Liberal Catholicism自由天主教

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A response by a minority of Catholic intellectuals to the French Revolution and nineteenth century European liberalism, liberal Catholicism may be seen as a chapter in the history of reform Catholicism which has long contended with the majority, conservative, and authoritarian tradition within Roman Catholicism.回應由少數天主教知識分子,以法國大革命和19世紀歐洲的自由主義,自由派天主教可能被視為史上的新篇章改革天主教長期以來一直有爭議的,與大多數人,保守的,專制的傳統,在羅馬天主教。

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The characteristics of liberal Catholicism are best exemplified in its chief exponents.特點自由天主教是最好的例證,在其行政指數。 The pioneer of the movement was the passionate French priest and prophet HFR de Lamennais (1782 - 1854), who developed a new apologetic for Catholicism.先鋒的運動激情法語牧師和先知hfr德lamennais ( 1782 -1 854) ,他們制定了一項新的歉意,為天主教。 The Catholic religion, he maintained, is not evidenced chiefly by miracles and fulfilled prophecies but by its capacity to perpetuate those beliefs which mankind has found essential to an ordered social life: monotheism, the difference between good and evil, the immortality of the soul, and reward or punishment in a future life.天主教宗教觀,他堅持,是不是證明了主要由奇蹟,圓滿地完成了預言,但它的能力,以維持這些信仰是人類已發現的必不可少的一種有序的社會生活:一神論,善與惡之間的差異,靈魂,並獎勵或處罰,在今後的生活中。 Testifying to these beliefs is the sensus communis or general reason, the collective judgments derived from custom, tradition, and education.這證明了這些信念,是感覺,蹠草或一般,因此,集體的判斷來自習俗,傳統,教育等。 Hence society is the vehicle of revelation, a belief of great democratic potential.因此,社會,是車輛的啟示,信仰民主大的潛力。 Lamennais's apologetics led to politics. lamennais的護導致政治。 His mission was to promote the social regeneration of Europe through the renaissance of Catholicism.他的使命是促進社會復興的歐洲通過文藝復興時代的天主教。 The Catholic church should break with all royalist and absolutist regimes; the papacy should be the guardian of liberty and the champion of democracy; and the people, in whom was hidden the Word of God, should be sovereign.天主教教會一定要打破一切保皇黨和專制政權;教宗應該是監護人的自由和民主鬥士;和人民,在其中被藏上帝的話,應該是主權。

In a daily newspaper, L'Avenir, with its motto "God and Liberty," Lamennais advanced his revolutionary program: freedom of conscience and religion (necessitating the abolition of concordats between the papacy and civil governments and the stopping both of state payment of clergy and of state intervention in the appointment of bishops); freedom (not a monopoly) for the church in education; liberty of the press; freedom of association; universal suffrage; and decentralization of government.在一家日報法國avenir ,其口號是"上帝和自由, " lamennais先進他的革命綱領:良心自由和宗教自由的權利(須取消concordats之間教宗和民間各國政府和制止這兩個國家支付的神職人員和國家干預的,在任命主教) ,自由(而不是壟斷) ,為教會在教育;自由新聞的自由,結社;普選;和權力下放是政府的責任。

CRF de Montalembert (1810 - 70), historian and publicist, entered the French Parliament in 1837, seeking to catholicize liberals and to liberalize Catholics.慢性腎衰德montalembert ( 1810 -7 0) ,歷史學家和公關人員,進入法國議會在1 837年,尋求c atholicize自由派和自由化的天主教徒。 His greatest political victory was the passage in 1850 of the Falloux law, which allowed the development of a Catholic secondary education system independent of the state system.他的最大的政治勝利是通過1850年的falloux法,其中允許發展一個天主教中學教育體系獨立於國家體制。

The commitment by liberal Catholics to education was accompanied by an emphasis on preaching, then unusual in the Roman Catholic Church.承諾自由天主教徒教育是伴隨著一個側重於說教,然後在不尋常的羅馬天主教會。 The greatest liberal Catholic preacher was the Dominican JBH Lacordaire (1802 - 61), who attracted vast crowds especially to his Lenten conferences at Notre Dame Cathedral, where his impassioned sermons combined the call for liberty in church and state with ultramontanism (centralization of papal authority in matters of church government and doctrine).最自由的天主教傳教士是多米尼加jbh拉科代爾( 1802 -6 1) ,他們吸引了廣大觀眾,尤其是他的四旬期會議在巴黎聖母院大教堂,在那裡他的慷慨激昂的說教相結合的號召,為自由,在教會與國家同u ltramontanism(中央集權的教皇權威在事項的教會,政府和學說) 。

The majority of liberal Catholics remained orthodox, seeking to modernize the church through the political emancipation of the laity and the separation of church and state.大多數人的自由天主教徒仍然東正教,謀求現代化教會通過政治解放的俗人和政教分離的國家。 A later generation of liberal Catholics, including Lord Acton (1834 - 1902) in England and JJI von Dollinger (1799 - 1890) in Germany, advocated autonomy for the laity in doctrinal matters.稍後一代的自由天主教徒,其中包括主ACTON ) ( 1834 -1 902) ,在英格蘭和j ji馮d ollinger( 1 799- 18 90),在德國,主張自治為俗人,在學說上的事宜。

The currents of liberal Catholicism led at the beginning of the twentieth century to the much stormier waters of Catholic modernism, which tended to be antidogmatic and anthropocentric.海流的自由為首的天主教在20世紀初,以更風浪水域的天主教現代主義的,這往往被antidogmatic和體型。 The leading Catholic modernists, Alfred Loisy, George Tyrell, Baron Friedrich von Hugel, Edouard Le Roy, Maurice Blondel, and Ernesto Buonaiuti, were concerned to reconcile traditional Catholic doctrine with the results of critical scriptural exegesis.領導天主教現代派,阿爾弗雷德盧瓦西,喬治tyrell ,白頭弗里德里希馮胡格爾,愛德華樂羅伊,莫里斯blondel ,和Ernesto buonaiuti ,關注調和傳統的天主教教義與結果的關鍵聖經註釋。

The papacy has consistently criticized and frequently condemned liberal Catholicism for its rationalism and naturalism.教宗一貫批評,並經常譴責自由天主教為理性主義和自然主義。 Lamennais's political liberalism was condemned by Gregory XVI in the encyclical Mirari vos of 1832. lamennais的政治自由主義譴責格雷戈里教宗在通諭中mirari你的1832 。 In 1834 in Singulari nos Gregory condemned Lamennais's doctrine that the evolution of truth was part of the progressive evolution of the people (a view later called immanentism).在1834年,在singulari數格雷戈里譴責lamennais的學說的演變真相的一部分逐步進化的人(一期後來所謂immanentism ) 。 Montalembert concluded that it was not possible to be a Catholic and a liberal after Pius IX's encyclical Quanta Cura and the Syllabus of Errors (both 1864). montalembert得出結論認為,它不可能是一個天主教和自由後,比約九的通諭廣cura和教學大綱的誤差(均1864 ) 。 Acton and Dollinger withdrew their active support of Rome after the promulgation in 1870 of the dogma of papal infallibility. ACTON ) ,並dollinger撤回了他們的積極支持羅馬頒布後,在1870年的教條的教皇infallibility 。 Modernism was condemned in 1907 by Pius X in the decree Lamentabili and the encyclical Pascendi gregis.現代事件進行了譴責, 1907年由比約X在該法令lamentabili和通諭pascendi收聽廣播節目和收看。

FS Piggin財政司司長皮格金博士

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
Lord Acton, The History of Freedom and Other Essays; JL Altholz, The Liberal Catholic Movement in England; EEY Hales, Pio Nono: A Study in European Politics and Religion in the Nineteenth Century and Revolution and Papacy, 1769 - 1846; D Holmes, The Triumph of the Holy See: A Short History of the Papacy in the Nineteenth Century; TM Loome, Liberal Catholicism, Reform Catholicism, Modernism: A Contribution to a New Orientation in Modernist Research; JN Moody, ed., Church and Society: Catholic Social and Political Thought and Movements, 1789 - 1950; BMG Reardon, Liberalism and Tradition: Aspects of Catholic Thought in Nineteenth Century France; AR Vidler, Prophecy and Papacy: A Study of Lamennais, the Church and the Revolution.主ACTON ) ,歷史上的自由和其他散文;的JL altholz ,自由天主教運動在英格蘭; eey hales ,年內,納米研究:在歐洲政治和宗教在十九世紀的革命和教皇, 1769 -1 846; d霍爾姆斯勝利教廷:一個歷史較短的教宗是在19世紀; ? loome ,自由天主教,天主教的改革,現代主義:一種貢獻到一個新的方向,在現代主義研究;若望穆迪,海關,教會與社會:天主教社會和政治思想和運動的1789年-1 950年B MG公司裡爾登,自由主義與傳統:方面的天主教思想在十九世紀法國;氬v idler,預言與教宗:研究l amennais,教會和革命。


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