Lord's Prayer, Paternoster, Our Father主禱文, paternoster ,我們的父親

General Information 一般資料

The Lord's Prayer, or Our Father, is the only formula of Prayer attributed to Jesus Christ. It appears twice in the New Testament: in Matt. 主禱文,或我們的父親,是唯一公式祈禱歸功於耶穌基督。兩度出現在新約聖經:馬特。 6:9 - 13 and in a shorter version in Luke 11:2 - 4. 6點09分-1 3中,在較短的版本,盧克1 1時0 2分- 4。 In Matthew the prayer is composed of an invocation and seven petitions, the first three asking for God's glorification, the last four requesting divine help and guidance.在馬太禱告組成的一個調用與七名請願,前三項要求,為上帝的榮耀,在過去四年請求神的幫助和指導。 A final doxology, "For thine is the kingdom. . .," is found in some ancient manuscripts.最後doxology , "為你的是英國… … 。 " ,是發現了一些古代手稿。 Protestants customarily include the doxology in their recitation of the prayer; Roman Catholics do not, although it is added in the new order of Mass. The prayer, known in Latin as the Pater Noster, is the principal prayer and a unifying bond of Christians.新教徒通常包括doxology在他們背誦的祈禱;天主教徒不,它雖然是補充說,在新秩序的馬薩諸塞州禱告,已知在拉丁語作為父親noster ,是主要的祈禱和一個統一的認同感為紐帶的基督徒。

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LL Mitchell黎巴嫩鎊米切爾

Bibliography 參考書目
L Boff, The Lord's Prayer (1983).升boff ,主禱文( 1983 ) 。


Lord's Prayer主禱文

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Lord's Prayer is the name given to the only form of prayer Christ taught his disciples (Matt. 6:9-13).主禱文是名義給予的唯一形式祈禱耶穌教導他的弟子。 ( 6:9-13 ) 。 The closing doxology of the prayer is omitted by Luke (11: 2-4), also in the RV of Matt.截止doxology的祈禱是遺漏了由盧克( 11 : 2-4 ) ,同時在右心室的馬特。 6:13. 6時13分。 This prayer contains no allusion to the atonement of Christ, nor to the offices of the Holy Spirit.這種禱告沒有典故,以贖罪的基督,也沒有向辦事處的聖靈。 "All Christian prayer is based on the Lord's Prayer, but its spirit is also guided by that of His prayer in Gethsemane and of the prayer recorded John 17. The Lord's Prayer is the comprehensive type of the simplest and most universal prayer." "所有基督徒禱告的基礎上,主禱文,但它的精神也是遵循這一他的禱告,在gethsemane和禱告記錄約翰17 。上帝的祈禱是全面型的最簡單和最普遍的祈禱" 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Lord's Prayer主禱文

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The meaning of Jesus' pattern for prayer in Matt.含義耶穌的格局祈禱馬特。 6:9-13 needs to be sought in the wider context of the units 6:5-13 and 6:1-18. 6:9-13需要,以尋求在更廣泛的單位6:5-13和6:1-18 。 The larger units indicate that Jesus is contrasting surface language with depth language in worship of God.規模較大的單位,表明耶穌是根本對立表面上的語言與深度的語言崇拜的神。 The prayer is not a set form that he himself prayed or asked his disciples to pray, but illustrates the type of prayer appropriate to the person who worships deeply without hypocrisy.禱告是不是一個集形式表示,他本人祈禱或要求他的弟子們祈禱,但說明了這類祈禱合適的人崇拜深感無虛偽。 The entire Sermon on the Mount (Matt. 5-7) takes its cue from Jesus' declaration in 5:20: "For I tell you, unless your righteousness exceeds that of the Scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven."整個山上寶訓。 ( 5-7 )把它的線索,從耶穌的宣言,在5點20分: "我告訴你,除非你的正義超過的文士和法利賽,你將永遠進入天國的" Three expressions of genuine worship are given in germinal form in 6:1-18: (1) almsgiving (2-4); (2) prayer (5-6, with 7-15 as pattern); and (3) fasting (16-18). 3表達真正的崇拜,是由於在生髮形式在6:1-18 : (一)救濟( 2-4 ) , ( 2 )禱告( 5-6 , 7-15作為模式) ; ( 3 )空腹( 16-18 ) 。 The theme of 5:20 is applied to these three areas and is articulated in the warning, "Beware of practicing your piety before men in order to be seen by them; for then you will have no reward from your Father who is in heaven" (6:1).主題為5時20分,是適用於這三個領域,並闡述了上述警告, "小心你的實踐孝道面前男人為了看到由他們來主宰;屆時您將有不計酬勞地從你的父親是誰在天堂" ( 6:1 ) 。 The warning is against play acting before a human audience; those who give, pray, or fast superficially will have their reward (refrain a, repeated in 6:2, 5, 16).該警告是針對做戲,才一個人的觀眾;那些,祈禱,或快餐表面上都會有他們的報酬(不要,反复在6時02分, 5 , 16 ) 。 Those who pray genuinely will receive their reward from God who sees en to krypto, "in secret" (refrain b, repeated in 6:3-4, 6, 17-18).那些祈禱者真正得到他們的報酬由上帝的人認為,恩給krypto , "秘密" (不要b ,反复在6:3-4 , 6 , 17-18 ) 。 The sentence and paragraph flow of 6:1-18 (with 6:19-21 as summary) brings out the antithetic contrasts of surface/depth motifs and illustrates the dominical pattern of Jesus' teaching that is picked up by Paul in his contrasts of living kata sarka, "according to the flesh," and kata pneuma, "according to the Spirit" (eg, Gal. 5:16-24).句子和段落流通6:1-18 ( 6:19-21作為摘要)帶出偶反差的表面/深度圖案,並表明dominical格局,為耶穌教即拿起保羅在他的反差生活字sarka , "根據該肉"字pneuma , "根據這個建議的精神" (例如,半乳糖。 5:16-24 ) 。

The eschatological age has broken in with the coming of Jesus, and now the law is no longer inscribed in stone but in the heart (Jer. 31:33).該eschatological年齡已突破與未來的耶穌,以及現在的法律不再是刻在石頭,但在心髒病( jer. 31:36 ) 。 True prayer is to be a deep and spontaneous response to God, not a superficial game played out in public simply to curry favor with the world.真正的祈禱是一個深刻的和自發的回應上帝,而不是膚淺的遊戲,在公眾場合只是為了討好世界。 The flow of thought in the larger unit of 6:1-18, with the summary of 6:19-21, makes clear the serious contrast of opposites in which the Lord's Prayer is to be understood.流動的思想在較大的單位6:1-18 ,與簡易程序的6:19-21 ,明確了嚴重反差對立統一的,其中主禱文,是可以理解的。

Luke's location of the corresponding prayer (Luke 11:1-4) in the immediate context of Mary and Martha ("Martha, Martha, you are anxious and troubled about many things;...Mary has chosen the good portion, which shall not be taken away from her," 10:41-42) and the importuned friend and related sayings ("Ask, and it will be given you," 11:9; "how much more will the heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him," 11:13) indicates his similar understanding of the underlying meaning of Jesus' ordering of values in the new age.盧克的位置,相應的禱告(路11:1-4 )在眼前佑和瑪莎( "瑪莎,瑪莎,你是焦慮和困擾,對很多事情; ...瑪麗選擇了很好的部分,不得採取遠離她, " 10:41-42 )和importuned朋友和相關熟語( "請問,它會給予你" , 11時09分, "更何況天父,讓聖靈那些人問他: " 11點13分) ,表明他同樣了解背後的含義耶穌'訂購的價值觀念在新的歷史時期。

Viewed in context of Jesus' eschatological contrasts, the Lord's Prayer provides a summary model for properly ordering the priorities of the kingdom.看上下文的耶穌' eschatological反差中,主禱文提供了一個簡要模型,為妥善訂購的優先王國。 Both Matt.雙方馬特。 6:9-13 and Luke 11:2-4 preserve Jesus' order: first God, then human needs. 6:9-13和盧克11:2-4保存耶穌的命令:第一上帝,那麼,人類的需要。 While Jesus makes use of Jewish sources in forming the prayer, he does not design it to be used as a set liturgical piece but as a model for the responsive heart in view of the demands of the new age.而耶穌利用猶太人的來源,形成了祈禱,他不設計,它被用來作為一套禮儀一塊,但作為一個模式,為順應民情,心在觀要求的新時代。 The prayer follows a common outline in both Matthew and Luke:禱告如下的共同綱要,在這兩個馬修和盧克:

  1. Petition to the Father for his glory 請願書給父親為他的榮耀

  2. Address to the Father for human needs 地址給父親,為人類的需要

The doxology commonly used to conclude the prayer is not well attested in the manuscript traditions, though it is consonant with the original theme.該doxology常用結束禱告是沒有證據證明,在這份手稿的傳統,雖然它是與原有的主題。

RG Gruenler麗晶花園格林勒

Bibliography 參考書目
J. Calvin, Institutes 3.20.34ff.; F. Chase, The Lord's Prayer in the Early Church; R. Guelich, The Sermon on the Mount; J. Jeremias, The Lord's Prayer; E. Lohmeyer, The Lord's Prayer; W. Luthi, The Lord's Prayer, an Exposition. j.卡爾文學院3.20.34ff ;大通樓,主禱文,在早期教會;傳譯guelich ,山上寶訓的J. jeremias ,主禱文;體育lohmeyer ,主禱文;總統luthi ,主禱文,一次博覽會。


Lord's Prayer主禱文

Advanced Catholic Information 先進天主教信息

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not seem to have been generally familiar in England before the Reformation.雖然拉美來說, 地址多米尼克的早日實現,將"主禱文" ,似乎並沒有得到普遍熟悉的,在英格蘭前改造。 During the Middle Ages the "Our Father" was always said in Latin, even by the uneducated.在中世紀的"父親"總是說,在拉丁美洲,即使是由未受過教育。 Hence it was then most commonly known as the Pater noster .因此,它是當時最常見的名稱為父親noster The name "Lord's prayer" attaches to it not because Jesus Christ used the prayer Himself (for to ask forgiveness of sin would have implied the acknowledgment of guilt) but because He taught it to His disciples.命名為"主禱文" ,重視它,並不是因為耶穌基督用自己的祈禱(請赦罪將意味著承認有罪) ,但因為他教給他的弟子。 Many points of interest are suggested by the history and employment of the Our Father.很多興趣點建議,由歷史及就業的父親。 With regard to the English text now in use among Catholics, we may note that this is derived not from the Rheims Testament but from a version imposed upon England in the reign of Henry VIII, and employed in the 1549 and 1552 editions of the "Book of Common Prayer".對於英文文本,現在使用的天主教徒,我們可以注意到,這是源自不是來自rheims全書但是,從一個版本強加在英國統治時期的亨利八世,並受聘於1549年和1552年版本的"好書共同祈禱" 。 From this our present Catholic text differs only in two very slight particulars: "Which art" has been modernized into "who art", and "in earth" into "on earth".從這個我們目前的天主教文本的不同,只有在兩個很輕微的細節: "藝術"的論斷,已成為現代化的"人藝" , "地球"變成"地球" 。 The version itself, which accords pretty closely with the translation in Tyndale's New Testament, no doubt owed its general acceptance to an ordinance of 1541 according to which "his Grace perceiving now the great diversity of the translations (of the Pater noster etc.) hath willed them all to be taken up, and instead of them hath caused an uniform translation of the said Pater noster, Ave, Creed, etc. to be set forth, willing all his loving subjects to learn and use the same and straitly commanding all parsons, vicars and curates to read and teach the same to their parishioners".該版本本身,它給予相當密切與翻譯tyndale的新約聖經,毫無疑問,拖欠其普遍接受的一項條例的第1541根據該項規定, "他的恩典感知現在極大的多樣性,翻譯(屬於父親noster等) ,祂所意志,他們都將要採取的行動,而不是他們祂所造成一個統一翻譯的說,父親noster ,大道,信仰等,以中載明,願意在他的所有愛好科目的學習及使用,同時並straitly指揮全部帕森斯, vicars和curates閱讀和教導,同時向他們的教友" 。 As a result the version in question became universally familiar to the nation, and though the Rheims Testament, in 1581, and King James's translators, in 1611, provided somewhat different renderings of Matthew 6:9-13, the older form was retained for their prayers both by Protestants and Catholics alike.由於版本問題,已成為普遍熟悉的民族,雖然rheims遺囑,在1581年,國王詹姆斯的翻譯家,在1611所提供的有所不同透視圖的馬修6:9-13時,舊的形式被保留供其祈禱都新教徒和天主教徒一樣。

As for the prayer itself the version in St. Luke, xi, 2-4, given by Christ in answer to the request of His disciples, differs in some minor details from the form which St. Matthew (vi, 9-15) introduces in the middle of the Sermon on the Mount, but there is clearly no reason why these two occasions should be regarded as identical.至於禱告自己的版本,在聖盧克,第十一, 2-4 ,由於基督在回答要求他的弟子,有不同的一些小細節,從形式,其中聖馬太(六, 9-15 )介紹在中間的山上寶訓,但很明顯,沒有理由這兩個場合,應被視為完全相同。 It would be almost inevitable that if Christ had taught this prayer to His disciples He should have repeated it more than once.這將是不可避免的,如果基督教這種禱告,以他的弟子,他應該重複它一次以上。 It seems probable, from the form in which the Our Father appears in the "Didache" (qv), that the version in St. Matthew was that which the Church adopted from the beginning for liturgical purposes.看來,從以何種形式,我們的父親出現在" didache " (請參閱) ,該版本在聖馬太於那教會通過從一開始就為禮儀之用。 Again, no great importance can be attached to the resemblances which have been traced between the petitions of the Lord's prayer and those found in prayers of Jewish origin which were current about the time of Christ.再次,沒有高度重視,可以附著在相似之處,其中已有跡可尋之間的請願活動的主禱文及被發現祈禱的猶太血統而被電流約的時候,基督。 There is certainly no reason for treating the Christian formula as a plagiarism, for in the first place the resemblances are but partial and, secondly we have no satisfactory evidence that the Jewish prayers were really anterior in date.當然是有,沒有理由為治療基督教公式為抄襲,剽竊,擺在首位的相似之處,不過是局部的,其次,我們並沒有令人滿意的證據,證明猶太人祈禱真的前壁日期。

Upon the interpretation of the Lord's Prayer, much has been written, despite the fact that it is so plainly simple, natural, and spontaneous, and as such preeminently adapted for popular use.經解釋上帝祈禱,許多人已書面,儘管事實上,它是如此赤裸裸地簡單,自然,自發的,正因為如此preeminently改編為普遍使用。 In the quasi-official "Catechismus ad parochos", drawn up in 1564 in accordance with the decrees of the Council of Trent, an elaborate commentary upon the Lord's Prayer is provided which forms the basis of the analysis of the Our Father found in all Catholic catechisms.在半官方" catechismus專案parochos " ,擬定於1564年在按照有關法規對安理會的遄達,是一個複雜的評論後,主禱文是提供哪些形式分析的基礎上的父親發現,在所有天主教會catechisms 。 Many points worthy of notice are there emphasized, as, for example, the fact that the words "On earth as it is in Heaven" should be understood to qualify not only the petition "Thy will be done", but also the two preceding, "hallowed be Thy name" and "Thy Kingdom come".許多共同點,值得預告是否有強調,正如,舉例來說,一個事實,即: "在地球上,因為這是在天上"應被理解為有資格不僅請願" ,你會做" ,而且還使用了前兩次, "神聖被你的名字"和"你的王國來" 。

The meaning of this last petition is also very fully dealt with.所指的這個最後的請願書也很充分,查處一起。 The most conspicuous difficulty in the original text of the Our Father concerns the interpretation of the words artos epiousios which in accordance with the Vulgate in St. Luke we translate "our daily bread", St. Jerome, by a strange inconsistency, changed the pre-existing word quotidianum into supersubstantialem in St. Matthew but left quotidianum in St. Luke.最突出的困難,在原文的父親關切一詞的解釋artos epiousios而按照該vulgate在聖盧克我們翻譯: "我們每天的麵包" ,聖杰羅姆,一個奇怪的不一致之處,一改前-現有字quotidianumsupersubstantialem在聖馬太,但左quotidianum在聖盧克。 The opinion of modern scholars upon the point is sufficiently indicated by the fact that the Revised Version still prints "daily" in the text, but suggests in the margin "our bread for the coming day", while the American Committee wished to add "our needful bread".認為現代學者後的一點是充分顯示了一個事實,即修訂版本仍版畫"人民日報" ,在文本,但建議在保證金"我們的麵包,為來年一天" ,而美國委員會希望加上"我們需要的麵包" 。 Lastly may be noted the generally received opinion that the rendering of the last clause should be "deliver us from the evil one", a change which justifies the use of "but" in stead of "and" and practically converts the two last clauses into one and the same petition.最後可以指出,普遍收到認為繪製的最後條款應為"救我們脫離罪惡之一" ,這是一個變化,這是合理使用" ,而是"代替" , "切實轉換最後兩項條款同一個請願書。 The doxology "for Thine is the Kingdom", etc., which appears in the Greek textus receptus and has been adopted in the later editions of the "Book of Common Prayer", is undoubtedly an interpolation.該doxology "為你的,是王國" ,等等,它似乎是在希臘Web網站receptus ,並已通過了在後來的版本中的"好書共同祈禱" ,無疑是一個插。

In the liturgy of the Church the Our Father holds a very conspicuous place.在禮儀中的教會了我們的父親擁有一個非常顯眼。 Some commentators have erroneously supposed, from a passage in the writings of St. Gregory the Great (Ep., ix, 12), that he believed that the bread and wine of the Eucharist were consecrated in Apostolic times by the recitation of the Our Father alone.一些評論家錯誤地假定,從一個通道,在該著作的聖格里高利大( ep. ,第九, 12 ) ,他認為,麵包和酒的聖體聖事的人consecrated在使徒時代所背誦的父親單。 But while this is probable not the true meaning of the passage, St. Jerome asserted (Adv. Pelag., iii, 15) that "our Lord Himself taught His disciples that daily in the Sacrifice of His Body they should make bold to say 'Our Father' etc."不過,雖然這是有可能不是真正意義的通過,聖杰羅姆斷言( adv. pelag ,三, 15歲)說: "我們的上帝教導他的弟子每天都在犧牲他的身體,他們應該大膽地說'我們的父親'等" 。 St. Gregory gave the Pater its present place in the Roman Mass immediately after the Canon and before the fraction, and it was of old the custom that all the congregation should make answer in the words "Sed libera nos a malo".聖格雷戈里了父親目前在羅馬地下後,立即佳能和前部分,而且它的舊習俗,所有會眾應作出答复的話"的SED自由行為雙數一聯絡辦公室" 。 In the Greek liturgies a reader recites the Our Father aloud while the priest and the people repeat it silently.在希臘語liturgies讀者朗誦了父親自言自語,而牧師和人民的重複,它默默耕耘。 Again in the ritual of baptism the recitation of the Our Father has from the earliest times been a conspicuous feature, and in the Divine Office it recurs repeatedly besides being recited both at the beginning and the end.再次,在儀式的洗禮,該背誦的父親已經從最早的時候得到的一個突出特點,並在神聖的辦公室,它一再復發,除了背誦都在開始和結束。

In many monastic rules, it was enjoined that the lay brothers, who knew no Latin, instead of the Divine office should say the Lord's Prayer a certain number of times (often amounting to more than a hundred) per diem .在許多寺院的規則,它是受命說,奠定兄弟,因自知沒有拉丁語,而不是神的辦事處應該說,在主禱文若干倍(通常達一百多) 每日津貼 To count these repetitions they made use of pebbles or beads strung upon a cord, and this apparatus was commonly known as a "pater-noster", a name which it retained even when such a string of beads was used to count, not Our Fathers, but Hail Marys in reciting Our Lady's Psalter, or in other words in saying the rosary.指望這些重複的,他們用卵石或珠子strung經脊髓,而這儀器被稱為"父親- noster " ,這是一個名字,它保留了,甚至當這樣一串珠子被用來計數,而不是我們的父輩,但冰雹。 Marys在背誦聖母的psalter ,或在其他詞說,念珠。

Herbert Thurston赫伯特瑟斯頓

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX 天主教百科全書,體積第九


Lord's Prayer主禱文

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

Name given by the Christian world to the prayer which Jesus taught his disciples (Matt. vi. 9-13; Luke xi. 1-4).名義給予的基督教世界,以禱告耶穌教導他的弟子。 (六9-13 ;路加福音十一1-4 ) 。 According to Luke the teaching of the prayer was suggested by one of Jesus' disciples who, on seeing him holding communion with God in prayer, asked him to teach them also to pray, as John the Baptist had similarly taught his disciples a certain form of prayer.據盧克教學禱告有人建議由一位耶穌的門徒的人,就看他持與上帝祈禱,請他去教導他們,也祈禱,因為施洗約翰一樣教導他的弟子了某種形式的禱告。 Obviously, then, the latter was of a similar character.很明顯,那麼,後者是一個類似的性質。 From the Talmudic parallels (Tosef., Ber. iii. 7; Ber. 16b-17a, 29b; Yer. Ber. iv. 7d) it may be learned that it was customary for prominent masters to recite brief prayers of their own in addition to the regular prayers; and there is indeed a certain similarity noticeable between these prayers and that of Jesus.從talmudic平行線( tosef. ,誤碼率。三,七日;誤碼率。 16B條- 17A條, 29 B款;也門里亞爾。誤碼率四。 7D條)可以得知這是個習慣,為突出主人朗誦簡短的祈禱,他們本身在除要經常祈禱,並確實存在一定的相似性顯著之間的這些祈禱,並表示,耶穌的。

As the following extracts from the Revised Version show, the prayer in Luke is much shorter than that in Matthew, from which it differs, too, in expression.作為摘錄如下,從修訂版本顯示,禱告在路加遠遠短於馬修,從哪些不同,也表達。 Possibly both were in circulation among the early Christians; the one in Matthew, however, is of a later origin, as is shown below:可能是雙方在流通中的早期基督徒;之一,在馬太福音,然而,是一個後來出身,作為顯示如下:

Matthew馬修。 Luke路加福音
Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name.我們的父親,其中藝術在天上,神聖被你的名字。 Father, Hallowed be thy name.父親,神聖被你的名字。
Thy Kingdom come.祢英國來。 Thy will be done, as in heaven so on earth.你會做的,因為在天堂等地。 Thy Kingdom come.祢英國來。
Give us this day our daily [Greek: apportioned or needful] bread.讓我們在這一天我們的日常[希臘語:攤派或需要的]麵包。 Give us day by day our daily [apportioned] bread.讓我們每天都在我們日常[分配]麵包。
And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors.和寬恕我們的債,如同行在天上。 And forgive us our sins: for we ourselves also forgive every one that is indebted to us.和寬恕我們的罪過:為我們自己,也原諒每個人都表示,非常感激我們。
And bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one.使我們不要變成誘惑,但救我們脫離罪惡之一。 [Addition in many manuscripts: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. [此外,在許多手稿:為你的是英國和權力,榮耀,永遠。 Amen.]阿門。 ] And bring us not into temptation.使我們不要變成誘惑。
The prayer is a beautiful combination or selection of formulas of prayer in circulation among the Hasidæan circles; and there is nothing in it expressive of the Christian belief that the Messiah had arrived in the person of Jesus.禱告,是一個美麗的組合或選擇公式祈禱在流通當中hasidæan界;確是有百利而無中,它表達的基督教信仰認為,彌賽亞已抵達該人的耶穌。 On the contrary, the first and principal part is a prayer for the coming of the kingdom of God, exactly as is the Ḳaddish, with which it must be compared in order to be thoroughly understood.與此相反,首先和主要部分是一個祈禱,為未來的神的國度,正是因為是ḳaddish ,它必須加以比較,以徹底了解。

Original Form and Meaning.原來的形式和意義。

The invocation "Our Father" = "Abinu" or Abba (hence in Luke simply "Father") is one common in the Jewish liturgy (see Shemoneh 'Esreh, the fourth, fifth, and sixth benedictions, and comp. especially in the New-Year's ritual the prayer "Our Father, our King! Disclose the glory of Thy Kingdom unto us speedily").援引"我們的父親" = " abinu "或雅伯金曲(因此在路加簡單的"父親" )是一個共同的,在猶太禮拜儀式(見shemoneh ' esreh ,第四,五,六屆benedictions ,可比,尤其是在新的-今年奇摩祭祀禱告: "我們的父親,我們的國王!披露的榮耀,你的英國講給我們迅速地" ) 。 More frequent in Hasidæan circles was the invocation "Our Father who art in heaven" (Ber. v. 1; Yoma viii. 9; Soṭah ix, 15; Abot v. 20; Tosef., Demai, ii. 9; and elsewhere: "Yehi raẓon mi-lifne abinu she-bashamayim," and often in the liturgy).更頻密hasidæan界是援引"我們的父親,他們在藝術的天堂" ( ber.訴1 ; yoma八,九日; soṭah第九, 15人; abot訴20名; tosef , demai ,二,九;和其他地方: " yehi raẓon米lifne abinu社bashamayim " ,而且往往在禮儀中) 。 A comparison with the Ḳaddish ("May His great name be hallowed in the world which He created, according to His will, and may He establish His Kingdom . . . speedily and at a near time"; see Baer, "'Abodat Yisrael," p. 129, note), with the Sabbath "Ḳedushshah" ("Mayest Thou be magnified and hallowed in the midst of Jerusalem . . . so that our eyes may behold Thy Kingdom"), and with the "'Al ha-Kol" (Massek. Soferim xiv. 12, and prayer-book: "Magnified and hallowed . . . be the name of the supreme King of Kings in the worlds which He created, this world and the world to come, in accordance with His will . . . and may we see Him eye to eye when He returneth to His habitation") shows that the three sentences, "Hallowed be Thy name," "Thy Kingdom come," and "Thy will be done on earth as in heaven," originally expressed one idea only-the petition that the Messianic kingdom might appear speedily, yet always subject to God's will.比較同ḳaddish ( "可能他的偉大的名字被神聖的,在世界上他所創造的,根據他的意願,並願他建立他的王國… … 。迅速在附近的時候" ,見Baer的, " ' abodat的選票, "第129頁,注) ,與安息日" ḳedushshah " (下稱" mayestあ被放大和神聖在一片耶路撒冷… … 。使我們的眼睛可以看你的王國" ) ,並與"基地夏" Kol " ( massek. soferim十四, 12 ,並祈禱書說: "放大和神聖… … 。加以名義最高人民法院王中之王在世界的,他創造的,這個世界和未來世界,按照他的意願… … 。和可能,我們看到他的看法時,他returneth他同居" )顯示,三句話, "神聖被你的名字" , "你的王國來" , "你會做對地球本身在天上, " ,本來是表達一種想法,只有-請願書說,救世主英國可能會出現迅速的,但一直受到上帝的意願。 The hallowing of God's name in the world forms part of the ushering in of His kingdom (Ezek. xxxviii. 23), while the words "Thy will be done" refer to the time of the coming, signifying that none but God Himself knows the time of His "divine pleasure" ("raẓon"; Isa. lxi. 2; Ps. lxix. 14; Luke ii. 14).該hallowing上帝的名義,在世界的一部分,迎來了他的王國( ezek.三十八, 23 ) ,而改為"你會做" ,指的時候,未來,以表揚他們沒有,但上帝知道當時他的"神樂" (下稱" raẓon " ;伊薩。 LXI的2款;聚苯乙烯。 lxix 14 ;路加福音二14 ) 。 The problem for the followers of Jesus was to find an adequate form for this very petition, since they could not, like the disciples of John and the rest of the Essenes, pray "May Thy Kingdom come speedily" in view of the fact that for them the Messiah had appeared in the person of Jesus.這個問題,為追隨者的耶穌,是要找出一個適當形式,為這一非常請願書,因為他們不可能像使徒約翰和其餘的essenes祈禱, "可你來英國迅速"的事實來看,為他們彌賽亞出現在人的耶穌。 The form reported to have been recommended by Jesus is rather vague and indefinite: "Thy Kingdom come"; and the New Testament exegetes explain it as referring to the second coming of the Messiah, the time of the perfection of the kingdom of God (comp. Luke xxii. 18).形式報告說,已經推薦耶穌是相當模糊不定說: "你來英國的" ,以及新約全書exegetes解釋,它是指第二次來彌賽亞的時候,完善的神的國度(可比。路加福音二十二, 18 ) 。 In the course of time the interpretation of the sentence "Thy will be done" was broadened in the sense of the submitting of everything to God's will, in the manner of the prayer of R. Eliezer (1st cent.): "Do Thy will in heaven above and give rest of spirit to those that fear Thee on earth, and do what is good in Thine eyes. Blessed be Thou who hearest prayer!"在這個過程中的時間詮釋了一句: "你會做" ,擴大了,在意義上的提交的一切,以神的意志為轉移,在方式禱告群埃利澤(第1次。 )說: "這樣做你會在天上,並給予休息的精神,給那些害怕你在地球上,做什麼是好,在你的眼前。有福被你的人hearest祈禱" ! (Tosef., Ber. iii. 7). ( tosef. ,誤碼率三。 7 ) 。

Relation to Messianic Expectation.有關彌賽亞的期望。

The rest of the prayer, also, stands in close relation to the Messianic expectation.其餘的祈禱,同時,站在密切的關係,以救世主的期望。 Exactly as R. Eliezer(Mek.: "Eleazar of Modin") said: "He who created the day created also its provision; wherefore he who, while having sufficient food for the day, says: 'What shall I eat to-morrow?'正是由於傳譯埃利澤( mek. : "埃萊亞薩的modin " )說: "他曾經創造一天,也創造了其規定;以致他的人,同時有足夠的食物供一天,說: '我應怎樣吃,以明天嗎? belongs to the men of little faith such as were the Israelites at the giving of the manna" (Mek., Beshallaḥ, Wayassa', ii.; Soṭah 48b), so Jesus said: "Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat or . . . drink. . . . . O ye of little faith. . . . Seek ye first the Kingdom of God, . . . and all these things shall be added to you" (Matt. vi. 25-34; Luke xii. 22-31; comp. also Simeon b. Yoḥai, Mek. lc; Ber. 35b; Ḳid. iv. 14).屬於男人的小信等人對以色列人在給予的甘露" ( mek. , beshallaḥ , wayassa ' ,二; soṭah 48b ) ,所以耶穌說: "不採取任何思想,你的生活,什麼葉應吃… … 。喝… … 。 。啊,你們這小信的… … 。謀求葉首神的國度, … … 。以及所有這些東西應加入你的" 。 (六25-34 ;路加福音十二22-31 ;可比,而且西麥乙yoḥai ,人民聖戰者組織。信用證;誤碼率。 35 B ; ḳid四。 14 ) 。 Faith being thus the prerequisite of those that wait for the Messianic time, it behooves them to pray, in the words of Solomon (Prov. xxx. 8, Hebr.; comp. Beẓah 16a), "Give us our apportioned bread" ("leḥem huḳḳi"), that is, the bread we need daily.信仰正因此,前提是那些等待救世主的時候,它behooves他們祈禱,用所羅門( prov.三十。 8 ,黑布爾;可比。 beẓah 16A條) , "給我們,我們攤派麵包" ( " leḥem huḳḳi " ) ,也就是麵包,我們需要每日。

Repentance being another prerequisite of redemption (Pirḳe R. El. xliii.; Targ. Yer. and Midr. Leḳah Ṭob to Deut. xxx. 2; Philo, "De Execrationibus," §§ 8-9), a prayer for forgiveness of sin is also required in this connection.悔過書被另一個先決條件的贖回( pirḳe傳譯下午。四十三; targ 。也門里亞爾,並midr 。 leḳah ṭob以deut XXX計劃。 2 ;斐洛, "德execrationibus , " § § 8-9 ) ,祈求寬恕的單仲偕,還需要在這方面。 But on this point special stress was laid by the Jewish sages of old.不過,就這一點特別強調,奠定了由猶太聖人歲。 "Forgive thy neighbor the hurt that he hath done unto thee, so shall thy sins also be forgiven when thou prayest," says Ben Sira (Ecclus. [Sirach] xxviii. 2). "原諒你的鄰居傷害,他蹈祢,所以應你的罪孽,也被原諒的時候,祈禱說: "本西拉( ecclus. [西拉奇]二十八。 2 ) 。 "To whom is sin pardoned? To him who forgiveth injury" (Derek Ereẓ Zuṭa viii. 3; RH 17a; see also Jew. Encyc. iv. 590, sv Didascalia). "誰是罪過赦免?向他的人赦し傷害" (德里克ereẓ zuṭa八3個;銠17A條,還見猶太人。 encyc四。 590 , sv didascalia ) 。

Accordingly Jesus said: "Whensoever ye stand praying, forgive, if ye have aught against any one; that your Father also which is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses" (Mark xi. 25, RV).因此耶穌說: " whensoever葉站在祈禱,請原諒,如果你們有聽取任何反對任何一個,那你的父親,也就是在天上可以原諒你你的過犯" (馬克席。 25 , RV )的。 It was this precept which prompted the formula "And forgive us our sins ["ḥobot" = "debts"; the equivalent of "'awonot" = "sins"] as we also forgive those that have sinned ["ḥayyabim" = "those that are indebted"] against us."正是這種信條促使公式" ,並寬恕我們的罪過[ " ḥobot " = "債務" ;相當於" ' awonot " = "罪孽" ] ,因為我們也原諒那些有犯罪[ " ḥayyabim " = "有負債" ]對我們不利" 。

Directly connected with this is the prayer "And lead us not into temptation."直接關係,這是祈禱" ,並帶領大家不要到誘惑" 。 This also is found in the Jewish morning prayer (Ber. 60b; comp. Rab: "Never should a man bring himself into temptation as David did, saying, 'Examine me, O Lord, and prove me' [Ps. xxvi. 2], and stumbled" [Sanh. 107a]).這也是在今天上午的猶太人祈禱( ber. 60b ;可比。 Rab的說: "根本不該一名男子攜帶全身心地投入到誘惑,因為大衛那樣,說: '看看我,主啊,並證明我' [聚苯乙烯。二十六。二日] ,並偶然" [ sanh 。 107a ] ) 。 And as sin is the work of Satan (James i. 15), there comes the final prayer, "But deliver us from the evil one [Satan]."正如單是工作的撒旦(詹姆斯一15 ) ,到了最後的祈禱" ,但救我們脫離罪惡的一個[撒旦] " 。 This, with variations, is the theme of many Hasidæan prayers (Ber. 10b-17a, 60b), "the evil one" being softened into "yeẓer ha-ra'" = "evil desire," and "evil companionship" or "evil accident"; so likewise "the evil one" in the Lord's Prayer was later on referred to things evil (see commentaries on the passage).對此,有變通的主題是許多hasidæan祈禱( ber. 10 B條- 17A條, 60b ) , "邪惡"被軟化成" yeẓer公頃- RA的" = "惡念" , "邪惡的同伴"或"邪惡意外" ,所以同樣的"邪惡" ,在主禱文後,就轉介給邪惡的事情(見評通過) 。 The doxology added in Matthew, following a number of manuscripts, is a portion of I Chron.該doxology補充說,在馬太福音,以下的一些手稿,是一個部分的I慢性。 xxix.二十九。 11, and was the liturgical chant with which the Lord's Prayer was concluded in the Church; it occurs in the Jewish ritual also, the whole verse being chanted at the opening of the Ark of the Law. 11 ,而且是禮儀高唱與主禱文得出的結論是,在教會,它是發生在猶太教儀式也,整首詩被喊著在開幕式上的方舟的法律。

On closer analysis it becomes apparent that the closing verses, Matt.仔細分析,這顯然閉幕小詩,馬特。 vi.六。 14-15, refer solely to the prayer for forgiveness. 14-15 ,是指純粹的祈禱寬恕。 Consequently the original passage was identical with Mark xi.因此,原定的機票是完全相同的馬克席。 25; and the Lord's Prayer in its entirety is a later insertion in Matthew. 25和主禱文其全部是後來插入馬修。 Possibly the whole was taken over from the "Didache" (viii. 2), which in its original Jewish form may have contained the prayer exactly as "the disciples of John" were wont to recite it.可能整個被接管,從" didache " ( viii. 2 ) ,是在其原來的猶太形式可能已包含了祈禱,正是由於"門徒約翰" won't的背誦它。

Kaufmann Kohler考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版1901年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
FH Chase, The Lord's Prayer in the Early Church, in Texts and Studies, 3d ed., Cambridge, 1891; Charles Taylor, Sayings of the Jewish Fathers, 1897, pp.跳頻大通,主禱文,在早期教會,在文本和研究,三維版,劍橋, 1891年;查爾斯泰勒,熟語的猶太父親, 1897年,頁。 124-130; A. Harnack, Die Ursprüngliche Gestalt des Vaterunser, in Sitzungsberichte der Königlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, Berlin, 1904.K. 124-130 ;甲的Harnack ,模具ursprüngliche完形萬vaterunser ,在sitzungsberichte明鏡königlichen學術明鏡wissenschaften ,柏林, 1904.k.


Kaddish kaddish

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

Name of the doxology recited, with congregational responses, at the close of the prayers in the synagogue; originally, and now frequently, recited after Scripture readings and religious discourses in schoolhouse or synagogue.姓名的doxology吟誦,與堂會的反應,在結束祈禱,在猶太教堂;原本,現在頻繁,背誦經文後,讀數和宗教話語中的學校或猶太教堂。 It is, with the exception of the last clause, composed in Aramaic.這是,除了最後一個分句組成,在阿拉姆語。 The following is the translation:以下是翻譯:

"Magnified and sanctified [comp. Ezek. xxxviii. 23] be His Great Name in the world which He hath created according to His will. May He establish His Kingdom during your life and during your days, and during the life of the whole household of Israel, even speedily and in a near time! So say ye 'Amen.'" "放大和聖潔[可比。 ezek 。三十八, 23 ]被他的偉大的名字,在世界上哪祂所創造的,根據他的意願,也許他建立他的王國在你的生活中,並在你的天,並在生活中的整個家庭以色列,甚至迅速在附近的時候!這麼說,葉'阿門' " 。

Response: "Let His Great Name be blessed forever and unto all eternity!"回應說: "讓他的偉大的名字祝福永遠與祂永恆" !

"Blessed, praised, and glorified, exalted, extolled, and honored, uplifted and lauded, be the name of the Holy One, blessed be He ! above all the blessings and hymns [benedictions and psalms], the praises and consolations [the prophetic words], which are uttered in the world. So say ye 'Amen.'" "有福了,稱讚和歌頌,崇高,讚頌,並榮幸,抬升和讚揚,得到的名字聖地之一,被祝福他!上述所有祝福和聖詩[ benedictions和詩篇,歌頌和慰藉[預言換言之,這是諱莫如深,在世界上,所以說,葉'阿門' " 。

"May the prayers and supplications of all Israel be accepted by their Father, who is in Heaven! So say ye 'Amen.'" "願祈禱和supplications所有以色列接受他們的父親,他是在天堂!這麼說,葉'阿門' " 。

Ḳaddish di-Rabanan: "Upon Israel, and the masters and their disciples, and the disciples of their disciples, and upon all those that occupy themselves with the Torah, whether in this place or in any other place, come peace and favor, and grace and mercy, and a long life and ample sustenance, and redemption, from their Father, in Heaven. So say ye 'Amen.'" ḳaddish迪rabanan : "當以色列和美國名人賽和自己的弟子,弟子自己的弟子,並呼籲所有那些佔據自己的律法,無論是在這個地方還是在任何其他地方來的和平和青睞,並恩典和憐憫,和長久的生命和充足的食糧,以及贖回,從他們的父親,在天上,所以說,葉'阿門' " 。

"May there be abundant peace from Heaven and life [the Portuguese liturgy inserts: "and plenty, salvation and consolation, redemption and healing, forgiveness and pardon, freedom and safety"] for us and all Israel! So say ye 'Amen!'" "可能有豐富的和平,從天上和生活[葡萄牙語禮儀中插入: "富足,救亡和慰藉,贖回及癒合,寬恕和原諒,自由和安全" ] ,為我們所有的以色列!這麼說,葉'阿門! "

Response: "He who maketh peace in His Heights, may He make peace for us and all Israel! So say ye 'Amen!'"回應: "他こそは和平在他的高峰,可他作出的和平,為我們所有的以色列!這麼說,葉'阿門! ' "

In place of the first paragraph, the Ḳaddish recited after burial has the following:在地方的第一段, ḳaddish背誦後,埋葬有以下幾點:

"Magnified and sanctified be His Great Name in the world that is to be created anew when He will revive the dead and raise them up into life eternal, and when He will rebuild the city of Jerusalem and establish His Temple in the midst thereof, and uproot all false worship from the earth, and restore the worship of the true God. May the Holy One, blessed be He! reign in His sovereignty and glory during your life and in your days, and in the days of the whole household of Israel, speedily and at a near time. So say ye 'Amen!'" "放大和聖潔是他的偉大的名字,在世界上,那就是創造新的時候,他將重振死亡和提高起來永恆的生命,而當他將重建耶路撒冷城和樹立自己的廟宇在一片時,並剷除一切虛假崇拜從地球,並恢復被崇拜的真神,可聖地之一,被祝福他!統治,在他的主權和榮譽,在你的生活中,並在你的天,並在以後的日子了整個家庭的以色列,迅速在附近的時候,所以說,葉'阿門! ' "

Origin.原產地。

The Ḳaddish has a remarkable history.該ḳaddish有一個了不起的歷史。 Originally, it had no relation whatsoever to the prayers, and still less to the dead.本來,這已經沒有任何關係,以祈禱,而現在仍是少死人。 It was the doxology recited by the teacher or preacher at the close of his discourse, when he was expected to dismiss the assembly with an allusion to the Messianic hope, derived especially from the Prophets and the Psalms.這是doxology吟誦,由老師或佈道者結束時,他的話語時,他曾預計罷免大會的一個典故,以救世主的希望,衍生特別是從先知和詩篇。 Therefore Ezek.因此ezek 。 xxxviii.三十八。 23 is employed; and as the last redemption of Israel was, like the first, brought in connection with the Holy Name (see Pes. 50a; Pesiḳ. 92a; Ex. iii. 15), the emphasis was put upon the congregational response, "May His Great Name be praised for all eternity!" 23 ,是受僱於以及作為最後的救贖以色列是,像第一,但也帶來涉嫌與神聖的名字(見狗。 50條A ; pesiḳ 。 92a ;特惠三。 15 ) ,重點是經堂的回應, "可他的名字被稱讚為所有永恆" ! (see Sifre, Deut. 306). (見sifre , deut 306 ) 。 So great was the value attached to this response that the Talmud (Soṭah 49a) declares: "Since the destruction of the Temple the world has been sustained by the Ḳedushshah of the liturgy and the 'yehe shemeh rabba' [the Ḳaddish response] of the haggadic discourse."如此之大的是附加價值,這個回應時表示,猶太法典( soṭah 49A條)宣稱: "由於破壞了該廟世界一直持續由ḳedushshah的禮儀和'葉赫shemeh rabba ' [ ḳaddish反應]部分haggadic話語" 。 "Joining loudly and in unison in the congregational response 'yehe shemeh rabba' has the power of influencing the heavenly decree in one's favor, or of obtaining for one forgiveness," assert R. Joshua b. "加入大聲疾呼,步調一致,在堂會回應'葉赫shemeh rabba '有權力的影響天朝法令,在一個人的青睞,或獲得1寬恕" ,斷言傳譯約書亞乙 Levi and R. Johanan (Shab. 119b; comp. Midr. Mishle x. 10, xiv. 4).利維和R.約哈難( shab. 119b ;可比。 midr 。 mishle十,十,第十四條第四款) 。 When Israel enters the synagogue or the schoolhouse and responds, "Let His Great Name be praised!"當以色列進入猶太教堂或學校和回應, "讓他的偉大的名字被稱讚" ! the Holy One, blessed be He!聖地之一,被祝福他! says: "Happy the king who is thus lauded in his house!"說: "快樂的國王是誰,因此讚譽他的房子" ! (Ber. 3a). ( ber. 3A )在。 The name "Ḳaddish" for the doxology occurs first in Masseket Soferim xvi.取名" ḳaddish "為doxology先發生在masseket soferim十六。 12, xix. 12 ,十九。 1, xxi. 1 ,二十一。 6; the Ḳaddish at funerals is mentioned ib.六; ḳaddish在葬禮上提到的是國際文憑。 xix.十九。 12: being addressed to the whole assembly, it was spoken in the Babylonian vernacular (see Tos. Ber. 3a). 12 :正在給整個大會,這是發言的巴比倫白話(見調查主任。誤碼率。 3A )在。 The two paragraphs preceding the last, which is a late addition, were originally simple formulas of dismissal by the preacher (comp. M. Ḳ. 21a).兩段前最後一個,這是一個晚此外,原本簡單的公式,辭退,由佈道者( comp.米ḳ 。 21A條) 。 The "Ḳaddish of the students" still shows its original connection with the schoolhouse, and is a prayer for the scholars; occasionally, therefore, special prayers were inserted for the "nasi" or the "resh galuta," or for distinguished scholars like Maimonides (see Ibn Verga, "Shebeṭ Yehudah," ed. Wiener; "Sefer Yuḥasin," ed. Filipowski, p. 219). " ḳaddish的學生"仍然顯示其原涉嫌與校舍的,是一個祈禱,為學者;偶然,因此,特別祈禱插入的"納斯" ,或者" resh galuta " ,或為傑出的學者願意邁蒙尼德(見伊本維爾加, " shebeṭ yehudah , "海關。維納" ; sefer yuḥasin , "海關。 filipowski ,第219頁) 。

The Ḳaddish for the dead was originally recited at the close of the seven days' mourning, with the religious discourses and benedictions associated with it, but, according to Masseket Soferim xix.該ḳaddish為死者原本是背誦結束時, 7天哀悼,隨著宗教的論述和benedictions與此相關,但據masseket soferim十九。 12, only at the death of a scholar; afterward, in order not to put others to shame, it was recited after every burial (Naḥmanides, "Torat ha-Adam," p. 50; see Mourning). 12 ,只在死亡的一個學者;事後,為了不把別人的恥辱,這是吟誦後,每個墓地( naḥmanides , " torat公頃-亞當" ,第50頁;見喪) 。

In the course of time the power of redeeming the dead from the sufferings of Gehenna came to be ascribed, by some, to the recitation of the Ḳaddish.在這個過程中的時間的權力救贖死者從痛苦的地獄來得益於,一些人,到了背誦的ḳaddish 。

Redeeming Powers Ascribed to the Ḳaddish.挽救的權力歸因於該ḳaddish 。

In "Otiyyot de-R. 'Aḳiba," a work of the geonic time, it is said, under the letter "zayin," that "at the time of the Messiah God shall sit in paradise and deliver a discourse on the new Torah before the assembly of the pious and the angelic hosts, and that at the close of the discourse Zerubbabel shall rise and recite the Ḳaddish with a voice reaching from one end of the world to the other; to which all mankind will respond 'Amen.'在" otiyyot德- R的。 aḳiba "工作的若尼克的時候,有人說,根據這封信, "航星" ,即"在那個時候的彌賽亞上帝應靜坐在天堂和交付的話語,就新律法大會收到的虔誠和天使般的主持人,並表示,在結束的話語所羅巴伯須起立,並朗誦ḳaddish同一個聲音深遠,從另一端的世界向另一個;這是所有人類將回應'阿們。 All souls of Jews and Gentiles in Gehenna will respond with 'Amen,' so that God's mercy will be awakened and He will give the keys of Gehenna to Michael and Gabriel, the archangels, saying: 'Open the gates, that a righteous nation which observeth the faith may enter' [Isa. xxvi. 2, "shomer emumim" being explained as "one that sayeth 'Amen'"]. Then the 40,000 gates of Gehenna shall open, and all the redeemed of Gehenna, the wicked ones of Israel, and the righteous of the Gentiles shall be ushered into paradise."所有心靈的猶太人和外邦人在地獄會回應與'阿門' ,使上帝的憐憫,將被驚醒了,他將給予鑰匙的地獄邁克爾和加布里埃爾,長,說: '打開門,一個正義的國家observeth信念,可進入' [伊薩。二十六。 2 , " shomer emumim "被解釋為"一說, sayeth '阿門' " ] ,然後40000蓋茨的地獄應公開,並全部贖回的地獄,惡人者以色列和正義的外邦人應迎來了進入天堂" 。 The following legend is later: Akiba met a spirit in the guise of a man carrying wood; the latter told Akiba that the wood was for the fire in Gehenna, in which he was burned daily in punishment for having maltreated the poor while tax-collector, and that he would be released from his awful torture if he had a son to recite the Bareku and the Ḳaddish before a worshiping assembly that would respond with the praise of God's name.以下傳說是後來:秋葉遇到一位精神,在花樣翻新的一名男子帶材;後者告訴秋葉說,木材是火的地獄,他在其中被燒毀,每天都在處罰後,被虐待窮人,而稅務收藏家,並說,他將釋放出他的可怕的酷刑,如果他有一子朗誦bareku和ḳaddish前崇拜大會,會回應與讚美上帝的名字。 On learning that the manhad utterly neglected his son, Akiba cared for and educated the youth, so that one day he stood in the assembly and recited the Bareku and the Ḳaddish and released his father from Gehenna (Masseket Kallah, ed. Coronel, pp. 4b, 19b; Isaac of Vienna, "Or Zarua'," ed. Jitomir, ii. 11; Tanna debe Eliyahu Zuṭa xvii., where "R. Johanan b. Zakkai" occurs instead of "R. Akiba"; "Menorat ha-Ma'or," i. 1, 1, 1; Manasseh ben Israel, "Nishmat Ḥayyim," ii. 27; Baḥya ben Asher, commentary on Shofeṭim, at end; comp. Testament of Abraham, A. xiv.).當了解到這個manhad完全忽略了他的兒子,秋葉照顧和教育好青年,所以,有一天,他站在大會和背誦bareku和ḳaddish ,並發表了他的父親從地獄( masseket kallah ,教育署。 coronel頁。 4B條, 19B條;艾薩克的維也納" ,或者zarua ' , "海關。 jitomir ,二, 11人; tanna debe eliyahu zuṭa十七,在那裡, "傳譯約哈難乙zakkai "發生,而非"傳譯秋葉" , " menorat公頃-馬' ,或者是"一, 1 , 1 , 1 ; manasseh賁以色列, " nishmat ḥayyim , "二,第27條; baḥya賁阿什爾,評shofeṭim ,在結束;可比。遺囑亞伯拉罕,甲十四) 。

The idea that a son or grandson's piety may exert a redeeming influence in behalf of a departed father or grandfather is expressed also in Sanh.思想是兒子或孫子的孝道可能施加贖回的影響力,代表一個離開父親或祖父是還表示,在sanh 。 104a; Gen. R. lxiii.; Tanna debe Eliyahu R. xvii.; Tanna debe Eliyahu Zuṭa xii.; see also "Sefer Ḥasidim," ed. 104 A條;將軍傳譯lxiii ; tanna debe eliyahu傳譯十七; tanna debe eliyahu zuṭa十二;又見" sefer ḥasidim , "海關。 Wiztinetzki, No. 32. wiztinetzki ,第32號。 In order to redeem the soul of the parents from the torture of Gehenna which is supposed to last twelve months ('Eduy. ii. 10; RH 17a), the Ḳaddish was formerly recited by the son during the whole year (Kol Bo cxiv.).為了贖回靈魂的父母從酷刑的地獄,這是去年12個月內( ' eduy二。 10 ;銠17A條) , ḳaddish前身是吟誦,由兒子,在整個一年( " Kol公報cxiv 。 ) 。 Later, this period was reduced to eleven months, as it was considered unworthy of the son to entertain such views of the demerit of his parents (Shulḥan 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, 376, 4, Isserles' gloss; see Jahrzeit).後來,這一期限被縮短至11個月,因為它被認為是不值得的兒子受理此類觀點的記過處分,他的父母( shulḥan ' aruk , yoreh de'ah , 376 , 4 ,伊塞萊斯'光澤;見jahrzeit ) 。 The Ḳaddish is recited also on the Jahrzeit.該ḳaddish是吟誦,也對jahrzeit 。 The custom of the mourners reciting the Ḳaddish in unison is approved by Jacob Emden, in his "Siddur," and that they should recite it together with the reader is recommended by Ẓebi Hirsch Ḥayot, in "Minḥat Ḳena'ot," vii.定制的哀悼者背誦ḳaddish步調一致批准雅各布emden ,在他的" siddur " ,並認為他們應該背誦它連同讀者推薦ẓebi赫希ḥayot ,在" minḥat ḳena'ot , "七。 1. 1 。 That the daughter, where there is no son, may recite the Ḳaddish was decided by a contemporary of Jair Ḥayyim Bacharach, though it was not approved by the latter (Responsa, No. 123; "Leḥem ha-Panim," p. 376).說,女兒,那裡是沒有兒子,可朗誦ḳaddish的決定是由一個當代的jair ḥayyim bacharach ,但不獲批准,由後者( responsa ,名列第123位; " leḥem夏panim " ,頁376 ) 。 A stranger, also, may recite the Ḳaddish for the benefit of the dead (Joseph Caro, in "Bet Yosef" to Yoreh De'ah, lc).一個陌生人,也可能朗誦ḳaddish為造福死亡(約瑟夫卡羅,在"打賭優素福" ,以yoreh de'ah ,立法會) 。 For the custom in Reform congregations see Reform.對於習慣在改革教友看到改革。

Bibliography: M. Brück, Pharisäische Volkssitten und Ritualien, 1840, pp.參考書目:米brück , pharisäische volkssitten und ritualien , 1840年,頁。 94-101; Hamburger, RBT ii.; Landshuth, Seder Biḳḳur Ḥolim, 1853, pp. 94-101 ;漢堡包,隨機呼氣測試二; landshuth , seder biḳḳur ḥolim , 1853年,頁。 lix.-lxvi.; Zunz, GV 1892, p. lix. - lxvi ;聰茨,貨車1892頁 387.AK 387.ak

-Ritual Use: -祭祀用途:

There are five forms of the Ḳaddish: (1) Ḳaddish di-Rabanan (Scholar's Ḳaddish); (2) Ḳaddish Yaḥid (Individual, or Private, Ḳaddish); (3) Ḳaddish de-Ẓibbur (Congregational Ḳaddish; this form of the Ḳaddish has two divisions-the Ḥaẓi Ḳaddish [Semi-Ḳaddish] and the Ḳaddish Shalem [Full Ḳaddish]); (4) the Burial Ḳaddish (the Mourner's First Ḳaddish); (5) Ḳaddish Yatom (Orphan's Ḳaddish), or Ḳaddish Abelim (Mourner's Ḳaddish).有五種形式的ḳaddish : ( 1 ) ḳaddish迪rabanan (學者的ḳaddish ) ; ( 2 ) ḳaddish yaḥid (個人或私人的, ḳaddish ) ; ( 3 ) ḳaddish德ẓibbur (堂ḳaddish ;這種形式的ḳaddish有兩個師-ḥ aẓiḳ addish[半ḳ addish]和ḳ addishs halem[全文ḳ addish] ) ; ( 4 )土葬ḳ addish( m ourner的第一ḳ addish) ; ( 5 ) ḳ addish亞托姆(孤兒的ḳ addish) ,或ḳ addisha belim( m ourner的ḳaddish ) 。

Forms of Ḳaddish and Their Use.形式ḳaddish和使用。

1. 1 。

The Scholar's Ḳaddish is recited upon the completion of a division of the Mishnah or of a masseket of the Talmud, or of a lecture by the rabbi or maggid.這位學者的ḳaddish是背誦完成後,一個師的mishnah或一個masseket的猶太法典,或演講,由法師或maggid 。 The students of the various yeshibot, or private scholars, are frequently called upon to recite a chapter of the Mishnah, after which, as a rule, the baraita of R. Hananiah b.學生的各種yeshibot ,或私人學者,是經常被要求背誦的一章的mishnah ,之後,作為一項規則, baraita群哈拿尼雅乙 'Akashya (end of Makkot) is read, followed by Ḳaddish di-Rabanan, for the repose of the souls of the dead. ' akashya (年底makkot ) ,是閱讀,其次是ḳaddish迪rabanan ,為repose的亡靈的死者。

2. 2 。

The Ḳaddish Yaḥid usually preceded a supplication for the satisfaction of worldly needs.該ḳaddish yaḥid一般在此之前一supplication用於清償世俗化的需要。 The beginning of the so-called "Lord's Prayer" is an example of the formula used in early times, and resembles that contained in Tanna debe Eliyahu Rabbah (eg, in ch. v. and xiv.).開始了所謂的"主禱文" ,便是這個公式用在早期時代,並極為相似載tanna debe eliyahu rabbah (例如,在CH訴和第十四條) 。 The Ḳaddish Yaḥid was also a response to the Ḳaddish recited by the synagogal reader.該ḳaddish yaḥid也是為了回應ḳaddish吟誦由synagogal讀者。 The prayer-book of Amram Gaon of the ninth century contains various forms (pp. 3, 10, 12, 13, 14, and 18, ed. Warsaw, 1865).禱告圖書的阿姆拉姆gaon的第九世紀含有各種形式(第3 ,第10 , 12 ,第13 ,第14和第18版。華沙, 1865年) 。 The response of the congregation has since been curtailed to "Yehe Shemeh Rabbah."響應眾以來便一直在縮減,以"葉赫shemeh rabbah " 。

3. 3 。

The Ḳaddish de-Ẓibbur is recited by the ḥazzan at public prayer.該ḳaddish德ẓibbur是背誦由ḥazzan在公眾禱告。 This Ḳaddish consists of Ḥaẓi Ḳaddish and Ḳaddish Shalem.這ḳaddish構成ḥaẓi ḳaddish和ḳaddish shalem 。 The Ḥaẓi Ḳaddish, up to "Titḳabbal," is said by the ḥazzan: (1) before "Bareku"; (2) after the morning "Taḥanun" (prostration); (3) after the "Ashre" of the "Minḥah" (afternoon prayer); (4) before "Wehu Raḥum"; (5) before the "'Amidah" (standing prayer), in the evening; (6) before "Wi-Yehi No'am," on Saturday night; (7) before the "Musaf" prayer; (8) after reading the Torah.該ḥaẓi ḳaddish ,直至" titḳabbal " ,是說,由ḥazzan : ( 1 )在" bareku " ; ( 2 )後,今天上午" taḥanun " (虛脫) ; ( 3 )後, " ashre "的" minḥah " (下午禱告) ; ( 4 ) ,然後" wehu raḥum " ; ( 5 )之前, " ' amidah "常務委員會(祈禱) ,在傍晚( 6 ) ,在"無線yehi no'am , "週六夜; ( 7 ) "前musaf "祈禱; (八)讀罷律法。 The Ḳaddish Shalem is recited: (1) after "U-ba le-Ẓiyyon," at morning prayer; (2) after the "'Amidah" of "Minḥah"; (3) after the "'Amidah" for the evening; (4) before "Weyitten Leka," on Saturday night; (5) after the "Musaf" prayer.該ḳaddish shalem是吟誦道: ( 1 )在" U型廣管局樂ẓiyyon " ,在今天上午的祈禱; ( 2 )後, " ' amidah "的" minḥah " ; ( 3 )後, " ' amidah "黃昏後; ( 4 )在" weyitten leka , "週六夜, ( 5 )後, " musaf "祈禱。

4. 4 。

The Burial Ḳaddish, recited immediately after the burial, is quoted in Soferim xix.安葬ḳaddish ,背誦後,立即埋葬,是引述soferim十九。 (end). (全文完) According to Maimonides this is the Rabanan Ḳaddish, and should be recited after study; this is the present practise of the Orient; but Western custom has reserved it for burials, at which the assembly joins in the recitation of the mourners up to the word "beḥayyekon" (Baer, "Seder 'Abodat Yisrael," p. 588).據邁蒙尼德這是rabanan ḳaddish ,並應吟誦,經研究,這是目前實行的東方,但西方的習俗已預留它為墓葬,在其中大會一道在背誦的哀悼者多達字" beḥayyekon " ( Baer的, " seder ' abodat選票" ,頁588 ) 。

5. 5 。

The Ḳaddish Yatom, like the regular mourner's Ḳaddish, is the full Ḳaddish of the ḥazzan (with the exception of the "Titḳabbal" sentence), up to "Yehe Shelama."該ḳaddish亞托姆一樣,經常mourner的ḳaddish ,是全面ḳaddish的ḥazzan (除了" titḳabbal "句) ,直至"葉赫shelama " 。 The Ḳaddish after the "'Alenu" is usually recited by the orphan.該ḳaddish後, " ' alenu "通常是背誦所孤兒。 The Ḳaddish Yatom is said also after "Piṭṭum ha-Ḳeṭoret," "An'im Zemirot," the Daily Psalm, and "Bame Madliḳin" (on Friday night).該ḳaddish亞托姆說,也經過" piṭṭum夏ḳeṭoret " , " an'im zemirot , "每日詩篇, "巴梅madliḳin " (上週五晚) 。

Rules of Precedence.規則的先例。

Concerning the precedence of the various classes of mourners as regards the right of saying Ḳaddish, there is a difference of opinion.關於排名的社會各階層的悼念至於正確的說法ḳaddish ,有不同的看法。 The Ashkenazic custom gives the following order: (1) Jahrzeit; (2) the first seven days of mourning; (3) the first thirty days of mourning; (4) the first year, or rather eleven months, of mourning less one day.該ashkenazic習俗作出以下命令: ( 1 ) jahrzeit ; ( 2 )第一個7天的哀悼; ( 3 )第一三十天的哀悼; ( 4 )的第一年,或者更確切地說, 11個月,莫寧少一天。 The Jahrzeit mourner has the precedence over all for one Ḳaddish.該jahrzeit mourner已是高於一切,為一ḳaddish 。 If several Jahrzeit mourners are represented, the Ḳaddishim are divided among them to the exclusion of others.如果幾個jahrzeit哀悼者代表, ḳaddishim劃分,其中以排斥其他的。 If there are more Jahrzeit mourners than there are Ḳaddishim in the service, lots are drawn.如果有更多jahrzeit哀悼者比有ḳaddishim在服務,抽籤得出。 After each of the Jahrzeit mourners has recited one Ḳaddish the rest go to the seven-day mourners.以後的每一項jahrzeit悼念獻技之一ḳaddish該休息去了為期7天的哀悼。 If there are no seven-day mourners, the thirty-day mourners recite them.如果沒有進行為期7天的哀悼者, 30天哀悼背誦。 The first-year mourner, in the absence of other mourners, recites one Ḳaddish after the Daily Psalm, and the Jahrzeit mourners all the rest.第一年mourner ,在沒有其他悼念,朗誦一ḳaddish後每日詩篇,並jahrzeit悼念其餘所有。 A minor who is an orphan takes precedence over an older person.未成年人,孤兒,要高於年長的人。 A resident or a Jahrzeit mourner has the preference over a newcomer, unless the latter be a seven-day mourner, when their rights are equal.一名居民或jahrzeit mourner有偏好超過一個新人,除非後者是一個為期7天的mourner ,當他們的權利都是平等的。 Mourners whose rights of precedence are equal decide among themselves by drawing lots.The Sephardic minhag, however, allows the mourners to recite the Ḳaddish jointly, but they are so distributed in the synagogue that the congregation may distinguish their voices at various points and respond "Amen."哀悼者,其權利優先於都是平等的決定,在它們之間是借助lots.the sephardic minhag然而,讓哀悼者,以朗誦ḳaddish共同的,但他們願意這樣做主要分佈在猶太教堂說,眾可區分它們的聲音在各個點和回應"阿門" 。 This custom is gradually being accepted by the Ashkenazic synagogues.這一習俗正逐漸被接受,由ashkenazic猶太教堂。 In Seder R. Amram Gaon (p. 4) an explanation is given of the custom of bowing five times during the recital of Ḳaddish-at the words (1) "yitgadal," (2) "ba-agala," (3) "yitbarak," (4) "shemeh," (5) "'oseh shalom": the five inclinations correspond with the five names of God mentioned in Mal.在seder傳譯阿姆拉姆gaon (第4頁)的一個解釋是,由於這項習俗屈從5倍,在演奏的ḳaddish -在字( 1 ) " yitgadal , " ( 2 ) "拔阿加拉" ( 3 ) " yitbarak , " ( 4 ) " shemeh , " ( 5 ) " ' oseh沙洛姆" :五年傾向符合五個名字,上帝提到的仲裁法。 i.一。 11. 11 。 The seven synonyms of praise-"blessed," "praised," "glorified," "exalted," "extolled," "honored," and "uplifted" (the word "lauded" is omitted)-signify the seven heavens above.七個別名讚美- "有福" , "讚揚" , "歌頌" , "開天闢地" , "讚頌" , "榮幸" , "隆起" (用"稱讚"是省略)示七個老天爺以上。 See Jahrzeit.見jahrzeit 。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Baer, Seder 'Abodat Yisrael, p. Baer的, seder ' abodat選票頁 16, Rödelheim, 1868; Dembitz, Jewish Services in the Synagogue and Home, pp. 16 , rödelheim , 1868年;登比茨,猶太服務在猶太教會堂和家裡頁。 105-111, Philadelphia, 1898; 105-111 , 76人, 1898年;

Landshuth, Seder Biḳḳur Ḥolim, Introduction, § 31, and p. landshuth , seder biḳḳur ḥolim ,導言,第31頁 112, Berlin, 1867.AJDE 112 ,柏林, 1867.ajde

-Musical Rendering: -音樂渲染:

From the position of the Ḳaddish at the conclusion of each service, and more particularly from the employment of its shorter form, "Ḳaddish Le'ela," as marking off each section of the service, more importance came to be attached to the particular form of its intonation as the accompanying circumstances varied, than was due even to the nature of the doxology and the responses necessitating its public intonation.從位置的ḳaddish在總結每一項服務的,特別是從就業,其較短的形式, " ḳaddish le'ela , "作為標記過每一節的服務,更重要的後來被附於特定形式其語調,因為陪同的情況各不相同,比,是因為即使到了大自然的doxology和反應,迫切需要對公共音調。 Following, too, the fundamental constructive principle of all synagogal chants, explained under Cantillation and Ḥazzanut, in consequence of which the same text varies alike in tonality and in melodic outline according to the importance of the occasion and to the esthetic expression associated with it, there have gradually shaped themselves in each of the traditional uses a number of tuneful renderings of the Ḳaddish which have become in themselves typical melodies of the day or of the service.之後,也根本建設性的原則,所有synagogal呼喊,解釋下cantillation和ḥazzanut ,在後果的,即同一文本的不同,無論大小,調性和旋律綱要根據重要性的場合和審美表達與此相關,有已逐步形成了自己的每一項傳統使用的一些tuneful透視圖的ḳaddish已成為在自己典型的旋律在日間或該項服務。 As early as the fifteenth century such melodies were recognized; and the utmost importance was attached to their faithful reproduction at the point in the liturgy with which they had become traditionally associated (comp. MaHaRIL, ed. Sabbionetta, 43b, 49a, 61a, b, etc.).早在15世紀這樣的旋律,被承認;極為重視他們的忠實再現,在這一點禮儀與它們已成為傳統上( comp. maharil ,教育署。 sabbionetta ,第43條B , 49A條61A條,乙等) 。

Fixed Melodies.固定的旋律。

These were probably the settings of the Ḳaddish, at least in outline, which are now most widely accepted; but most of those settings which exhibit formal construction are more likely later introductions due to the influence of contemporary folk-songs (see Music, Synagogal).這些人可能是設置的ḳaddish ,至少在概要,但目前最被廣泛接受,但大多數人的設置,其中展品正式施工更有可能後來引進的,由於受當代民俗歌曲(見音樂, synagogal ) 。 For, originally, the model vocal phrase which, when amplified and developed to the text of the particular 'Amidah (comp. Ḥazzanut) with which it was associated, formed the intonation to which that prayer was recited, reproduced itself also in the Ḳaddish which immediately preceded the prayer.為,原來,這個模式聲樂這句話時,擴增並發展到今天的文字部分,尤其是' amidah ( comp. ḥazzanut )與它有聯繫,形成了語調而祈禱是背誦,複製本身也應在其中ḳaddish緊接前祈禱。 Such, indeed, still are the intonations in the ordinary week-day services, in the Sabbath afternoon service, those at the close of the Psalms, etc., in the morning service, or those before the "Musaf" of Ṭal and Geshem or the Atonement Ne'ilah, in the Ashkenazic, as well as most of the intonations in the Sephardic use.例如,事實上,仍然是世界intonations在普通為期一周的日間照顧服務,在安息日下午的服務,這些在結束詩篇等,在上午的服務,或那些"前musaf " ṭal和geshem或贖罪ne'ilah ,在ashkenazic ,以及大部分的intonations在sephardic使用。

Other settings of this class continue the intonation of the passage immediately preceding the Ḳaddish, as that for Sabbath eve in the Sephardic use (comp. De Sola and Aguilar, "Ancient Melodies," No. 9, London, 1852), or those of the New-Year and Atonement evening service in the Ashkenazic use.其他設置的這門課繼續音調的通過之前ḳaddish ,因為這為安息日前夕,在sephardic使用( comp.德索拉和己立,是"古老的旋律" ,第9號,倫敦, 1852年) ,或者那些新的一年,並贖罪夜間服務,在ashkenazic使用。 Others, again, such as the powerful, if florid, recitative associated with the penitential "Musaf" (see music), have been developed from traditional material independently of the associated service.別人,讓我們再等了強大的,如果華麗, recitative與penitential " musaf " (見音樂) ,已制定了從傳統材料,獨立處理各項相關服務。

Representative Themes.代表主題。

More formal in structure, and thus more nearly allied to melody according to modern conceptions, are the later, and more numerous, settings of the Ḳaddish which have been adapted from, or built on similar lines to, contemporary folk-songs.更正式的結構,從而更接近結盟的旋律按照現代觀念,是後來,越來越多不勝數,設置的ḳaddish已被改編,或建立類似的詩句,現代民俗歌曲。 Several are far from solemn in character, as, for example, national or patriotic airs (the "Marseillaise" was employed for the Ḳaddish in Lorraine about 1830; and still more incongruous tunes have been used), or mere jingles like the festival evening melodies still utilized in England (comp. Mombach, "Sacred Musical Compositions," pp. 115, 117, London, 1881) or that often used in Germany after the Festival of the Reading of the Law (comp. Baer, "Ba'al Tefillah," No. 825, Göteborg, 1877; Frankfort, 1883).幾個遠遠莊嚴性質,因為,舉例來說,民族或愛國擺架子( " marseillaise "受僱負責ḳaddish在洛林約1830年;還有更多的格格不入曲調已用過) ,或僅僅是廣告歌曲,如節今晚旋律仍利用在英國( comp. mombach , "神聖的樂曲, "頁115 , 117 ,倫敦, 1881年) ,或經常使用後,德國電影節的讀法( comp. Baer的, " ba'al tefillah " 825號,哥德堡, 1877年;法蘭克福, 1883年) 。 Others, enriched with characteristically Hebraic adornment, majestic or pathetic in themselves, have in turn become representative themes, like the prayer-motives of the ḥazzanut, typifying the sentiment prominent in the service or occasion with which they are associated.其他人,豐富的特點就是hebraic裝飾品,雄偉壯觀,或在可憐自己,也反過來成為代表性的主題,像祈禱-動機的ḥazzanut ,典型化的情緒突出,在服務場合或與它們有聯繫。 Such, for instance, are the obviously Spanish air known among Sephardim as "La Despidida," and sung as a farewell on the last day of each festival, and the beautiful melodies employed after the reading of the lesson from the Law among the northern Jews (see music).例如,舉例來說,是很明顯西班牙語空氣已知其中sephardim為"香格里拉despidida " ,並高唱作為告別在最後一天的每一節,和美麗的旋律受聘後,讀的教訓,從法律之間的北部猶太人(見音樂) 。

A very curious and unesthetic custom formerly prevailed among the Ashkenazim of chanting the Ḳaddish, after the lessons on the rejoicing of the law, to a cento of phrases from melodies in use throughout the rest of the year, the version once employed in London (comp. Mombach, "Sacred Musical Compositions," p. 137) introducing fragments of no less than twelve such airs.一個很好奇和unesthetic定制前身之間普遍ashkenazim的呼喊了ḳaddish後,教訓就值得慶幸的有關規定,向cento的詞句從旋律,在整個使用在今年餘下時間中,版本一旦受聘於倫敦(可比。 mombach , "神聖的樂曲" ,第137頁)引入片段不得少於12個這樣的自傲。

The congregational responses were originally toneless, a mere loud acclaim.堂會響應原本三角鋼琴的,只是大聲喝彩。 To Sulzer is due the casting of them into the generally accepted shape.以蘇爾壽,這是因為鑄造他們成為人們普遍接受的形狀。 Other composers also have presented suitable definite melodic phrases.其他作曲家也給他們適當的確切旋律短語。 The tendency is properly to model the responses upon the tuneful material of the particular Ḳaddish itself (comp. Baer, "Ba'al Tefillah," passim, and Cohen and Davis, "The Voice of Prayer and Praise," pp. xx. et seq., London, 1899).趨勢是妥善模型反應後, tuneful材料的發展,特別是ḳaddish本身( comp. Baer的, " ba'al tefillah , "各處,與科恩和戴維斯, "的聲音,祈禱和讚美, "第XX條。等以下各段,倫敦, 1899年) 。

Cyrus Adler, Kaufmann Kohler, Judah David Eisenstein, Francis L. Cohen居魯士阿德勒,考夫曼科勒,猶大大衛艾森斯坦,弗蘭西斯L科恩
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版1901年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Most collections of synagogal melodies present some form of the Ḳaddish or responses for it; see particularly those given in Baer, Ba'al Tefillah.最珍藏的synagogal旋律,目前某種形式的ḳaddish或回复;見尤其是那些在Baer的, ba'al tefillah 。 Of especial interest, in addition to those enumerated above, are: Consolo, Canti d'Israele, Nos. 127, 302, Florence, 1892; as given in Sulzer, Shir Ẓiyyon, No. 128, Vienna, 1840; Naumbourg, Aggudat Shirim, No. 15, Paris, 1874; Baer, lc No. 1466 (both Polish and German forms); Marksohn and Wolf, Synagogal-Melodien., Nos. 11, 13, Leipsic, 1875; Naumbourg, lc No. 23; Pauer and Cohen, Traditional Hebrew Melodies, No. 11, London, 1892; Braham and Nathan, Byron's Hebrew Melodies, No. 3, London, 1815; Naumann, History of Music, Eng.的特殊利益,除了那些上面列舉的,它們是: consolo , canti -i sraele,第1 27, 3 02,佛羅倫薩, 1 892年,隨著在蘇爾壽, s hirẓ iyyon,第1 28號,維也納, 1 840年; n aumbourg, a ggudats hirim ,第15號,巴黎, 1874年; Baer的,立法會第1466號(波蘭和德國表格) ; marksohn和狼, synagogal - melodien 。號, 11 , 13 , leipsic , 1875年; naumbourg ,立法會的23號; pauer與科恩,傳統希伯萊旋律,第11號,倫敦, 1892年;布拉姆斯及彌敦道,拜倫的希伯萊旋律,第3號,倫敦, 1815年;瑙曼基金會,音樂史,英。 ed., p.版,頁 82, London, 1886; Young Israel, i. 82 ,倫敦, 1886年,年輕以色列,一。 243, ii. 243 ,二。 104 and 152, London, 1898-99; H. Zivi, Der Jahrkaddisch für Simchasthora, Leipsic, 1902; Nowakowsky, Schlussgebet für Jom Kippur, No. 1.AFLCḲADDISH (La Despidida) 104和152 ,倫敦, 1898年至1899年;每小時zivi ,明鏡jahrkaddisch f黵simchasthora , leipsic , 1902年; nowakowsky , schlussgebet f黵jom救贖, 1.aflcḳaddish號(香格里拉despidida )


Lord's Prayer (in English, translated from Greek)主禱文(英文,翻譯,由希臘文)

Orthodox Church Text東正教教堂文本

Our Father, who art in heaven,我們的父親,他的藝術在天上,
Hallowed be Thy name.神聖被你的名字。
Thy kingdom come.祢英國來。
Thy will be done,你會做的,
on earth as it is in heaven.在地球上,因為這是在天上。
Give us this day讓我們在這一天
our daily bread;我們每天的麵包;
and forgive us our trespasses,和寬恕我們的過犯,
as we forgive those who trespass against us;正如我們原諒那些擅闖對我們不利;
and lead us not into temptation,並帶領我們不要變成誘惑,
but deliver us from evil.但救我們脫離罪惡。


The Lord's Prayer主禱文

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not seem to have been generally familiar in England before the Reformation.雖然拉美來說,地址是多米尼克的早日實現,將"主禱文" ,似乎並沒有得到普遍熟悉的,在英格蘭前改造。 During the Middle Ages the "Our Father" was always said in Latin, even by the uneducated.在中世紀的"父親"總是說,在拉丁美洲,即使是由未受過教育。 Hence it was then most commonly known as the Pater noster.因此,它是當時最常見的名稱為父親noster 。 The name "Lord's prayer" attaches to it not because Jesus Christ used the prayer Himself (for to ask forgiveness of sin would have implied the acknowledgment of guilt) but because He taught it to His disciples.命名為"主禱文" ,重視它,並不是因為耶穌基督用自己的祈禱(請赦罪將意味著承認有罪) ,但因為他教給他的弟子。

Many points of interest are suggested by the history and employment of the Our Father.很多興趣點建議,由歷史及就業的父親。 With regard to the English text now in use among Catholics, we may note that this is derived not from the Rheims Testament but from a version imposed upon England in the reign of Henry VIII, and employed in the 1549 and 1552 editions of the "Boo of Common Prayer".對於英文文本,現在使用的天主教徒,我們可以注意到,這是源自不是來自rheims全書但是,從一個版本強加在英國統治時期的亨利八世,並受聘於1549年和1552年版本的"組合獎共同祈禱" 。 From this our present Catholic text differs only in two very slight particulars: "Which art" has been modernized into "who art", and "in earth" into "on earth".從這個我們目前的天主教文本的不同,只有在兩個很輕微的細節: "藝術"的論斷,已成為現代化的"人藝" , "地球"變成"地球" 。

The version itself, which accords pretty closely with the translation in Tyndale's New Testament, no doubt owed its general acceptance to an ordinance of 1541 according to which "his Grace perceiving now the great diversity of the translations (of the Pater noster etc.) hath willed them all to be taken up, and instead of them hath caused an uniform translation of the said Pater noster, Ave, Creed, etc. to be set forth, willing all his loving subjects to learn and use the same and straitly commanding all parsons, vicars and curates to read and teach the same to their parishioners".該版本本身,它給予相當密切與翻譯tyndale的新約聖經,毫無疑問,拖欠其普遍接受的一項條例的第1541根據該項規定, "他的恩典感知現在極大的多樣性,翻譯(屬於父親noster等) ,祂所意志,他們都將要採取的行動,而不是他們祂所造成一個統一翻譯的說,父親noster ,大道,信仰等,以中載明,願意在他的所有愛好科目的學習及使用,同時並straitly指揮全部帕森斯, vicars和curates閱讀和教導,同時向他們的教友" 。 As a result the version in question became universally familiar to the nation, and though the Rheims Testament, in 1581, and King James's translators, in 1611, provided somewhat different renderings of Matthew 6:9-13, the older form was retained for their prayers both by Protestants and Catholics alike.由於版本問題,已成為普遍熟悉的民族,雖然rheims遺囑,在1581年,國王詹姆斯的翻譯家,在1611所提供的有所不同透視圖的馬修6:9-13時,舊的形式被保留供其祈禱都新教徒和天主教徒一樣。

As for the prayer itself the version in St. Luke 11:2-4, given by Christ in answer to the request of His disciples, differs in some minor details from the form which St. Matthew (6:9-15) introduces in the middle of the Sermon on the Mount, but there is clearly no reason why these two occasions should be regarded as identical.至於禱告自己的版本,在聖盧克11:2-4 ,由於基督在回答要求他的弟子,有不同的一些小細節,從形式,其中聖馬太( 6:9-15 )介紹中間的山上寶訓,但很明顯,沒有理由這兩個場合,應被視為完全相同。 It would be almost inevitable that if Christ had taught this prayer to His disciples He should have repeated it more than once.這將是不可避免的,如果基督教這種禱告,以他的弟子,他應該重複它一次以上。 It seems probable, from the form in which the Our Father appears in the "Didache", that the version in St. Matthew was that which the Church adopted from the beginning for liturgical purposes.看來,從以何種形式,我們的父親出現在" didache " ,即該版本在聖馬太於那教會通過從一開始就為禮儀之用。 Again, no great importance can be attached to the resemblances which have been traced between the petitions of the Lord's prayer and those found in prayers of Jewish origin which were current about the time of Christ There is certainly no reason for treating the Christian formula as a plagiarism, for in the first place the resemblances are but partial and, secondly we have no satisfactory evidence that the Jewish prayers were really anterior in date.再次,沒有高度重視,可以附著在相似之處,其中已有跡可尋之間的請願活動的主禱文及被發現祈禱的猶太血統而被電流約的時候,基督當然是沒有理由對待基督教公式作為抄襲他人作品,為擺在首位的相似之處,不過是局部的,其次,我們並沒有令人滿意的證據,證明猶太人祈禱真的前壁日期。

Upon the interpretation of the Lord's Prayer, much has been written, despite the fact that it is so plainly simple, natural, and spontaneous, and as such preeminently adapted for popular use.經解釋上帝祈禱,許多人已書面,儘管事實上,它是如此赤裸裸地簡單,自然,自發的,正因為如此preeminently改編為普遍使用。 In the quasi-official "Catechismus ad parochos", drawn up in 1564 in accordance with the decrees of the Council of Trent, an elaborate commentary upon the Lord's Prayer is provided which forms the basis of the analysis of the Our Father found in all Catholic catechisms.在半官方" catechismus專案parochos " ,擬定於1564年在按照有關法規對安理會的遄達,是一個複雜的評論後,主禱文是提供哪些形式分析的基礎上的父親發現,在所有天主教會catechisms 。 Many points worthy of notice are there emphasized, as, for example, the fact that the words "On earth as it is in Heaven" should be understood to qualify not only the petition "Thy will be done", but also the two preceding, "hallowed be Thy name" and "Thy Kingdom come".許多共同點,值得預告是否有強調,正如,舉例來說,一個事實,即: "在地球上,因為這是在天上"應被理解為有資格不僅請願" ,你會做" ,而且還使用了前兩次, "神聖被你的名字"和"你的王國來" 。 The meaning of this last petition is also very fully dealt with.所指的這個最後的請願書也很充分,查處一起。 The most conspicuous difficulty in the original text of the Our Father concerns the interpretation of the words artos epiousios which in accordance with the Vulgate in St. Luke we translate "our daily bread", St. Jerome, by a strange inconsistency, changed the pre-existing word quotidianum into supersubstantialem in St. Matthew but left quotidianum in St. Luke.最突出的困難,在原文的父親關切一詞的解釋artos epiousios而按照該vulgate在聖盧克我們翻譯: "我們每天的麵包" ,聖杰羅姆,一個奇怪的不一致之處,一改前-現有字quotidianum到supersubstantialem在聖馬太,但左quotidianum在聖盧克。 The opinion of modern scholars upon the point is sufficiently indicated by the fact that the Revised Version still prints "daily" in the text, but suggests in the margin "our bread for the coming day", while the American Committee wished to add "our needful bread".認為現代學者後的一點是充分顯示了一個事實,即修訂版本仍版畫"人民日報" ,在文本,但建議在保證金"我們的麵包,為來年一天" ,而美國委員會希望加上"我們需要的麵包" 。 Lastly may be noted the generally received opinion that the rendering of the last clause should be "deliver us from the evil one", a change which justifies the use of "but" in stead of "and" and practically converts the two last clauses into one and the same petition.最後可以指出,普遍收到認為繪製的最後條款應為"救我們脫離罪惡之一" ,這是一個變化,這是合理使用" ,而是"代替" , "切實轉換最後兩項條款同一個請願書。 The doxology "for Thine is the Kingdom", etc., which appears in the Greek textus receptus and has been adopted in the later editions of the "Boo of Common Prayer", is undoubtedly an interpolation.該doxology "為你的,是王國" ,等等,它似乎是在希臘Web網站receptus ,並已通過了在後來的版本中的"建築物條例執行處共同祈禱" ,無疑是一個插。

In the liturgy of the Church the Our Father holds a very conspicuous place.在禮儀中的教會了我們的父親擁有一個非常顯眼。 Some commentators have erroneously supposed, from a passage in the writings of St. Gregory the Great (Ep., ix, 12), that he believed that the bread and wine of the Eucharist were consecrated in Apostolic times by the recitation of the Our Father alone.一些評論家錯誤地假定,從一個通道,在該著作的聖格里高利大( ep. ,第九, 12 ) ,他認為,麵包和酒的聖體聖事的人consecrated在使徒時代所背誦的父親單。 But while this is probably not the true meaning of the passage, St. Jerome asserted (Adv. Pelag., iii, 15) that "our Lord Himself taught His disciples that daily in the Sacrifice of His Body they should make bold to say 'Our Father' etc."不過,雖然這可能不是真正意義的通過,聖杰羅姆斷言( adv. pelag ,三, 15歲)說: "我們的上帝教導他的弟子每天都在犧牲他的身體,他們應該大膽地說'我們的父親'等" 。 St. Gregory gave the Pater its present place in the Roman Mass immediately after the Canon and before the fraction, and it was of old the custom that all the congregation should make answer in the words "Sed libera nos a malo".聖格雷戈里了父親目前在羅馬地下後,立即佳能和前部分,而且它的舊習俗,所有會眾應作出答复的話"的SED自由行為雙數一聯絡辦公室" 。 In the Greek liturgies a reader recites the Our Father aloud while the priest and the people repeat it silently.在希臘語liturgies讀者朗誦了父親自言自語,而牧師和人民的重複,它默默耕耘。 Again in the ritual of baptism the recitation of the Our Father has from the earliest times been a conspicuous feature, and in the Divine Office it recurs repeatedly besides being recited both at the beginning and the end.再次,在儀式的洗禮,該背誦的父親已經從最早的時候得到的一個突出特點,並在神聖的辦公室,它一再復發,除了背誦都在開始和結束。

In many monastic rules, it was enjoined that the lay brothers, who knew no Latin, instead of the Divine office should say the Lord's Prayer a certain number of times (often amounting to more than a hundred) per diem.在許多寺院的規則,它是受命說,奠定兄弟,因自知沒有拉丁語,而不是神的辦事處應該說,在主禱文若干倍(通常達一百多)每日津貼。 To count these repetitions they made use of pebbles or beads strung upon a cord, and this apparatus was commonly known as a "pater-noster", a name which it retained even when such a string of beads was used to count, not Our Fathers, but Hail Marys in reciting Our Lady's Psalter, or in other words in saying the rosary.指望這些重複的,他們用卵石或珠子strung經脊髓,而這儀器被稱為"父親- noster " ,這是一個名字,它保留了,甚至當這樣一串珠子被用來計數,而不是我們的父輩,但冰雹。 Marys在背誦聖母的psalter ,或在其他詞說,念珠。

Publication information Written by Herbert Thurston.出版信息寫赫伯特瑟斯頓。 Transcribed by Tomas Hancil.轉錄由Tomas漢奇爾。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.天主教百科全書,體積九。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. nihil obstat , 1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約


Also, see:此外,見:
Society of Friends (Quakers) 社會上的朋友(貴格)

Book of Common Prayer 本書的共同祈禱

Rosary 念珠

Prayer 祈禱


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


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