Last Judgment, Day of the Lord, General Judgment最後的審判,主日,總體判斷

General Information 一般資料

The concept of a final judgment on humankind at the end of history is found in Judaism and Christianity, Islam, and Zoroastrianism.概念的最終判斷,在人類歷史的終結,是發現在猶太教和基督教,伊斯蘭教和zoroastrianism 。 It holds an important place in Judaic tradition, in which God's judgment is regarded as operative both within history and at its end.它抓住了一個重要的地位,在猶太傳統中,神的審判被視為手術無論在歷史上和在它的盡頭。 The consummation of history is called the Day of the Lord, which is a day of judgment upon all who are unfaithful to God.該圓滿的歷史,是所謂的主日,這是一天的判斷時,所有的人,不信神。

Christian Eschatology owes much to this Hebrew tradition.基督教末世很大程度上歸功於這個希伯來傳統。 The New Testament freely employs the language and imagery of Jewish Apocalyptic Literature.新約聖經自由地運用語言和意象的猶太世界末日的文學作品。 It affirms the expectation that (in the language of the historic creeds) Christ "will come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead."它肯定了期望(在語言的歷史信條)的基督"會再來榮耀法官都死人和活人" 。 Many different interpretations of the meaning of this affirmation have been offered and, in particular, of the symbolic language employed in the New Testament to describe the indescribable.許多不同的表述的含義,這肯定已經提供,特別的象徵性語言受聘於新約聖經來形容無法形容。 But there is little doubt that the apostolic writers believed in the Second Coming of Christ and the Great Judgment Day as a manifestation of Christ's eternal victory.但有一點是無可置疑的說,使徒作家相信耶穌第二次來和偉大的末世論的一種表現基督的永恆的勝利。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
Charles W. Ranson查理ranson


Final Judgment最後判決

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Final Judgment is the sentence that will be passed on our actions at the last day (Matt. 25; Rom. 14:10, 11; 2 Cor. 5: 10; 2 Thess. 1:7-10).最後判決是一句說,將通過我們的行動,在最後一天。 ( 25條;光碟。 14:10 , 11 2肺心病5 : 10 , 2帖前1:7-10 ) 。 The judge is Jesus Christ, as mediator.法官是耶穌基督,作為調停者。 All judgment is committed to him (Acts 17:31; John 5:22, 27; Rev. 1:7).所有的判斷是,承諾給他(使徒17時31分;約翰5點22分,第27條;牧師1時07分) 。 "It pertains to him as mediator to complete and publicly manifest the salvation of his people and the overthrow of his enemies, together with the glorious righteousness of his work in both respects." "這與他作為調停人,以全面和公開,體現了救贖了他的人民和推翻他的敵人,再加上光輝正義的,他的工作,在這兩方面" 。 The persons to be judged are, (1) the whole race of Adam without a single exception (Matt. 25:31-46; 1 Cor. 15:51, 52; Rev. 20:11-15); and (2) the fallen angels (2 Pet. 2:4; Jude 6).該人士判斷是, ( 1 )整場比賽的亞當,沒有一個單一的例外。 ( 25:31-46 : 1肺心病。 15:51 , 52名;牧師20:11-15 ) ,和( 2 )該墮落的天使( 2寵物。 2時04分;裘德6 ) 。

The rule of judgment is the standard of God's law as revealed to men, the heathen by the law as written on their hearts (Luke 12:47, 48; Rom. 2:12-16); the Jew who "sinned in the law shall be judged by the law" (Rom. 2:12); the Christian enjoying the light of revelation, by the will of God as made known to him (Matt. 11:20-24; John 3:19).法治的判斷,是標準的真主的法律作為顯示,以男性中,異教徒受到法律的,因為寫在他們的心(路加福音12:47 48 ;光碟。 2:12-16 ) ;猶太人的人"的犯罪,在法律上應當由大家來評判法" (羅馬書2時12分) ;基督教享受輕的啟示,由於上帝的旨意,因為知道他。 ( 11:20-24 ;約翰3:19 ) 。 Then the secrets of all hearts will be brought to light (1 Cor. 4:5; Luke 8:17; 12:2, 3) to vindicate the justice of the sentence pronounced.那麼機密的心中都將被繩之以法,以輕( 1肺心病。 4:5 ;盧克8時17分; 12:2 3 ) ,以證明法官宣布的判決。 The time of the judgment will be after the resurrection (Heb. 9:27; Acts 17: 31).當時的判斷會後復活(希伯來書9時27分;行為17 : 31 ) 。 As the Scriptures represent the final judgment "as certain [Eccl. 11:9], universal [2 Cor. 5:10], righteous [Rom. 2:5], decisive [1 Cor. 15:52], and eternal as to its consequences [Heb. 6:2], let us be concerned for the welfare of our immortal interests, flee to the refuge set before us, improve our precious time, depend on the merits of the Redeemer, and adhere to the dictates of the divine word, that we may be found of him in peace."正如聖經所代表的終審判決: "由於某些[ eccl 。 11時09分] ,普及[ 2肺心病。下午5時10 ] ,正義[光碟。 2時05分,果斷[ 1肺心病。 15時52分] ,並作為永恆其後果[以弗所書6點02分] ,讓我們關心的福利,我們不朽的利益,逃到庇護所設在我們面前,改善我們的寶貴時間,在很大程度上依賴於案情的救贖主,堅持以頤指氣使神聖的字眼,我們可能會被發現,他在和平" 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Last Judgment最後審判

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Judgment at history's end is the climax of a process by which God holds nations and persons accountable to him as Creator and Lord.判斷歷史的到底是高潮的一個過程,其中神舉行的國家和負責任的人,他作為創造者和主。

The OT centers ultimate judgment in the day of Yahweh (or the day), when the Lord rids his world of every evil: haughtiness (Isa. 2:12-17), idolatry (Isa. 2:18-20), compromise with paganism (Zeph. 1:8), violence, fraud (Zeph. 1:9), complacency (Zeph. 1:12), and all that brands people as sinners (Isa. 13:9).職能治療中心的最終裁決之日起雅威(或天) ,當上帝rids他的世界的每一個邪惡: haughtiness (以賽亞書2:12-17 ) ,偶像崇拜(以賽亞書2:18-20 ) ,與妥協paganism ( zeph. 1:8 ) ,暴力,欺詐( zeph. 1時09分) ,自滿( zeph. 1:12 ) ,以及所有的品牌人民的罪人(以賽亞書13時09分) 。 Both the nations (Amos 1:2; Joel 3:2) and Israel (Amos 9:1-4; Mal. 3:2-5) are targets of judgment, which the OT sees as purification of God's people and world so that his creative and covenantal purposes are fulfilled: "The earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea" (Isa. 11:9).這兩個國家(阿莫斯1:2的Joel 3:2 )和以色列(阿莫斯9:1-4 ;仲裁法。 3:2-5 ) ,是指標的判斷,其中城市旅遊局認為,作為淨化上帝的人與世界,使他的創作和covenantal目的是滿足: "地球應充滿對知識的主作為水域涵蓋海" (以賽亞書11時09分) 。

The intertestamental period focuses on the punishment, usually by disaster, of God's enemies, human and supernatural (Eth. Enoch 10:6; 105:3-4).該intertestamental期側重於懲罰,通常是災難,上帝的敵人面前,人類和超自然( eth.伊諾克10時06分; 105:3-4 ) 。 Where such judgment did not take place in history, where the wicked flourished and the righteous suffered (cf. Pss. 37; 73), divine justice was questioned.如果這種判斷並未發生在歷史上,那裡有險惡的興盛和正義蒙受(參見PSS的。 37 ; 73 ) ,神的公義受到質疑。 The problem was solved with the view that judgment was not limited to history but could occur after death (Ps. Sol. 3:1ff.; Eth. Enoch) when God or the Son of man would execute judgment in the last day (II Esd. 7; Eth. Enoch).這個問題不解決這一觀點,即判斷並不限於歷史,但可能會發生死亡後(雅歌溶膠。 3:1幾段;字樣。伊諾克)時,上帝或人子,將執行判決,在最後一天(二公共服務電子化7段;字樣。伊諾克) 。

The NT builds on OT and intertestamental teaching, expanding it in light of Christ's incarnation.新台幣建立在對城市旅遊局及intertestamental教學,擴大它在基督之光的化身。 In the Synoptics, Jesus announces himself as the eschatological judge (Mark 15:62) and calls attention to the day of judgment (Matt. 10:15; 11:22, 24; 12:36, 41-42; 23:33), describing it as a final separation of the evildoers from the righteous (Matt. 13:41-43, 47-50).在synoptics ,耶穌宣布自己為eschatological法官(標記15:62 ) ,並呼籲注意審判的日子。 ( 10:15 ; 11:22 , 24歲; 12:36 , 41-42 ; 23時33分) ,並形容它作為一個最後的分離惡從正義。 ( 13:41-43 , 47-50 ) 。 Jesus' parables indicate that his purpose is not to frame an eschatological timetable but so to teach the fact of judgment that his hearers face their present decisions for or against the kingdom with utter seriousness.耶穌' parables表明他的目的不是要框一個eschatological時間表,但這麼教導的事實判斷,他的hearers面對他們目前決定支持或反對英國以極大的嚴肅性。 In the longest judgment parable Jesus' point is that the ultimate outcome will be determined by whether the nations receive or reject his "brethren" who come to them with the gospel message (Matt. 25:31-46).在最長的判斷寓言耶穌的一點是,最終的結果將取決於是否能各接收或拒絕他的"兄弟"的人到他那裡去,與福音訊息。 ( 25:31-46 ) 。

John's Gospel underscores the tie between present human decisions and future divine judgment: believers do not go through judgment but have already crossed from death to life (5:24); the disobedient will not see life but are already under wrath (3:36).約翰福音強調配合之間,目前人類的決策和未來的神聖判斷:信徒不經過判斷,但已越過死亡的生命( 5時24分) ;聽話,將看不到生活,但已受眾怒( 3時36分) 。 Final judgment, committed by the Father to the Son (5:26-27), will follow the resurrection of both the evil and the good (5:28-29), sealing the decree that human faith or disobedience has already determined.最後裁決,由父親給兒子( 5:26-27 ) ,將遵循復活既邪惡和好( 5:28-29 ) ,密封法令說,人類的信仰或抗命已定了。

Paul amplifies these themes: judgment is connected with Christ's coming and the resurrection of the dead (I Cor. 15:22-25); Christ is judge (II Tim. 4:1); Christians share in the judging (I Cor. 6:2-3); judgment is fair (Rom. 2:11), universal (Rom. 2:6), thorough (Rom. 2:16); through justification, judgment is robbed of terror for believers, whose sins have been judged on the cross (Rom. 3:21-26; 8:1, 31-34); believers' judgment consists of rewards for good works (Rom. 14:10; II Cor. 5:10) manifested when the purging fires clear away all dross (I Cor. 3:13-15); final judgment of unbelievers, exclusion from God's presence, is a recurrent theme, much of it stated in OT language (I Thess. 5:3; II Thess. 1:9; Phil. 1:28; 3:19; Rom. 6:21); divine judgment is both present and future reality (Rom. 1:18-32).保羅放大這些主題:判斷是與基督的未來和死人復活(我肺心病。 15:22-25 ) ,基督是法官(二添。 4:1 ) ;基督徒分享評審(林前6 : 2 - 3 ) ;判決是公正的(羅馬書2,11 ) ,環球(羅馬書2時06分) ,徹底(羅馬書2:16 ) ;透過理由的,判斷是搶劫,恐怖,供信徒,他們的罪孽已判斷對兩岸關係(羅馬書3:21-26 ; 8:1 , 31-34 ) ;信徒們的判斷,包括獎勵的優秀作品(羅馬書14:10 ;二,肺心病。 17:10 )表現時,清洗火災清理浮渣(我肺心病。 3:13-15 ) ;終審判決不信,排斥來自上帝的存在,是一個經常性的主題,其中很大一部分在城市旅遊局語文(一帖5時03分;第二帖前1 : 9 ;菲爾。 1時28分; 3時19分;光碟。 6時21分) ;神聖的判斷是,無論現在和將來的現實(羅馬書1:18-32 ) 。

Jude and II Peter use some of the Bible's fiercest language to depict the fate of the wicked teachers (incipient Gnostics?) who misled the faithful by mocking their hope of a second coming and encouraging licentious living because they did not fear a final judgment (II Pet. 3:3-7; Jude 3-4).裘德和第二彼得使用的一些聖經中的最激烈的語言來描繪的命運惡人教師(初始gnostics ? )誰誤導信徒所譏笑他們的希望,第二次來,並鼓勵licentious生活,因為他們不害怕最後判決(二寵物。 3:3-7 ;裘德3-4 ) 。 These letters see the final judgment as the ultimate act in a historical pattern (II Pet. 2:4-10; Jude 5-7), an act that should prompt righteous living by its cosmic power to destroy even the very heavens (II Pet. 3:11-13).這些信件見終審判決為最終法案在歷史格局(二寵物。 2:4-10 ;裘德5-7 ) ,某一行為,這應該會促使正義的生活由宇宙的權力銷毀了,甚至很老天爺(二寵物。 3:11-13 ) 。

Revelation pictures a tribulation poured out on the earth as a judgment just before the final judgment (seven trumpets, 8-11; seven bowls, 16).啟示照片一磨難傾注了對地球作為判決前的最後判決(七小號, 8-11 ;七個滾球, 16 ) 。 As the first step in the final judgment the evil leaders whose blasphemous activities sparked the tribulation are captured in battle by the triumphant Christ and consigned to the lake of fire (19:20-21).作為計劃的第一步,在終審判決邪惡領袖的褻瀆活動引發磨難都是俘虜在戰鬥中,由凱旋基督和寄售向湖火警( 19:20-21 ) 。 Next Satan, the ultimate source of evil, is seized and bound for the duration of the millennium (20:1-3).明年撒旦一樣,最終的罪惡之源,是緊緊抓住並且必將為期限千年( 20:1-3 ) 。 His release results in further deception of the nations, a clear sign that God's final judgment is deserved, even after a thousand years of Christ's perfect rule the nations persist in their sin.他的釋放結果,在進一步欺騙的國家,一個明確的信號,神的最後判決,是當之無愧的,即使經過了一千多年的基督教會的完善法治國家堅持自己的罪孽。 The throne and the books symbolize a careful, accurate process based on well-kept records (20:11-15).王位和書籍,象徵著謹慎,準確進程的基礎上,保存最完好的記錄( 20:11-15 ) 。 The scene is cosmic in scope: earth and sky flee to be replaced by a new heaven and earth (20:11; 21:1); the damage to creation done by human sin is reversed, as the OT prophets foresaw (Isa. 11:6-9; 65:17-25) and Paul depicted (Rom. 8:22-23).場景是在宇宙範圍:地球和天空逃往被取而代之的是一個新的天地( 20時11分; 21時01分) ;損害到創作所做的人類罪行,是倒過來,作為職能治療先知預見(以賽亞書11日:6 - 9 ; 65:17-25 )和保羅描繪(羅馬書8:22-23 ) 。

The theological implications of the biblical teaching are that final judgment is (1) the ultimate triumph of God's will and the consummate display of his glory in history, the sign that all he intended has been accomplished; (2) the cosmic declaration that God is just, all affronts to his glory are punished and all recognition of it is rewarded; (3) the climax of Christ's ministry, as the Apostles' Creed affirms; (4) the reminder that human and cosmic history move toward a goal, measured by the purposes of God; (5) the absolute seal of human accountability, all believers are held responsible for their works, all unbelievers for their rebellion; (6) the most serious motive for Christian mission, in the face of such judgment the world's only hope is Christ's salvation (Acts 4:12).神學的影響,聖經中的教學是最終的判斷是, ( 1 )的最終勝利,上帝的意志和制約展示他的榮耀在歷史上,跡象顯示,他的用意已經完成; ( 2 )宇宙聲明說,上帝是只是,一切侮辱到他的榮耀,是懲罰和所有的承認,這是獎賞; ( 3 )高潮基督的部,作為傳道者'的信條申明; (四)提醒人們,人類和宇宙的歷史,走向一個目標,其衡量目的上帝; (五)絕對密封的人問責制,所有信徒有責任在他們的作品,所有不信,為他們的叛亂, ( 6 )最嚴重的動機基督徒的使命,在面對這樣的判斷,是世界上惟一的希望的是基督的救贖(使徒4時12分) 。

Belief in the last judgment was uniformly endorsed in the early creeds and the Reformation confessions.信仰是在最後的判決是一致贊同在早期信條和改革的自白書。 Except where the various ancient and modern forms of universalism have held sway, Christians have accepted the fact of final judgment, though its form and timing have been strongly debated.除各種古代和現代形式的普遍性已舉行了搖擺,基督信徒已經接受事實的最終判決,雖然它的形式和時間,一直強烈爭議。

DA Hubbard大哈伯德
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
DG Bloesch, Essentials of Evangelical Theology, II, 211-34; AA Hoekema, The Bible and the Future; GE Ladd, A Theology of the NT; JP Martin, The Last Judgment; W. Schneider, NIDNTT, II, 361-67.危險品bloesch ,本色的基督教神學,二, 211-34 ;機管局赫克瑪,聖經和未來;葛雷德,神學新台幣;太平紳士馬丁,最後的審判;總統施耐德, nidntt ,二, 361-67 。


Last Judgment, General Judgment最後判斷,總體判斷

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). ( judicium universale ,最後的審判) 。

I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT一,存在的總體判斷

1

Few truths are more often or more clearly proclaimed in Scripture than that of the general judgment.數真理更經常或更明確地宣布,在經文比的總體判斷。 To it the prophets of the Old Testament refer when they speak of the "Day of the Lord" (Joel 2:31; Ezekiel 13:5; Isaiah 2:12), in which the nations will be summoned to judgment.它的先知舊約是指當他們說話的"主日" (約珥2時31分;以西結13時05分;以賽亞書2時12分) ,在該國將傳喚的判斷。 In the New Testament the second Parusia, or coming of Christ as Judge of the world, is an oft-repeated doctrine.在新約聖經第二parusia ,或未來以基督為法官的世界,是一個經常重複的教條。 The Saviour Himself not only foretells the event but graphically portrays its circumstances (Matthew 24:27 sqq.; 25:31 sqq.).救世主自己不僅預示著該事件,而是生動地描繪了它的情況下(馬太24:27 sqq ; 25:31 sqq ) 。 The Apostles give a most prominent place to this doctrine in their preaching (Acts 10:42; 17:31) and writings (Romans 2:5-16; 14:10; 1 Corinthians 4:5; 2 Corinthians 5:10; 2 Timothy 4:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:5; James 5:7).使徒們給予一個最突出的地方,這種學說在他們的說教(使徒行10:42 ; 17時31分)和寫作(羅馬書2:5-16 ; 14:10 ;哥林多前書4:5 ;哥林多後5:10 ;二日蒂莫西4:1 2撒羅尼迦1:5 ;詹姆斯5:7 ) 。 Besides the name Parusia (parousia), or Advent (1 Corinthians 15:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:19), the Second Coming is also called Epiphany, epiphaneia, or Appearance (2 Thessalonians 2:8; 1 Timothy 6:14; 2 Timothy 4:1; Titus 2:13), and Apocalypse (apokalypsis), or Revelation (2 Thessalonians 2:7; 1 Peter 4:13).除了名稱parusia (圓滿) ,或來臨( 1哥林多前書15:23 2撒羅尼迦19:2 ) ,第二次來又稱為頓悟, epiphaneia ,或外觀( 2撒羅尼迦2時08分, 1蒂莫西6時14分;蒂莫西4:1 ;弟兄2時13分) ,與啟示( apokalypsis ) ,或啟示( 2撒羅尼迦2時07分, 1彼得4時13分) 。 The time of the Second Coming is spoken of as "that Day" (2 Timothy 4:8), "the day of the Lord" (1 Thessalonians 5:2), "the day of Christ" (Philemon 1:6), "the day of the Son of Man" (Luke 17:30), "the last day" (John 6:39-40).的時候,第二次來是口語的"那一天" ( 2蒂莫西4時08分) , "主日" ( 1撒羅尼迦5時02分) , "一天的基督" ( philemon 1時06分) , "一天的人子" (路加福音17:30 ) , "最後一天" (約翰福音6:39-40 ) 。

2

The belief in the general judgment has prevailed at all times and in all places within the Church.相信在一般的判斷佔了上風,在任何時候,任何地方,在該教堂。 It is contained as an article of faith in all the ancient creeds: "He ascended into heaven. From thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead" (Apostles' Creed).這是載有作為的信念,在所有古老的信條: "他躋身天堂,從那裡他將要來審判活人與死人" (使徒們的信條) 。 He shall come again with glory to judge both the living and the dead" (Nicene Creed). "From thence he shall come to judge the living and the dead, at whose coming all men must rise with their bodies and are to render an account of their deeds" (Athanasian Creed). Relying on the authority of Papias, several Fathers of the first four centuries advanced the theory of a thousand years' terrestrial reign of Christ with the saints to precede the end of the World (see article on MILLENNIUM). Though this idea is interwoven with the eschatological teachings of those writers, it in no way detracted from their belief in a universal world-judgment. Patristic testimony to this dogma is clear and unanimous.他會再來榮耀來判斷這兩個活人與死人" (尼西亞) " ,從那裡他將要來審判活人與死人,在其未來的所有男性必須站起來,與他們的屍體,並提供一個帳戶他們的事蹟" (阿他那修信經信條) 。依靠權威papias ,幾位父親的首四個世紀先進的理論,是1000年'陸地統治基督與聖徒必須先於世界的末了(見文章:千年) ,雖然這種想法是相互交織與eschatological教誨的那些作家,它絲毫不減損了自己的信仰,在普遍的世界明智的。教父證明了這一教條是明確和一致的。

3

The Roman Catechism thus explains why, besides the particular judgment of each individual, a general one should also be passed on the assembled world: "The first reason is founded on the circumstances that most augment the rewards or aggravate the punishments of the dead. Those who depart this life sometimes leave behind them children who imitate the conduct of their parents, descendants, followers; and others who adhere to and advocate the example, the language, the conduct of those on whom they depend, and whose example they follow; and as the good or bad influence or example, affecting as it does the conduct of many, is to terminate only with this world; justice demands that, in order to form a proper estimate of the good or bad actions of all, a general judgment should take place. . . . Finally, it was important to prove, that in prosperity and adversity, which are sometimes the promiscuous lot of the good and of the bad, everything is ordered by an all-wise, all-just, and all-ruling Providence: it was therefore necessary not only that rewards and punishments should await us in the next life but that they should be awarded by a public and general judgment."羅馬講授從而說明了,為什麼除了特別判斷每一個人的,一般人都不應也可通過對拼裝世界說: "第一個原因是建基於這種情況下,大部分充實到獎勵或加重處罰的死者。那些誰離開人世,有時會留下他們的子女模仿的行為,他們的父母,子孫,信徒和其他人堅持和倡導舉例說,語言,行為的那些人,他們依賴,而且其為例,他們跟隨;為好的或壞的影響力或舉例來說,影響,因為它的行為有很多,是終止只有這樣,符合世界;正義要求,以形成正確的估計,在好的或壞的行動,一個總體判斷應發生… … 。最後,重要的是要證明,在繁榮和逆境中,其中有時是濫交很多好的和壞的,一切都是由一個全明智的,全方位的公正,全執政黨普羅維登斯:因此,它不僅需要有獎懲應等待著我們在未來的生活,但他們應該頒發由公共和一般的判斷" 。

II.二。 SIGNS THAT ARE TO PRECEDE THE GENERAL JUDGMENT跡象表明,是先於一般的判斷

The Scriptures mention certain events which are to take place before the final judgment.聖經中提及一些事件,是發生前的最後判決。 These predictions were not intended to serve as indications of the exact time of the judgment, for that day and hour are known only to the Father, and will come when least expected.這些預言並沒有打算作為標誌的確切時間的判斷,因為這一天是每小時只知道給父親,並會來的時候,至少有預期。 They were meant to foreshadow the last judgment and to keep the end of the world present to the minds of Christians, without, however, exciting useless curiosity and vain fears.他們的用意是預示著最後的審判,並隨時向世界的末了,向心中的基督徒,但不令人激動無用的好奇心和徒勞的憂慮。 Theologians usually enumerate the following nine events as signs of the last judgment:神學家通常列舉了以下九項活動為標誌的最後判斷:

1. 1 。 General Preaching of the Christian Religion一般說教的基督教

Concerning this sign the Saviour says: "And this gospel of the kingdom, shall be preached in the whole world, for a testimony to all nations, and then shall the consummation come" (Matthew 24:14).關於這種跡象救世主說: "這福音的王國,應宣揚,在整個世界,去作見證所有國家,然後不得圓滿回來" (馬太24:14 ) 。 This sign was understood by Chrysostom and Theophilus as referring to the destruction of Jerusalem, but, according to the majority of interpreters, Christ is here speaking of the end of the world.本標誌是理解和金口西奧菲勒斯為是指摧毀耶路撒冷,但據大部份的口譯人員,基督是在這裡談到世界的末了。

2. 2 。 Conversion of the Jews換算的猶太人

According to the interpretation of the Fathers, the conversion of the Jews towards the end of the world is foretold by St. Paul in the Epistle to the Romans (11:25-26): "For I would not have you ignorant, brethren, of this mystery, . . . that blindness in part has happened in Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles should come in. And so all Israel should be saved as it is written: There shall come out of Sion, he that shall deliver, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob".根據該解釋的父親,其轉化的猶太人在接近年底時,世界是預言由聖保祿在書中說,羅馬人( 11:25-26 )說: "對我不會有你無知的弟兄們,這個謎, … … 。表示,盲目性,部分發生在以色列,直到豐滿的外邦人要進來等,都應該把以色列救,因為它是寫:應走出來的錫永,他說,應交付,並應迴避ungodliness從雅各" 。

3. 3 。 Return of Enoch and Elijah返回伊諾克和以利亞

The belief that these two men, who have never tasted death, are reserved for the last times to be precursors of the Second Advent was practically unanimous among the Fathers, which belief they base on several texts of Scripture.相信這兩名男子,他們從來沒有嚐過死亡,均保留在過去的時代將前體的第二次來臨,是幾乎一致之間的父親,而他們信仰的基礎上幾本經文。 (Concerning Elijah see Malachi 4:5-6; Sirach 48:10; Matthew 17:11; concerning Enoch see Sirach 44:16) (有關以利亞見瑪拉基書4:5-6 ;西拉奇48:10 ;馬太17:11 ;關於伊諾克見西拉奇44:16 )

4. 4 。 A Great Apostasy一個偉大叛教

As to this event St. Paul admonishes the Thessalonians (2 Thessalonians 2:3) that they must not be terrified, as if the day of the Lord were at hand, for there must first come a revolt (he apostasia).The Fathers and interpreters understand by this revolt a great reduction in the number of the faithful through the abandonment of the Christian religion by many nations.對於這一事件,聖保羅告誡該撒羅尼迦( 2撒羅尼迦2:3 )說,他們不應恐慌,因為如果主日分別在手,為有必須先走過了起義(他apostasia ) 。父親和口譯理解這個起義偉大的人數減少忠實通過放棄基督教,由許多國家。 Some commentators cite as confirmatory of this belief the words of Christ: "But yet the Son of man, when he cometh, shall he find, think you, faith on earth?"一些評論家舉為驗證這一信仰基督的話: "然而人子,當他來了,應找他,想你,信仰,對地球" ? (Luke 18:8). (盧克18時08分) 。

5. 5 。 The Reign of Antichrist腥風血雨箴

In the passage above mentioned (2 Thessalonians 2:3 sqq.) St. Paul indicates as another sign of the day of the Lord, the revelation of the man of sin, the son of perdition.在通過上述( 2撒羅尼迦2:3 sqq ) 。聖保祿表明,作為另一個標誌是主日,透露出該男子的罪過,他們兒子的墜入萬劫不復之地。 "The man of sin" here described is generally identified with the Antichrist, who, says St. John (1 John 2:18), is to come in the last days. "該名男子的罪過" ,在這裡所說的,一般認定與箴,他說,聖約翰( 1約翰2時18分) ,是來,在最後的日子。 Although much obscurity and difference of opinion prevails on this subject, it is generally admitted from the foregoing and other texts that before the Second Coming there will arise a powerful adversary of Christ, who will seduce the nations by his wonders, and persecute the Church.雖然還有許多默默無聞和不同的意見佔上風就這個問題,人們普遍承認,從前述和其他文本之前,第二次來會出現一個強大的對手的基督,他們會撒嬌的國家,他不知道,迫害教會。

6. 6 。 Extraordinary Perturbations of Nature不平凡的擾動性質

The Scriptures clearly indicate that the judgment will be preceded by unwonted and terrifying disturbances of the physical universe (Matthew 24:29; Luke 21:25-26).聖經清楚地表明,這項判決之前,將unwonted和可怕的動亂的物理宇宙(馬太24:29 ;路加福音21:25-26 ) 。 The wars, pestilences, famines, and earthquakes foretold in Matthew 24:6 sq., are also understood by some writers as among the calamities of the last times.戰爭, pestilences ,飢荒,地震,預示著在馬太24:6平方公里,也理解一些作家當中災難的最後一個時代。

7. 7 。 The Universal Conflagration世界大火

In the Apostolic writings we are told that the end of the world will be brought about through a general conflagration, which, however, will not annihilate the present creation, but will change its form and appearance (2 Peter 3:10-13; cf. 1 Thessalonians 5:2; Apocalypse 3:3, and 16:15).在教宗的著作告訴我們,去年底,世界將會帶來的是通過一般火災,其中,但不會消滅本創作,但會改變它的形式和外觀( 2彼得3:10-13 ;比照1撒羅尼迦5時02分;啟示3時03分, 16:15 ) 。 Natural science shows the possibility of such a catastrophe being produced in the ordinary course of events, but theologians generally tend to believe that its origin will be entirely miraculous.自然科學顯示這樣一種可能性,這種災難正在產生於普通事件的過程,但神學家普遍傾向於認為其來源將完全堪稱奇蹟。

8. 8 。 The Trumpet of Resurrection號角的復活

Several texts in the New Testament make mention of a voice or trumpet which will awaken the dead to resurrection (1 Corinthians 15:52; 1 Thessalonians 4:15; John 5:28).幾個文本,在新約聖經提到的一個聲音或小號,將喚醒死者復活(哥林多前書15時52分, 1撒羅尼迦4:15 ;約翰5點28分) 。 According to St. Thomas (Supplement 86:2) there is reference in these passages either to the voice or to the apparition of Christ, which will cause the resurrection of the dead.據聖托馬斯(補編86:2 )有參考這些通道,無論對話音或向apparition基督的,這將造成死人復活。

9. 9 。 "The Sign of the Son of Man Appearing in the Heavens." "的跡象,兒子的男子出現在天" 。

In Matthew 24:30, this is indicated as the sign immediately preceding the appearance of Christ to judge the world.在馬修24:30 ,這是表示,由於簽署前立即出現基督來衡量世界。 By this sign the Fathers of the Church generally understand the appearance in the sky of the Cross on which the Saviour died or else of a wonderful cross of light.由這種跡象,教會的神父們普遍認識出現在天空的十字架上的救世主死亡,否則一個美好的交叉輕。

III.三。 CIRCUMSTANCES ACCOMPANYING THE GENERAL JUDGMENT陪同的情況下一般判斷

1. 1 。 Time時間

As was stated above, the signs that are to precede the judgment give no accurate indication of the time when it will occur (Mark 13:32).正如上文所述,跡象表明,是先於該判決給沒有準確的跡象的時候,它會發生( 13時32馬克) 。 When the Disciples asked the Saviour: "Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel?"當弟子問救主: "主啊,祢在這個時候又恢復了英國對以色列" ? He answered: "It is not for you to know the times or moments, which the Father hath put in his own power" (Acts 1:6-7).他回答說: "這是不是你要知道時代或矩,其中父把他自己的力量" (使徒行1:6-7 ) 。 The uncertainty of the day of judgment is continually urged by Christ and the Apostles as an incentive to vigilance.不確定性的審判的日子,是不斷的催促下耶穌和使徒作為獎勵,以警惕。 The day of the Lord will come "as a thief" (Matthew 24:42-43), like lightning suddenly appearing (Matthew 24:27), like a snare (Luke 21:34), as the Deluge (Matthew 24:37).主日來: "作為一個小偷" (馬太24:42-43 ) ,如閃電,突然出現(馬太24:27 ) ,就像一個圈套(盧克21時34分) ,由於洪水(馬太24:37 ) 。

2. 2 。 Place of the Judgment地點判決

All the texts in which mention is made of the Parusia, or Second Coming, seem to imply clearly enough that the general judgment will take place on the earth.所有文本,其中提到了該parusia ,或第二次來臨的時候,似乎意味明顯不足的是,一般的判斷,將發生在地球上。 Some commentators infer from 1 Thessalonians 4:16, that the judgment will be held in the air, the newly risen being carried into the clouds to meet Christ; according to others the prophecy of Joel (3:1 sq.) places the last judgment in the Valley of Josaphat.一些評論家推斷,從1撒羅尼迦4時16分,該判決將先後在空氣中,新增加了正進行直入雲霄,以滿足基督;根據其他人的預言的Joel ( 3:1平方米)的地方,最後的審判在山谷中的約薩法特。

3. 3 。 The Coming of the Judge未來的法官

That this judgment is ascribed to Christ, not only as God, but also as Man, is expressly declared in Scripture; for although the power of judging is common to all the Persons of the Trinity, yet it is specially attributed to the Son, because to Him also in a special manner is ascribed wisdom.這個判斷是歸因於基督,而不是只為上帝,而且還由於人,是明確宣布,在經文;雖然力量來看,是共同所有的人三位一體,但它是專門歸功於以兒子,因為他還處於一個特殊的方式,是屬於智慧。 But that as Man He will judge the world is confirmed by Christ Himself (John 5:26-27).但是,由於男子,他將判斷世界證實了自己的基督(約翰5:26-27 ) 。 At the Second Coming Christ will appear in the heavens, seated on a cloud and surrounded by the angelic hosts (Matthew 16:27; 24:30; 25:31).在第二次來基督將出現在天上,坐在雲,四周由天使(馬太16時27分; 24:30 ; 25:31 ) 。 The angels will minister to the Judge by bringing all before Him (Matthew 24:31).天使部長會向法官提出,把所有在他之前(馬太24:31 ) 。 The elect will aid Christ in a judicial capacity (1 Corinthians 6:2).選將援助基督在司法能力( 1哥林多6時02分) 。 The lives of the just will in themselves be a condemnation of the wicked (Matthew 21:41), whose punishment they will publicly approve.生活剛剛將在自己被譴責的壞蛋(馬太21時41分) ,其處罰的,他們會公開表示贊同。 But the Apostles will be judges of the world in a sense yet more exact, for the promise that they shall sit upon twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel (Matthew 19:28) seems to imply a real participation in judicial authority.但使徒將法官組成的世界在一定意義上,但更確切的說,為保證他們應靜坐後, 12個王座判斷支派(馬太19時28分) ,似乎意味著真正參與司法權威。 According to a very probable opinion, this prerogative is extended to all who have faithfully fulfilled the counsels of the Gospel (Matthew 19:27-28).根據一項很可能認為,這項特權是擴大到所有的人都忠實地履行了律師的福音(馬太19:27-28 ) 。 Nothing certain is known as to the manner in which this delegated authority will be exercised.沒有什麼可以肯定的是,已知的,以何種方式在這一授權將得到行使。 St. Thomas conjectures that the greater saints will make known the sentence of Christ to others (Supplement 88:2).聖托馬斯猜測說,大聖人將已知的句子基督給別人(補充88:2 ) 。

4. 4 。 Those to be Judged那些被判定

All men, both good and bad, according to the Athanasian Creed, will appear in the judgment to give an account of their deeds.所有男人,有好有壞,據該亞他那修信經教義,將出現在判斷來作出交代他們的感人事蹟。 As to children that have personally done neither good nor evil, the baptized must be distinguished from the unbaptized.至於孩子,親自抓,做既不好也不惡,受洗必須有別於unbaptized 。 The former appear in the judgment, not to be judged, but only to hold the glory of Christ (Supplement 80:5), while the latter, ranked with the wicked, although not judged, will be enabled to realize the justice of their eternal loss (Suarez).前者出現在判斷,而不是判斷,但只能持有的榮耀基督(補編80:5 ) ,而後者則排名與邪惡的,雖然不是判斷,將能夠實現正義的,他們永恆損失(蘇亞雷斯) 。 The angels and the demons will not be judged directly, since their eternal destiny has already been fixed; yet, because they have exercised a certain influence over the fortunes of men, the sentence pronounced on the latter will have a corresponding effect on them also (Supplement 89:8).天使與魔鬼將不會直接判斷,因為他們永恆的命運已定,然而,因為它們已經行使一定的影響,在過去的命運,男人的,可判處宣判後,將有一個相應的影響,他們也能(補充89:8 ) 。

5. 5 。 Object of the Judgment物體的判決

The judgment will embrace all works, good or bad, forgiven as well as forgiven sins, every idle word (Matthew 12:36), every secret thought (1 Corinthians 4:5).該判決將涵蓋所有作品,好的或壞的,是情有可原的,以及原諒的罪過,每一個閒置字(馬太12:36 ) ,每一個秘密的思考( 1哥林多前書4時05分) 。 With the exception of Peter Lombard, theologians teach that even the secret sins of the just will be made manifest, in order that judgment may be made complete and that the justice and mercy of God may be glorified.除與彼得倫巴第,神學教授說,即使是秘密的罪過剛剛將作出艙單,以便判斷可能作出完整,確保正義與慈悲的上帝,可歌頌。 This will not pain or embarrass the saints, but add to their glory, just as the repentance of St. Peter and St. Mary Magdalen is to these saints a source of joy and honour.這不會疼痛或尷尬的聖人,但增加他們的榮耀,正如悔過書聖彼得和聖瑪利亞magdalen是這些聖人的一個來源的喜悅和榮譽。

6. 6 。 Form of the Judgment形式的判斷

The procedure of the judgment is described in Matthew 25:31-46, and in the Apocalypse 20:12.該程序的判斷是描述馬修25:31-46 ,並在20時12分的啟示。 Commentators see in those passages allegorical descriptions intended to convey in a vivid manner the fact that in the last judgment the conduct and deserts of each individual will be made plain not only to his own conscience but to the knowledge of the assembled world.評論家看到,在這些通道寓言說明意圖傳達一個生動的方式,事實上在最後的審判行為和沙漠的每一個人將作出平原不僅是他自己的良心,但對知識的組裝好的世界。 It is probable that no words will be spoken in the judgment, but that in one instant, through a Divine illumination, each creature will thoroughly understand his own moral condition and that of every fellow creature (Romans 2:15).這是有可能的話,沒有將口語中的判斷,但是,在一個瞬間,透過神的光照,每頭動物會徹底了解自己的道德狀況,以及每一個同胞受造物(羅馬2時15分) 。 Many believe, however, that the words of the sentence: "Come, ye blessed", etc. and "Depart from me", etc. will be really addressed by Christ to the multitude of the saved and the lost.許多人相信,不過,這字的句子: "來,葉有福"等,及"偏離我的"等,將可真正解決的基督,以眾多的節省和丟失。

IV.四。 RESULTS OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT結果編制的總體判斷

With the fulfilment of the sentence pronounced in the last judgment the relations and the dealings of the Creator with the creature find their culmination, are explained and justified.與履行宣布的判決,在最後的審判關係和往來的創造者與受造物找到自己的高潮,是解釋並說明理由。 The Divine purpose being accomplished, the human race will, as a consequence, attain its final destiny.神聖目的成就,但人類的意志,因此,實現其最終的命運。 The reign of Christ over mankind will be the sequel of the General Judgment.腥風血雨的基督超過人類,將在續集中的一般判斷。

Publication information Written by JA McHugh.出版信息書面司法機構政務長mchugh 。 Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.轉錄由現任j.好事。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. nihil obstat , 1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Also, see:此外,見:
Divine Judgment 神聖的判決
Second Coming of Christ 耶穌第二次來
Eschatology 末世
Dispensation, Dispensationalism 配藥, dispensationalism
Views of the Millennium 意見千年
Rapture, Tribulation 破裂,磨難
Tribulation, Great Tribulation 磨難,偉大的磨難


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在