語言。 The Lutherans of Wisconsin and Illinois co-operated with the Catholics in 1890 in an organized resistance against legislation which would have proved injurious to the parochial schools.該lutherans威斯康星州和伊利諾伊州的合作與天主教徒,在1890年,在一個有組織的抵抗反對立法,將有傷證明向教會學校。

V. INFLUENCE OF RATIONALISM IN THE LUTHERAN CHURCHES五,影響力的理性主義在路德教會

The popular faith had been overthrown in the eighteenth century by the philosophy of Wolff (died 1754) and the criticism of Semler (died 1791).全民信仰已被推翻,在十八世紀的哲學沃爾夫(死於1754年)和批評semler (死於1791年) 。 The principle of the supremacy of reason was used to tear down belief in the inspired character of Holy Writ.原則至上的原因是用來摧毀的信念在激勵著特徵神聖令狀。 The literature and philosophy of the time show how great a blow was dealt to orthodox Lutheranism.文學和哲學的時間顯示,有多大的打擊處理,以東正教路德教。 Theology, now become the handmaid of philosophy, eagerly accepted amid the prevailing doubt and negation the system of Kant (died 1804), which made the essence of religion and the whole value of Scripture consist in the teaching of the morality of reason or natural ethics.神學的,現在變成了handmaid哲學,急切地接受了中普遍存在的懷疑和否定制度康德(死於1804年) ,這使得本質上的宗教與整個價值的經文構成,在教學中的道德原因或自然倫理。 Against this rationalistic theology there arose about the beginning of the nineteenth century two reactionary movements - Supernaturalism, which declared in favour of the undivided supremacy of faith, and the system of Schleiermacher (died 1834), which made sentiment or the feelings of the heart the criterion of religious truth.針對這種理性神學因而產生了關於19世紀初葉兩股反動運動-s upernaturalism,宣告贊成充分的至高無上的信仰,以及系統的施萊爾馬赫(死於1 834年) ,這使得情緒或感情的心標準的宗教真理。 The teachings of Schleiermacher recast the existing theology, and gave it the bent which it afterwards followed.遺訓施萊爾馬赫改寫現有的神學,並使它彎曲,它事後其次。 A still more thoroughgoing rationalism appeared in the writings of the Hegelian Strauss (died 1874) and of the Tübingen school, which aimed at the utter destruction of the Divine basis of Christian faith by explaining all that is supernatural in Scripture as merely natural or mythical.一個更加深入的理性主義出現在著作黑格爾施特勞斯(死於1874年)和各蒂賓根學校,其目的是在徹底摧毀了神聖的基礎上的基督教信仰的解釋都認為是有神靈在經文看作僅僅是自然人或神話。 These bold attacks were met by many able scholars, and they have long since been discredited.這些大膽的攻擊,遭到許多無法學者,他們很早就被抹黑。 Since the days of Strauss and Bauer (died 1860), the method known as Higher Criticism (see CRITICISM, BIBLICAL) has found favour in Germany, both with the rationalistic and the orthodox Protestant.由於天Strauss和寶華(死於1860年) ,該方法被稱為高等批評(見批評,聖經)備受歡迎,在德國,無論是與理性主義和正統基督教。 Much that is of permanent value as an aid to the scientific study of the Bible has been accomplished, but at the same time Rationalism has been making constant gains, not only in the universities, but also amongst the masses.許多應該永久價值作為輔助,以科學的研究聖經已經完成,但在同一時間,理性主義一直在不斷增長,不僅在大學,而且當中群眾。 The strictly confessional theology of the orthodox revival (1817), the neo-Lutheran movement, whose leanings toward the Catholic Faith gave it the name of German Puseyism, the Compromise Theology, which endeavoured to reconcile believers and Rationalists - all these more or less conservative systems are now to a great extent superseded by the modern or free theology, represented by Pfieiderer (died 1906), Wilhelm Hermann, Tröltsch, Harnack, Weinel, and others, which teaches a religion without creed or dogma.嚴格的自白神學正統的復興( 1817 ) ,理學路德運動,他們的傾向,對信仰天主教了,它的名字德語puseyism ,妥協的神學,它力圖調和信徒和理性-所有這些較為保守系統現在在很大程度上取代了現代或自由神學,派pfieiderer (死於1906年) ,威廉赫爾曼, tröltsch ,的Harnack ,魏內爾,和其他人,其中教的宗教教義或教條。 In Germany, especially in the cities, the Evangelical faith has lost its influence not only with the people, but in great part with the preachers themselves.在德國,特別是在城市中,福音派信仰已失去其影響力,不僅與人,但在很大程度上是與傳教士自己。 The same is true to some extent in the Scandinavian countries, where Rationalism is making inroads on Lutheran orthodoxy.同樣如此,在一定程度上在斯堪的納維亞國家,那裡的理性主義,是進出對路德正統。 In the United States the Lutherans have been more conservative, and thus far have preserved more of their confessional spirit.在美國, lutherans一直較為保守的,因此到目前為止,有保存較多的自白精神。

VI.六。 STATISTICS統計

The number of Lutherans in the world is about fifty millions, a membership which far exceeds that of any other Protestant denomination.有多少lutherans在世界上約50百萬行活動,會員制將遠遠超過任何其他新教教派。 The chief Lutheran country today, as from the beginning, is Germany.行政路德國家的今天,作為從一開始,是德國。 In 1905 the Evangelicals (Lutherans and Reformed) in the German Empire numbered 37,646,852.在1905年的新教徒( lutherans和改革) ,在德國帝國編號為37646852 。 The membership of the Lutheran churches in other European countries is as follows: Sweden (1900), 5,972,792; Russia, chiefly in Finland and the Baltic Provinces (1905), 3,572,653; Denmark (1901), 2,400,000; Norway (1900) 2,197,318; Hungary (1906), 1,288,942.成員路德教會在其他歐洲國家的情況如下:瑞典( 1900 ) , 5972792 ;俄羅斯,主要是在芬蘭和波羅的海省( 1905 ) 3572653 ,丹麥( 1901 ) 2400000 ;挪威( 1900 ) 2197318 ;匈牙利( 1906 ) 1288942 。 Austria and Holland have about 494,000 and 110,000 Lutherans respectively.奧地利和荷蘭有大約494000和110000 lutherans 。 According to a bulletin of the Bureau of the US Census the total membership of the 24 Lutheran bodies in the United States in 1906 was 2,112,494, with 7841 ministers, 11,194 church edifices, and church property valued at $74,826 389 Dr. HK Carroll's statistics of the Churches of the United States for 1909 credits the Lutherans with 2,173,047 communicants.根據一份公報主席團美國人口普查會員總數24路德機構,在美國於1906年是2112494 ,與7841年的部長, 11194教會華廈時,和教會財產價值七四八二六三八九美元博士港幣卡羅爾的統計資料的教堂的美國1909年貸款lutherans與2173047者。

Publication information Written by JA McHugh.出版信息書面司法機構政務長mchugh 。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯j.波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.奉獻給聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,體積九。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. nihil obstat , 1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

I. JACOBS, The Book of Concord (Philadelphia. 1893); SCHAFF, The Creeds of Christendom (5th ed., New York, 1890), I, II; SCHMID, Doct.一,雅各布斯,這本書的康科德( philadelphia. 1893 ) ; schaff ,教義的基督教(第五版,紐約, 1890年) ,一,二;施密德, doct 。 Theol. theol 。 of Evang.對埃旺。 Luth. luth 。 Church (Philadelphia, 1889).堂( 76人, 1889年) 。 II.二。 For the history of Lutheranism in Europe consult the bibliographies under the religious history of the various countries.為歷史上的路德教在歐洲徵詢目錄下的宗教歷史的各個國家。 For the history of Lutheranism in the United States: JACOBS, History of the Evang.為歷史上的路德教在美國講:雅各布斯,歷史的埃旺。 Lutheran Church in the US (New York, 1893) in American Church History Series, IV (with extensive bibliog.); WOLF, The Lutherans in America (New York, 1889).路德教會,在美國(紐約, 1893年) ,在美國教會的歷史系列,四(廣泛bibliog ) ;狼來了, lutherans在美國(紐約, 1889年) 。 III.三。 2. 2 。 HORN, Outlines of Liturgies (Philadelphia, 1890).角,輪廓liturgies (費城, 1890年) 。 V. HURST, Hist.五,赫斯特,歷史。 of Rationalism (New York, 1865); VIGOUROUX, Les Livres Saints et la Critique Rationaliste, II (Paris, 1886), 311-556.理性主義(紐約, 1865年) ; vigouroux ,就業輔導組livres聖人等香格里拉批判rationaliste ,二(巴黎, 1886 ) , 311-556 。 VI.六。 Kirchliches Jahrbuch (published at Gütersloh); Lutheran Church Annual; Lutheran Year Book. kirchliches jahrbuch (發布於gütersloh ) ;路德教會年報;路德年鑑。


Also, see:此外,見:
Martin Luther 馬丁路德
Luther's Small Catechism 路德的小問答
Luther's 95 Theses 路德的95篇論文
Formula of Concord 公式康科德
Augsburg Confession 奧格斯堡自白

This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在