Liturgy禮拜儀式

General Information 一般資料

Liturgy, from two Greek words meaning "people" and "work," refers to the formal public rituals of religious worship.禮儀中,從兩個希臘字,意思是"人"與"工作" ,是指以正式公開儀式的宗教崇拜。 In the Christian tradition, it is used as a specific title for the Eucharist and in general designates all formal services, including the Divine Office.在基督教傳統,它是用來作為某一特定商品為聖體聖事,並在總體上指定所有正規服務,其中包括神州辦公室。 Both the written texts of the rites and their celebration constitute liturgy.無論是書面文本的儀式和慶祝活動,他們構成禮拜儀式。 Among Protestants, the term describes a fixed form of worship, in contrast to free, spontaneous prayer.其中新教徒,用語形容一個固定形式的崇拜,相反,自由的,自發的禱告。 Outside the Christian church, liturgy is also used to designate the form of prayer recited in Jewish synagogues.外界基督教教會禮儀中,還可用來指定形式的祈禱,背誦,在猶太會堂。

The historic Christian liturgies are divided into two principal families: Eastern and Western. The Eastern liturgies include the Alexandrian (attributed to Saint Mark), the Antiochene (Saint James, Saint Basil, Saint John Chrysostom), and the East Syrian (Assyrian) or Chaldean (Addai and Mari), as well as the Armenian and Maronite rites. The Byzantine liturgies (those attributed to Saint John Chrysostom and Saint Basil) are used today by all Orthodox Christians in communion with Constantinople. 歷史基督教liturgies分為兩個主要的家庭:東部和西部。東部liturgies包括亞歷山大(歸因於聖馬克) ,安提阿學派(聖詹姆斯,聖羅勒,聖若望金口) ,以及東敘利亞(亞述人)或加爾丁( addai和馬里文) ,以及亞美尼亞和馬龍族儀式。 拜占庭liturgies (那些歸因於聖若望金口和聖羅勒)今天已應用於所有東正教基督徒在共融與君士坦丁堡。

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The Western liturgies are the Roman and the Gallican.西部liturgies是羅馬和gallican 。 The only Gallican liturgy still in use is the Ambrosian Rite of Milan, although the Mozarabic (Spanish), the Celtic, and the Franco - German Gallican were widely used until the 8th century.唯一gallican禮儀中目前仍在使用的是ambrosian成年禮的米蘭,雖然莫扎拉布素歌(西班牙文) ,凱爾特,和佛朗哥-德語g allican被廣泛使用,直到8世紀。

Traditional Anglican and Lutheran liturgies have been based on the local uses of the Roman rite revised according to 16th century Reformation principles. 傳統的聖公會和路德liturgies都立足於當地使用的羅馬成年禮訂正根據16世紀的改革原則。 Reformed (Calvinist) churches made a conscious attempt to replace historic liturgies with the forms of worship of the early Christian communities. 改革( calvinist )教會作出自覺企圖取代歷史性liturgies與形式的崇拜早期基督教社區。

In the 20th century a movement arose among the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches to revise the liturgies to make them more contemporary and relevant while retaining the basic beliefs of the church.在剛剛過去的二十世紀的一場運動中出現的羅馬天主教和新教教會修改liturgies ,以使它們更具有現代性和相關的,同時保留基本信仰的教會。 In the Roman Catholic church the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy of the Second Vatican Council substituted the use of vernacular languages for Latin in the Mass and allowed the participation of the laity in public worship.在羅馬天主教會在憲法上的神聖禮儀中的梵蒂岡第二屆大公會議取代了使用本地語言為拉丁語在大眾,並讓參與的平信徒在公共崇拜。 The Anglican (Episcopalian) church revised the book of Common Prayer, and the Lutheran churches issued a new Lutheran Book of Worship.該英國國教(聖公會)教會修訂這本書的共同祈禱,並路德教會發出新的路德書的崇拜。 Revised liturgies also are contained in Methodist, Congregationalist, and Presbyterian church hymnals.修訂liturgies亦載於衛, congregationalist ,長老教會hymnals 。

LL Mitchell黎巴嫩鎊米切爾

Bibliography 參考書目
LH Dalmais, Eastern Liturgies (1960); G Dix, The Shape of the Liturgy (1945); T Klauser, A Short History of the Western Liturgy (1979); H Schultz, The Byzantine Liturgy (1986); C Vogel, Medieval Liturgy (1987); J White, Protestant Worship (1987). LH的dalmais ,東區liturgies ( 1960 ) 100迪克斯,形狀的禮儀( 1945年)和t klauser ,歷史較短的西方禮儀中( 1979年) ; h舒爾茨,拜占庭禮儀中( 1986條) , c傅高義,中世紀的教會禮儀( 1987 ) ; j白,基督教崇拜( 1987 ) 。


Liturgy禮拜儀式

General Information 一般資料

The Liturgy is the body of rites prescribed for formal public worship. Although the term is sometimes applied to Jewish worship, it is especially associated with the prayers and ceremonies used in the celebration of the Lord's Supper, or Eucharist. 禮儀中,是人體禮記處方才可正式公開崇拜,雖然任期是有時適用於猶太人崇拜,它尤其與祈禱儀式,在慶祝主的晚餐,或者聖體聖事。 During the first three centuries of the Christian era, the rite of the church was comparatively fluid, based on various accounts of the Last Supper.在頭三個世紀的基督教時代,成年禮的教堂相對流體的基礎上,各種帳目的最後的晚餐。

In about the 4th century the various traditions crystallized into four liturgies,大約在4世紀的各種傳統,凝結成四個liturgies ,

from which all others have been derived.從所有其他人都被導出。

The Antiochene family of liturgies includes the Clementine liturgy of the Apostolic Constitutions, which is no longer used; the Syriac liturgy of Saint James, used by the Jacobite church and Syrian Eastern Rite churches; the Greek liturgy of Saint James, used once a year at Jerusalem; the Syriac liturgy of the Maronites ; the Syriac liturgy used by the Nestorian church; the Malabar liturgy, used by the Saint Thomas Christians of India; the Byzantine liturgy, used in various languages by the Orthodox churches; and the Armenian liturgy, used by the Georgians and the Armenian Eastern Rite churches.安提阿學派家族liturgies包括克萊門泰禮儀中的使徒憲法,這是不再使用; 敘利亞文禮儀中的聖詹姆斯,用詹姆斯黨教會和敘利亞東部成年禮教堂; 希臘語禮儀中的聖詹姆斯,用一年一次,在耶路撒冷; 敘利亞文禮儀中的馬龍派教徒 ; 敘利亞文禮儀中所用的景教教堂;馬拉巴爾禮儀中,所用的聖托馬斯基督徒的印度; 拜占庭禮儀中,用各種語言所東正教教堂和亞美尼亞禮儀中,用由格魯吉亞人和亞美尼亞東部成年禮教堂。

The Alexandrian liturgies include the Greek liturgy of Saint Mark, no longer used; the Coptic liturgy, which is used by the Copts (Coptic Church) in Egypt; and the Ethiopian liturgy, used by the Ethiopian church.亞歷山大liturgies包括希臘禮儀中的聖馬克,不再使用; 科普特禮儀中,這是用科普特(科普特教堂) ,在埃及和埃塞俄比亞禮儀中,用了埃塞俄比亞教堂。

The Roman liturgy is used almost universally by the Roman Catholic church. 羅馬教會禮儀是用幾乎普遍由羅馬天主教教會。 From it were derived various medieval liturgies, such as those of Sarum, Paris, Trier, and Cologne, which are no longer in use.從它衍生的各種中世紀liturgies ,例如那些對sarum ,巴黎,特里爾,科隆,將不再使用。

The Gallican liturgy was used in northwestern Europe from the 4th century; it was superseded in France about 800 by the Roman liturgy.gallican禮儀中 ,用在歐洲西北部,從4世紀,它取代了在法國大約有800個由羅馬教會禮儀。 From it developed the Ambrosian liturgy, now used principally in the See of Milan; the Mozarabic or Isidorian liturgy , which was the liturgy of the church in Spain from the 6th to the 12th centuries and is now used only in Toledo and Salamanca; and the Celtic liturgy, which was superseded in the Celtic church in the 7th century by the Roman liturgy.由它開發出ambrosian禮儀中,現在主要用在看米蘭; 莫扎拉布素歌或isidorian禮儀中 ,這是禮儀中的教會在西班牙,從第六屆到12世紀,並正就只用在托萊多和薩拉曼卡和凱爾特禮儀中,它取代了在凱爾特教會在公元7世紀由羅馬教會禮儀。 In the Roman Catholic church the use of the vernacular, rather than Latin, was approved during Vatican Council II (1962-65).在羅馬天主教教會使用的白話文,而不是拉丁語,被核准在梵蒂岡理事會第二卷( 1962-1965 ) 。 Pope Paul VI subsequently directed that vernacular forms of the Mass would be obligatory after December 1971.教宗保祿六世其後指示白話文形式的群眾將強制後, 1971年12月。 In the United States, the bishops approved use of English translations of the Mass on or after March 22, 1970. Beginning with the 19th-century Oxford movement, Protestants developed a greater awareness of formal liturgy in their worship and have increasingly adopted liturgical forms of worship abandoned during the Reformation.在美國,主教團批准使用的英文譯本群眾當日或之後1970年3月22日開始,與19世紀的牛津運動,新教徒發達國家更深刻的認識,正式禮儀中,在他們崇拜的 ,並已通過了越來越多的禮儀形式崇拜遺棄在改革。 For the liturgy of the Church of England and the Episcopal church , see Book of Common Prayer.對於禮儀的英國教會和聖公會 ,見本書的共同祈禱。


Liturgy禮拜儀式

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

The various Christian liturgies are described each under its own name.各基督教liturgies描述每下自己的名字。 (See ALEXANDRINE LITURGY; AMBROSIAN LITURGY; ANTIOCHENE LITURGY; CELTIC RITE; Clementine Liturgy, treated in CLEMENT I; RITE OF CONSTANTINOPLE; GALLICAN RITE; LITURGY OF JERUSALEM; MOZARABIC RITE; SARUM RITE; SYRIAN RITE; SYRO-JACOBITE LITURGY.) In this article they are considered only from the point of view of their relation to one another in the most general sense, and an account is given of what is known about the growth of a fixed liturgy as such in the early Church. (見亞歷山大教會禮儀; ambrosian禮儀中;安提阿學派禮儀中;凱爾特成年禮;克萊門泰禮儀中,在對待克萊門特;成年禮君士坦丁堡; gallican成年禮;禮儀中的耶路撒冷;莫扎拉布素歌成年禮; sarum成年禮;敘利亞成年禮; syro -詹姆士派教會禮儀) ,在這文章他們是只考慮從的角度來看,他們的關係給對方,在最一般意義上說,和一個帳戶,是給予的,目前已知的關於成長的一個固定的禮儀中,因為這樣的,在早期教會。

I. DEFINITION一,定義

Liturgy (leitourgia) is a Greek composite word meaning originally a public duty, a service to the state undertaken by a citizen.禮儀中( leitourgia )是一個希臘的複合字,意思是本來是一個市民的責任,服務國家,由一個公民。 Its elements are leitos (from leos = laos, people) meaning public, and ergo (obsolete in the present stem, used in future erxo, etc.), to do.其要點是leitos (從低地球軌道衛星=老撾,人)的意思,並號ETM (過時,在目前幹,用於今後erxo等) ,做的。 From this we have leitourgos, "a man who performs a public duty", "a public servant", often used as equivalent to the Roman lictor; then leitourgeo, "to do such a duty", leitourgema, its performance, and leitourgia, the public duty itself.由此,我們有leitourgos , "一個人履行公共職責" , "公僕" ,經常被用作相當於羅馬lictor然後leitourgeo , "這樣做的職責" , leitourgema ,其性能和leitourgia ,市民稅本身。

At Athens the leitourgia was the public service performed by the wealthier citizens at their own expense, such as the office of gymnasiarch, who superintended the gymnasium, that of choregus, who paid the singers of a chorus in the theatre, that of the hestiator, who gave a banquet to his tribe, of the trierarchus, who provided a warship for the state.在雅典的leitourgia是公共服務,由較富裕的公民在自己花錢,如辦公室gymnasiarch ,誰superintended體育館,也就是choregus ,他們付出了歌手的大合唱,在劇場,是由hestiator ,世衛組織設宴款待了他的族人,在該trierarchus ,他們提供的軍艦,為國。 The meaning of the word liturgy is then extended to cover any general service of a public kind.一詞的含義禮儀中,然後擴展至包括任何一般性服務的一個公共類。 In the Septuagint it (and the verb leitourgeo) is used for the public service of the temple (eg, Exodus 38:27; 39:12, etc.).在septuagint它(與動詞leitourgeo ) ,是用來為公眾服務的廟(例如,出埃及記38:27 ; 39:12等) 。 Thence it comes to have a religious sense as the function of the priests, the ritual service of the temple (eg, Joel 1:9, 2:17, etc.).從那裡來已是一個宗教意義上的功能,祭司,禮儀服務的廟(例如,約珥1時09分, 2:17 ,等等) 。 In the New Testament this religious meaning has become definitely established.在新約聖經這個宗教含義已成為必然成立。 In Luke 1:23, Zachary goes home when "the days of his liturgy" (ai hemerai tes leitourgias autou) are over.在路加1:23 ,扎卡里回家的時候, "天,他的禮儀中的" (愛hemerai附加費leitourgias autou )結束了。 In Hebrews 8:6, the high priest of the New Law "has obtained a better liturgy", that is a better kind of public religious service than that of the Temple.在希伯來8時06分,大祭司的新兵役法" ,取得了較好的禱告儀式" ,這是一個好樣的公共服務,宗教比表示,在該廟。

So in Christian use liturgy meant the public official service of the Church, that corresponded to the official service of the Temple in the Old Law.因此,在基督教的禱告儀式中使用的是指公職人員服務的教會,即對應到正式服務的廟宇,在舊法。 We must now distinguish two senses in which the word was and is still commonly used.現在,我們必須區分兩種意義,其中字,目前仍在普遍使用。 These two senses often lead to confusion.這兩種意義,往往會導致混淆。

On the one hand, liturgy often means the whole complex of official services, all the rites, ceremonies, prayers, and sacraments of the Church, as opposed to private devotions.在一方面,禮儀中常常意味著整個複雜的官方服務,所有這些儀式,儀式,祈禱,聖事的教會,為反對私人奉獻。 In this sense we speak of the arrangement of all these services in certain set forms (including the canonical hours, administration of sacraments, etc.), used officially by any local church, as the liturgy of such a church -- the Liturgy of Antioch, the Roman Liturgy, and so on.從這個意義上講,我們講的安排,所有這些服務在某些既定的形式(包括典型時,政府的聖禮等) ,用於正式的任何地方教會,為教會禮儀的,例如一所教堂-禮儀中的安提,羅馬教會禮儀,等等。 So liturgy means rite; we speak indifferently of the Byzantine Rite or the Byzantine Liturgy.所以教會禮儀手段成年禮;我們講漠然的拜占庭成年禮或拜占庭禮拜儀式。 In the same sense we distinguish the official services from others by calling them liturgical; those services are liturgical which are contained in any of the official books (see LITURGICAL BOOKS) of a rite.在同樣的意義上,我們區分正式服務從別人稱他們是禮儀;這些服務禮儀,這列載有任何正式的書籍(見禮儀書籍)一個成年禮。 In the Roman Church, for instance, Compline is a liturgical service, the Rosary is not.在羅馬教會,例如compline是禮儀服務,玫瑰,是不是。

The other sense of the word liturgy, now the common one in all Eastern Churches, restricts it to the chief official service only -- the Sacrifice of the Holy Eucharist, which in our rite we call the Mass. This is now practically the only sense in which leitourgia is used in Greek, or in its derived forms (eg, Arabic al-liturgiah) by any Eastern Christian.另一意義上的字,禮儀中,現在常見的一種,在所有東歐教會,限制了它向行政公務服務只有-犧牲的聖體聖事,而在我們的成年禮,我們稱之為馬薩諸塞州,這是現在幾乎唯一的意義其中leitourgia用希臘語,或其衍生形式(如阿拉伯語基地liturgiah )任何東基督教。 When a Greek speaks of the "Holy Liturgy" he means only the Eucharistic Service.當希臘談到"神聖禮儀中的"他的意思,只有聖體聖事的服務。 For the sake of clearness it is perhaps better for us too to keep the word to this sense, at any rate in speaking of Eastern ecclesiastical matters; for instance, not to speak of the Byzantine canonical hours as liturgical services.為求清晰,它可能是更適合我們,也讓這個詞來這個意義上說,在任何速率在談到東歐教會事宜;例如,不說話的拜占庭典型時,作為禮儀服務。 Even in Western Rites the word "official" or "canonical" will do as well as "liturgical" in the general sense, so that we too may use Liturgy only for the Holy Eucharist.即使是在西方禮儀字的"官方"或"典型" ,將盡以及"禮儀" ,在一般意義上說,讓我們也可以用禮儀中,只有為聖體聖事。

It should be noted also that, whereas we may speak of our Mass quite correctly as the Liturgy, we should never use the word Mass for the Eucharistic Sacrifice in any Eastern rite.還應當指出,雖然我們可以說我們的群眾相當正確,因為禮儀中,我們永遠不應該用這個詞彌撒聖體聖事的犧牲,在任何東區成年禮。 Mass (missa) is the name for that service in the Latin Rites only.質量(彌撒曲" )的名義提供的服務,在拉丁語禮記只。 It has never been used either in Latin or Greek for any Eastern rite.它從未被使用在拉丁語或希臘語任何東區成年禮。 Their word, corresponding exactly to our Mass, is Liturgy.他們的一句話,相應的,正是我們的集體,是禮拜儀式。 The Byzantine Liturgy is the service that corresponds to our Roman Mass; to call it the Byzantine (or, worse still, the Greek) Mass is as wrong as naming any other of their services after ours, as calling their Hesperinos Vespers, or their Orthros Lauds.拜占庭禮儀中,是服務對應於我們羅馬質量;稱之為拜占庭(或者,更糟的是,希臘文)群眾是錯誤的,因為命名任何其他的服務後,我們的,因為要求他們hesperinos晚禱,或其orthros讚揚。 When people go even as far as calling their books and vestments after ours, saying Missal when they mean Euchologion, alb when they mean sticharion, the confusion becomes hopeless.當人們去,甚至就稱自己的書籍和總有一套之後,我們的,說missal時,他們的意思euchologion ,白蛋白時,他們的意思sticharion ,混亂變得無望。

II.二。 THE ORIGIN OF THE LITURGY起源禮儀

At the outset of this discussion we are confronted by three of the most difficult questions of Christian archæology, namely: From what date was there a fixed and regulated service such as we can describe as a formal Liturgy?在一開始的本次討論我們所面臨的三個最艱難的問題,基督教考古學,即:從什麼日期是否有一個固定和調節服務的效能,例如,我們可以形容為一個正式的禮儀中? How far was this service uniform in various Churches?多遠是這項服務的統一在各個教堂? How far are we able to reconstruct its forms and arrangement?有多遠,我們才能重建其形式和安排呢?

With regard to the first question it must be said that an Apostolic Liturgy in the sense of an arrangement of prayers and ceremonies, like our present ritual of the Mass, did not exist.關於第一個問題,應該說,一個使徒教會禮儀,在意義上的一個安排的祈禱和儀式,像我們目前祭祀的群眾,是不存在的。 For some time the Eucharistic Service was in many details fluid and variable.一段時間,聖體聖事的服務在很多細節流體和變數。 It was not all written down and read from fixed forms, but in part composed by the officiating bishop.這並不全是寫了下來,並宣讀了由固定形式,但在部分組成,由主主教。 As for ceremonies, at first they were not elaborated as now.至於儀式,在他們先是沒有說明現在一樣。 All ceremonial evolves gradually out of certain obvious actions done at first with no idea of ritual, but simply because they had to he done for convenience.所有禮儀逐漸演變出一些明顯的行動,在做第一次與不知道的禮儀,而僅僅是因為他們要他做的方便。 The bread and wine were brought to the altar when they were wanted, the lessons were read from a place where they could best be heard, hands were washed because they were soiled.麵包和酒被帶到祭壇上的時候,他們被通緝,其教訓是經過從一個地方,最能聽到,雙手被水洗,因為它們都是糞。 Out of these obvious actions ceremony developed, just as our vestments developed out of the dress of the first Christians.出於這些顯而易見的行動儀式上的發展,就像我們過去總有一套開發出的著裝的第一基督徒。 It follows then of course that, when there was no fixed Liturgy at all, there could be no question of absolute uniformity among the different Churches.因此,那當然,因為當時有沒有固定的禮儀中,都不可能有任何的問題,絕對的統一性之間不同的教堂。

And yet the whole series of actions and prayers did not depend solely on the improvisation of the celebrating bishop.然而,整個系列的行動並為他們祈禱並沒有完全依賴於即興的,歡慶的主教。 Whereas at one time scholars were inclined to conceive the services of the first Christians as vague and undefined, recent research shows us a very striking uniformity in certain salient elements of the service at a very early date.而在同一時間,學者多傾向隱瞞服務的第一基督徒含糊和undefined ,最近的研究表明,我們一個十分引人注目的均勻性,在某些突出內容服務是在一個非常早日實現。 The tendency among students now is to admit something very like a regulated Liturgy, apparently to a great extent uniform in the chief cities, back even to the first or early second century.這個傾向的學生,現在是承認很喜歡規範的禮儀中,似乎是要在相當程度上的統一,在行政城市,背部甚至以第一或明年初的第二個世紀。 In the first place the fundamental outline of the rite of the Holy Eucharist was given by the account of the Last Supper.擺在首位,基本綱領的成年禮的聖體聖事是由該帳戶的最後的晚餐。 What our Lord had done then, that same thing He told His followers to do in memory of Him.什麼我們的主做了,然後,同樣的事情,他告訴他的信徒,以做紀念他。 It would not have been a Eucharist at all if the celebrant had not at least done as our Lord did the night before He died.它不會一直是聖體聖事,在所有,如果監禮人沒有起碼做,因為我們的主做的前一天晚上他的死亡。 So we have everywhere from the very beginning at least this uniform nucleus of a Liturgy: bread and wine are brought to the celebrant in vessels (a plate and a cup); he puts them on a table -- the altar; standing before it in the natural attitude of prayer he takes them in his hands, gives thanks, as our Lord had done, says again the words of institution, breaks the Bread and gives the consecrated Bread and Wine to the people in communion.因此,我們必須處處從一開始就至少在這個統一的核心部分教會禮儀:麵包和酒帶來的是向監禮人,在容器(一盤及杯) ,他把它們一張台子-走下神壇;站在它面前自然的態度,祈禱他,他們在他的手裡,讓感謝,並作為我們的主做了,說再等字的機構,打破了麵包,並給出了consecrated麵包和葡萄酒的人共融。 The absence of the words of institution in the Nestorian Rite is no argument against the universality of this order.如果沒有的話院校在景教成年禮的,是沒有任何理由而反對普遍性的這項命令。 It is a rite that developed quite late; the parent liturgy has the words.這是一個成年禮,發達國家已經很晚;母公司禮儀中有話。

But we find much more than this essential nucleus in use in every Church from the first century.但我們發現遠不止這個至關重要的核利用在每一個教會,從第一世紀。 The Eucharist was always celebrated at the end of a service of lessons, psalms, prayers, and preaching, which was itself merely a continuation of the service of the synagogue.聖體聖事是永遠紀念在去年底的一項服務的經驗教訓,聖歌,祈禱,並說教,它本身只是一個延續服務的猶太教堂。 So we have everywhere this double function; first a synagogue service Christianized, in which the holy books were read, psalms were sung, prayers said by the bishop in the name of all (the people answering "Amen" in Hebrew, as had their Jewish forefathers), and homilies, explanations of what had been read, were made by the bishop or priests, just as they had been made in the synagogues by the learned men and elders (eg, Luke 4:16-27).因此,我們必須處處這種雙重職能,首先是猶太教堂服務christianized ,其中聖書人閱讀,詩篇人唱,祈禱說,由主教,在名稱的全部(民回答: "阿門"在希伯來文,因為他們猶太人先人) ,並頌歌,解釋什麼已經宣讀,都是由主教或神父,正如他們已經取得了在猶太教堂所學到男人和長輩(例如,路加福音4:16-27 ) 。 This is what was known afterwards as the Liturgy of the Catechumens.這就是被稱為事後作為禮儀中的慕道者。 Then followed the Eucharist, at which only the baptized were present.接著聖體,在其中只有受洗人出席。 Two other elements of the service in the earliest time soon disappeared.其他兩個要素的服務,在最快的時間很快消失了。 One was the Love-feast (agape) that came just before the Eucharist; the other was the spiritual exercises, in which people were moved by the Holy Ghost to prophesy, speak in divers tongues, heal the sick by prayer, and so on.其中之一是愛的饗宴(神父)說,剛剛來到之前,聖體聖事;另一種是精神上的演習,使人們感動了聖靈,以預言,發言的潛水員舌,醫治病人祈禱,等等。 This function -- to which 1 Corinthians 14:1-14, and the Didache, 10:7, etc., refer -- obviously opened the way to disorders; from the second century it gradually disappears.這個功能-其中1哥林多前書1 4:1-14,以及d idache, 1 0點0 7分,等,是指-顯然開闢了道路障礙;從公元二世紀,它逐漸消失。 The Eucharistic Agape seems to have disappeared at about the same time.聖體聖事的愛德似乎已經消失,在大約同一時間。 The other two functions remained joined, and still exist in the liturgies of all rites.其他兩項職能依然加入,而現在仍是存在於liturgies的所有儀式。 In them the service crystallized into more or less set forms from the beginning.在他們服務的結晶,融入更多或更少設置形式從一開始的。 In the first half the alternation of lessons, psalms, collects, and homilies leaves little room for variety.在上半年,該輪崗的教訓,詩篇,收集,並頌歌的餘地很少的品種。 For obvious reasons a lesson from a Gospel was read last, in the place of honour as the fulfilment of all the others; it was preceded by other readings whose number, order, and arrangement varied considerably (see LESSONS IN THE LITURGY).由於顯而易見的原因教訓,從一個福音宣讀了最後,在地方名譽作為履行所有其他人,這是之前其他讀物,其數量,秩序,並安排差異很大(見教訓,在禮儀中) 。 A chant of some kind would very soon accompany the entrance of the clergy and the beginning of the service. 1高唱某種將很快伴隨著入口神職人員,並開始提供服務。 We also hear very soon of litanies of intercession said by one person to each clause of which the people answer with some short formula (see ANTIOCHENE LITURGY; ALEXANDRINE LITURGY; KYRIE ELEISON).我們還聽到很快的litanies的干涉,說,由一個人,以每一條款,其中人的回答與一些短暫的公式(見安提阿學派禮儀中;亞歷山大教會禮儀; kyrie eleison ) 。 The place and number of the homilies would also vary for a long time.地點和數量的頌歌也不盡相同相當長的時間。 It is in the second part of the service, the Eucharist itself, that we find a very striking crystallization of the forms, and a uniformity even in the first or second century that goes far beyond the mere nucleus described above.這是在第二部分的服務,聖體聖事本身而言,我們發現一個非常引人注目的結晶形式,並均勻性,甚至在第一個或第二個世紀,遠遠超出了單純細胞核上文所述。

Already in the New Testament -- apart from the account of the Last Supper -- there are some indexes that point to liturgical forms.已在新約聖經-除了從賬戶的最後的晚餐-有一些指標,這一點,以禮儀形式。 There were already readings from the Sacred Books (1 Timothy 4:13; 1 Thessalonians 5:27; Colossians 4:16), there were sermons (Acts 20:7), psalms and hymns (1 Corinthians 14:26; Colossians 3:16; Ephesians 5:19).已經有讀數從神聖的書籍( 1蒂莫西4時13分, 1撒羅尼迦5時27分;歌羅西書4時16分) ,有布道(使徒20時07分) ,聖歌和讚美詩( 1哥林多14時26分;歌羅西書3 :第16條;以弗所5時19分) 。 1 Timothy 2:1-3, implies public liturgical prayers for all classes of people.一日提摩太後2:1-3 ,意味著公共禮儀祈禱,為所有階層的人。 People lifted up their hands at prayers (1 Timothy 2:8), men with uncovered heads (1 Corinthians 11:4), women covered (1 Corinthians 11:5).人解除了他們的雙手,在祈禱( 1蒂莫西2時08分) ,男子查獲元首( 1哥林多11時04分) ,婦女蓋( 1哥林多11時05分) 。 There was a kiss of peace (1 Corinthians 16:20; 2 Corinthians 13:12; 1 Thessalonians 5:26).有一個吻的和平( 1哥林多前書16:20 ;哥林多13時12分, 1撒羅尼迦5時26分) 。 There was an offertory of goods for the poor (Romans 15:26; 2 Corinthians 9:13) called by the special name "communion" (koinonia).有一個offertory商品為窮人(羅馬書15:26 ;哥林多9時13分) ,由所謂的特殊名稱"共融" (契,相交" ) 。 The people answered "Amen" after prayers (1 Corinthians 14:16).人們回答: "阿門"之後的祈禱( 1哥林多14時16分) 。 The word Eucharist has already a technical meaning (1 Corinthians 14:16).字聖體聖事已經一個技術意義( 1哥林多14時16分) 。 The famous passage, 1 Corinthians 11:20-29, gives us the outline of the breaking of bread and thanksgiving (Eucharist) that followed the earlier part of the service.著名的通道,哥林多前書11:20-29 ,使我們有提綱打破了麵包和感恩(聖體) ,其次是較早前的部分服務。 Hebrews 13:10 (cf. 1 Corinthians 10:16-21), shows that to the first Christians the table of the Eucharist was an altar.希伯來13:10 (參見哥林多前書10:16-21 ) ,表明向第一基督徒表中的聖體聖事是祭壇。 After the consecration prayers followed (Acts 2:42).後consecration祈禱之後(使徒2時42分) 。 St. Paul "breaks bread" (= the consecration), then communicates, then preaches (Acts 20:11).聖保祿"休息麵包" ( = consecration ) ,然後傳達,然後鼓吹(使徒20時11分) 。

Acts 2:42, gives us an idea of the liturgical Synaxis in order: They "persevere in the teaching of the Apostles" (this implies the readings and homilies), "communicate in the breaking of bread" (consecration and communion) and "in prayers".行為2時42分,使我們有一個想法的禮儀synaxis在命令: "堅持不懈地在教學中的使徒" (這意味著讀和頌歌) , "溝通,在破門的麵包" ( consecration和交流)和"在祈禱" 。 So we have already in the New Testament all the essential elements that we find later in the organized liturgies: lessons, psalms, hymns, sermons, prayers, consecration, communion.所以,我們已經在新約聖經的所有重要因素,我們發現後,在有組織liturgies :教訓,詩篇,讚美詩,講道,祈禱, consecration ,共融。 (For all this see F. Probst: "Liturgie der drei ersten christl. Jahrhunderte", Tübingen, 1870, c. i; and the texts collected in Cabrol and Leclercq; "Monumenta ecclesiæ liturgica", I, Paris, 1900, pp. 1-51.) It has been thought that there are in the New Testament even actual formulæ used in the liturgy. (所有這一切,看到樓probst : " liturgie明鏡drei ersten christl 。 jahrhunderte " ,蒂賓根, 1870年,長一;和文本收集cabrol和勒克萊爾" ;古蹟遺址ecclesiæ liturgica " ,我想,巴黎, 1900年,頁。 1-51 ) ,它已被認為是在新約聖經甚至實際formulæ使用的禮儀。 The Amen is certainly one.該阿民肯定是其中一個。 St. Paul's insistence on the form "For ever and ever, Amen" (eis tous aionas ton aionon amen. -- Romans 16:27; Galatians 1:5; 1 Timothy 1:17; cf. Hebrews 13:21; 1 Peter 1:11; 5:11; Revelation 1:6, etc.) seems to argue that it is a liturgical form well known to the Christians whom he addresses, as it was to the Jews.聖保祿堅持形式"永遠永遠,阿門" ( EIS的Tous的aionas噸aionon阿民。 -羅馬書1 6時2 7分;加拉太1 :51蒂莫西1時1 7分;比照希伯來1 3時2 1分;彼得1時11分; 5時11分;啟示1時06分,等等) ,似乎認為這是一個禮儀形式所熟知的基督徒,其中他談到,因為它是向猶太人。 There are other short hymns (Romans 13:11-2; Ephesians 5:14; 1 Timothy 3:16; 2 Timothy 2:11-3), which may well be liturgical formulæ.還有其他短期聖歌(羅馬書13:11-2 ;以弗所5時14分, 1蒂莫西3:16 ;提摩太2:11-3 ) ,其中很可能會禮儀formulæ 。

In the Apostolic Fathers the picture of the early Christian Liturgy becomes clearer; we have in them a definite and to some extent homogeneous ritual.在教宗的父親的照片,早期基督教的禱告儀式中變得更清晰,我們已在他們一個明確的,並在一定程度上均勻的例行公事。 But this must be understood.不過,這必須理解的。 There was certainly no set form of prayers and ceremonies such as we see in our present Missals and Euchologia; still less was anything written down and read from a book.有肯定是沒有固定的形式,祈禱和儀式,如我們看到,在我們目前的missals和euchologia ;仍有不足是什麼寫下來,並讀出了一本書。 The celebrating bishop spoke freely, his prayers being to some extent improvised.歡慶的主教們暢所欲言,他正在祈禱,在一定程度上即興。 And yet this improvising was bound by certain rules.不過,這是即興的約束,在一定的規則。 In the first place, no one who speaks continually on the same subjects says new things each time.擺在首位,沒有一個人說話,不斷對同一科目表示,新的東西,每一次。 Modern sermons and modern ex tempore prayers show how easily a speaker falls into set forms, how constantly he repeats what come to be, at least for him, fixed formulæ.現代說教與現代前臨時祈禱,顯示如何輕易發言者屬於一套表格,如何不斷重複他什麼來的,至少對他來說,固定formulæ 。 Moreover, the dialogue form of prayer that we find in use in the earliest monuments necessarily supposes some constant arrangement.此外,這種對話形式的祈禱,我們發現在使用的最早的古蹟一定支撐一些常數的安排。 The people answer and echo what the celebrant and the deacons say with suitable exclamations.人民的答案,隨聲附和什麼監禮人及執事說,適合exclamations 。 They could not do so unless they heard more or less the same prayers each time.他們不能這樣做,除非他們聽到更多或更少,同時祈禱,每一次。 They heard from the altar such phrases as: "The Lord be with you", or "Lift up your hearts", and it was because they recognized these forms, had heard them often before, that they could answer at once in the way expected.他們聽到從神龕,這種句子為: "上帝與你們同" ,或"解除了你的心" ,這是因為他們認識到這些形式,聽取了他們往往以前,他們可以回答一次是在預料方式。

We find too very early that certain general themes are constant.我們覺得太很早就認為某些一般的主題是常數。 For instance our Lord had given thanks just before He spoke the words of institution.比如我們的主給予感謝,就在他發言的話機構。 So it was understood that every celebrant began the prayer of consecration -- the Eucharistic prayer -- by thanking God for His various mercies.所以據了解,每一個監禮開始禱告的consecration -聖體聖事的祈禱-感謝上帝對他的各種慈悲。 So we find always what we still have in our modern prefaces -- a prayer thanking God for certain favours and graces, that are named, just where that preface comes, shortly before the consecration (Justin, "Apol.," I, xiii, lxv).所以,我們總是覺得有什麼,我們仍然有在我國現代序跋-禱告,感謝上帝對某些偏袒和青睞,被點名,而只是說序文來了,不久之前c onsecration(賈斯汀, " a pol, "我,十三, lxv ) 。 An intercession for all kinds of people also occurs very early, as we see from references to it (eg, Justin, "Apol.," I, xiv, lxv).一種干涉,為各類人士,也出現極早,因為我們看到,從參照它(如賈斯汀, " apol , "我,第十四條, lxv ) 。 In this prayer the various classes of people would naturally be named in more or less the same order.在此祈禱各階層的人自然會被命名為更多或更少,同時命令。 A profession of faith would almost inevitably open that part of the service in which only the faithful were allowed to take part (Justin, "Apol.", I, xiii, lxi).一個專業的誠信原則,幾乎無可避免地開放這部分的服務,其中只有忠實地被允許參加(賈斯汀, " apol " ,我,十三, LXI的) 。 It could not have been long before the archetype of all Christian prayer -- the Our Father -- was said publicly in the Liturgy.它已經不能為早原型的所有基督信徒的祈禱-我們的父親-當時公開表示,在禮拜儀式。 The moments at which these various prayers were said would very soon become fixed, The people expected them at certain points, there was no reason for changing their order; on the contrary to do so would disturb the faithful.這個時刻,這些不同的祈禱者說,將很快會變成固定的,人們期望他們在某些地點,但沒有理由改變其秩序;反過來說這樣做會擾亂忠貞不渝。 One knows too how strong conservative instinct is in any religion, especially in one that, like Christianity, has always looked back with unbounded reverence to the golden age of the first Fathers.一個知得多麼強大的保守的本能,是任何宗教的,尤其是在一說,如基督教,一直往前發展具有無窮的敬畏,以黃金時代的第一父親。 So we must conceive the Liturgy of the first two centuries as made up of somewhat free improvisations on fixed themes in a definite order; and we realize too how naturally under these circumstances the very words used would be repeated -- at first no doubt only the salient clauses -- till they became fixed forms.因此,我們必須設想禮儀中的首兩個世紀所作出的行動有點自由即興固定的主題,在一定的秩序和我們認識過於如何,自然在這種情況下,非常用字會重演-先毫無疑問,只有突出的條款-直到他們成為固定的形式。 The ritual, certainly of the simplest kind, would become stereotyped even more easily.拜祭儀式,當然最簡單的一種,將成為定型,甚至更容易。 The things that had to be done, the bringing up of the bread and wine, the collection of alms and so on, even more than the prayers, would be done always at the same point.事情不得不做的,造就的麵包和酒,收集施捨等,甚至多於祈禱,將做總是在同一點。 A change here would be even more disturbing than a change in the order of the prayers.改變這裡會更令人不安的一個變化,在秩序的祈禱者。

A last consideration to be noted is the tendency of new Churches to imitate the customs of the older ones.最後考慮值得注意的是趨勢的新教堂模仿海關的年紀稍長的。 Each new Christian community was formed by joining itself to the bond already formed.每一個新的基督教社區成立了加入自己的債券已經形成。 The new converts received their first missionaries, their faith and ideas from a mother Church.新的轉換接受第一傳教士,他們的信仰和思想,從一個母親教會。 These missionaries would naturally celebrate the rites as they had seen them done, or as they had done them themselves in the mother Church.這些傳教士自然會慶祝儀式,因為他們曾見過他們這樣做,或者因為他們做了他們自己的母親教會。 And their converts would imitate them, carry on the same tradition.和他們皈依會模仿他們,堅持下去,同時傳統。 Intercourse between the local Churches would further accentuate this uniformity among people who were very keenly conscious of forming one body with one Faith, one Baptism, and one Eucharist.交往的地方教會,將進一步加劇這種一致性之間的人,非常敏銳地意識到,形成一個團體,一個信念,一個洗禮,一個聖體聖事。 It is not then surprising that the allusions to the Liturgy in the first Fathers of various countries, when compared show us a homogeneous rite at any rate in its main outlines, a constant type of service, though it was subject to certain local modifications.這不是那麼令人驚訝的是,典故,以禮儀中,在第一父親,各國的比較表明,我們一個均勻的成年禮在任何速度,其主要輪廓,不斷服務的類型,雖然是受到某些局部修改。 It would not be surprising if from this common early Liturgy one uniform type had evolved for the whole Catholic world.這並不會讓人驚訝,如果從這個共同的早期禮儀中的一個統一的類型已演變為整個天主教世界。 We know that that is not the case.我們知道,事實並非如此。 The more or less fluid ritual of the first two centuries crystallized into different liturgies in East and West; difference of language, the insistence on one point in one place, the greater importance given to another feature elsewhere, brought about our various rites.該較多或較少流體儀式的前兩個世紀以來,凝結成不同liturgies在東亞和西;差異的語言,堅持一點,在一個地方,更重要的考慮另一項特色其他地區,為本港帶來各種儀軌。 But there is an obvious unity underlying all the old rites that goes back to the earliest age.不過,有一個明顯的統一背後的所有舊習俗可追溯到最早年齡。 The medieval idea that all are derived from one parent rite is not so absurd, if we remember that the parent was not a written or stereotyped Liturgy, but rather a general type of service.中世紀主張一切都是源自父母其中一成年禮並非如此荒謬的,如果我們記住父母是不是一個書面或定型禮儀中,而是一個普通型的服務。

III.三。 THE LITURGY IN THE FIRST THREE CENTURIES禮儀中,在第一三個世紀

For the first period we have of course no complete description.為第一個時期,我們當然沒有完整的描述。 We must reconstruct what we can from the allusions to the Holy Eucharist in the Apostolic Fathers and apologists.我們必須重建,我們可以從典故,以聖體聖事在使徒父親和辯護士。 Justin Martyr alone gives us a fairly complete outline of the rite that he knew.賈斯汀烈士,僅給我們提出了較為完整的輪廓的成年禮,他知道。 The Eucharist described in the "Teaching of the Twelve Apostles" (most authorities now put the date of this work at the end of the first century) in some ways lies apart from the general development.聖體聖事的描述,在"教學中的十二使徒" (最當局現在提出之日起,這項工作在去年底第一世紀) ,在某些方面,在於除了一般的發展。 We have here still the free "prophesying" (10:7), the Eucharist is still joined to the Agape (10:1), the reference to the actual consecration is vague.我們這裡還有免費的"預言" ( 10時07分) ,聖體聖事還是加入到愛德( 10:1 ) ,參照實際consecration是含糊不清。 The likeness between the prayers of thanksgiving (9-10) and the Jewish forms for blessing bread and wine on the Sabbath (given in the "Berakoth" treatise of the Talmud; cf. Sabatier, "La Didache", Paris, 1885, p. 99) points obviously to derivation from them.該似之間的祈禱感恩( 9-10 )和猶太表祝福麵包和酒對安息日(八月份的" berakoth "傷寒的猶太法典;比照sabatier , "香格里拉didache " ,巴黎, 1885年,磷99 )分,顯然是要推導由業主負責。 It has been suggested that the rite here described is not our Eucharist at all; others (Paul Drews) think that it is a private Eucharist distinct from the official public rite.曾有人建議,禮樂在這裡描述的是不是我們的聖體聖事在所有;他人(保羅德魯斯)認為這是一所私立聖體有別於正式公開儀式。 On the other hand, it seems clear from the whole account in chapters 9 and 10 that we have here a real Eucharist, and the existence of private celebrations remains to be proved.在另一方面,它似乎很明顯,從整個賬戶章節9日和10日宣稱,我們這裡有一個真正的聖體聖事,以及存在的私人慶典,仍有待證明。 The most natural explanation is certainly that of a Eucharist of a very archaic nature, not fully described.最自然的解釋是,這個當然是一個聖體聖事的一個很陳舊的性質,並未完全反映。 At any rate we have these liturgical points from the book.無論如何,我們這些禮儀點,從這本書中。 The "Our Father" is a recognized formula: it is to be said three times every day (8:2-3). "我們的父親"是一個公認的公式:這是應該說的3倍,每天( 8:2-3 ) 。 The Liturgy is a eucharist and a sacrifice to be celebrated by breaking bread and giving thanks on the "Lord's Day" by people who have confessed their sins (14:1).禮儀是一個聖體聖事和犧牲,以慶賀的突破麵包和給予感謝,對"主日"的人都供認了他們的罪( 14時01分) 。 Only the baptized are admitted to it (9:5).只有受洗是承認它( 9時05分) 。 The wine is mentioned first, then the broken bread; each has a formula of giving thanks to God for His revelation in Christ with the conclusion: "To thee be glory forever" (9:1, 4).葡萄酒是先提到的,那麼,打破了麵包;各有一個公式給予感謝神,為他的啟示,在基督與結論: "你得到永遠的榮耀" ( 9:1 , 4 ) 。 There follows a thanksgiving for various benefits; the creation and our sanctification by Christ are named (10:1-4); then comes a prayer for the Church ending with the form: "Maranatha. Amen"; in it occurs the form: "Hosanna to the God of David" (10:5-6).有如下的感恩,為各項福利;創建和我們的成聖基督命名( 10:1-4 ) ,然後為其禱告,為教會結束與形式: " maranatha 。阿民" ,在它出現的形式: " hosanna向上帝的國寶" ( 10:5-6 ) 。

The First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians (written probably between 90 and 100) contains an abundance of liturgical matter, much more than is apparent at the first glance.第一書信的克萊門特向哥林多前書(書面大概介於90和100之間)含有豐富的禮儀問題,遠不止是顯而易見的在第一時間一目了然。 That the long prayer in chapters 59-61 is a magnificent example of the kind of prayers said in the liturgy of the first century has always been admitted (eg, Duchesne, "Origines du Culte", 49-51); that the letter, especially in this part, is full of liturgical forms is also evident.認為只要在祈禱章59-61是一個宏偉的例子,該種祈禱說,在禮儀中的第一個世紀一直是承認(例如, duchesne , " origines杜culte " , 49-51 ) ,即信中,尤其是在這部分,是全面的禮儀形式也很明顯。 The writer quotes the Sanctus (Holy, holy, holy Lord of Sabaoth; all creation is full of his glory) from Isaiah 6:3, and adds that "we assembled in unity cry (this) as with one mouth" (34:7).作者引述sanctus (聖哉,聖哉,聖主的sabaoth ;所有的創造充滿他的榮耀)由以賽亞選手,並補充說: "我們聚集在團結哭(這)作為一嘴" ( 34:7 ) 。 The end of the long prayer is a doxology invoking Christ and finishing with the form: "now and for generations of generations and for ages of ages. Amen" (l11:3).去年底,長遠禱告是doxology引用耶穌和整理與形式: "現在和後代的後代,並為不同年齡的千古罪人。阿民" (照片: 3 ) 。 This too is certainly a liturgical formula.這也無疑是一個禮儀公式。 There are many others.還有其他許多人。 But we can find more in I Clem.但我們可以找到更多的在I克蘭姆。 than merely a promiscuous selection of formulæ.不僅僅是濫交選擇formulæ 。 A comparison of the text with the first known Liturgy actually written down, that of the "Eighth Book of the Apostolic Constitutions" (written long afterwards, in the fifth century in Syria) reveals a most startling likeness.比較文與已知的首個禮儀中,實際上寫了下來,即"八五書的使徒憲法" (書面不久,在五世紀在敘利亞)揭示了一個最驚人的相似性。 Not only do the same ideas occur in the same order, but there are whole passages -- just those that in I Clem.不僅做同樣的想法出現在同一命令,但也有整個通道-只是那些在I克蘭姆。 have most the appearance of liturgical formulæ -- that recur word for word in the "Apost. Const."有最緊密的外觀禮儀formulæ -重現逐字逐句地在" a post。常量" 。

In the "Apost. Const."在" apost 。常量" 。 the Eucharistic prayer begins, as in all liturgies, with the dialogue: "Lift up your hearts", etc. Then, beginning: "It is truly meet and just", comes a long thanksgiving for various benefits corresponding to what we call the preface.聖體聖事的禱告開始,如同在所有liturgies ,隨著對話: "就把你的心"等,那麼,一開始說: "這是真正符合公義" ,來一個長期為感恩節的各項福利相應的是什麼,我們稱之為自序。 Here occurs a detailed description of the first benefit we owe to God -- the creation.這裡發生的詳細說明首先受益,我們有責任向上帝-創造。 The various things created -- the heavens and earth, sun, moon and stars, fire and sea, and so on, are enumerated at length ("Apost. Const.", VIII, xii, 6-27).各種事物創造了-老天爺和地球,太陽,月亮和星星,消防及海等,都是在列舉的長度( " a post。常量" ,第八,第十二, 6月2 7日) 。 The prayer ends with the Sanctus.禱告完與sanctus 。 I Clem., xx, contains a prayer echoing the same ideas exactly, in which the very same words constantly occur. i克蘭姆, XX條,載有祈禱呼應同樣的想法沒錯,在這非常相同的詞不斷出現。 The order in which the creatures are mentioned is the same.該命令在其中的動物都提到是一樣的。 Again "Apost. Const.", VIII, xii, 27, introduces the Sanctus in the same way as I Clem., xxxiv, 5-6, where the author actually says he is quoting the Liturgy.再次, " apost 。常量" ,第八章,第十二章, 27條,介紹了sanctus在以同樣的方式,正如我克蘭姆,第三十四, 5-6 ,而作者其實是說,他是引述禮儀。 This same preface in "Apost. Const."這同時自序" apost 。常量" 。 (loc. cit.), remembering the Patriarchs of the Old Law, names Abel, Cain, Seth, Henoch, Noah, Sodom, Lot, Abraham, Melchisedech, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Josue. ( loc.引文) ,記著patriarchs的舊法,姓名亞伯,該隱塞思庫,過敏性,挪亞,路透社,批號,石禮謙, melchisedech ,以撒,雅各,摩西, josue 。 The parallel passage in I Clem.平行通過,在I克蘭姆。 (ix xii) names Enoch, Noah, Lot, Sodom, Abraham, Rahab, Josue: we may note at once two other parallels to this list containing again almost the same list of names -- Hebrews 11:4-31, and Justin, "Dialogue", xix, cxi, cxxxi, cxxxviii. (九十二)名字伊諾克,挪亞,批號,路透社,石禮謙, rahab , josue :我們可以注意到,在一旦其他兩個平行的,以本清單,其中載有再次差不多同一名單上的名字-希伯來1 1:4-31,賈斯汀, "對話" , 19條, cxi , cxxxi , cxxxviii 。 The long prayer in I Clem.長期祈禱在I克蘭姆。 (lix-lxi) is full of ideas and actual phrases that come again in "Apost. Const.", VIII. ( lix - LXI的) ,這是個充滿創意和實際短語再來" apost 。常量" ,第八章。 Compare for instance I Clem., lix, 2-4, with "Apost. Const.", VIII, X, 22-xi, 5 (which is part of the celebrant's prayer during the litany of the faithful: Brightman, "Eastern Liturgies", p. 12), and xiii, 10 (prayer during the litany that follows the great intercession. Brightman, p. 24).比較舉例i克蘭姆, lix , 2-4 ,以"新apost 。常量" ,八,十, 22 -十一, 5 (這是部分的監禮人的祈禱,在一長串的忠實:布萊曼, "東方liturgies " ,第12頁) ,和十三, 10 (祈禱,在一長串表示如下偉大干涉。布萊曼,第24頁) 。 Other no less striking parallels may be seen in Drews, "Untersuchungen über die sogen. clement. Liturgie," 14-43.其他同樣引人注目的平行線,可視為在德魯斯, " untersuchungen黚er模具曹玄。克萊門特。 liturgie , " 14-43 。 It is not only with the Liturgy of "Apost. Const."它不僅是與禮儀中的" apost 。常量" 。 that I Clem.我克蘭姆。 has these extraordinary resemblances.有這些不平凡的相似之處。 I Clem., lix, 4, echoes exactly the clauses of the celebrant's prayer during the intercession in the Alexandrine Rite (Greek St. Mark. Brightman, 131). i克蘭姆, lix , 4 ,呼應正是條文對監禮人的祈禱期間干涉,在亞歷山大成年禮(希臘文聖馬克。布萊曼, 131 ) 。 These parallel passages cannot all be mere coincidences (Lightfoot realized this, but suggests no explanation."The Apostolic Fathers", London, 1890, I, II, p. 71).這些平行的通道,不能全部僅僅是巧合( lightfoot認識到這一點,但建議沒有解釋"使徒父親" ,倫敦, 1890年,一,二,第71頁) 。 The question then occurs: What is the relation between I Clement and -- in the first place -- the Liturgy of"Apost. Const."?那麼,問題出現:有什麼樣的關係間,克萊門特和-擺在首位-禮儀中的" a p ost。常量"? The suggestion that first presents itself is that the later document ("Apost. Const.") is quoting the earlier one (I Clem.).建議首先介紹了自己的是,後來的文件( " apost 。常量" )是引述早前一( 1克蘭姆) 。 This is Harnack's view (" Gesch. der altchristl. Litteratur", I, Leipzig, 1893, pp. 42-43), but it is exceedingly unlikely.這是的Harnack的看法( " gesch 。明鏡altchristl 。 litteratur " ,我想,萊比錫, 1893年,頁42-43 ) ,但它是極不可能的。 In that case the quotations would be more exact, the order of I Clem.在此情況下,報價會更確切的說,該命令的I克蘭姆。 would be kept; the prayers in the Liturgy have no appearance of being quotations or conscious compositions of fragments from earlier books; nor, if the "Apost. Const."會保存;祈禱,在禮儀中都沒有出現被報價或自覺組成的片段,從較早的書籍,也沒有,如果" apost 。常量" 。 were quoting I Clem., would there be reduplications such as we have seen above (VIII, xi, 22-xi, 5, and xiii, 10).被引用i克蘭姆,會有重疊,例如我們已經看到上述(第八,十一, 22席,第5和13 , 10 ) 。

Years ago Ferdinand Probst spent a great part of his life in trying to prove that the Liturgy of the "Apostolic Constitutions" was the universal primitive Liturgy of the whole Church.幾年前,費迪南probst花了很大的一部分,他的生命在試圖證明禮儀中的"使徒憲法" ,是普遍的原始禮儀中的整個教會。 To this endeavour he applied an enormous amount of erudition.以這方面的努力,他運用了大量的博學。 In his "Liturgie der drei ersten christlichen Jahrhunderte" (Tübingen, 1870) and again in his "Liturgie des vierten Jahrhunderts und deren Reform" (Münster, 1893), he examined a vast number of texts of the Fathers, always with a view to find in them allusions to the Liturgy in question.在他的" liturgie明鏡drei ersten christlichen jahrhunderte " (蒂賓根, 1870年) ,並再次在他的" liturgie萬vierten jahrhunderts und李德仁改革" (明斯特1893 ) ,他考察了大量的文本的父親,總是以期找到他們典故,以禮儀中的問題。 But he overdid his identifications hopelessly.但他overdid他鑑別絕望。 He sees an allusion in every text that vaguely refers to a subject named in the Liturgy.他看到了一個典故,在每一個文字依稀是指一個主題命名,在禮儀中。 Also his books are very involved and difficult to study.此外,他的書都是非常投入,而且難以研究。 So Probst's theory fell almost entirely into discredit.所以probst的理論下跌幾乎完全變成抹黑。 His ubiquitous Liturgy was remembered only as the monomania of a very learned man; the rite of the "Eighth Book of the Apostolic Constitutions" was put in what seemed to be its right place, merely as an early form of the Antiochene Liturgy (so Duchesne, "Origines du Culte", 55-6).他無處不在禮儀中,人們回憶起僅作為monomania的一個非常博學多;成年禮"八五書的使徒憲法"中被放在了什麼,似乎是它的權利,只是作為一個早期形式的安提阿學派禮儀中(這樣duchesne " origines杜culte " , 55-6 ) 。 Lately, however, there has come again to the fore what may be described as a modified form of Probst's theory.不過最近,有再來向國內外有什麼可以被描述為一種改良的形式probst的理論。 Ferdinand Kattenbusch ("Das apostolische Symbol", Tübingen, 1900, II, 347, etc.) thought that after all there might be some foundation for Probst's idea.費迪南德kattenbusch ( "之apostolische符號" ,蒂賓根, 1900年第一,二, 347等)認為,畢竟可能有一些基礎probst的想法。

Paul Drews (Untersuchungen über die sogen. clementinische Liturgie, Tübingen, 1906) proposes and defends at length what may well be the germ of truth in Probst, namely that there was a certain uniformity of type in the earliest Liturgy in the sense described above, not a uniformity of detail, but one of general outline, of the ideas expressed in the various parts of the service, with a strong tendency to uniformity in certain salient expressions that recurred constantly and became insensibly liturgical formulæ.保羅德魯斯( untersuchungen黚er模具曹玄。 clementinische liturgie ,蒂賓根, 1906 )建議,並維護在長度有什麼很可能成為細菌的真相probst ,即有一定的統一性型最早的禮儀中,在意義上上文所述,不是一個均勻的細節,但其中一個大綱,該表達的思想,在各部分的服務,以強烈的傾向,均勻性,在某些突出的表現形式不斷發生,成為盲目禮儀formulæ 。 This type of liturgy (rather than a fixed rite) may be traced back even to the first century.這種類型的禮儀中(而不是一個固定的成年禮) ,可追溯到甚至到了第一世紀。 It is seen in Clement of Rome, Justin, etc.; perhaps there are traces of it even in the Epistle to the Hebrews.它被認為是在克萊門特的羅馬,賈斯汀等;或許有痕跡,但即使是在希伯來人書中。 And of this type we still have a specimen in the "Apostolic Constitutions".與這種類型的,我們仍然有一個標本,在"使徒的憲法" 。 It is not that that rite exactly as it is in the "Constitutions" was used by Clement and Justin.這並不是說這成年禮的,正是因為它是在"憲法"所使用的克萊門特和賈斯汀。 Rather the "Constitutions" give us a much later (fifth century) form of the old Liturgy written down at last in Syria after it had existed for centuries in a more fluid state as an oral tradition.而"憲法" ,給我們一個更晚(五世紀)的形式,舊的禮儀中寫了下來,最後在敘利亞之後,它已存在了幾個世紀,在一個更流態作為一項口頭傳統。 Thus, Clement, writing to the Corinthians (that the letter was actually composed by the Bishop of Rome, as Dionysius of Corinth says in the second century, is now generally admitted. Cf. Bardenhewer, "Gesch. der altkirchl. Litteratur", Freiburg, 1902, 101-2), uses the language to which he was accustomed in the Liturgy; the letter is full of liturgical ideas and reminiscences.因此,克萊門特,以書面形式向哥林多前書(即信中,實際上是由羅馬的主教,因為狄奧尼修斯的科林斯說,在公元二世紀,現在人們普遍承認。比照巴登黑韋爾, " gesch 。明鏡altkirchl 。 litteratur " ,弗賴堡, 1902 , 101-2 ) ,使用的語言,因為他習慣在禮儀;這封信是充滿禮儀的想法和回憶。 They are found again in the later crystallization of the same rite in the "Apostolic Constitutions".他們發現,又在後來的結晶,同時成年禮在"使徒的憲法" 。 So that book gives us the best representation of the Liturgy as used in Rome in the first two centuries.所以這本書給了我們最好的代表性禮儀中所使用的羅馬在首兩百年。 This is confirmed by the next witness, Justin Martyr.這是證實的,由下一個證人,賈斯汀烈士。 Justin (d. about 164), in his famous account of the Liturgy, describes it as he saw it at Rome (Bardenhewer, op. cit., 206).賈斯汀(四約164 ) ,在其著名的帳戶的禮儀中,把它描述為在他看來,在羅馬(巴登黑韋爾,同前, 206 ) 。 The often quoted passage is (I Apology 65-67):這個經常被引用的通道是(我道歉65-67 ) :

65. 65 。 We lead him who believes and is joined to us, after we have thus baptized him, to those who are called the brethren, where they gather together to say prayers in common for ourselves, and for him who has been enlightened, and for all who are everywhere.我們帶領他的人相信並加入到我們後,我們就此洗禮的他,對於那些所謂的弟兄們,他們聚在一起說,禱告,共同為我們自己,並為他的人得到啟發,並為所有的人到處都有。 . . . We greet each other with a kiss when the prayers are finished.我們迎來了對方一個吻的時候,祈禱完畢。 Then bread and a cup of water and wine are brought to the president of the brethren, and he having received them sends up praise and glory to the Father of all through the name of his Son and the Holy Ghost, and makes a long thanksgiving that we have been made worthy of these things by him; when these prayers and thanksgivings are ended all the people present cry 'Amen'.然後麵包和一杯水和酒的人繩之以法總統的兄弟,他曾收到他們發出了讚美和榮耀歸於父所有通過的名字和他的兒子以及聖靈,並使得長期感恩我們已經取得了無愧于這些事情由他當這些祈禱與thanksgivings是結束所有的人,目前呼聲'阿門' 。 . . . And when the president has given thanks (eucharistesantos, already a technical name for the Eucharist) and all the people have answered, those whom we call deacons give the bread and wine and water for which the 'thanksgiving' (Eucharist) has been made to be tasted by those who are present, and they carry them to those that are absent.當總統已發出感恩( eucharistesantos ,已經是一個技術的名稱為聖體)和所有的人都回答了,這些人我們稱之為執事給麵包和酒和水,其中'感恩節' (聖體)已作出品嚐這些人,目前和他們進行他們那些缺席。

66. 66 。 This food is called by us the Eucharist" (the well-known passage about the Real Presence follows, with the quotation of the words of Institution).這種食品是所謂的由美,聖體聖事" (即著名的關於通過真實的情況如下,隨著報價的話機構) 。

67. 67 。 On the day which is called that of the Sun a reunion is made of all those who dwell in the cities and fields; and the commentaries of the Apostles and writings of the prophets are read as long as time allows.就這一天被稱為是太陽與親人團聚了所有那些住在城市和領域,以及評論文章的使徒和著作的先知們都看過,只要時間允許。 Then, when the reader has done, the president admonishes us in a speech and excites us to copy these glorious things.然後,當讀者做了,總統告誡我們,在一次演說中,並激發了我們複製這些光榮的事。 Then we all rise and say prayers and, as we have said above, when we have done praying bread is brought up and wine and water; and the president sends up prayers with thanksgiving for the men, and the people acclaim, saying 'Amen', and a share of the Eucharist is given to each and is sent to those absent by the deacons.那麼,我們都站立,並說祈禱,而且,正如我們已經說過以上的,當我們有做祈禱的麵包長大和葡萄酒和水;和總統發出了祈禱與感恩,為官兵和人民群眾的讚賞,說'阿門' ,並分享聖體聖事是給每個人發送給那些缺席,由執事。

This is by far the most complete account of the Eucharistic Service we have from the first three centuries.這是迄今為止最完整的敘述的聖體聖事的服務,我們已經從第一三個世紀。 It will be seen at once that what is described in chapter 67 precedes the rite of 65.它會馬上就可以看見這是什麼形容,在第67章之前的成年禮65 。 In 67 Justin begins his account of the Liturgy and repeats in its place what he had already said above.在67賈斯汀開始他的賬戶的禮拜儀式,並重申其在什麼地方,他曾說過以上。

Putting it all together we have this scheme of the service:把各種技術整合在一起,我們有這個計劃的服務:

1. 1 。 Lessons (lxvii, 3).教訓( lxvii , 3 ) 。

2. 2 。 Sermon by the bishop (lxvii, 4).講道中,由主教( lxvii , 4 ) 。

3. 3 。 Prayers for all people (lxvii, 5; lxv, 1).祈禱,為所有的人( lxvii ,五日; lxv , 1 ) 。

4. 4 。 Kiss of peace (lxv, 2).吻和平( lxv , 2 ) 。

5. 5 。 Offertory of bread and wine and water brought up by the deacons (lxvii, 5; lxv, 3). offertory的麵包和酒和水長大,由執事( lxvii ,五日; lxv , 3 ) 。

6. 6 。 Thanksgiving-prayer by the bishop (lxvii, 5; lxv, 3).感恩節-祈禱主教( lxvii ,五日; lxv , 3 ) 。

7. 7 。 Consecration by the words of institution (? lxv, 5; lxvi, 2-3). consecration通過的話,事業單位( ? lxv ,五日; lxvi , 2-3 ) 。

8. 8 。 Intercession for the people (lxvii, 5; lxv, 3).干涉,為人民( lxvii ,五日; lxv , 3 ) 。

9. 9 。 The people end this prayer with Amen.人民結束這種禱告與阿民。 (lxvii, 5; lxv, 3). ( lxvii ,五日; lxv , 3 ) 。

10. 10 。 Communion (lxvii, 5; lxv 5).共融( lxvii ,五日; lxv 5 ) 。

This is exactly the order of the Liturgy in the "Apostolic Constitutions" (Brightman, "Eastern Liturgies", 3-4, 9-12, 13, 14-21, 21-3, 25).這也正是有序的禮儀中,在"使徒憲法" (布萊曼, "東方liturgies " , 3-4 , 9-12 , 13 , 14-21 ,菌21-3 , 25 ) 。 Moreover, as in the case of I Clement, there are many passages and phrases in Justin that suggest parallel ones in the "Apost. Const."此外,由於該案件的I克萊門特,也有許多段落和句子在賈斯汀這表明平行,在" apost 。常量" 。 -- not so much in Justin's account of the Liturgy (though here too Drews sees such parallels, op. cit., 58-9) as in other works in which Justin, like Clement, may be supposed to be echoing well-known liturgical phrases. -不要這麼多,在賈斯汀的帳戶的禮儀(雖然這裡也德魯斯認為這種平行的,同前, 5 8-9) ,因為在其他工程中的J ustin,像克萊門特,可能是為了呼應著名禮儀短語。 Drews prints many such passages side by side with the corresponding ones of the "Apost. Const.", from which comparison he concludes that Justin knows a dismissal of the catechumens (cf."I Apol.", xlix, 5; xiv, 1;xxv, 2,with "Apost.Const.", VIII, vi, 8; x, 2) and of the Energumens (Dial., xxx; cf. "Apost. Const.", VIII, vii, 2) corresponding to that in the Liturgy in question.德魯斯版畫很多這樣的通道,並排與相應的的" apost 。常量" ,從哪個比較,他的結論是,賈斯汀知道解僱的慕道者(參見"我apol " , xlix ,五日;十四, 1 ;二十五, 2 ,以"新apost.const " ,第八,第六,第八; X的2 )及該energumens ( dial.了XXX ;比照" apost 。常量" ,第八,第七, 2 )對應在禮儀中的問題。 From "I Apol.", lxv, 1; xvii, 3; xiv, 3; deduces a prayer for all kinds of men (made by the community) of the type of that prayer in "Apost. Const.", VIII, x."I Apol.", xiii, 1-3, lxv, 3; v, 2, and Dial., xli, lxx, cxvii, give us the elements of a preface exactly on the lines of that in "Apost. Const."從"我apol " , lxv , 1 ;十七, 3 ;十四, 3 ;推導祈禱,為所有種男人(由共同體)的類型,即在祈禱" apost 。常量" ,八,十"我apol " ,十三, 1-3 , lxv , 3 ;五, 2 ,和撥號,四十一, lxx , cxvii ,給我們的要素序,正是在該線的,在" apost 。常量。 " VIII, xii, 6-27 (see these texts in parallel columns in Drews, "op. cit.", 59-91).第八,第十二, 6月27日(見這些文本在平行柱德魯斯, "同前" , 59-91 ) 。

We have, then, in Clement and Justin the picture of a Liturgy at least remarkably like that of the "Apostolic Constitutions".我們,然後,在克萊門特和賈斯汀圖片一個禮儀中至少有顯著一樣的"使徒的憲法" 。 Drews adds as striking parallels from Hippolytus (d. 235), "Contra Noetum", etc. (op. cit., 95-107) and Novatian (third cent.) "De Trinitate" (ibid., 107-22), both Romans, and thinks that this same type of liturgy continues in the known Roman Rite (122-66).德魯斯增添令人驚奇的相似之處,從hippolytus (四235 ) , "矛盾noetum "等(同前, 95-107 )和諾瓦蒂安(第三。 ) "德trinitate " (同上, 107-22 ) ,無論羅馬人,並認為這同樣類型的禮拜儀式繼續在已知的古羅馬禮儀( 122-66 ) 。 That the Liturgy of the "Apostolic Constitutions" as it stands is Antiochene, and is closely connected with the Rite of Jerusalem, is certain.這禮儀中的"使徒憲法" ,因為這是安提阿學派,是緊密相連,與成年禮的耶路撒冷,是肯定的。 It would seem, then, that it represents one form of a vaguer type of rite that was in its main outline uniform in the first three centuries.這似乎那麼,它代表著一種形式一種模糊型的成年禮,那是它的主要大綱統一在頭三個世紀。 The other references to the Liturgy in the first age (Ignatius of Antioch, died about 107, "Eph.", xiii, xx, "Phil.", iv, "Rom.", vii, "Smyrn.", vii, viii; Irenæus, died 202, "Adv. hær.", IV, xvii, xviii; V, ii, Clement of Alexandria, died about 215, "Pæd.", I, vi; II, ii, in PG, VIII, 301, 410; Origen, d.254, "Contra Cels.", VIII, xxxiii, "Hom. xix in Lev.", xviii, 13; "In Matt.", xi, 14; "In Ioh.", xiii, 30) repeat the same ideas that we have seen in Clement and Justin, but add little to the picture presented by them (see Cabrol and Leclercq, "Mon. Eccles. Liturg.", I, passim).其他參考資料,以禮儀中,在第一年齡(伊格安提,死亡約107個, "弗" ,十三,二十, "菲爾" ,第四章"光碟" ,第七章" smyrn " ,七,八; irenæus ,死亡202人, "副hær " ,四,十七,十八;五,二,克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,死亡約215 , " pæd " ,我,六;二,二,在編號,第八, 301 410個;淵源, d.254 ,成了" Contra cels " ,第八條,三十三, "磡第十九在列弗" ,十八, 13歲; "亞光" ,十一,十四, "在ioh " ,十三, 30 )重複同樣的想法,我們所看到的克萊門特和賈斯汀,但補充一點,以圖片介紹,他們(見cabrol和勒克萊爾" ,星期一。埃克勒斯( Eccles 。 liturg 。 " ,我想,各處) 。

IV.四。 THE PARENT RITES, FROM THE FOURTH CENTURY母公司儀軌,從四世紀

From about the fourth century our knowledge of the Liturgy increases enormously.來自約四世紀,我們的知識禮儀中增加了不少。 We are no longer dependent on casual references to it: we have definite rites fully developed.我們不再依賴於偶然提到:我們有明確的儀軌充分的發展。 The more or less uniform type of Liturgy used everywhere before crystallized into four parent rites from which all others are derived.該較多或較少統一類型的禮儀中使用,隨處可見前結晶分為四個家長儀軌,從所有其他的計算公式。 The four are the old Liturgies of Antioch, Alexandria, Rome, and Gaul.四人現舊liturgies安提,亞歷山大,羅馬,高盧。 Each is described in a special article.每個描述處於一個特殊的文章。 It will be enough here to trace an outline of their general evolution.這將足以在這裡追尋一個提綱,他們一般進化。

The development of these liturgies is very like what happens in the case of languages.發展這些liturgies是非常想會發生什麼,在案件語文。 From a general uniformity a number of local rites arise with characteristic differences.從一個普通的統一性一批地方禮記出現具有特色的分歧。 Then one of these local rites, because of the importance of the place that uses it, spreads, is copied by the cities around, drives out its rivals, and becomes at last the one rite used throughout a more or less extended area.那麼這些地方儀軌,由於問題的重要性,地方使用它,傳播,複製,是由城市的周圍,傳動列於其競爭對手,成為最後一個成年禮用於整個較多或較少延伸區。 We have then a movement from vague uniformity to diversity and then a return to exact uniformity.我們有那麼一個運動從空泛的一致性,以多樣性,然後再回到確切的統一性。 Except for the Gallican Rite the reason of the final survival of these liturgies is evident.除為gallican成年禮的原因,最後存活的這些liturgies是顯而易見的。 Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch are the old patriarchal cities.羅馬,亞歷山大,和安提都是舊父權的城市。 As the other bishops accepted the jurisdiction of these three patriarchs, so did they imitate their services.作為其他主教接受管轄的這3個長者,使他們模仿他們的服務。 The Liturgy, as it crystallized in these centres, became the type for the other Churches of their patriarchates.禮儀中,因為它凝結著在這些中心,成為類為其他教會他們patriarchates 。 Only Gaul and north-west Europe generally, though part of the Roman Patriarchate, kept its own rite till the seventh and eighth centuries.只有高盧和西北部歐洲普遍,雖然雙方在羅馬牧首,保持了自己的成年禮,直到第七和第八世紀。

Alexandria and Antioch are the starting-points of the two original Eastern rites.亞歷山大和安提是出發點的兩位原東方禮儀。 The earliest form of the Antiochene Rite is that of the "Apostolic Constitutions" written down in the early fifth century.最早形成的安提阿學派成年禮,是強調"使徒憲法"寫了下來,在5世紀初。 From what we have said it seems that this rite has best preserved the type of the primitive use.從我們所說的看來,這成年禮已保存最好的類型,原始用途。 From it is derived the Rite of Jerusalem (till the Council of Chalcedon, 451, Jerusalem was in the Antiochene Patriarchate), which then returned to Antioch and became that of the patriarchate (see ANTIOCHENE LITURGY and LITURGY OF JERUSALEM).從它衍生的成年禮耶路撒冷(至理事會chalcedon , 451 ,耶路撒冷是在安提阿學派牧) ,然後返回安提並成為這牧首(見安提阿學派禮拜儀式和禮儀中的耶路撒冷) 。 We have this liturgy (called after St. James) in Greek (Brightman, "Eastern Liturgies", 31-68) and in Syriac (ibid., 69-110).我們有這個禮儀中(所謂後,聖雅各福群會)在希臘語(布萊曼, "東方liturgies " , 31-68 ) ,並在敘利亞文(同上, 69-110 ) 。 The Alexandrine Rite differs chiefly in the place of the great intercession (see ALEXANDRINE LITURGY).該亞歷山大成年禮的不同,主要是在犯罪地點偉大干涉(見亞歷山大禮儀中) 。 This too exists in Greek (Brightman, 113-43) and the language of the country, in this case Coptic (ibid., 144-88).這件事的存在,在希臘語(布萊曼, 113-43 ) ,以及該國的語言,在這種情況下,科普特(同上, 144-88 ) 。 In both cases the original form was certainly Greek, but in both the present Greek forms have been considerably influenced by the later Rite of Constantinople.在這兩種情況下,原來的版本肯定是希臘語,但在這兩個目前希臘的表格已大大影響了後來成年禮的君士坦丁堡。 A reconstruction of the original Greek is possible by removing the Byzantine additions and changes, and comparing the Greek and Syriac or Coptic forms.一個重建的原希臘語,是盡可能消除拜占庭補充和修改,並比較希臘和敘利亞文或科普特形式。 Both these liturgies have given rise to numerous derived forms.這兩liturgies目前已出現了許多衍生形式。 The Roman Rite is thought by Duchesne to be connected with Alexandria, the Gallican with Antioch (Origines du Culte, p. 54).羅馬成年禮是思想duchesne以涉嫌與亞歷山德里亞, gallican與安提( origines杜culte ,第54頁) 。 But, from what has been said, it seems more correct to connect the Roman Rite with that of Antioch.但是,從已表示,這似乎更正確連接羅馬成年禮與安提。 Besides its derivation from the type represented by the Liturgy of the Apostolic Constitutions there are reasons for supposing a further influence of the Liturgy of St. James at Rome (see CANON OF THE MASS, and Drews, "Zur Entstehungsgesch. des Kanons in der römischen Messe", Tübingen, 1902).此外,其衍生類型從代表的禮儀中的使徒憲法有原因,假如一個進一步的影響,禮儀中的聖雅各福群會於羅馬(見佳能的群眾,並德魯斯, " zur entstehungsgesch 。 kanons萬在明鏡römischen展覽" ,蒂賓根, 1902 ) 。 The Gallican Rite is certainly Syrian in its origin.該gallican成年禮是肯定敘利亞在其原產地。 There are also very striking parallels between Antioch and Alexandria, in spite of their different arrangements.也有一些非常驚人的相似之處之間安提和亞歷山大,儘管其在不同的安排。 It may well be, then, that all four rites are to be considered as modifications of that most ancient use, best preserved at Antioch; so we should reduce Duchesne's two sources to one, and restore to a great extent Probst's theory of one original rite -- that of the "Apostolic Constitutions".或許有人會那麼,所有四個儀軌,也應視為修改這一最古老的使用,保存最好,在安提約,所以我們應該減少duchesne的兩個來源之一,並恢復在很大程度上probst理論的一個原成年禮-即"使徒憲法" 。 In any case the old Roman Rite is not exactly that now used.在任何情況下,舊的羅馬成年禮,是不是認為,正因為現在使用的。 Our Roman Missal has received considerable additions from Gallican sources.我們羅馬missal已獲得了相當多的增補由gallican來源。 The original rite was simpler, more austere, had practically no ritual beyond the most necessary actions (see Bishop, "The Genius of the Roman Rite" in "Essays on Ceremonial", edited by Vernon Staley, London, 1904, pp. 283-307).原成年禮是更簡單,更過緊,已幾乎沒有任何的儀式之外,最必要的行動(見主教, "天才的羅馬成年禮" , "雜文禮儀" ,編者弗農staley ,倫敦, 1904年,第283條- 307 ) 。 It may be said that our present Roman Liturgy contains all the old nucleus, has lost nothing, but has additional Gallican elements.可以說,我們目前的古羅馬禮儀中包含了所有的舊核心,失去了什麼,但有額外gallican元素。 The original rite may be in part deduced from references to it as early as the fifth century ("Letters of Gelasius I" in Thiel, "Epistolæ Rom. Pontificum", I, cdlxxxvi, "Innocent I to Decennius of Eugubium", written in 416, in PL, XX, 551; Pseudo-Ambrose, "De Sacramentis", IV, 5, etc.); it is represented by the Leonine and Gelasian "Sacramentaries", and by the old part of the Gregorian book (see LITURGICAL BOOKS).原成年禮的,可在部分推斷,從提述,它早在公元5世紀(下稱"信gelasius我" Thiel ) , " epistolæ光盤。 pontificum " ,我想, cdlxxxvi , "無辜一至decennius的eugubium " ,寫在416 ,在特等, XX條, 551 ;偽劉漢銓, "德sacramentis " ,四,五等) ,它是由leonine和gelasian " sacramentaries " ,並受到舊的一部分陽曆書(見禮儀書籍) 。 The Roman Rite was used throughout Central and Southern Italy.羅馬成年禮,用整個中部和南部意大利。 The African use was a variant of that of Rome (see Cabrol, "Dictionnaire d'archéologie chrétienne", sv Afrique, Liturgie postnicéenne).非洲使用的一個變種,即羅馬(見cabrol , "詞典-a rchéologie基督教" , s v非洲, l iturgiep ostnicéenne) 。 In the West, however, the principle that rite should follow patriarchate did not obtain till about the eighth century.在西方,不過,原則上說,成年禮應遵循牧沒有獲得到約8世紀。 The pope was Patriarch of all Western (Latin) Europe, yet the greater part of the West did not use the Roman Rite.教宗的主教,都西區(拉丁語)歐洲,但大部份的西方國家不使用羅馬成年禮。 The North of Italy whose centre was Milan, Gaul, Germany, Spain, Britain, and Ireland had their own Liturgies.意大利北部,其中心是米蘭,高盧,德國,西班牙,英國和愛爾蘭也有自己的liturgies 。 These Liturgies are all modifications of a common type; they may all be classed together as forms of what is known as the Gallican Rite.這些liturgies都是變通的一個共同的類型,他們都可能被歸類在一起的形式就是我們所熟悉的gallican成年禮。 Where did that rite come from?如果這樣做成年禮從何而來? It is obviously Eastern in its origin: its whole construction has the most remarkable conformity to the Antiochene type, a conformity extending in many parts to the actual text (compare the Milanese litany of intercession quoted by Duchesne, "Origines du Culte", p. 189, with the corresponding litany in the Antiochene Liturgy; Brightman, pp. 44-5).它顯然是在東部地區,其原產地:其整個建造了最顯著的整合到安提阿學派式,整合推廣,在許多地區,以實際文本(比較米蘭一連串的干涉,引述duchesne , " origines杜culte "頁189 ,與相應的一長串在安提阿學派禮儀中;布萊曼,第44-5 ) 。 It used to be said that the Gallican Rite came from Ephesus, brought by the founders of the Church of Lyons, and from Lyons spread throughout North-Western Europe.以前它說,這gallican成年禮來自伸出手,所帶來的締造者教會的里昂,從里昂遍布北西歐。 This theory cannot be maintained.這個理論,就無法再維持。 It was not brought to the West till its parent rite was fully developed, had already evolved a complicated ceremonial, such as is inconceivable at the time when the Church of Lyons was founded (second century).這是不帶向西方,直至其母公司的成年禮是全面發展後,已經形成了複雜的禮儀,例如是不可想像的,在時間的時候,教會的萊昂斯創立(二世紀) 。 It must have been imported about the fourth century, at which time Lyons had lost all importance.它必須已進口了約四世紀,當時里昂失去了所有重要的。 Mgr Duchesne therefore suggests Milan as the centre from which it radiated, and the Cappadocian Bishop of Milan, Auxentius (355-74), as the man who introduced this Easter Rite to the West (Origines du Culte, 86-9).主教duchesne因此建議米蘭為中心,由它輻射,並cappadocian主教米蘭, auxentius ( 355-74 ) ,由於該男子介紹,這復活節成年禮,以西方( origines杜culte , 86-9 ) 。 In spreading over Western Europe the rite naturally was modified in various Churches.在遍及西歐的成年禮,自然是改裝在各個教堂。 When we speak of the Gallican Rite we mean a type of liturgy rather than a stereotyped service.當我們談到了gallican成年禮我們的意思是一種禮儀中,而不是千篇一律的服務。

The Milanese Rite still exists, though in the course of time it has become considerably romanized.米蘭成年禮的問題仍然存在,雖然在這個過程中的時間,它已成為相當羅馬拼音。 For Gaul we have the description in two letters of St. Germanus of Paris (d. 576), used by Duchesne "Origines du Culte", ch.為高盧我們有描寫兩個字母聖germanus的巴黎(四576 ) ,所使用的duchesne " origines杜culte " ,你的。 vii: La Messe Gallicane.七:香格里拉展覽gallicane 。 Original text in PL, LXXII).原文特等, LXXII )號決定。 Spain kept the Gallican Rite longest; the Mozarabic Liturgy still used at Toledo and Salamanca represents the Spanish use.西班牙保持gallican成年禮最長;莫扎拉布素歌禮儀中仍用在托萊多和薩拉曼卡代表西班牙語使用。 The British and Irish Liturgies, of which not much is known, were apparently Gallican too (see FE Warren, "The Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church", Oxford, 1881; Bäumer, "Das Stowe Missale" in the "Innsbruck Zeitschrift für kath. theol.", 1892; and Bannister, "Journal of Theological Studies", Oct., 1903).英國和愛爾蘭liturgies ,其中沒有太大的,是眾所周知的,很顯然這gallican太(見鐵Warren表示, "禮儀與禮儀的凱爾特教會" ,牛津, 1881年; bäumer "之斯托missale " ,在"因斯布魯克: Zeitschrift f黵kath 。 theol " , 1892年; bannister , "雜誌的神學研究" , 10月, 1903年) 。 From Lindisfarne the Gallican Use spread among the Northern English converted by Irish monks in the sixth and seventh centuries.林迪斯從該gallican使用分散北部英語改建愛爾蘭僧侶在第六和第七世紀。

V. THE DERIVED LITURGIES五,衍生出liturgies

From these four types - of Antioch, Alexandria, Rome, and the so-called Gallican Rite -- all liturgies still used are derived.從上述四種類型-安提,亞歷山大,羅馬,和所謂g allican成年禮-所有li turgies仍在使用的計算公式。 This does not mean that the actual liturgies we still have under those names are the parents; once more we must conceive the sources as vaguer, they are rather types subject always to local modification, but represented to us now in one form, such as, for instance, the Greek St. James or the Greek St. Mark Liturgy.這並不意味著實際liturgies我們仍要根據這些名字是父母,一旦我們越是要隱瞞消息來源模糊,他們都是比較類型題目都是把局部修改,但代表了我們正處在一個形式,例如,例如,希臘聖雅各福群會或希臘的聖馬克禮拜儀式。 The Antiochene type, apparently the most archaic, has been also the most prolific of daughter liturgies.該安提阿學派式,顯然最古老,一直也是最多產的女兒liturgies 。 Antioch first absorbed the Rite of Jerusalem (St. James), itself derived from the primitive Antiochene use shown in the "Apostolic Constitutions" (see LITURGY OF JERUSALEM).安提首次吸收了成年禮的耶路撒冷(聖雅各福群會) ,這個事實本身來自原始安提阿學派使用表明,在"使徒的憲法" (見禮儀中的耶路撒冷) 。 In this form it was used throughout the patriarchate till about the thirteenth century (see ANTIOCHENE LITURGY).在這種形式,它是用於整個牧到約13世紀(見安提阿學派禮儀中) 。 A local modification was the Use of Cappadocia.局部改造的是利用Cappadocia的。 About the fourth century the great Byzantine Rite was derived from this (see RITE OF CONSTANTINOPLE).約四世紀偉大的拜占庭成年禮是來自本(見成年禮君士坦丁堡) 。 The Armenian Rite is derived from an early stage of that of Byzantium.亞美尼亞成年禮是來自早期階段,即拜占庭。 The Nestorian Rite is also Antiochene in its origin, whether derived directly from Antioch, or Edessa, or from Byzantium at an early stage.該景教成年禮也是安提阿學派在其原產地,不論它們是直接由Antioch ,或edessa ,或從拜占庭處於早期階段。 The Liturgy of Malabar is Nestorian.禮儀中的馬拉巴爾是景教。 The Maronite Use is that of Antioch considerably romanized.馬洛尼使用的是安提相當羅馬拼音。 The other Eastern parent rite, of Alexandria, produced the numerous Coptic Liturgies and those of the daughter Church of Abyssinia.其他東區家長成年禮,亞歷山大,產生了眾多的科普特liturgies者的女兒教會的阿比西尼亞。 In the West the later history of the Liturgy is that of the gradual supplanting of the Gallican by the Roman, which, however, became considerably gallicanized in the process.在西方後來的歷史,禮儀,是對逐步supplanting的gallican由羅馬,卻成了相當gallicanized在這個過程中。 Since about the sixth century conformity with Rome becomes an ideal in most Western Churches.由於約六世紀符合羅馬成為一個理想的,在大多數西方教堂。 The old Roman Use is represented by the "Gelasian Sacramentary".舊羅馬使用的代表是" gelasian sacramentary " 。 This book came to Gaul in the sixth century, possibly by way of Arles and through the influence of St. Cæsarius of Arles (d. 542-cf. Bäumer, "Ueber das sogen. Sacram. Gelas." in the "Histor. Jahrbuch der Görres-Gesellschaft", 1893, 241-301).這本書來到高盧在第六世紀,方式可能採用阿爾勒並通過的影響,聖cæsarius的阿爾勒(四542 -比照bäumer , " ueber之曹玄。 sacram 。熱拉" ,在" histor 。 jahrbuch明鏡görres -公司( " , 1893年, 241-301 ) 。 It then spread throughout Gaul and received Gallican modifications.然後傳遍整個高盧,並收到gallican修改。 In some parts it completely supplanted the old Gallican books.在部分地區,它完全supplanted舊gallican書籍。 Charles the Great (768-814) was anxious for uniformity throughout his kingdom in the Roman use only.查爾斯大( 768-814 ) ,是急於求成,均勻他的王國在羅馬只使用。 He therefore procured from Pope Adrian I (772-795) a copy of the "Roman Sacramentary".因此,他購置了教皇阿德里安一( 772-795 ) ,人手一冊"羅馬sacramentary " 。 The book sent by the pope was a later form of the Roman Rite (the "Sacramentarium Gregorianum").這本書送交教宗稍後形式的羅馬成年禮( " sacramentarium gregorianum " ) 。 Charles imposed this book on all the clergy of his kingdom.查爾斯強加給這本書對所有神職人員的他的王國。 But it was not easy to carry out his orders.但不容易進行他的命令。 The people were attached to their own customs.人民重視自己的關稅。 So someone (possibly Alcuin -- cf. Bäumer, loc. cit.) added to Adrian's book a supplement containing selections from both the older Gelasian book and the original Gallican sources.所以有人(可能阿爾昆-比照b äumer,如上) ,加上艾德里安預訂一個補充含有選看,無論是老一代g elasian書及原g allican來源。 This composition became then the service-book of the Frankish Kingdom and eventually, as we shall see, the Liturgy of the whole Roman Church.這個組合成了那麼服務預訂的法蘭克王國,並最終,我們將看到,禮儀中的整個羅馬教會。 In Spain Bishop Profuturus of Braga wrote in 538 to Pope Vigilius (537-55) asking his advice about certain liturgical matters.在西班牙主教profuturus的布拉加寫在538至教宗vigilius ( 537-55 )問他的意見,對某些禮儀事項。 The pope's answer (in Jaffé, "Regest. Rom. Pont.", no. 907) shows the first influence of the Roman Rite in Spain.教宗的回答( jaffé , " regest 。光碟。 pont " ,沒有907 )顯示第一影響力的羅馬成年禮在西班牙。 In 561 the national Synod of Braga imposed Vigilius's ritual on all the kingdom of the Suevi.在561名全國主教會議的布拉加施加vigilius的禮儀上的所有英國的suevi 。 From this time we have the "mixed" Rite (Roman and Gallican) of Spain.從這個時候,我們已經有了"混合"成年禮(羅馬和gallican )西班牙。 Later, when the Visigoths had conquered the Suevi (577-584), the Church of Toledo rejected the Roman elements and insisted on uniformity in the pure Gallican Rite.後來,當visigoths已征服了suevi ( 577-584 ) ,教會托萊多拒絕了羅馬元素,並堅持統一性純gallican成年禮。 Nevertheless Roman additions were made later; eventually all Spain accepted the Roman Rite (in the eleventh century) except the one corner, at Toledo and Salamanca, where the mixed (Mozarabic) Rite is still used.不過羅馬增補發了言,後當先生;最終西班牙所有接受羅馬成年禮( 11世紀) ,除了一個角落,在托萊多和薩拉曼卡,而混合(莫扎拉布素歌)成年禮,是仍在使用。 The great Church of Milan, apparently the starting-point of the whole Gallican Use, was able to resist the influence of the Roman Liturgy.偉大的教堂米蘭,顯然出發點整gallican使用,是能不能抵制的影響,羅馬教會禮儀。 But here too, in later centuries the local rite became considerably romanized (St. Charles Borromeo, died 1584), so that the present Milanese (Ambrosian) use is only a shadow of the old Gallican Liturgy.但在這裡,在以後的幾個世紀以來當地成年禮成為相當羅馬拼音(聖查爾斯borromeo ,死於第1584 ) ,以便使目前的米蘭( ambrosian )利用規劃還只是一個影子的舊gallican禮拜儀式。 In Britain St. Augustine of Canterbury (597-605) naturally brought with him the Roman Liturgy.在英國聖奧古斯丁的坎特伯雷( 597-605 ) ,自然帶來了與他的羅馬教會禮儀。 It received a new impetus from St. Theodore of Canterbury when he came from Rome (668), and gradually drove out the Gallican Use of Lindisfarne.它獲得了新的動力,從聖西奧多坎特伯雷時,他來自羅馬( 668 ) ,並逐步開出gallican使用林迪斯。

The English Church was very definitely Roman in its Liturgy.英文教會是非常肯定的羅馬在其禮拜儀式。 There was even a great enthusiasm for the rite of the mother Church.甚至還有一個偉大的熱情,為成年禮的母親教會。 So Alcuin writes to Eanbald of York in 796: "Let your clergy not fail to study the Roman order; so that, imitating the Head of the Churches of Christ, they may receive the blessing of Peter, prince of the Apostles, whom our Lord Jesus Christ made the chief of his flock"; and again: "Have you not plenty of books written according to the Roman use?"所以阿爾昆寫信給eanbald的紐約,在796說: "讓你的神職人員不是不努力學習羅馬秩序,因此,模仿首長教會的基督,他們便可能會獲得祝福,彼得王子的使徒,其中我們的主耶穌基督作出行政他的羊群" ,並說: "你們有沒有大量的書,據羅馬使用" ? (quoted in Cabrol, "L'Angleterre terre chrétienne avant les Normans", Paris, 1909, p. 297). (引述cabrol , " l' angleterre terre基督教前衛就業輔導組諾曼" ,巴黎, 1909年,第297條) 。 Before the Conquest the Roman service-books in England received a few Gallican additions from the old rite of the country (op. cit., 297-298)前征服羅馬服務書籍在英國收到了一些gallican增補從舊成年禮的國家(同前, 297-298 )

So we see that at the latest by the tenth or eleventh century the Roman Rite has driven out the Gallican, except in two sees (Milan and Toledo), and is used alone throughout the West, thus at last verifying here too the principle that rite follows patriarchate.所以,我們看到,在最近一次由第十或第十一世紀的古羅馬禮儀帶動出gallican ,除在兩個視(米蘭和托萊多) ,並單獨使用,在整個西方,因此在最後核實這裡過於原則,即成年禮如下牧。 But in the long and gradual supplanting of the Gallican Rite the Roman was itself affected by its rival, so that when at last it emerges as sole possessor it is no longer the old pure Roman Rite, but has become the gallicanized Roman Use that we now follow.但在長期的,漸進的supplanting的gallican成年禮羅馬本身就是受到其競爭對手,因此,當最後出現的唯一擁有者,它已經不再是單純的舊羅馬成年禮,但已成為gallicanized羅馬使用,我們現在跟隨。 These Gallican additions are all of the nature of ceremonial ornament, symbolic practices, ritual adornment.這些gallican加所有的性質,禮儀飾品,象徵手法,禮儀裝飾品。 Our blessings of candles, ashes, palms, much of the ritual of Holy Week, sequences, and so on are Gallican additions.我們祝福的蠟燭,灰渣,棕櫚樹外,大部分的祭祀的聖週,序列等,都是gallican增補。 The original Roman Rite was very plain, simple, practical.原來羅馬成年禮是很樸實,簡單,實用。 Mr. Edmund Bishop says that its characteristics were "essentially soberness and sense" ("The Genius of the Roman Rite", p. 307; see the whole essay).何厚鏵先生主教說,它的特點是"本質上的清醒和責任感" (下稱"天才的羅馬禮" ,第307名;看到整個徵文) 。 Once these additions were accepted at Rome they became part of the (new) Roman Rite and were used as part of that rite everywhere.一旦這些增補被接受,在羅馬,他們成了部分的(新)羅馬成年禮,並以此作為部分的成年禮無處不在。 When was the older simpler use so enriched?當是較簡單的老年人使用,使豐富嗎? We have two extreme dates.我們有兩種極端的日期。 The additions were not made in the eighth century when Pope Adrian sent his "Gregorian Sacramentary" to Charlemagne.增訂不是在第八世紀時,教皇阿德里安派他的"格列高利sacramentary "查理曼。 The original part of that book (in Muratori's edition; "Liturgia romana vetus", II, Venice, 1748) contains still the old Roman Mass. They were made by the eleventh century, as is shown by the "Missale Romanum Lateranense" of that time, edited by Azevedo (Rome, 1752).原來部分,即本書( muratori的版本; " liturgia羅馬老" ,第二章,威尼斯, 1748 ) ,內容仍是舊羅馬馬薩諸塞州,他們所提出的11世紀,正如所表現出的" missale romanum lateranense " ,即當時,主編金之(羅馬, 1752名) 。 Dom Suitbert Bäumer suggests that the additions made to Adrian's book (by Alcuin) in the Frankish Kingdom came back to Rome (after they had become mixed up with the original book) under the influence of the successors of Charlemagne, and there supplanted the older pure form (Über das sogen. Sacr. Gelas., ibid.). DOM的suitbert bäumer建議增訂作出阿德里安的一本書(由阿爾昆)在法蘭克王國才回羅馬(後,他們已成為混合了與原書)的影響下,接班人的查理曼,並有supplanted老純表格(黚er之曹玄。 sacr 。熱拉,同上) 。

VI.六。 LATER MEDIEVAL LITURGIES中世紀後期liturgies

We have now arrived at the present state of things.我們現在已經到達目前的狀況。 It remains to say a word about the various medieval uses the nature of which has often been misunderstood.它仍然想談談各種中世紀用途的性質,而經常被人誤解。 Everyone has heard of the old English uses -- Sarum, Ebor, etc. People have sometimes tried to set them up in opposition to what they call the "modern" Roman Rite, as witnesses that in some way England was not "Roman" before the Reformation.大家都聽過的老英語用途-s arum, e bor等人,有時試圖將它們設置起來反對他們所謂的"現代"羅馬成年禮,作為證人說,在某種程度上,英格蘭是不是"羅馬"之前改革。 This idea shows an astonishing ignorance of the rites in question.這一想法顯示出了驚人的無知的禮儀問題。 These medieval uses are in no sense really independent rites .這些中世紀的用途是在沒有真正意義上的獨立儀式。 To compare them with the Gallican or Eastern Liturgies is absurd.比較它們與gallican或東區liturgies是荒謬的。 They are simply cases of what was common all over Europe in the later Middle Ages, namely slight (often very slight) local modifications of the parent Rite of Rome.他們純粹是個案,是什麼共同的歐洲各地在後來的中世紀,即輕度(通常很輕微) ,局部修改對母公司成年禮的羅馬。 As there were Sarum and Ebor, so there were Paris, Rouen, Lyons, Cologne, Trier Rites.由於有sarum和ebor ,所以有巴黎,盧昂,里昂,科隆,特里爾儀式。 All these are simply Roman, with a few local peculiarities.這些都是純粹的羅馬,與一些地方的特殊性。 They had their own saints' days, a trifling variety in the Calendar, some extra Epistles, Gospels, sequences, prefaces, certain local (generally more exuberant) details of ritual.他們有自己的聖人'天,區區一個品種在日曆上,一些額外的書信,福音,層序,序跋,某些地方(一般較為旺盛的)細節的例行公事。 In such insignificant details as the sequence of liturgical colours there was diversity in almost every diocese.在這種微不足道的細節,因為序列的禮儀顏色有多樣性,幾乎在每一個教區。 No doubt, some rites (as the Dominican use, that of Lyons, etc.) have rather more Gallican additions than our normal Roman Liturgy.毫無疑問,一些儀軌(多米尼加使用,也就是在里昂等) ,有相當多gallican增補比我們正常的羅馬教會禮儀。 But the essence of all these late rites, all the parts that really matter (the arrangement, Canon of the Mass and so on) are simply Roman.但本質上的所有這些後期儀式,所有的部件確實事(安排,佳能的傳播等) ,單純的羅馬。 Indeed they do not differ from the parent rite enough to be called derived properly.事實上,他們並不不同於母公司成年禮,足以被稱為衍生妥當。 Here again the parallel case of languages will make the situation clear.這裡再次平行案件語言將令情況清楚。 There are really derived languages that are no longer the same language as their source.真的有衍生的語言也不再是同一種語言,作為其來源。 Italian is derived from Latin, and Italian is not Latin.意大利是來自拉丁語,意,是不是拉丁語。 On the other hand, there are dialectic modifications that do not go far enough to make a derived language.在另一方面,有辯證的修改不走的不夠遠,使一種衍生的語言。 No one would describe the modern Roman dialect as a language derived from Italian; it is simply Italian, with a few slight local modifications.沒有人會形容現代羅馬方言作為一種語言來自意大利,它是簡單的意大利,除了少數有輕微局部修改。 In the same way, there are really new liturgies derived from the old ones.在以同樣的方式,真的有新liturgies來自舊的。 The Byzantine Rite is derived from that of Antioch and is a different rite.拜占庭成年禮是來自這安提及,是一個不同的成年禮。 But Sarum, Paris, Trier, etc. are simply the Roman Rite, with a few local modifications.但sarum ,巴黎,特里爾等純粹是羅馬成年禮,除了少數地方的修改。

Hence the justification of the abolition of nearly all these local varieties in the sixteenth century.因此,理由取消幾乎所有這些地方品種,在16世紀。 However jealous one may be for the really independent liturgies, however much one would regret to see the abolition of the venerable old rites that share the allegiance of Christendom (an abolition by the way that is not in the least likely ever to take place), at any rate these medieval developments have no special claim to our sympathy.然而嫉妒之一,可為真正獨立liturgies ,但是很多人會很遺憾地看到,取消了歷代舊習俗分享效忠的基督教(取消所,那是不是在最不可能永遠採取地點交代問題) ,但無論如何,這些中古世紀的發展有沒有特別的要求,以我們的同情。 They were only exuberant inflations of the more austere ritual that had better not have been touched.他們只著旺盛的膨脹更過緊禮說,最好不要被感動。 Churches that use the Roman Rite had better use it in a pure form; where the same rite exists at least there uniformity is a reasonable ideal.教會使用羅馬成年禮了更好地利用它在一個純粹的形式;同樣的情況也成年禮至少存在有統一性,是一個合理的理想。 To conceive these late developments as old compared with the original Roman Liturgy that has now again taken their place, is absurd.設想這些後期的發展,作為老與原有的古羅馬禮儀中,目前已再度表現在其位,是荒唐可笑的。 It was the novelties that Pius V abolished; his reform was a return to antiquity.這是既新奇又表示,比約v取消他的改革是一個回到古代。 In 1570 Pius V published his revised and restored Roman Missal that was to be the only form for all Churches that use the Roman Rite.在1570年比約v出版了自己的修改和恢復羅馬missal這是自己將成為唯一的形式,為所有教會使用羅馬成年禮。 The restoration of this Missal was on the whole undoubtedly successful; it was all in the direction of eliminating the later inflations, farced Kyries and Glorias, exuberant sequences, and ceremonial that was sometimes almost grotesque.恢復這missal是就整體而言,無疑是成功的,這是在所有的方向,消除了通貨膨脹後, farced kyries和格洛里亞斯,旺盛的序列,和禮儀,這是有時幾乎怪誕。 In imposing it the pope made an exception for other uses that had been in possession for at least two centuries.在施加它教宗作了例外或用作其他用途,已被藏在至少兩個世紀。 This privilege was not used consistently.這種特權是沒有使用一貫的。 Many local uses that had a prescription of at least that time gave way to the authentic Roman Rite; but it saved the Missals of some Churches (Lyons, for instance) and of some religious orders (the Dominicans, Carmelites, Carthusians).許多地方使用了一個藥方的,最低限度的時候了途徑正宗羅馬成年禮的,但它救了missals的一些教會(里昂,例如) ,以及一些宗教命令(多米尼加人, carmelites , carthusians ) 。 What is much more important is that the pope's exception saved the two remnants of a really independent Rite at Milan and Toledo.什麼是更重要的是,教宗的例外挽救了兩個遺留下來的一個真正獨立的成年禮在米蘭和托萊多。 Later, in the nineteenth century, there was again a movement in favour of uniformity that abolished a number of surviving local customs in France and Germany, though these affected the Breviary more than the Missal.後來,在十九世紀後,又是一個運動,有利於統一性取消了一些倖存的當地習俗,在法國和德國,雖然這些影響breviary較missal 。 We are now witnessing a similar movement for uniformity in plainsong (the Vatican edition).我們現在正看到類似的運動,以便統一plainsong (梵蒂岡版) 。 The Monastic Rite (used by the Benedictines and Cistercians) is also Roman in its origin.修道成年禮(用於由benedictines和cistercians )也是羅馬在其原產地。 The differences between it and the normal Roman Rite affect chiefly the Divine Office.之間的差異,這與正常的羅馬成年禮的影響,主要是神聖的辦公室。

VII.七。 TABLE OF LITURGIES表liturgies

We are now able to draw up a table of all the real liturgies used throughout the Christian world.我們現在能夠制訂出一個表的所有實時liturgies應用於整個基督教世界。 The various Protestant Prayerbooks, Agendæ, Communion-services, and so on, have of course no place in this scheme, because they all break away altogether from the continuity of liturgical development; they are merely compilations of random selections from any of the old rites imbedded in new structures made by various Reformers.各新教prayerbooks , agendæ ,共融服務等,有,當然沒有發生在這項計劃下,因為它們都打破完全退出的連續性,禮儀的發展,他們只不過是彙編的隨機選看任何的舊禮俗內嵌在新的結構所作出的各種改革者。

In the First Three Centuries在第一三個世紀

A fluid rite founded on the account of the Last Supper, combined with a Christianized synagogue service showing, however, a certain uniformity of type and gradually crystallizing into set forms.流體成年禮的基礎上,到最後的晚餐,再加上一個christianized猶太教堂服務顯示,然而,在一定的均勻性型,並逐步結晶成一套表格。 Of this type we have perhaps a specimen in the Liturgy of the second and eighth books of the "Apostolic Constitutions".這種類型的,我們也許試樣在禮儀中的第二和第八書籍的"使徒的憲法" 。

Since the Fourth Century自第四世紀

The original indetermined rite forms into the four great liturgies from which all others are derived.原indetermined成年禮把表格四大liturgies從所有其他的計算公式。 These liturgies are:這些liturgies是:

Antioch安提

Pure in the "Apostolic Constitutions" (in Greek).純在"使徒憲法" (希臘文) 。

Modified at Jerusalem in the Liturgy of St. James.修飾在耶路撒冷,在禮儀中的聖雅各福群會。

The Greek St. James, used once a year by the Orthodox at Zacynthus and Jerusalem.希臘的聖雅各福群會,用一年一次,由東正教在zacynthus和耶路撒冷。

The Syriac St. James, used by the Jacobites and Syrian Uniats.在敘利亞文聖雅各福群會,所用的jacobites和敘利亞uniats 。

The Maronite Rite, used in Syriac.馬洛尼成年禮,用在敘利亞文。

The Chaldean Rite, used by Nestorians and Chaldean Uniats (in Syriac).該加爾丁禮,用nestorians和加爾丁uniats (敘利亞文) 。

The Malabar Rite, used by Uniats and Schismatics in India (in Syriac).馬拉巴爾成年禮,用uniats和schismatics在印度(在敘利亞文) 。

The Byzantine Rite, used by the Orthodox and Byzantine Uniats in various languages.拜占庭成年禮,由東正教和拜占庭uniats各種語言的版本。

The Armenian Rite, used by Gregorians and Uniats (in Armenian).亞美尼亞成年禮,用gregorians和uniats (亞美尼亞語) 。

Alexandria亞歷山德里亞

The Greek Liturgy of St. Mark, no longer used.希臘禮儀中的聖馬克,不再使用。

The Coptic Liturgies, used by Uniat and schismatical Copts.科普特liturgies ,用uniat和schismatical科普特人。

The Ethiopic Liturgies, used by the Church of Abyssinia.該ethiopic liturgies ,用教會的阿比西尼亞。

Rome羅馬

The original Roman Rite, not now used.原來羅馬成年禮的,而不是現在所用的。

The African Rite, no longer used.非洲成年禮,不再使用。

The Roman Rite with Gallican additions used (in Latin) by nearly all the Latin Church.羅馬成年禮與gallican增補用(拉丁語) ,幾乎所有的拉美教會。

Various later modifications of this rite used in the Middle Ages, now (with a few exceptions) abolished.後來各種變通的,這成年禮用在中世紀,現在(除了少數例外)廢止。

Gaul高盧

Used once all over North-Western Europe and in Spain (in Latin).使用一次全北西歐和西班牙(拉丁美洲) 。

The Ambrosian Rite at Milan.該ambrosian成年禮在米蘭。

The Mozarabic Rite, used at Toledo and Salamanca.該莫扎拉布素歌成年禮,用在托萊多和薩拉曼卡。

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.出版信息寫的阿德里安Fortescue的。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯j.波特。 Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.專為無玷聖心之聖母瑪利亞天主教百科全書,體積九。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. nihil obstat , 1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

CABROL AND LECLERCQ, Monumenta Ecclesiæ Liturgica. cabrol和勒克萊爾,古蹟遺址ecclesiæ liturgica 。 I, Reliquiæ Liturgicæ Vetustissimæ (Paris, 1900-2); BRIGHTMAN, Liturgies Eastern and Western, I. Eastern Liturgies (Oxford, 1896); DANIEL, Codex Liturgicus Ecclesiæ universæ (4 vols., Leipzig, 1847-53); RAUSCHEN, Florilegium Patristicum, VII.我reliquiæ liturgicæ vetustissimæ (巴黎, 1900-2 ) ;布萊曼, liturgies東區和西區,東區一liturgies (牛津, 1896年) ;丹尼爾,食品法典委員會liturgicus ecclesiæ universæ ( 4卷,萊比錫, 1847年至1853年) ; rauschen , florilegium patristicum ,七。 Monumenta eucharistica et liturgica vetustissima (Bonn, 1909); FUNK, Patres Apostolici (2 vols., Tübingen, 1901), and Didascalia et Constitutiones Apostolorum (Paderborn, 1905), the quotations in this article are made from these editions; PROBST, Liturgie der drei ersten christl.古蹟遺址eucharistica等liturgica vetustissima (波恩, 1909年) ;畏縮, patres apostolici ( 2卷,蒂賓根, 1901年) ,並didascalia等constitutiones apostolorum (帕德博恩, 1905 ) ,報價在這篇文章是由這些版本; probst , liturgie明鏡drei ersten christl 。 Jahrh. jahrh 。 (Tübingen, 1870); IDEM, Liturgie des vierten Jahr. (蒂賓根, 1870年) ;同上, liturgie萬vierten jahr 。 u.美國 deren Reform (Münster, 1893); DREWS, Untersuchungen über die sogenannte clementin.李德仁改革(在明斯特, 1893年) ;德魯斯, untersuchungen黚er模具sogenannte克萊芒坦。 Liturgie (Tübingen, 1906); DUCHESNE, Origines du Cuite chrét. liturgie (蒂賓根, 1906年) ; duchesne , origines杜cuite chrét 。 (Paris, 1898); RAUSCHEN, Eucharistie und Buss-sakrament in den ersten sechs Jahrh. (巴黎, 1898年) ; rauschen , eucharistie und巴斯- sakrament在Den ersten sechs jahrh 。 der Kirche (Freiburg, 1908); CABROL, Les Origines liturgiques (Paris, 1906); IDEM, Introduction aux Etudes liturgiques (Paris, 1907).明鏡kirche (弗賴堡, 1908年) ; cabrol ,就業輔導組origines liturgiques (巴黎, 1906年) ;同上,引進輔助練習曲liturgiques (巴黎, 1907年) 。 For further bibliography see articles on each liturgy.為進一步參考書目見文章,對每個禮拜儀式。 For liturgical languages, as well as liturgical science, treating of the regulation, history, and dogmatic value of the Liturgy, see RITES.為禮儀語言,以及禮儀學,治療該規例的,共同的歷史和教條式的價值禮儀中,見禮記。


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