Jesus Christ耶穌基督

General / Advanced Information 一般/先進的信息

Jesus, or Jeshua ben Joseph, as he was known to his contemporaries, was a Jew who appeared as a prophet, a teacher, and a sage in Palestine about AD 30.耶穌,或jeshua賁約瑟夫,因為他知道他的同時代的,是猶太人的人看來,作為一名先知,一名教師和一位哲人在巴勒斯坦約公元30 。 His followers believed him to be the Messiah of Israel, the one in whom God had acted definitively for the salvation of his people (hence, the title Christ, a Greek rendition of the Hebrew Meshiah, meaning "anointed one").他的信徒相信他能夠彌賽亞的以色列,一個在眾人面前行事確定為拯救他的人(因此,標題基督,希臘語移交逃犯的希伯來語meshiah ,意思是"不信任" ) 。 This belief took distinctive form when, after the execution of Jesus by the Romans (acting on the recommendation of the Jewish authorities), he reportedly presented himself alive to some of his followers.這個信念了鮮明的形式時,處決後的耶穌由羅馬(建議採取行動的猶太當局) ,據說他介紹自己活著,以他的一些追隨者。

The Resurrection of Jesus became a fundamental tenet of the religion that would soon be called Christianity.復活的耶穌成為一個基本信條的宗教,很快就會被稱為基督教。 According to Christian belief, Jesus was God made man (he was called both "Son of God" and "Son of Man" and identified as the second person of the Trinity); his life and his death by crucifixion are understood to have restored the relationship between God and humankind - which had been broken by the latter's sinfulness (Atonement; Original Sin); and his resurrection (the event celebrated by Easter) affirms God's total sovereignty over his creation and offers humankind the hope of Salvation.根據基督教的信仰, 耶穌是上帝作出的男子(他是所謂"上帝的兒子"和"人子" ,並確定為第二人的三位一體) ,他的生活和他的死在十字架上所理解的有恢復與上帝的關係,人類-這已被打破,由後者的罪孽(贖罪;原罪) ,以及他的復活(活動慶祝復活節)申明上帝的全部主權超過他的創作提供了人類希望的救贖。

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These core beliefs about Jesus are summed up in the words of the Nicene Creed: "I believe in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only - begotten Son of God, Begotten of his Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of very God, Begotten, not made, Being of one substance with the Father, By whom all things were made: Who for us men, and for our salvation came down from heaven, And was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, And was made man, And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate. He suffered and was buried, And the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures, And Ascended into heaven, And sitteth on the right hand of the Father. And he shall come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead: Whose kingdom shall have no end."這些核心信仰耶穌的是,歸納起來的話尼西亞信: "我相信,在一個主耶穌基督,唯一的-造物主上帝的兒子,造物主在他的父親面前,所有的世界,上帝的上帝,輕的輕,很神很神,造物主,沒有作出,被一個物質與父親,誰所有的東西發了言:誰是我們官兵,並為我們的拯救下來,從天上,是肉身由聖靈的聖母瑪利亞,並取得了男子,而被釘在十字架上,也為我們,祂比拉多,他遭受了被掩埋,並在第三天,他再次上升,根據聖經,並躋身於天堂,祂對右手的父親和他會再來榮耀法官都死人和活人:誰的英國也沒底" 。

The Historical Jesus歷史的耶穌

The Christ - myth school of the early 20th century held that Jesus never lived but was invented as a peg on which to hang the myth of a dying and rising God. Yet the evidence for the historical existence of Jesus is good.基督-神話學院早在2 0世紀初召開的,耶穌從來沒有住,但被發明,作為一個木樁上,以恆的神話,一個垂死上漲上帝,但證據,為歷史存在的耶穌是好的。

Non - Christian Sources非-基督教來源

Among Roman historians, Tacitus (Annals 15.44) records that the Christian movement began with Jesus, who was sentenced to death by Pontius Pilate.其中羅馬歷史學家塔西佗(史冊15.44 )記載,基督教運動的興起與耶穌,被判處死刑,祂比拉多。 Suetonius (Claudius 25.4) refers to the expulsion of the Jews from Rome because of a riot instigated by one "Chrestus" in AD c.蘇埃托尼烏斯(克勞狄斯25.4 ) ,是指以驅逐猶太人從羅馬因為一個煽動暴亂是由一個" chrestus "專案長 48, and this is usually taken to be a confused reference to the Christians and their founder. 48 ,而這是通常採取的是一個困惑參考基督徒和他們的創始人。 Pliny the Younger (Epistles 10.96), writing to Emperor Trajan, says that the early Christians sang a hymn to Christ as God.普林尼年輕(書信10.96 ) ,以書面形式向圖拉真皇帝說,早期的基督徒演唱聖歌,以基督為神。 Most of the Jewish evidence is late and anti Christian propaganda, but an early reference in the Babylonian Talmud says that Jeshu ha - Nocri was a false prophet who was hanged on the eve of the Passover for sorcery and false teaching.大部分的猶太證據,是晚與反基督教的宣傳,但早期的參考巴比倫塔木德經說jeshu公頃-n ocri是虛假的先知的人被絞死在即將開始的逾越節為巫術和虛假教學。 The evidence from the historian Josephus is problematical.證據來自歷史學家約瑟夫是有問題。 He recounts (Antiquities 20.9.1) the martyrdom of James, "the brother of Jesus called the Christ," in AD 62.他重新計(古物20.9.1 )殉道的詹姆斯, "兄弟耶穌稱為基督" ,在專案62 。

Another passage in the Antiquities (18.3.3) gives an extended account of Jesus and his career, but some features of it are clearly Christian interpolations.另一條通道,在古物( 18.3.3 )給出了一個擴展到耶穌和他的職業生涯,但有些特點,它顯然是基督教插補。 Whether this passage has an authentic nucleus is debated.這是否通過了一個真實的核心是備受爭議。 Thus the Roman sources show a vague awareness that Jesus was a historical figure as well as the object of a cult; the reliable Jewish sources tell us that he was a Jewish teacher who was put to death for sorcery and false prophecy and that he had a brother named James.因此,羅馬的資料顯示一種模糊認識,認為耶穌是一個歷史人物,以及為對象的一個邪教;可靠猶太消息來源告訴我們,他是一個猶太教師被置於死亡為巫術和錯誤的預言,並說他有個弟弟名叫詹姆斯。 The Jewish evidence is especially valuable because of the hostility between Jews and Christians at the time: it would have been easy for the Jewish side to question the existence of Jesus, but this they never did.猶太人的證據,尤其是商業價值,因為之間的敵意,猶太人和基督徒在時間: 如果有易於為猶太方問題的存在,耶穌,但這個都沒有。

The Gospels福音

The Gospels According to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, the first four books of the New Testament of the Bible, are the principal sources for the life of Jesus.福音據馬太,馬克,路加,約翰,第一,四書的新約聖經的聖經,是主要經濟來源為耶穌的生命。 These works are primarily testimonies to the faith of the early Christian community, however, and have to be used critically as evidence for the historical Jesus.這些工程主要是見證信仰的早期基督教社區,但是,並已被用作批判為證據,歷史的耶穌。 The methods include source, form, and redaction criticism.該方法包括來源,形式,並編撰學的批評。 Source criticism studies the literary relationships between the Gospels, and the generally accepted view is that Mark was written prior to and was used by Matthew and Luke, and that Matthew and Luke also had another source in common, unknown to Mark, which consisted mostly of sayings of Jesus.消息人士批評研究文學關係的福音,和普遍接受的觀點是,馬克寫之前和使用馬修和盧克,並馬修和盧克,也有另外的來源,在共同的,未知的,以馬克,其中主要包括熟語的耶穌。

Some would add two other primary sources, the material peculiar to Matthew and that peculiar to Luke.有些人會加入其他兩個主要的來源,材料特有的馬修和特有的盧克。 There is a growing consensus that the fourth Gospel, despite a heavy overlay of Johannine theology in the arrangement of the episodes and in the discourses, also enshrines useful historical information and authentic sayings of Jesus.有一種越來越普遍的共識是第四個福音,儘管沉重的疊加johannine神學,在安排的情節,並在話語,也體現了有益的歷史資料和真實熟語的耶穌。 Form criticism investigates the history of the oral traditions behind the written Gospels and their sources, whereas redaction criticism isolates and studies the theology of the editorial work of the evangelists.形式批評探究歷史的口頭傳說背後的書面福音及其來源,而編撰學批評分離和研究神學的編輯工作的福音。

These methods provide criteria to sift through the redaction and tradition and reconstruct the message and the mission of the historical Jesus.這些方法標準,以篩通過編撰學和傳統和改造的信息和使命的歷史耶穌。 The criteria of authenticity are dissimilarity both to contemporary Judaism and to the teachings of the post Easter church; coherence; multiple attestation; and linguistic and environmental factors.該準則的真偽相異,以當代猶太教,並遺訓郵政復活節教堂;一致性;多重認證;以及語言和環境因素。 The criterion of dissimilarity establishes a primary nucleus of material unique to Jesus.標準相異建立了一個初級核材料獨特的耶穌。 The criterion of coherence adds other materials consistent with this nucleus.標準的一致性,增加了其他材料符合本細胞核。 Multiple attestation - material attested by more than one primary source or in more than one of the forms of oral tradition established by form criticism - provides evidence for the primitivity of the Jesus tradition.多重認證-材料核簽由一個以上的主要來源還是在一個以上的形式,口頭傳統設立形式的批評-提供的證據為原始的耶穌的傳統。 Palestinian cultural background and Aramaic speech forms provide an additional test.巴勒斯坦文化背景和阿拉姆語演講形式提供另一種考驗。

The Life of Jesus耶穌的生命

Application of the critical methods described above reveals that the gospel tradition apparently started originally with Jesus' baptism by John the Baptist (Matt. 3:13 - 17; Mark 1:9 - 11; Luke 3:21 - 22; John 1:29 - 34).應用該方法的關鍵上文所述文章揭露說,福音的傳統,似乎開始原本與耶穌的洗禮,由施洗約翰。 ( 3時13 -1 7;馬克1時0 9- 11 ;路加3時2 1 -2 2;約翰1時2 9分-3 4) 。 The stories concerning the birth of Jesus were probably later additions.故事中關於耶穌誕生的人,大概稍後補充。 These stories - the annunciations to Mary and Joseph, their journey to Bethlehem for the Roman census, and Jesus' birth there (Luke 2:1 - 7); the visits of the shepherds (Luke 2:8 - 20) and the three Magi from the East (Matt. 2:1 - 12); and the flight of the family to Egypt to escape the massacre of young boys that had been ordered by King Herod (Matt. 2:13 - 23) - may be characterized conveniently, if loosely, as "Christological midrash," expressions of Christological faith cast into narrative form.這些故事-a nnunciations向瑪利亞和約瑟夫的行程來伯利恆參加羅馬普查,並為耶穌的誕生有(路加福音2 :1- 7) ;訪牧羊人(路加福音2時0 8 -2 0)和三個賢士從東。 ( 2:1 -1 2) ,以及飛行的家庭,以埃及難逃被屠殺的年輕男孩已下令由國王希律。 ( 2點1 3分- 23 )-五月的特點是方便,如果鬆散的,因為"基督論midrash " ,表達基督信仰鑄造成文字敘述形式。

If there are any factual elements in them, these will be found among the items on which Matthew and Luke agree: the names of Mary, Joseph, and Jesus; the dating of Jesus' birth toward the end of the reign of Herod the Great (d. 4 BC); and, less certainly, the Bethlehem location of the birth.如果有任何事實要素,這些會被發現其中兩個項目上,馬修和盧克同意:姓名,瑪利亞,若瑟,耶穌;約會的耶穌出生年底對腥風血雨的希律偉大(四公元前四) ,以及較少當然,伯利恆的位置誕生。 Some would add the conception of Jesus between the first and second stages of the marriage rites between Mary and Joseph; Christians interpreted this in terms of a conception through the Holy Spirit.有些人會加上觀耶穌之間的第一和第二階段的婚姻禮俗與瑪利亞和約瑟夫;基督徒解釋,這無論在觀念,通過聖靈。

Following his baptism by John the Baptist, Jesus embarked on a ministry of possibly three years duration, primarily in Galilee (he had grown up in the Galilean town of Nazareth).以下為他的洗禮,由施洗約翰,耶穌走上了省,可能三年的時間,主要是在加利利(他已長大了,在伽利略城鎮拿撒勒) 。 The Gospels record his choosing of 12 disciples, and he preached both to them and to the population at large, often attracting great crowds (as when he delivered the Sermon on the Mount, Matt. 4:25 - 7:29; cf. Luke 6:17 - 49).福音書,記錄他選擇的12個弟子,而他所宣揚的都向他們和廣大民眾,往往吸引人潮大(當他在山上寶訓中,馬特。四時二十五分-7時2 9分;比照路加福音6點17分-4 9) 。 He proclaimed the kingdom of God - the inbreaking of God's final saving act through his own word and work (Mark 1:14; Matt. 12:28).他在神的國度-i nbreaking上帝的最後拯救法通過自己的W ord和工作(馬克1 :14;馬特。 1 2:28) 。 He confronted his contemporaries with the challenge of this inbreaking reign of God in his parables of the kingdom (Mark 4).他面臨著是他與挑戰,這inbreaking統治上帝在他的parables的英國(馬克4 ) 。 He laid down God's radical demand of obedience (Matt. 5:21 - 48).他定下神的激進需求的服從。 ( 5時21分-4 8) 。

In prayer Jesus addressed God uniquely as "Abba" (the intimate address of the child to his earthly father in the family), not "my" or "our" Father as in Judaism, and he invited his disciples in the Lord's Prayer to share the privilege of addressing God thus (Luke 11:2).在祈禱耶穌,並向上帝獨特的"雅伯金曲" (親密地址孩子他的俗世的父親在家庭中) ,而不是"我"或"我們"爸爸,因為在猶太教,和他邀請他的弟子,在主禱文分享特權解決,因此神(盧克11時02分) 。 He ate with the outcasts, such as tax collectors and prostitutes, and interpreted his conduct as the activity of God, seeking and saving the lost (as in the parables of the lost sheep, the lost coin, and the prodigal son, Luke 15).他吃了與棄兒,如收稅員和妓女,並解釋他的行為作為活動的上帝,尋求救國丟失(如在parables的亡羊,失去了金銀紀念幣,以及浪子兒子盧克15 ) 。 He performed exorcisms and healings as signs of the inbreaking of God's final reign, in triumph over the powers of evil (Matt. 11:4 - 6; 12:28).他的表現驅魔儀式,並癒合跡象的inbreaking上帝的最後統治,在戰勝權力的邪惡。 ( 11時04分-六; 1 2:28) 。

Finally, Jesus went up to Jerusalem at the time of the Passover to deliver his challenge of imminent judgment and salvation at the heart and center of his people's life.最後,耶穌上升至耶路撒冷的時候,逾越節的民眾發表了他的挑戰迫在眉睫的判斷和救贖,在心臟和中心,他的人民的生活。 One of the actions attributed to him there was the expulsion of the money changers from the Temple (Matt. 21:12 - 17; Mark 11:15 - 19; Luke 19:45 - 46).其中一項行動是由於他有被驅逐的找換店,從廟。 ( 21時12分-1 7;大關1 1:15- 19 ;路加福音19 :45-4 6) 。 Earlier, Jesus had incurred the hostility of the Pharisees, who attacked him for breaking the Law and whom he denounced for their formalistic precepts and self righteousness (Matt. 23:13 - 36; Luke 18:9 - 14).此前,耶穌曾招致敵意的法利賽人攻擊他為違法的人,他譴責他們的形式主義,戒律和自我正義感。 ( 23時13分-3 6;盧克1 8時0 9分- 14 )。 In Jerusalem his opponents were the other principal Jewish religious party, the Sadducees, who included the priestly authorities of the Temple.在耶路撒冷,他的對手被其他主要猶太宗教黨,撒都該人,他們包括司鐸當局的廟宇。 Aided by one of the disciples, Judas Iscariot, the authorities arrested Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane.借助於其中的門徒,猶大iscariot ,當局逮捕了耶穌在花園gethsemane 。 He was examined by the Sanhedrin and handed over to the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate, who sentenced him to crucifixion.他進行了檢查,公會並移交給羅馬總督,祂比拉多,判處他釘死在十字架上。

At a time of considerable political unrest in Palestine and high messianic expectations among certain Jewish groups (for example, the revolutionary Zealots), Jesus and his following undoubtedly appeared to represent some political threat.在時間的相當大的政治動亂,在巴勒斯坦和高救世主期望一些猶太團體(例如,革命狂熱者) ,耶穌和他的繼出現無疑為代表的一些政治威脅。 The passion narratives of the Gospels contain major theological motifs.激情的敘述福音遏制重大神學圖案。 First Jesus' sufferings and death are presented as the fulfillment of God's will announced in the Old Testament writings.首先耶穌的苦難和死亡是作為實現上帝的意志宣布,在舊約聖經的著作。 Second, the accounts of the Last Supper, a farewell meal held before Jesus' arrest, proclaim the atoning significance of Jesus' death in the words over the bread and wine.二,帳目的最後的晚餐,告別餐之前舉行耶穌的逮捕,宣告atoning意義耶穌的死字以上的麵包和酒。 Third, great emphasis is placed on the statement that Jesus died as Messiah or king.第三,高度重視,是擺在聲明中說,耶穌死亡彌賽亞或國王。 Fourth, some of the events described contain theological symbolism, for example, the rending of the Temple veil.第四,一些事件所述含有神學象徵意義,舉例來說,再現的廟宇面紗。

.

Jesus' Self Understanding耶穌的自我了解

Since titles of majesty were used only by the post - Easter church to proclaim Jesus, these titles cannot, by the criterion of dissimilarity, be used as firm evidence for the self understanding of Jesus during his earthly ministry. That self understanding has to be inferred indirectly from his words and works. 由於職稱陛下使用只能由郵政-復活節教堂宣告耶穌,這些稱呼不能按標準相異,被用來作為確鑿證據,為自我的認識,耶穌在他的俗世部。自我的了解和理解,以推斷間接從他的話及工務局。 In all of them Jesus confronts his contemporaries with a great sense of authority (Mark 2:27; 11:27 - 33).在所有這些國家面臨著耶穌,他與同時代的偉大意義上的權力(馬克2時27分; 11:27 -3 3) 。 This quality in Jesus evoked messianic hopes in his followers and messianic fears in his enemies.這種品質在誘發耶穌救世主希望寄託在他的追隨者和救世主式的恐懼,在他的敵人。 The hopes of his friends were shattered by the arrest and crucifixion of Jesus but restored and reinforced by the Easter event, faith in his resurrection on the third day following death and entombment.希望他的朋友被打破,由逮捕,並在十字架上的耶穌,但恢復,並輔以復活節活動,信仰在他的復活就在第三天以下死亡和entombment 。

During his earthly life Jesus was addressed as rabbi and was regarded as a prophet.在他的俗世生活,耶穌被稱為拉比被視為先知。 Some of his words, too, place him in the category of sage.他的一些話,也使他在類別上的聖人。 A title of respect for a rabbi would be "my Lord."標題尊重一名猶太拉比將是"我的主" 。 Already before Easter his followers, impressed by his authority, would mean something more than usual when they addressed him as "my Lord."已經過復活節而他的信徒們,留下深刻的印象他的權威,將意味著更多的東西比平常的時候,它們解決了他: "我的主" 。 Jesus apparently refused to be called Messiah because of its political associations (Mark 8:27 - 30; Matt. 26:64, correcting Mark 14:62). Yet the inscription on the cross, "The King of the Jews," provides irrefutable evidence that he was crucified as a messianic pretender (Mark 15:26).耶穌顯然拒絕接受所謂的救世主,因為它的政治社團(馬克8時27 -3 0;馬特。 2 6:64,糾正了商標1 4:62) ,但碑文在十字架上, "國王的猶太人" ,提供了不容辯駁證據顯示,他被釘在十字架上,作為救世主假裝(標記15:26 ) 。

Although it is possible that Jesus' family claimed to be of Davidic descent, it is unlikely that the title "Son of David" was ascribed to him or accepted by him during his earthly ministry.雖然它可能是耶穌的家庭聲稱他們的davidic後裔,所以是不會授予的"大衛之子" ,是得益於他還是接受了他在他的俗世部。 "Son of God," in former times a title of the Hebrew kings (Psa. 2:7), was first adopted in the post Easter church as an equivalent of Messiah and had no metaphysical connotations (Rom. 1:4). "上帝的兒子" ,在原次冠軍,也把希伯萊國王( psa. 2時07分) ,是第一個通過在後復活節教堂作為一個等效的救世主,也沒有形而上的內涵(羅馬書1:4 ) 。 Jesus was conscious of a unique filial relationship with God, but it is uncertain whether the Father / Son language (Mark 18:32; Matt. 11:25 - 27 par.; John passim) goes back to Jesus himself.耶穌被意識到的一個獨特的孝道與天主的關係,但我們不知道他們的父親/兒子語文( 18時32馬克;馬特。 11:25 -2 7桿;約翰各處) ,可追溯到耶穌自己。

Most problematical of all is the title "Son of Man."最成問題的是,題目是"人子" 。 This is the only title used repeatedly by Jesus as a self designation, and there is no clear evidence that it was used as a title of majesty by the post Easter church.這是唯一的標題反复使用,由耶穌作為自我指定,並沒有明確的證據表明,它被用來作為一種所有權的陛下,由郵政復活節教堂。 Hence it is held by many to be authentic, since it passes the criterion of dissimilarity.因此,它正是許多真實,因為它通過標準的相異。 Those who regard it as unauthentic see in it the post Easter church's identification of Jesus with the "Son of Man" either of Dan.那些把它作為非真實見在該職位復活節教堂的鑑定耶穌與"人子"無論是丹。 7:13 or - if the title really existed there before Jesus - in Jewish apocalyptic tradition. 7時13分或-如果標題確實存在,有前耶穌-猶太人在世界末日的傳統。 One possible view, based on the distinction Jesus makes between himself and the coming "Son of Man" (Luke 12: 8 - 12; Mark 8:38), is that he invoked this figure to underline the finality of his own word and work - this finality would be vindicated by the "Son of Man" at the end.其中一個可行的觀點的基礎上,區分耶穌,使自己與即將來臨的"人子" (路加福音12 : 8 -1 2;馬克8時3 8分)的是,他特別引用這個數字要強調終局他自己的W ord和工作-這終局會平反,由"人子" ,在去年底。

In that case the post Easter church was able to identify Jesus with that "Son of Man" because the Easter event was the vindication of his word and work.在這種情況下,郵政復活節教會能夠確定耶穌說, "人子" ,是因為復活節活動是平反,他的字和工作。 The post Easter church then formed further "Son of Man" sayings, some speaking in highly apocalyptic terms of his return in the Second Coming (for example, Mark 14:62); others expressing the authority exercised during the earthly ministry (for example, Mark 2:10, 28); and still others expressing his impending suffering and certainty of vindication (Mark 8:31; 9:31; 10:33).郵政復活節教堂,然後再形成"人子"的格言,有的講在高度世界末日而言他的回報在第二次來(例如,馬克14:62 ) ;他人表達管理局行使,在俗世部(例如,馬克2點10 , 28 ) ;還有表達迫近他的苦難和確定性的平反(馬克8時31分; 9時31分; 10:33 ) 。

Christology christology

Although it is true that there was a basic difference between Jesus' message of the kingdom and the post Easter church's message of him as the saving act of God, all of Jesus' words and work imply a Christology.雖然這是事實存在的一個基本差別,為耶穌訊息的王國和郵政復活節教會的訊息,他為拯救上帝的旨意,所有的耶穌的話和工作意味著christology 。 Thus the critical quest for the historical Jesus yields a sufficient basis for the message of the post Easter church and is therefore necessary to legitimate it.因此,批判追求歷史的耶穌產量足夠的基礎信息,該職位的復活節教堂,並因此有必要將它合法化。

Message of the Post Easter Church信息郵政復活節教堂

The Christology of the earliest Palestinian Christian community apparently had two focuses.該christology的最早的巴勒斯坦基督徒社區顯然有兩個重點。 It looked backward to the earthly life of Jesus as prophet and servant of God and forward to his final return as Messiah (Acts 3:21).它期待倒退到俗世生活的耶穌為先知和僕人的上帝和著他的最後回報,因為彌賽亞(使徒3時21分) 。 Meanwhile Jesus was thought of as waiting inactively in heaven, to which he was believed to have ascended after the resurrection (Acts 1:9).與此同時,耶穌被思想作為等待inactively在天堂,因為他被認為是有登基後復活(使徒行1時09分) 。

Soon their experience of the Holy Spirit, whose descent is recorded in Acts 2, led the early Christians to think in terms of a two stage Christology: the first stage was the earthly ministry and the second stage his active ruling in heaven.很快,他們的經驗,聖靈,他們的後裔,是記錄在行為2 ,領導早期基督徒認為,在職權分兩個階段christology :第一階段是俗世部和第二個階段,他積極執政黨在天上。 This two stage Christology, in which Jesus is exalted as Messiah, Lord, and Son of God (Acts 2:36; Rom. 1:4), is often called adoptionist.這兩個階段christology ,其中耶穌是開天闢地作為彌賽亞,主啊,上帝的兒子(使徒2時36分;光碟。 1:4 ) ,通常被稱為adoptionist 。 It is not the Adoptionism of later heresy, however, for it thinks in terms of function rather than being.這是不是adoptionism後來異端,然而,因為它認為,無論在功能,而不是被。 At his exaltation to heaven Jesus began to function as he had not previously.在他的提升,以耶穌升天開始發揮作用,因為他以前沒有。 Another primitive Christological affirmation associates the birth of Jesus with his Davidic descent, thus qualifying him for the messianic office at his exaltation (for example, Rom. 1:3).另一種原始的基督論誓詞同夥耶穌誕生的,與他的davidic後裔,因此他有資格為救世主的辦公室在他的提升(例如,光盤。 1:3 ) 。 This introduced the birth of Jesus as a Christologically significant moment.這個介紹了耶穌誕生的,作為christologically重要時刻。

As Christianity spread to the Greek speaking world between AD 35 and 50, further Christological perspectives were developed.作為基督教蔓延至希臘來說世界之間的專案35和50 ,進一步基督論視角的開發工作。 The sending - of - the - Son pattern was one of them.派遣-- -兒子模式是其中之一。 This pattern is threefold: (1) God sent (2) his Son (3) in order to .這種格局是三個方面: ( 1 )神派( 2 ) ,他的兒子( 3 )為了。 . . (with a statement of the saving purpose - for example, Galatians 4:4 - 5). (同一份聲明中的儲蓄目的-例如,加拉太4點0 4分- 5) 。 The birth narratives of Matthew and Luke combine the Davidic descent with the sending - of - the - Son Christology.誕生的敘述馬修和盧克結合davidic後裔與派遣-- -兒子c hr istology。 Another major development of this period is the identification of Jesus as the incarnation of the heavenly wisdom of Jewish speculation (Prov. 8:22 - 31; Sir. 24:1 - 12; Wisd. 7:24 - 30).另一項重大的發展,這一時期是確定的,因為耶穌的化身,天上的智慧猶太投機( prov. 8時22 -3 1條;主席。 2 4:1- 12歲; w i sd。7時2 4 -3 0) 。

Hence a three stage Christology emerges: the preexistent wisdom or Logos (Word), who was the agent of creation and of general revela - tion and also of the special revelation of Israel, becomes incarnate in the life and death of Jesus of Nazareth, and then in the resurrection and exaltation returns to heaven (Php. 2:6 - 11; Col. 1:15 - 20; Heb. 1:1 - 3; John 1:1 - 14).因此,三個階段christology出現: preexistent智慧或標誌(字) ,他是代理人的創作與一般revela -相關科系,也有特別的啟示以色列,成為肉身在生和死的拿撒勒的耶穌,並然後,在復活和提升效益上天堂( php. 2時06 -1 1;上校1 :15-第2 0條;以弗所書1 : 1-3 ;約翰1 :1 -14 )。 With this three stage Christology there is a shift from purely functional interpretation to the question of the being or person of Jesus.與這三個階段christology有一個轉變,由單純的功能解釋上述問題的還是人的耶穌。 Thus the later phases of the New Testament lay the ground for the Christological controversies of the Patristic Age.因此,以後各階段的新約全書奠定了地面,為基督論爭論的教父的年齡。

Christological Controversies of the Patristic Age基督論爭論的教父年齡

The rise of Gnosticism as a Christian deviation began in the 2d century and led to the development of Docetism, the view that the humanity of Jesus was apparent rather than real.崛起靈知身為基督徒的偏差開始在二維世紀,並導致發展docetism ,認為人類的耶穌明顯,而不是真實的。 Catholic Christianity insisted on his true humanity - hence the statement in the Apostles' Creed, "conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary."天主教,基督教堅持他的真實人性-因此,聲明在使徒們的信條, "概念是由聖靈出生的聖母瑪利亞" 。

In the 3d and 4th centuries there were some who continued to question the full humanity of Jesus and others who questioned his full deity.在3D和第四世紀以來,有一些人不斷質疑充滿人性的耶穌等人質疑他的充滿神。 When Arius denied that the preexistent Son, or Word, was fully God, the Council of Nicea (325) formulated a creed (the Nicene Creed) containing the phrases "of one substance with the Father" and "was made man."當arius否認這種說法。 preexistent兒子,或字,是完全為神,會nicea ( 325 )制定了信條(尼西亞) ,其中載有三句"的一種物質與父親" , "被人" 。 Next, Apollinarius, anxious to assert the Son's deity, taught that the Logos replaced the human spirit in the earthly Jesus (Apollinarianism).接下來, apollinarius ,急於斷言兒子的神,專門教授表示,標識取代了人的精神在俗世的耶穌(亞波里拿留派) 。 This teaching was condemned at the Council of Constantinople (381).這種教學,是譴責在安理會的君士坦丁堡( 381 ) 。 Next, the theologians of the school of Antioch were so anxious to maintain the reality of Jesus' humanity that they seemed to compromise his deity.其次,神學家的學校安提如此渴望能夠維持的現實,耶穌的人性,他們似乎是妥協,他的神像。 Thus Theodore of Mopsuestia and his pupil Nestorius (Nestorianism) separated the deity from the humanity almost to the point of denying the unity of his person.因此西奧多的摩普綏提亞和他的瞳孔nestorius (景教)隔開神,從人類幾乎一點不可否認的團結,他的人。

To preserve this unity the Council of Ephesus (431) affirmed that Mary was the "God - bearer" (Theotokos, later popularly rendered as "Mother of God").為了維護這種團結理事會以弗所( 431 )證實,瑪麗是"上帝-旗手" ( t heotokos,後來普遍為"上帝之母" ) 。 Eutyches from the Alexandrian school then claimed that the two natures of Christ were, at the incarnation, fused into one.歐迪奇從亞歷山大學校,然後聲稱這兩個性質基督的人,在化身,融合成一個。 This view was ruled out at the Council of Chalcedon (451), which insisted that Christ was one person in two natures (divine and human) "without confusion, without change, without division and without separation."這種觀點被排除在安理會的chalcedon ( 451 ) ,它堅持說,基督是一個人在兩個性質(神和人) "紛亂,沒有改變,沒有分裂也不會分離" 。

Modern Christologies generally start "from below" rather than "from above," finding Jesus first to be truly human, and then discovering his divinity in and through his humanity: "God was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself" (2 Cor. 5:19).現代christologies普遍展開, "從下面" ,而不是"從上述情況, "尋找耶穌,首先要真正的人,然後發現了他的神性,並通過了他的人性: "上帝在基督裡,調和了世界,以自己的" ( 2肺心病。 5時19分) 。

Reginald H Fuller ( Reginald h更充分

Bibliography 參考書目
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J Pelikan, Jesus Through the Centuries (1987); P Perkins, Jesus as Teacher (1990); JM Robinson, The New Quest of the Historical Jesus (1959); JAT Robinson, The Human Face of God (1973); F Schleiermache, Life of Jesus (1974); P Schoonenberg, The Christ (1971); A Schweitzer, The Quest of the Historical Jesus (1910) and The Mystery of the Kingdom of God (1985); G Vermes, Jesus and the Jew: A Historian's Reading of the Gospels (1974); AN Wilder, Eschatology and Ethics in the Teaching of Jesus (1950). j pelikan ,耶穌經過幾百年( 1987年) ; p帕金斯,耶穌為教師( 1990年) ; jm羅賓遜,新的追求歷史的耶穌( 1959 ) ;李祖澤羅賓遜,人類面臨的神( 1973 ) ,女schleiermache ,耶穌的生命( 1974年) ; p schoonenberg ,基督( 1971 ) ;施魏策爾,追求歷史的耶穌( 1910 ) ,以及神秘的神的國度( 1985 ) 100 vermes ,耶穌和猶太人:一個歷史學家的讀福音書( 1974 ) ,一個狂放,末世和倫理在基督的教導( 1950 ) 。


Je'sus je'sus

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Jesus is the proper, as Christ is the official, name of our Lord.耶穌是正確的,因為基督是正式名稱,我們的主。 To distinguish him from others so called, he is spoken of as "Jesus of Nazareth" (John 18:7), and "Jesus the son of Joseph" (John 6:42).分清他從別人這麼叫,他的發言為"拿撒勒的耶穌" (約翰福音18時07分) ,和"耶穌之子約瑟夫" (約翰6時42分) 。 This is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua, which was originally Hoshea (Num. 13:8, 16), but changed by Moses into Jehoshua (Num. 13:16; 1 Chr. 7:27), or Joshua.這是希臘的形式希伯萊名字約書亞,原本或是何西亞( num. 13時08分, 16 ) ,但改變了摩西到jehoshua ( num. 13時16分, 1人權委員會。 7時27分) ,或約書亞。 After the Exile it assumed the form Jeshua, whence the Greek form Jesus.之後,流亡它假定形式jeshua ,何時希臘語形式耶穌。 It was given to our Lord to denote the object of his mission, to save (Matt. 1:21).它給我們的主是指反對他的使命,以節省。 ( 1時21分) 。

The life of Jesus on earth may be divided into two great periods, (1) that of his private life, till he was about thirty years of age; and (2) that of his public life, which lasted about three years.耶穌的生命在地球上可分為兩個大的時期, ( 1 )表示,他的私人生活中,直到他被約三十年的年齡,以及( 2 )表示,他的公共生活,持續了大約三年。

In the "fulness of time" he was born at Bethlehem, in the reign of the emperor Augustus, of Mary, who was betrothed to Joseph, a carpenter (Matt. 1:1; Luke 3:23; comp. John 7:42).在" fulness時間"的他出生於伯利恆,在腥風血雨的皇帝奧古斯都,瑪利亞的人訂婚,以約瑟,一個木匠。 ( 1:1路加福音3時23分;可比。若望7時42分) 。 His birth was announced to the shepherds (Luke 2:8-20).他出生時被宣布向牧羊人(路2:8-20 ) 。 Wise men from the east came to Bethlehem to see him who was born "King of the Jews," bringing gifts with them (Matt. 2:1-12).智者從東方來到伯利恆看到他的人是出生"國王的猶太人, "引進來的禮物,與他們。 ( 2:1-12 ) 。 Herod's cruel jealousy led to Joseph's flight into Egypt with Mary and the infant Jesus, where they tarried till the death of this king (Matt. 2:13-23), when they returned and settled in Nazareth, in Lower Galilee (2:23; comp. Luke 4:16; John 1:46, etc.).希律王的殘忍嫉妒,導致了約瑟夫的飛行進入埃及與瑪利亞和嬰兒耶穌,在那裡守侯,直到死亡,這景。 ( 2:13-23 ) ,當他們返回並定居在拿撒勒,在較低的加利利( 2點23分;可比。全地;約翰1時46分,等等) 。 At the age of twelve years he went up to Jerusalem to the Passover with his parents.在年滿12年,他來到了耶路撒冷逾越節與他的父母。 There, in the temple, "in the midst of the doctors," all that heard him were "astonished at his understanding and answers" (Luke 2:41, etc.).還有,在寺廟中, "我們在複雜多變的醫生, "一切聽他的"驚訝於他的理解和答案" (路加福音2時41分,等等) 。 Eighteen years pass, of which we have no record beyond this, that he returned to Nazareth and "increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man" (Luke 2:52).十八年通過,其中,我們並沒有記錄超出了這一點,他回到拿撒勒和"增加智慧和地位,並在贊成與上帝和好男人" (路加福音2時52分) 。

He entered on his public ministry when he was about thirty years of age. It is generally reckoned to have extended to about three years. 他走進他的公共事務部的時候,他是30年來的時代,這是一般估計已擴大到大約3年時間。

Each of these years had peculiar features of its own. 這些年每一年有奇特的特點,其自己的活力。

  1. The first year may be called the year of obscurity, both because the records of it which we possess are very scanty, and because he seems during it to have been only slowly emerging into public notice.第一年,可稱為今年的狂言,是因為雙方的紀錄,這其中我們所擁有的是非常微薄的,因為他似乎在它本來只是慢慢地進入新興的公共通知。 It was spent for the most part in Judea.它被用於大部份在朱迪亞。

  2. The second year was the year of public favour, during which the country had become thoroughly aware of him; his activity was incessant, and his fame rang through the length and breadth of the land.第二年,是因為那年的公共贊成,在該國已成為徹底了解他,他的活動是持續不斷的,和自己的名聲鈴響了,通過從深度和廣度上的土地。 It was almost wholly passed in Galilee.它幾乎全部通過,在加利利。

  3. The third was the year of opposition, when the public favour ebbed away.第三次是今年的反對黨,當公眾贊成消退了。 His enemies multiplied and assailed him with more and more pertinacity, and at last he fell a victim to their hatred.他的敵人成倍增加,並譴責他,越來越多的頑固性,並在最後他倒地的受害人,以發洩他們的仇恨。 The first six months of this final year were passed in Galilee, and the last six in other parts of the land.今年首六個月,這也是最後一年獲得通過,在加利利,並在過去六年中其他部分的土地。


(from Stalker's Life of Jesus Christ, p. 45). (從纏擾者的生活,耶穌基督,第45頁) 。

The only reliable sources of information regarding the life of Christ on earth are the Gospels, which present in historical detail the words and the work of Christ in so many different aspects.唯一可靠的信息來源,對於生命的基督對地球上的人是福音,目前在歷史的細節的話和工作的基督在這麼多不同的方面。 (See the presentation on Christ.) (見介紹基督) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Other Biblical People Named Je'sus其他聖經的人名叫je'sus

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(1.) Joshua, the son of Nun (Acts 7:45; Heb. 4:8; RV, "Joshua"). ( 1 ) 。約書亞,他們兒子的尼姑(使徒7:45 ;以弗所書4時08分;風疹病毒, "約書亞" ) 。 (2.) A Jewish Christian surnamed Justus (Col. 4:11). ( 2 )一個猶太基督教姓是Justus (上校4時11分) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Jesus Christ耶穌基督

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The expression is a combination of a name, "Jesus" (of Nazareth), and the title "Messiah" (Hebrew) or "Christ" (Greek), which means "anointed."表達的是一種組合的一個名字, "耶穌" (拿撒勒) ,並授予的"彌賽亞" (希伯來語)或"基督" (希臘語) ,意思是"不信任" 。 In Acts 5:42, where we read of "preaching Jesus the Christ," this combination of the name and the title is still apparent.在行為的5點42分,當我們讀到的"傳耶穌基督" ,這個組合的名稱,內容和標題仍然是顯而易見的。 As time progressed, however, the title became so closely associated with the name that the combination soon was transformed from the confession, Jesus (who is) the Christ, to a confessional name, Jesus Christ.隨著時間的進展,不過,題目變得如此密切相關的名稱相結合,盡快轉化,從供述,耶穌(他)的基督,是一個教派的名字,耶穌基督。 The appropriateness of this title for Jesus was such that even Jewish Christian writers quickly referred to Jesus Christ rather than Jesus the Christ (Cf. Matt. 1:1; Rom. 1:7; Heb. 13:8; James 1:1; I Pet. 1:1).是否恰當,這個標題為耶穌就是如此,即使是猶太人基督徒作家迅速轉介到耶穌基督,而不是耶穌基督(參見馬特。 1:1光碟。 1時07分;以弗所書13時08分;詹姆斯1:1 ; i寵物。 1:1 ) 。

Sources of Information信息來源

The sources for our knowledge of Jesus Christ can be divided into two main groups: non-Christian and Christian.消息人士為我們的知識耶穌基督的,可分為兩大類:非基督教和基督教。

Non-Christian Sources非基督教的來源

These sources can be divided again into two groups: pagan and Jewish.這些來源可分為再分為兩組:異教徒和猶太人。 Both are limited in their value.兩者都是有限的,在他們的價值。 There are essentially only three pagan sources of importance: Pliny (Epistles x.96); Tacitus (Annals xv.44); and Suetonius (Lives xxv.4).有實質上只有3個異教來源的重要性:普林尼(書信x.96 ) ;塔西佗(史冊xv.44 ) ;蘇埃托尼烏斯(生命xxv.4 ) 。 All these date from the second decade of the second century.所有這些日期是從第二個十年的第二個世紀。 The main Jewish sources are Josephus (Antiquities xviii.3.3 and xx.9.1) and the Talmud.主要猶太來源是約瑟夫(古物xviii.3.3和xx.9.1 )和猶太法典。 The non-Christian sources provide meager information about Jesus, but they do establish the fact that he truly lived, that he gathered disciples, performed healings, and that he was condemned to death by Pontius Pilate.非基督教的來源提供微薄的資料耶穌,但他們做的,建立一個事實,即他是實說,他收集的弟子,演出癒合,並說,他被判處死刑,由祂比拉多。

Christian Sources基督教來源

The nonbiblical Christian sources consist for the most part of the apocryphal gospels (AD 150-350) and the "agrapha" ("unwritten sayings" of Jesus, ie, supposedly authentic sayings of Jesus not found in the canonical Gospels).該nonbiblical基督教來源構成為最部分的猜測福音(公元150-350 )和" agrapha " (下稱"不成文的說法, "耶穌的,即假定正宗熟語耶穌未發現典型福音) 。 Their value is quite dubious in that what is not utterly fantastic (cf. Infancy Gospel of Thomas) or heretical (cf. Gospel of Truth) is at best only possible and not provable (cf. Gospel of Thomas 31, 47).他們的價值,是相當令人懷疑在這方面什麼是不完全神奇(參見嬰兒福音托馬斯)或異端邪說(參見福音真理) ,最多只能盡量不具證明(參見福音托馬斯31 , 47 ) 。

The biblical materials can be divided into the Gospels and Acts through Revelation.聖經中的材料,可分為福音書,並通過行為的啟示。 The information we can learn from Acts through Revelation is essentially as follows: Jesus was born a Jew (Gal. 4:4) and was a descendant of David (Rom. 1:3); he was gentle (II Cor. 10:1), righteous (I Pet. 3:18), sinless (II Cor. 5:21), humble (Phil. 2:6), and was tempted (Heb. 2:18; 4:15); he instituted the Lord's Supper (I Cor. 11:23-26), was transfigured (II Pet. 1:17-18), was betrayed (I Cor. 11:23), was crucified (I Cor. 1:23), rose from the dead (I Cor. 15:3ff), and ascended to heaven (Eph. 4:8).我們的資料可以借鑒的行為,通過啟示,基本上是如下:耶穌誕生的猶太人( gal. 4時04分) ,是一名後裔大衛(羅馬書1:3 ) ,他是溫柔(二肺心病。 10:1 ) ,正義(我的寵物。 3時18分) ,罪孽(二肺心病。 5時21分) ,謙卑( phil. 2時06分) ,並引誘(希伯來書2時18分; 4:15 ) ;提起他的上帝晚飯(我肺心病。 11:23-26 ) ,是變形(二寵物。 1:17-18 ) ,是背叛(我肺心病。 11:23 ) ,被釘在十字架上(一肺心病。 1:23 ) ,玫瑰從死(我肺心病。 15點03法郎) ,並升天(以弗所書4時08分) 。 Certain specific sayings of Jesus are known (cf. I Cor. 7:10; 9:14; Acts 20:35), and possible allusions to his sayings are also found (eg, Rom. 12:14, 17; 13:7, 8-10; 14:10).某些特定的格言耶穌是眾所周知的(參見林前。 7時10分; 9時14分;行為20:35 ) ,並有可能暗示,他的說法也發現(如光盤。 12:14 , 17人; 13時07分8日至10日; 14:10 ) 。

The major sources for our knowledge of Jesus are the canonical Gospels.主要來源,我們對耶穌的認識是典型福音。 These Gospels are divided generally into two groups: the Synoptic Gospels (the "look-alike" Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke) and John.這些福音劃分大致可分為兩類:天氣福音( "外觀類似"福音的馬太,馬克,路加)和約翰。 The former are generally understood to "look alike" due to their having a literary relationship.前者是一般的理解, "你看,都" ,由於其具有文學的關係。 The most common explanation of this literary relationship is that Mark wrote first and that Matthew and Luke used Mark and another source, now lost, which contained mostly teachings of Jesus (called "Q") and that they used other materials as well ("M"= the materials found only in Matthew; "L" = the materials found only in Luke).最常見的解釋這一文學的關係,就是馬克寫了第一和馬修和盧克用馬克和另一名消息人士,現在已經失去,其中載有大部分的教誨耶穌(所謂的" Q " ) ,而且他們使用的其他材料,以及(的" M " =該材料僅見於馬太;的" L " =材料,發現只有在路加) 。

Jesus of Nazareth拿撒勒的耶穌

In Matthew and Luke we find accounts of the birth of Jesus.在馬修和盧克我們發現帳目耶穌誕生的。 Both accounts point out that Jesus was born of a virgin by the name of Mary in the city of Bethlehem (Matt. 1:18-2:12; Luke 1:26-2:7; attempts to find allusions to the virgin birth in Gal. 4:4 and John 8:41 are quite forced).兩個帳戶指出,耶穌誕生的處女所名稱瑪麗在伯利恆市。 ( 1:18-2:12 ;盧克1:26-2:7 ;試圖尋找典故,以維爾京出生在半乳糖。 4時04分和8時41分約翰相當被迫) 。 Attempts to explain these accounts as parallels to Greek myths stumble on the lack of any really substantial parallels in Greek literature and above all by the Jewish nature of these accounts.試圖解釋這些帳戶的平行線,以希臘神話隨手缺乏任何真正實質的平行線在希臘文學及以上的所有猶太人的性質,這些帳戶。

The ministry of Jesus began with his baptism by John (Mark 1:1-15; Acts 1:21-22; 10:37) and his temptation by Satan.財政部耶穌開始他的洗禮,由約翰(馬克1:1-15 ;行為1:21-22 ; 10:37 )和他的誘惑,受魔鬼的試探。 His ministry involved the selection of twelve disciples (Mark 3:13-19), which symbolized the regathering of the twelve tribes of Israel; the preaching of the need of repentance (Mark 1:15) and the arrival of the kingdom of God in his ministry (Luke 11:20); the offer of salvation to the outcasts of society (Mark 2:15-17; Luke 15; 19:10); the healing of the sick and demon-possessed (which are referred to in the Jewish Talmud); and his glorious return to consummate the kingdom.他財政部參與遴選的十二門徒(馬克3:13-19 ) ,這標誌著regathering的支派;鼓吹的需要懺悔(馬克1:15 ) ,並到達神的國度中他的部(路11:20 ) ;要約的救恩向棄兒協會(馬克2:15 ;路加福音15 ; 19:10 ) ;癒合的病人和惡魔-擁有(這是指在猶太猶太法典) ,以及他的光輝返回制約王國。

The turning point in Jesus' ministry came at Caesarea Philippi when, after being confessed as the Christ by Peter, he acknowledged the correctness of this confession and proceeded to tell the disciples of his forthcoming death (Mark 8:27-31; Matt. 16:13-21).轉折點在耶穌的來到財政部在caesarea Philippi撰寫時,後供述,因為基督的彼得,他承認的正確性,這自白,並著手告訴弟子,他即將死亡(馬克8:27-31 ;馬特16 :13 - 21 ) 。 Advancing toward Jerusalem, Jesus cleansed the temple and in so doing judged the religion of Israel (note Mark's placement of the account between 11:12-14 and 11: 20-21 as well as the contents of the following two chapters).向著耶路撒冷,耶穌清洗廟在這樣做判斷宗教的以色列(注商標的安置賬戶之間11:12-14日和11 : 20-21以及內容有以下兩個章節) 。 On the night in which he was betrayed he instituted the ordinance of the Lord's Supper, which refers to the new covenant sealed by his sacrificial blood and the victorious regathering in the kingdom of God (Mark 14:25; Matt. 26:29; Luke 22:18; I Cor. 11:26).就在昨晚,他是背叛了他提起該條例的主的晚餐,這是指新盟約密封,由他的祭祀用鮮血和勝利regathering在神的國度( 14時25馬克;馬特。 26:29 ;路加福音22時18分,我肺心病。 11:26 ) 。 Thereupon he was arrested in the Garden of Gethsemane, tried before the Sanhedrin, Herod Antipas, and finally Pontius Pilate, who condemned him to death on political charges for claiming to be the Messiah (Mark 15:26; John 19:19).於是他被逮捕後花園的gethsemane ,審判之前,公會,希律antipas ,最後,祂比拉多,他們譴責他死刑,對政治的收費自稱為彌賽亞(馬克15:26 ;約翰19時19分) 。 On the eve of the sabbath Jesus was crucified for the sins of the world (Mark 10:45) outside the city of Jerusalem (John 19:20) at a place called Golgotha (Mark 15:22) between two thieves who may have been revolutionaries (Matt. 27:38).對即將到來的安息日,耶穌被釘在十字架上,為罪惡的世界(標記10:45 )以外的耶路撒冷城(約翰福音19:20 )在一個地方,各各他(馬克15:22 )兩竊賊可能已被革命家。 ( 27:38 ) 。

He gave up his life before the sabbath came, so that there was no need to hasten his death by crurifragium, ie, the breaking of his legs (John 19:31-34).他放棄了自己的生命,才安息日來了,所以認為沒有必要,以加速他的死亡是由crurifragium ,即打破了他的雙腿(約翰19:31-34 ) 。 He was buried in the tomb of Joseph of Arimathea (Mark 15:43; John 19:38) on the eve of the sabbath.他被安葬在墓穴的約瑟夫arimathea (馬克15時43分;約翰19時38分) ,對即將到來的安息日。 On the first day of the week, which was the third day (Friday to 6 PM = day 1; Friday 6 PM to Saturday 6 PM = day 2; Saturday 6 PM to Sunday AM = day 3), he rose from the dead, the empty tomb was discovered, and he appeared to his followers (Mark 16; Matt. 28; Luke 24; John 20-21).就第一天的一周,這是第三天(週五至6時=第1天;週五晚上6時至週六下午6時=第2天;週六晚上六時至週日上午=第3天) ,他從死裡空墓被發現後,他似乎是他的追隨者( 16馬克;馬特。 28 ;路加福音24 ;約翰20-21 ) 。 He abode forty days with the disciples and then ascended into heaven (Acts 1:1-11).他居留權四十天與弟子,然後躋身天堂(使徒1:1-11 ) 。

So ended the three-year ministry (John 2:13; 5:1; 6:4; 13:1) of Jesus of Nazareth.所以,結束了為期3年的省(約翰2時13分; 5:1 ;六四;十三)拿撒勒的耶穌。

The Christ of Faith基督信仰

The unique self-understanding of Jesus can be ascertained by two means: the implicit Christology revealed by his actions and words, and the explicit Christology revealed by the titles he chose to describe himself.獨特的自我理解耶穌的,可確定由兩種方式:隱christology透露,由他的行動和文字,並明確christology透露,由職稱,他選擇了來形容自己。

Implicit Christology隱christology

Jesus during his ministry clearly acted as one who possessed a unique authority.耶穌在他的內政部顯然充當了一個人擁有一個獨特的權威。 He assumed for himself the prerogative of cleansing the temple (Mark 11:27-33), of bringing the outcasts into the kingdom of God (Luke 15), and of having divine authority to forgive sins (Mark 2:5-7; Luke 7:48-49).他剛上台,為自己的特權清洗廟(馬克11:27-33 ) ,使棄兒進入神的國度(盧克15 ) ,並具有神聖的權力,以原諒的罪過(馬克2:5-7 ;路加福音7:48-49 ) 。

Jesus also spoke as one who possessed authority greater than the OT (Matt. 5:31-32, 38-39), than Abraham (John 8:53), Jacob (John 4:12), and the temple (Matt. 12:6).耶穌還談到一個人擁有的權力大於城市旅遊局。 ( 5:31-32 , 38-39 ) ,比亞伯拉罕(約翰8時53分) ,雅各布(約翰4時12分) ,寺。 ( 12個: 6 ) 。 He claimed to be Lord of the Sabbath (Mark 2:28).他自稱為上帝的安息日(馬克2時28分) 。 He even claimed that the destiny of all people depended on how they responded to him (Matt. 10:32-33; 11:6; Mark 8: 34-38).他甚至聲稱,命運的人,都取決於他們如何回應他。 ( 10:32-33 ; 11時06分;馬克8 : 34-38 ) 。

Explicit Christology明確christology

Along with the implicit Christology of his behavior Jesus also made certain Christological claims by means of the various titles he used for himself.隨著隱christology為他的行為而耶穌也取得了一定的基督論債權的方式各職稱他用自己的。 He referred to himself as the Messiah or Christ (Mark 8:27-30; 14:61-62), and his formal sentence of death on political grounds (note the superscription on the cross) only makes sense on the basis of Jesus' having acknowledged that he was the Messiah.他提到自己為彌賽亞或基督(馬克8:27-30 ; 14:61-62 ) ,和他正式被判處死刑,是基於政治理由(注意superscription在十字架上)不僅使意識在此基礎上的耶穌'經確認,他是救世主。 He referred to himself also as the Son of God (Mark 12:1-9; Matt. 11:25-27), and a passage such as Mark 13:32 in which he clearly distinguished between himself and others must be authentic, for no one in the church would have created a saying such as this in which the Son of God claims to be ignorant as to the time of the end.他提到自己也作為上帝的兒子(馬克12:1-9 ;馬特。 11:25-27 ) ,並通過諸如商標13時32分,其中他明確區分自己與他人,必須真實,為沒有人在教會裡,將製造了一種說法,例如本,其中神的兒子聲稱自己是無知的,以當時的結束。 Jesus' favorite self-designation, due to its concealing as well as revealing nature, was the title Son of man.耶穌最喜愛的自我定位,因為它的隱瞞以及披露的性質,是所有權人子。 Jesus in using this title clearly had in mind the Son of man of Dan.耶穌在使用這個稱號顯然已記人子丹。 7:13, as is evident from Mark 8:38; 13:26; 14:62; Matt. 7時13分,由於是顯而易見的,由商標8時38分; 13時26分; 14:62 ;馬特。 10:23; 19:28; 25:31. [ 10:23 ] ; 19時28分; 25:31 。 Therefore, rather than being a title which stresses humility, it is clear that this title reveals the divine authority Jesus possesses as the Son of man to judge the world and his sense of having come from the Father (cf. here also Mark 2:17; 10:45; Matt. 5:17; 10:34).所以,而不是作為一個稱號,其中強調,謙遜的態度,很顯然,這一標題揭示了神聖的權力擁有耶穌作為人子來判斷世界和他的責任感,有來自父親(參見這裡也標誌著2:17 ; 10:45 ;馬特。 5時17分; 10時34分) 。 Many attempts have been made to deny the authenticity of some or all of the Son of man sayings, but such attempts founder on the fact that this title is found in all the Gospel strata (Mark, Q, M, L, and John) and satisfies perfectly the "criterion of dissimilarity," which states that if a saying or title like this could not have arisen out of Judaism or out of the early church, it must be authentic.多種嘗試,已作出否認的真實性,部分或全部人子的說法,但這種企圖創辦於這樣一個事實,這一標題是,在所有階層的福音(馬克, q ,的男, L ,和約翰) ,並滿足完美"的標準相似, "這說明,如果有一種說法或標題一樣,這一切都出於猶太教或出早期教會的,它必須真實可信。 The denial of the authenticity of this title is therefore based not so much on exegetical issues as upon rationalistic presuppositions which a priori deny that Jesus of Nazareth could have spoken of himself in this way.拒絕的真實性,這個稱號是基於因此沒有那麼多訓詁問題,一經理性預設一個先驗否認拿撒勒的耶穌可能曾經談及自己這樣做的。

THE NT Christology

Within the NT numerous claims are made concerning Jesus Christ.內新台幣無數的申索有關於耶穌基督。 Through his resurrection Jesus has been exalted and given lordship over all creation (Col. 1:16-17; Phil. 2:9-11; I Cor. 15:27).通過他的復活的耶穌一直標榜的,並給予lordship超過所有的創造物(歌1:16-17 ;菲爾。 2:9-11我肺心病。 15:27 ) 。 The use of the title "Lord" for Jesus quickly resulted in the association of the person and work of Jesus with the Lord of the OT, ie, Yahweh.使用的題目是"主" ,為耶穌很快導致了該協會的有關人士及工作,耶穌與上帝的職能治療,即雅威。 (Cf. Rom. 10:9-13 with Joel 2:32; II Thess. 1:7-10, I Cor. 5:5 with Isa. 2:10-19; II Thess. 1:12 with Isa. 66:5; I Cor. 16:22 and Rev. 22:20; Phil 2:11.) His preexistence is referred to (II Cor. 8:9; Phil. 2:6; Col. 1:15-16); he is referred to as creator (Col. 1:16); he is said to possess the "form" of God (Phil. 2:6) and be the "image" of God (Col. 1:15; cf. also II Cor. 4:4). (參見光盤。 10:9-13與約珥2時32分;第二帖前1:7-10 ,我肺心病。 5:5與伊薩。 2:10-19 ;第二帖前1:12與伊薩66 : 5 ,我肺心病。 16時22分和22時20分牧師;菲爾2時11分) ,他的preexistence是指(二肺心病。 8時09分;菲爾。 2時06分;上校1:15 ) ;他就是被稱為造物主(歌1:16 ) ;據說,他是具備了"形式"的神( phil. 2時06分) ,並成為"形象"的神( 1:15上校;比照也二,肺心病。 4時04分) 。 He is even referred to explicitly in a number of places as "God" (Rom. 9:5; II Thess. 1:12; Titus 2:13; Heb. 1:5-8; I John 5:20; John 1:1; 20:28; although the exegesis of some of these passages is debated, it is clear that some of them clearly refer to Jesus as "God").他甚至明確地提到,在一些地方,因為"上帝" (羅馬書9時05分;第二帖前1:12 ;弟兄2時13分;以弗所書1:5-8 ;約翰5點20分;約翰一日: 1 ; 20時28分;雖然註釋部分,這些通道進行辯論,很顯然,他們中的一些人顯然是指耶穌為"上帝" ) 。

The Quest for the Historical Jesus追求歷史的耶穌

The beginning of the quest for the historical Jesus can be dated to 1774-78 when the poet Lessing published posthumously the lecture notes of Hermann Samuel Reimarus.開始追求歷史的耶穌可追溯到1774年至1778年,當詩人萊辛出版死後演講註釋赫爾曼塞繆爾賴馬魯斯。 These notes challenged the traditional portrait of Jesus found in the NT and the church.這些說明了挑戰傳統的畫像耶穌發現在新界和教會。 For Reimarus, Jesus never made any messianic claim, never instituted any sacraments, never predicted his death nor rose from the dead.為賴馬魯斯,耶穌從來沒有救世主索賠時,從來沒有提起任何聖禮,從未預測,他的死也不是從死。 The story of Jesus was in fact a deliberate imposture of the disciples.故事中的耶穌其實是一種蓄意imposture的弟子。 In so portraying Jesus, Reimarus raised the question, "What was Jesus of Nazareth really like?" And so the quest to find the "real" Jesus arose.在這樣描繪耶穌,賴馬魯斯提出了一個問題: "什麼是拿撒勒的耶穌真的很喜歡嗎? " ,因此為了尋找"真正的"耶穌出來了。 During the earliest part of the nineteenth century the dominating method of research in the quest was rationalism, and attempts were made to explain "rationally" the life of Christ (cf. KH Venturini's A Non-Supernatural History of the Great Prophet of Nazareth).在最早的一部分, 19世紀的主導研究方法,在追求,是理性主義,並試圖作出解釋, "合理"的生活,基督(參見KH的venturini的一個非超自然的歷史,偉大的先知的拿撒勒) 。

A major turning point came when DF Strauss's The Life of Christ was published in 1835, for Strauss in pointing out the futility of the rationalistic approach argued that the miraculous in the Gospels was to be understood as nonhistorical "myths."一個重要的轉折點,當測施特勞斯的生活,基督被發表在1835年,施特勞斯指出,是徒勞無益的理性主義的做法,有人認為,在神奇的福音是可以理解為nonhistorical的"神話" 。 This new approach was in turn succeeded by the liberal interpretation of the life of Jesus, which minimized and neglected the miraculous dimension of the Gospels and viewed it as "husk" which had to be eliminated in order to concentrate on the teachings of Jesus.這項新辦法是反過來,成功由自由的解釋,耶穌的生命,其中最小化而忽視了奇蹟般的尺寸的福音,並認為它是"糠" ,它是將被淘汰,以集中對教義的耶穌。 Not surprisingly, this approach found in the teachings of Jesus such liberal doctrines as the fatherhood of God, the brotherhood of man, and the infinite value of the human soul.毫不奇怪,這種辦法發現,在教學中的耶穌這種自由學說作為父親的神,其兄弟的男子,以及無限的價值,人的心靈。

The "death" of the quest came about for several reasons. "死"的追求來的,原因有幾個。 For one, it became apparent, through the work of Albert Schweitzer, that the liberal Jesus never existed but was simply a creation of liberal wishfulness. 1 ,很明顯,通過工作的史懷哲,即自由耶穌從未存在,但這只不過是一個創造自由wishfulness 。 Another factor that helped end the quest was the realization that the Gospels were not simple objective biographies which could easily be mined for historical information.另一個因素有助於最終追求的是實現這福音並不簡單,客觀的傳記,可以很容易被開採的歷史信息。 This was the result of the work of William Wrede and the form critics.這是工作的結果威廉wrede和形式提出批評。 Still another reason for the death of the quest was the realization that the object of faith for the church throughout the centuries had never been the historical Jesus of theological liberalism but the Christ of faith, ie, the supernatural Christ proclaimed in the Scriptures.還有一個原因死亡的追求,是實現該物體的信念,為教會在整個世紀以來從來沒有被歷史的耶穌神學自由主義,但基督信仰的,即超自然基督在念經。 Martin kahler was especially influential in this regard.馬丁kahler尤其是有影響力,在這方面的工作。

During the period between the two World Wars, the quest lay dormant for the most part due to disinterest and doubt as to its possibility.期間,兩次世界大戰期間,追求奠定冬眠為最,部分原因是不感興趣,並懷疑它的可能性。 In 1953 a new quest arose at the instigation of Ernst Kasemann. 1953年,一種新的追求出現在其唆使,恩斯特凱士曼。 Kasemann feared that the discontinuity in both theory and practice between the Jesus of history and the Christ of faith was very much like the early docetic heresy, which denied the humanity of the Son of God.凱士曼恐怕間斷,在理論和實踐上都有與耶穌的歷史和基督信仰是非常想早日docetic異端,否認人類的上帝的兒子。 As a result he argued that it was necessary to establish a continuity between the historical Jesus and the Christ of faith.因此他認為,有必要建立一個連續性的歷史耶穌基督的信仰。 Furthermore he pointed out that the present historical skepticism about the historical Jesus was unwarranted because some historical data were available and undeniable.此外,他指出,現行的歷史持懷疑態度,歷史的耶穌是沒有道理,因為歷史上的一些數據,則使用和不可否認的。 The results of this new quest have been somewhat disappointing, and the enthusiasm that greeted it can be said, for the most part, to have disappeared.結果這個新的追求已經有點失望,並熱情迎接,可以說,在大多數情況下,已失踪。 New tools have been honed during this period, however, which can assist in this historical task.新的工具已經被磨練了,在此期間,不過,它可以協助完成這項歷史性任務。

The major problem that faces any attempt to arrive at the "historical Jesus" involves the definition of the term "historical."主要問題,面臨的任何企圖達成"歷史耶穌" ,涉及名詞的定義, "歷史" 。 In critical circles the term is generally understood as "the product of the historical-critical method."在關鍵的圈子一詞一般被理解為"該產品的歷史批判方法" 。 This method for many assumes a closed continuum of time and space in which divine intervention, ie, the miraculous, cannot intrude.這種方法為許多假定一個封閉的連續的時間和空間,是神的干預,也就是說,神奇的,不能打擾。 Such a definition will, of course, always have a problem seeking to find continuity between the supernatural Christ and the Jesus of history, who by such a definition cannot be supernatural.這樣一個定義,當然會始終有一個問題,設法找出之間的連續性超自然基督耶穌的歷史,他們以這樣的定義不能超自然的。

If "historical" means nonsupernatural, there can never be a real continuity between the Jesus of historical research and the Christ of faith.如果"歷史"是指nonsupernatural ,就不可能有永遠不會成為一個真正的連續性與耶穌的歷史研究和基督的信仰。 It is becoming clear, therefore, that this definition of "historical" must be challenged, and even in Germany spokesmen are arising who speak of the need for the historical-critical method to assume an openness to transcendence, ie, openness to the possibility of the miraculous.這是越來越清楚,因此,這一定義的"歷史" ,都必須遭到質疑,即使是在德國的代言人所帶來的是發言的人的需要為歷史批判的方法,以承擔一個開放的超越性,即,開放的可能性神奇的。 Only in this way can there ever be hope of establishing a continuity between the Jesus of historical research and the Christ of faith.只有這樣,才能有真正的希望建立一個連續性與耶穌的歷史研究和基督的信仰。

RH Stein銠施泰因
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
FF Bruce, Jesus and Christian Origins Outside the NT; D. Guthrie, A Shorter Life of Christ; EF Harrison, A Short Life of Christ; JG Machen, The Virgin Birth of Christ; GE Ladd, I Believe in the Resurrection of Jesus; TW Manson, The Teaching of Jesus; J. Jeremias, The Parables of Jesus and The Problem of the Historical Jesus; RH Stein, The Method and Message of Jesus' Teachings and An Introduction to the Parables of Jesus; IH Marshall, The Origins of NT Christology and I Believe in the Historical Jesus; RN Longenecker, The Christology of Early Jewish Christianity; A. Schweitzer, The Quest of the Historical Jesus; M. Kahler, The So-Called Historical Jesus and the Historic, Biblical Christ; H. Anderson, Jesus and Christian Origins; RH Stein, "The 'Criteria' for Authenticity," in Gospel Perspectives, I; DE Aune, Jesus and the Synoptic Gospels.法郎布魯斯,耶穌和基督教的起源之外新台幣;四伽絲瑞,壽命較短的基督;英法哈里森,壽命短的基督; jg machen ,維爾京基督誕生;葛雷德,我相信,在復活的耶穌;星期日曼森,基督的教導的J. jeremias , parables耶穌的問題,歷史的耶穌;銠施泰因,方法和信息的耶穌的教誨,並介紹了parables耶穌;中轉房屋馬歇爾的起源新台幣christology我相信,在歷史的耶穌;氡朗格內克, christology早期猶太基督教;甲施魏策爾,追求歷史的耶穌;米kahler ,所謂的歷史和耶穌的歷史,聖經基督;每小時安德森,耶穌和基督教的起源;銠施泰因說, " 『標準』的真實性, "在福音的角度,我;德aune ,耶穌和天氣福音。


Jesus of Nazareth拿撒勒的耶穌

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

-In History: -在歷史上:

Founder of Christianity; born at Nazareth about 2 BC (according to Luke iii. 23); executed at Jerusalem 14th of Nisan, 3789 (March or April, 29 CE).創辦的基督教;出生在拿撒勒約2公元前(按路加福音三23 ) ;處決在耶路撒冷十四尼散月14日, 3789年( 3月或4月29日,行政長官) 。 His life, though indirectly of so critical a character, had very little direct influence on the course of Jewish history or thought.他的一生,雖然間接的,所以關鍵的一個人物,已經很少有直接的影響的過程中,猶太歷史或思想。 In contemporary Jewish literature his career is referred to only in the (interpolated) passage of Josephus, "Ant."在當代猶太文學,他的足球生涯中提到,只有在(插值)的通過,約瑟夫, "螞蟻" 。 xviii.十八。 3, § 3, while the references in the Talmud are for the most part as legendary as those in the apocryphal gospels, though in an opposite direction (see Jesus in Jewish Legend). 3 , § 3 ,同時提到,在猶太法典大部分資料都是傳奇,因為那些在猜測福音,但在相反方向(見耶穌在猶太傳說) 。 Under these circumstances it is not necessary in this place to do more than to give a sketch of the main historical events in the public career of Jesus, with an attempt to ascertain his personal relations to contemporary Judaism; for the theological superstructure based upon his life and death, and certain mythological conceptions associated with them, see Jew.在這種情況下,是沒有必要在這個地方做更多的,比給予速寫的主要歷史事件,在公共事業的耶穌,企圖以確定他的個人關係,以當代猶太教;神學上層建築,根據他的生命和死亡,以及某些神話的觀念與他們有聯繫的,見猶太人。 Encyc. encyc 。 iv.四。 50a, sv Christianity. 50條A , sv基督教。

Sources of Life.來源生活。

In the New Testament there are four "Gospels" professing to deal with the life of Jesus independently; but it is now almost universally agreed that the first three of these, known by the names of "Matthew," "Mark," and "Luke," are interdependent, corresponding to the various forms of contemporary Baraitot, while the fourth, the Gospel of John, is what the Germans call a "Tendenz-Roman," practically a work of religious imagination intended to modify opinion in a certain direction.在新約聖經有4個"福音"空頭處理耶穌的生命,獨立,但它現在幾乎普遍一致認為,前三項,其中由已知姓名的"馬太" , "馬克" , "路加福音" ,是相互依存的,相應的各種形式的當代baraitot ,而第四,福音的約翰,這正是德國人稱之為" tendenz -羅馬" ,實際上是工作的宗教想像力打算修改意見,在一定的方向發展。 The supernatural claims made on behalf of Jesus are based almost exclusively on statements of the fourth Gospel.超自然聲稱名義發表的耶穌是基於幾乎完全放在報表的第四個福音。 Of the first three or synoptic Gospels the consensus of contemporary opinion regards that of Mark as the earliest and as being the main source of the historic statements of the other two.的首三年或天氣福音的共識,當代輿論方面表示,商標作為最早為主要來源的歷史性報表的其他兩項。 This Gospel will, therefore, be used in the following account almost exclusively, references to chapter and verse, when the name of the Gospel is not given, being to this source.這福音會,因此,可以用在以下幾個賬戶幾乎只,參照本章和韻文,當名義的福音,是不是給予,被這名人士說。 Beside the original of the Gospel of Mark, there was another source used in common by both Matthew and Luke, namely the "logia," or detached sayings, of Matthew and Luke; and besides these two documents the apocryphal "Gospel According to the Hebrews" has preserved, in the opinion of the critics, a few statements of Jesus which often throw vivid light upon his motives and opinions.旁邊原有的福音的標誌,還有另一名消息人士使用共同的,由雙方馬修和盧克,即" logia " ,或超脫熟語,馬修和盧克;況且這兩份文件的猜測"福音根據希伯來"保存了,在輿論的批評,有幾個報表耶穌這往往使生動光後,他的動機和意見。 Much industry and ingenuity have been devoted by A. Resch to the collection of extracanonical statements of Jesus, known as "agrapha" (Leipsic, 1889).許多行業和創造力,已投入甲resch以收集extracanonical報表的耶穌,被稱為" agrapha " ( leipsic , 1889年) 。

The earliest of all these sources, the original of Mark's Gospel, contains references which show that it was written shortly before or soon after the destruction of Jerusalem in the year 70; in other words, forty years after the death of Jesus.最早的所有這些消息人士透露,原商標的福音,包含參考文獻表明,它是書面不久之前或之後不久銷毀耶路撒冷,在今年70個;換句話說, 40年後死亡的耶穌。 Like the other Gospels, it was originally written in Greek, whereas the sayings of Jesus were uttered in Aramaic.像其他福音,它本來是寫在希臘語,而熟語耶穌的人是扯不上關係阿拉姆語。 It is therefore impossible to lay much stress upon the perfect accuracy of the records of events and statements written down forty years after they occurred or were made, and then in a language other than that in which such statements were originally uttered (even the Lord's Prayer was retained in variant versions; comp. Matt. vi. 10-13; Luke xi. 2-4); yet it is upon this slender basis that some of the most stupendous claims have been raised.因此,這是不可能的,以奠定非常強調要根據完善,精確的記錄事件和報表寫下四十年後,他們發生或發了言,然後在語文以外,在這些報表原本諱莫如深(連主禱文被保留在變種版本;可比。馬特。六, 10-13 ;路加福音十一2-4 ) ,但它是這細長的基礎上一些最龐大的債權得到提高。 For the processes by which the traditions as to the life of Jesus were converted into proofs of his super-natural character, see Jew.為過程,其中的傳統,以耶穌的生命將被轉換成證明他的超天然風貌,看到猶太人。 Encyc. encyc 。 iv.四。 51-52, sv 51-52 , sv

Christianity.基督教。 Many incidents were actually invented (especially in Matthew) "in order that there might be fulfilled" in him prophecies relating to aMessiah of a character quite other than that of which Jesus either claimed or was represented by his disciples to be.很多事故其實發明(特別是在馬太) "為了有可能實現"在他的預言有關amessiah一個性格相當以外的耶穌要么聲稱或派代表出席,由他的弟子。 Yet the supernatural in the life of Jesus according to the Gospels is restricted to the smallest dimensions, consisting mainly of incidents and characteristics intended to support these prophecies and the dogmatic positions of Christianity.然而超自然在耶穌的生命據福音,是限制到最小尺寸,主要事件和特點,旨在支持這些預言和教條式的立場基督教。 This applies especially to the story of the virgin-birth, a legend which is common to almost all folk-heroes as indicating their superiority to the rest of their people (see ES Hartland, "Legend of Perseus," vol. i.).這特別適用於故事中的維爾京出生,是一個傳說,這是他於幾乎所有的民間英雄,為顯示自己的優勢,其餘的人,他們(見中文hartland , "傳奇英仙座"第一卷一) 。 Combined with this is the inconsistent claim of Davidic descent through Joseph, two discrepant pedigrees being given (Matt. i., Luke iii.).再加上這是不一致的索賠davidic後裔通過約瑟夫,兩個不符譜系正在考慮。 (一路加福音三) 。 Perhaps the most remarkable thing about the life of Jesus as presented in the Gospels is the utter silence about its earlier phases.也許是最了不起的事情對耶穌的生命,因為在福音是完全沉默,它的早期階段。 He was one of a rather large family, having four brothers, Jacob, Jose, Simon, Judah, besides sisters.他是一個相當大的家庭,有四個兄弟,雅各,聖何塞,西門,猶大,除了姐妹。 It is known that he earned his living by his father's trade, that of a carpenter; according to Justin Martyr, plows and yokes made by Jesus were still in existence at his (Justin's) time, about the year 120 ("Dial. cum Tryph." § 88).這是眾所周知的,他贏得了他的生活由他父親的貿易,即是一個木匠,據賈斯汀烈士,犁和萬向節叉所作耶穌的人仍然存在,在他( Justin的)時間,大約一年120 ( "撥號。暨tryph " § 88 ) 。 It is doubtful whether he received any definite intellectual training, the great system of Jewish education not being carried into effect till after the destruction of Jerusalem (see Education).這是令人懷疑他是否收到任何明確的智力訓練,大系統的猶太教育的規定不生效,直至摧毀後的耶路撒冷(見教育) 。 It is probable, however, that he could read; he was certainly acquainted, either by reading or by oral instruction, with much of the Old Testament; and his mode of argumentation often resembles that of the contemporary rabbis, implying that he had frequented their society.這是可能的,不過,他可以閱讀,他是一定熟悉,無論是閱讀還是口頭指示,與大部分的舊約和他的模式,論證往往極為相似的當代猶太教士,言下之意是他經常光顧自己社會。 In defending his infringement of the Sabbath he seems to have confused Abiathar with Ahimelech (ii. 25; comp. I Sam. xxi. 1), if this is not merely a copyist's blunder.在捍衛他的侵犯安息日,他似乎已經混淆亞比亞他與ahimelech ( ii. 25條;可比我薩姆。二十一, 1 ) ,如果這不單單是一個複製的錯誤。 It would appear from his interviews with the scribe (xii. 29-31; comp. Luke x. 27) and with the rich young man (x. 19) that he was acquainted with the Didache in its Jewish form, accepting its teachings as summing up the whole of Jewish doctrine.這樣看來,從他的訪談與文士( xii. 29-31 ;可比。路加十27 ) ,並與豐富的年輕男子(十19 )表示,他結識了同didache在其猶太形式,接受其教義作為總結整個猶太學說。 Only a single incident of his early days is recorded: his behavior about the time of his bar miẓwah (or confirmation) in the Temple (Luke ii. 41-52).只是一個單一事件,他早年是有記錄:他的行為的時候,他的酒吧miẓwah (或確認) ,在廟(路二41-52 ) 。 It is strange that so masterful a character showed no signs of its exceptional qualities before the turning-point of Jesus' career.令人奇怪的是,如此巧妙地一個字符顯示,沒有任何跡象顯示其特殊的素質,才轉向點的耶穌的生涯。

Influence of John the Baptist.影響力的施洗約翰。

The crisis in Jesus' life came with John the Baptist's preaching of repentance and of the nearness of the kingdom of God.危機在耶穌的生命來與施洗約翰的說教,悔過書及本相近的神的國度。 At first Jesus refused to submit to baptism by John.在第一耶穌拒不服從的洗禮,由約翰。 According to a well-authenticated tradition of the "Gospel According to the Hebrews," he asked wherein he had sinned that it was necessary for him to be baptized by John.據了解,以及認證傳統的"福音根據希伯來人, "他問,那是他犯罪了,這是他現在有必要受洗,由約翰。 Nevertheless the sight of the marked influence exercised by the latter evidently made a profound impression on the character of Jesus: he probably then experienced for the first time the power of a great personality upon crowds of people.然而,由於忽視了顯著的影響,行使的,後者明顯地留下了深刻的印象,對人格的耶穌:他可能是當時的經歷對於第一次的強大功能,個性人群的人。

It is at this moment of his life that Christian legend places what is known as the temptation, information concerning which, from the very nature of the case, could have been communicated only by Jesus himself.正是在這一時刻,他的生活中的基督教傳說中的地方就是我們所熟悉的誘惑表示,有關這一點,大家案件的性質,可能已被通報只有耶穌自己。 In the "Gospel According to the Hebrews" account this is given in the form: "My mother, the Holy Spirit, took me just now by one of my hairs and carried me up to the great Mount Tabor" (which was in the neighborhood of his home).在"福音根據希伯來人"的帳戶,這是由於在該表格說: "我的母親,聖靈,我花了剛才我的一位頭髮和我進行了以大摩塔伯爾" (這是在居委會他的家) 。 As Jerome remarks (on Isa. xl. 9), the form of this saying implies a Hebrew (or rather Aramaic) original ("Ruḥa Ḳaddisha"); and for this reason, among others, the saying may be regarded as a genuine one.正如杰羅姆備註(對伊薩。銷售。九日)的形式,這句話意味著希伯來語(或更確切地說阿拉米文)原來( " ruḥa ḳaddisha " ) ;基於這個原因,除其他外,俗語有可能會被視為一個真正的一。 It is significant as implying two things: (1) the belief of Jesus in a special divine origin of his spirit, and (2) a tendency to ecstatic abstraction.這是非常重要的,因為這意味著兩件事: ( 1 )信仰耶穌在一個特別神聖的起源,他的精神,和( 2 )一種傾向欣喜若狂抽象的概念。 This tendency is found in other great leaders of men, like Socrates, Mohammed, and Napoleon, being accompanied in their cases by hallucinations; auditory in the first case (the "demon" of Socrates), and visual in the last two (Mohammed's dove and Napoleon's star).這種傾向是,在其他偉大領袖的男人,像蘇格拉底,穆罕默德和拿破崙,正伴隨在他們的案件由幻覺;聽覺在第一宗案件( "惡魔"的蘇格拉底) ,及視覺,在過去兩年(穆罕默德的鴿派和拿破崙的明星) 。 These periods of ecstasy would tend to confirm in Oriental minds the impression that the subject of them was inspired (comp. the original meaning of "nabi"; see Prophet), and would add to the attractive force of a magnetic personality.這時期的搖頭丸會趨於證實,在東方心目中的印象,即受到他們的啟發( comp.原來所指的"彩蝶" ,見先知) ,並會增加具吸引力的力量,是一個磁性的個性。

In Jesus' family and among his neighbors the effect seems to have been different.在耶穌的家人和他的鄰居的影響似乎已被不同的。 His own people regarded him even as being out of his mind (iii. 21), and they do not appear to have been associated with him or with the Christian movement until after his death.他自己的人把他即使被出他心目中( iii. 21 ) ,他們似乎沒有被與他有聯繫,或與基督教運動,直到他去世之後。 Jesus himself seems to have been greatly incensed at this (comp. vi. 4), refusing to recognize any special relationship even to his mother (iii. 33; comp. John ii. 4), and declaring that spiritual relationship exceeded a natural one (iii. 35).耶穌自己似乎已被大大激怒了,在這個( comp.六4 ) ,拒絕承認任何特殊關係,甚至給他的母親( iii. 33個;可比。約翰二世4 ) ,並宣稱,精神文明的關係,超越自然的一個( iii. 35 ) 。 He felt perforce driven out into public activity; and the feverish excitement of the succeeding epoch-making ten months implies a tension of spirit which must have confirmed the impression of inspiration.他認為perforce趕出成出席公開活動時,以及狂熱興奮的佳績,具有劃時代十個月,隱含著緊張的精神,必須有確定的印象是一個啟示。 On the whole subject see O. Holtzman, "War Jesus Ekstatiker?"對整個課題見澳holtzman , "戰爭耶穌ekstatiker " ? (Leipsic, 1902), who agrees that there must have been abnormal mental processes involved in the utterances and behavior of Jesus. ( leipsic , 1902年) ,他同意,即必須具備這種不正常的心理加工過程中的言論和行為的耶穌。

His Belief in Demonology.他的信念demonology 。

Instead, however, of remaining in the wilderness like John, or like the Essenes, with whose tendencies his own show some affinity, he returned to his native district and sought out those whom he wished to influence.反之,然而,留在曠野中一樣,約翰,或像essenes ,其傾向,他自己的表現出一定的親和力,他回到他的鄉土區,並要求這些人,他想的影響力。 Incidentally he developed a remarkable power of healing; one sick of a fever (i. 29-34), a leper (i. 40-45), a paralytic (ii. 1-12), and an epileptic (ix. 15-29) being severally cured by him.順便提一句,他制定了一項了不起的力量癒合;之一生病的發燒(一29-34 ) ,一個leper (一40-45 ) ,麻痺( ii. 1-12 ) ,及癲癇( ix. 15 - 29 )被分開治愈,由他來決定。 But his activity in this regard was devoted especially to "casting out demons," ie, according to the folkmedicine of the time, healing nervous and mental diseases.但他在這方面的活動是專門尤其是"鑄造出魔鬼" ,即根據該folkmedicine的時間裡,醫治神經及精神疾病。 It would appear that Jesus shared in the current belief of the Jews in the noumenal existence of demons or evil spirits; and most of his miraculous cures consisted in casting them out, which he did with "the finger of God" (Luke xi. 20), or with "the Spirit of God" (Matt. xii. 28).這樣看來,耶穌共享,在目前信仰的猶太人,在本體的存在,魔或邪靈和他的大部分萬應靈丹在地中鑄造出來,而他卻以"手指的上帝" (路加福音十一, 20 ) ,或與"的精神,以神之名" 。 (十二28 ) 。 It would seem also that he regarded diseases like fever to be due to the existence of demons (Luke iv. 39).這似乎也說,他算是疾病,如發熱可由於存在魔(路四39 ) 。 One of the chief functions transmitted to his disciples was the "power over unclean spirits, to cast them out" (Matt. x. 1), and his superiority to his followers was shown by his casting out demons which they had failed to expel (ix. 14-29).其中的行政職能轉交給他的弟子,是"權力不潔的精神,以鑄造出來的" 。 (十一) ,和他的優勢,他的追隨者表明他鑄造出惡魔,他們沒有開除(九, 14-29 ) 。 As regards the miracle in which Jesus cast out a demon or several demons whose name was "Legion" into some Gadarene swine (v. 1-21), it has recently been ingeniously suggested by T. Reinach that the name "Legion" given to the spirits was due to the popular confusion between the Tenth Legion (the sole Roman garrison of Palestine between the years 70 and 135) and the wild boar which appeared as the insignia on its standard ("REJ" xlvii. 177).至於奇蹟,在這耶穌投出一個魔鬼或幾個妖魔,其命名為"軍團"成為一些gadarene豬(五1-21 ) ,它最近被巧妙的建議,由湯匙雷納克即命名為"軍團"給神,是因為民意混淆了第十軍團(唯一的羅馬駐軍巴勒斯坦之間的70年和135 )和野豬出現,因為徽章,其標準(下稱"相互執行判決"四十七177段) 。 From this it would seem that the legend arose, at any rate in its present form, after the destruction of Jerusalem, at which time alone the confusion between the title "legion" and the insignia could have occurred.從這一點看來傳說出現,但無論如何,在目前的形式,摧毀後,耶路撒冷,在這時候獨自混亂之間,題目是"軍團"和徽章,有可能發生。 For a full account of the subject see FC Conybeare in "JQR" viii.為充分考慮該學科見財委會科尼比爾在" jqr "八。 587-588, and compare Demonology. 587-588 ,並比較demonology 。 It is difficult to estimate what amount of truth exists in the accounts of these cures, recorded about forty years after their occurrence; but doubtless the mental excitement due to the influence of Jesus was often efficacious in at least partial or temporary cures of mental illnesses.這是很難估算金額應為多少真理的存在,在賬目中的這些醫治,錄得約四十年後,其發生,但毫無疑問,精神興奮,由於受耶穌往往是有效的,在至少部分地或暫時治愈的心理疾病。 This would tend to confirm the impression, both among those who witnessed the cures and among his disciples, of his possession of supernatural powers.這將有助於證實的印象,無論是在那些見證了醫治和他的弟子,他擁有超自然的權力。 He himself occasionally deprecated the exaggeration to which such cures naturally led.他自己偶爾廢棄誇大,以這種療法,自然帶動的。 Thus in the case of Jairus' daughter (v. 35-43) he expressly declared: "She is not dead, but sleepeth" (39).因此,在案件jairus '女兒(五35-43 ) ,他明確宣布: "她是不是死了,但是sleepeth " ( 39 ) 。

Notwithstanding this, her resuscitation was regarded as a miracle.儘管如此,她的復甦被視為是一個奇蹟。 In essentials Jesus' teaching was that of John the Baptist, and it laid emphasis on two points: (1) repentance, and (2) the near approach of the kingdom of God.在必需品耶穌的教學是一個證明,施洗約翰,並把重點放在兩點: ( 1 )悔過書,及( 2 )不久的做法,神的國度。 One other point is noted by Christian theologians as part of his essential teaching, namely, insistence upon the fatherhood of God.另一點值得留意的是由基督教神學家,因為他的部分教學必需的,即堅持後,做父親的上帝。 This is such a commonplace in the Jewish liturgy and in Jewish thought that it is scarcely necessary to point out its essentially Jewish character (see Father).這是一個司空見慣的,在猶太禮拜儀式,並在猶太人的思想,這是很少需要指出的,其本質猶太特性(見父親) 。 As regards repentance, its specifically Jewish note has been recently emphasized by CG Montefiore ("JQR" Jan., 1904), who points out that Christianity lays less stress upon this side of religious life than Judaism; so that in this direction Jesus was certainly more Jewish than Christian.至於悔罪,其具體猶太注已於日前所強調的CG montefiore ( " jqr " 1月, 1904年) ,他指出,基督教奠定更少了,壓力後,這方面的宗教生活,比猶太教,因此,在這個方向,耶穌被肯定更多的猶太人比基督徒。

As regards the notion of the "kingdom of heaven," the title itself ("malkut shamayim") is specifically Jewish; and the content of the concept is equally so (see Kingdom of God).至於概念的"天國" ,標題本身( " malkut shamayim " ) ,是專門猶太人和內容的概念,也同樣如此(見神的國度) 。 Jesus seems to have shared in the belief of his contemporaries that some world-catastrophe was at hand in which this kingdom would be reinstated on the ruins of a fallen world (ix. 1; comp. xiii. 35-37 and Matt. x. 23).耶穌似乎已在共同信念的是他說,一些世界大災難,是在手,在這個英國將恢復對遺址的倒下,世界( ix. 1 ;可比。十三, 35-37和馬特。十。 23 ) 。

Jewish Characteristics.猶太特性。

Almost at the beginning of his evangelical career Jesus differentiated himself from John the Baptist in two directions: (1) comparative neglect of the Mosaic or rabbinic law; and (2) personal attitude toward infractions of it.幾乎在一開始他的職業生涯福音耶穌區分自己從施洗約翰在兩個方向: ( 1 )比較忽視了馬賽克或rabbinic法;及( 2 )個人的態度違規的。 In many ways his attitude was specifically Jewish, even in directions which are usually regarded as signs of Judaic narrowness.在許多方面,他的態度是明確的猶太人,即使是在方向,這通常被視為標誌的猶太狹隘。 Jesus appears to have preached regularly in the synagogue, which would not have been possible if his doctrines had been recognized as being essentially different from the current Pharisaic beliefs.耶穌似乎有鼓吹定期在猶太教會堂,其中,也不會被可能的,如果他的理論已被承認為本質的不同,從目前pharisaic信念。 In his preaching he adopted the popular method of "mashal," or Parable, of which about thirty-one examples are instanced in the synoptic Gospels, forming indeed the larger portion of his recorded teachings.在他的說教,他通過廣受歡迎"的方法,馬沙爾" ,或寓言,其中約有31的例子是在實例化的天氣福音,形成事實上的較大部分,他記錄的教誨。 It is obvious that such a method is liable to misunderstanding; and it is difficult in all cases to reconcile the various views that seem to underlie the parables.但顯然,這種方法是會被誤會;而且很難在所有案件中,以調和各方面的意見後認為,似乎理解了parables 。 One of these parables deserves special mention here, as it has obviously been changed, for dogmatic reasons, so as to have an anti-Jewish application.其中的parables特別值得一提這裡的,因為它明顯地得到改變,為教條的原因,以便能有一個反猶太人的申請。 There is little doubt that J. Halevy is right ("REJ" iv. 249-255) in suggesting that in the parable of the good Samaritan (Luke x. 17-37) the original contrast was between the priest, the Levite, and the ordinary Israelite-representing the three great classes into which Jews then and now were and are divided.因此,毫無疑問,這j. halevy是正確的( "相互執行判決"四。 249-255 ) ,暗示在寓言好撒瑪利亞人(路十17-37 )原對照的是,與該名神父, levite ,普通israelite -代表三個偉大班納入其中猶太人,當時和現在都是和分歧。 The point of the parable is against the sacerdotal class, whose members indeed brought about the death of Jesus.點的寓言,是對sacerdotal階層,其成員確實帶來了死亡的耶穌。 Later, "Israelite" or "Jew" was changed into "Samaritan," which introduces an element of inconsistency, since no Samaritan would have been found on the road between Jericho and Jerusalem (ib. 30).後來, " israelite "或"猶太人"被改為"撒瑪利亞" ,其中提出的一個要素不一致的,因為沒有任何撒瑪利亞會被發現,在這個介乎傑里科和耶路撒冷( ib. 30 ) 。

While the aim of Jesus was to redeem those who had strayed from the beaten path of morality, he yet restricted his attention and that of his followers to the lost sons of Israel (vii. 24).雖然目的是耶穌被贖回那些已經偏離了因循守舊,固步自封的思想道德體系,但他限制他的注意和他的追隨者向失去兒子的以色列( vii. 24 ) 。 He particularly forbade his disciples to seek heathens and Samaritans (x. 5), and for the same reason at first refused to heal the Syrophenician woman (vii. 24).他特別禁止他的弟子尋求heathens和撒瑪利亞(十五) ,出於同樣的原因,在第一次拒絕醫治syrophenician女子( vii. 24 ) 。 His choice of twelve apostles had distinct reference to the tribes of Israel (iii. 13-16).他選擇十二使徒了鮮明的參考,以部落的以色列( iii. 13-16 ) 。 He regarded dogs and swine as unholy (Matt. vii. 6).他認為,狗和豬作為非神聖。 (七6 ) 。 His special prayer is merely a shortened form of the third, fifth, sixth, ninth, and fifteenth of the Eighteen Benedictions (see Lord's Prayer).他的特別祈禱,只是縮短形式的第三,第五,第六,第九,第十五了18名benedictions (見主禱文) 。 Jesus wore the Ẓiẓit (Matt. ix. 20); he went out of his way to pay the Temple tax of two drachmas (ib. xvii. 24-27); and his disciples offered sacrifice (ib. v. 23-24).耶穌穿上了ẓiẓit 。 (九20 ) ;他失控,他的付款方式,廟稅的兩個德拉克馬( ib.十七24-27 ) ;和他的弟子們提供了犧牲( ib.五23-24 ) 。 In the Sermon on the Mount he expressly declared that he had come not to destroy the Law, but to fulfil it (ib. v. 17, quoted in Shab. 116b), and that not a jot or tittle of the Law should ever pass away (ib. v. 18; comp. Luke xvi. 17).在山上寶訓中,他明確宣稱,他已到不要破壞法律,而是要履行它( ib.五, 17 ,引述在沙巴。 116 B條) ,並沒有一個記事本或微量的法律應當永遠合格遠離( ib.訴18人;可比。路加福音十六17 ) 。 It would even appear that later tradition regarded him as scrupulous in keeping the whole Law (comp. John viii. 46).它甚至會出現後來的傳統,把他列為一絲不苟,在保持整個法律( comp.約翰八46 ) 。

Attitude Toward the Law.實事求是的態度對待法律。

Yet in several particulars Jesus declined to follow the directions of the Law, at least as it was interpreted by the Rabbis.然而,在一些細節耶穌拒絕依照指示進行該法的,至少它解釋為拉比。 Where John's followers fasted, he refused to do so (ii. 18).而約翰的信徒禁食,但他拒絕這樣做( ii. 18 ) 。 He permitted his followers to gather corn on the Sabbath (ii. 23-28), and himself healed on that day (iii. 1-6), though the stricter rabbis allowed only the saving of life to excuse the slightest curtailment of the Sabbath rest (Shab. xxii. 6).他允許他的信徒們聚集玉米對安息日( ii. 23-28 ) ,和他自己癒合,這一天( iii. 1-6 ) ,雖然嚴格的猶太教士,只允許拯救生命,以藉口,絲毫削減安息日休息( shab.二十二。 6 ) 。 In minor points, such as the ablution after meals (vii. 2), he showed a freedom from traditional custom which implied a break with the stricter rule of the more rigorous adherents of the Law at that time.在小點,如沐浴後的餐( vii. 2 ) ,他具有不受傳統習俗這就意味著打破了嚴格的規則,更嚴格的信徒們把法律當作當時的。 His attitude toward the Law is perhaps best expressed in an incident which, though recorded in only one manuscript of the Gospel of Luke (vi. 4, in the Codex Bezæ), bears internal signs of genuineness.他的態度,法律也許是最好的表達一件事,雖然記錄上只有一個手稿馬太福音( vi. 4 ,在食品法典委員會bezæ ) ,熊內部標誌的真偽。 He is there reported to have met a man laboring onthe Sabbath-day-a sin deserving of death by stoning, according to the Mosaic law.他是有,據報有一名男子勞動onthe安息日天的罪過,值得用石頭砸死的極刑,根據鑲嵌法。 Jesus said to the man: "Man, if thou knowest what thou doest, blessed art thou; but if thou knowest not, accursed art thou, and a transgressor of the Law."耶穌說,該名男子: "人,你若知什麼你的旨意,是有福的你,但如果你知不譴責的藝術思,並transgressor的法會" 。 According to this, the Law should be obeyed unless a higher principle intervenes.根據這一點,法律應該服從除非更高的原則進行干預。

While claiming not to infringe or curtail the Law, Jesus directed his followers to pay more attention to the intention and motive with which any act was done than to the deed itself.雖然聲稱不侵犯或削弱法律的,耶穌指示他的追隨者多加留意的意圖和動機與其中的任何行為,是做了比對契約本身。 This was by no means a novelty in Jewish religious development: the Prophets and Rabbis had continuously and consistently insisted upon the inner motive with which pious deeds should be performed, as the well-known passages in Isa.這倒也不是新鮮事,在猶太宗教發展:先知和拉比曾不斷與一貫堅持的內在動機與虔誠的事蹟應當履行的,正如著名的通道,在伊薩。 i.一。 and Micah vi.和彌迦六。 sufficiently indicate.足以表明。 Jesus contended that the application of this principle was practically equivalent to a revolution in spiritual life; and he laid stress upon the contrast between the old Law and the new one, especially in his Sermon on the Mount.耶穌認為,這項原則的適用,幾乎全被等同於一種革命的精神文化生活;他著重強調了各國之間的對比舊法和新的問題,尤其是在他的山上寶訓。 In making these pretensions he was following a tendency which at the period of his career was especially marked in the Hasidæans and Essenes, though they associated it with views as to external purity and seclusion from the world, which differentiated them from Jesus.在作出上述自稱他是依循一種傾向,其中在一段他的職業生涯尤其顯著,在hasidæans和essenes ,雖然他們有聯繫的,它與看法等外部純度和隔離,從世界,其中有區別的,他們從耶穌。 He does not appear, however, to have contended that the new spirit would involve any particular change in the application of the Law.他沒有出現,不過,有爭辯說,新的精神,將涉及任何特定的變化,在法律的適用。 He appears to have suggested that marriages should be made permanent, and that divorce should not be allowed (x. 2-12).他似乎已經建議,婚姻應作出永久性的,而且離婚時,不應允許(十2-12 ) 。 In the Talmud it is even asserted that he threatened to change the old law of primogeniture into one by which sons and daughters should inherit alike (Shab. 116a); but there is no evidence for this utterance in Christian sources.在猶太法典,它甚至斷言,他揚言要改變舊法的長子到一所中華兒女要繼承一樣( shab. 116a ) ,但目前沒有證據顯示這話語在基督教來源。 Apart from these points, no change in the Law was indicated by Jesus; indeed, he insisted that the Jewish multitude whom he addressed should do what the Scribes and Pharisees commanded, even though they should not act as the Scribes acted (Matt. xxiii. 3).除了上述各點,並沒有改變,在法律上是表示,由耶穌,事實上,他堅持認為,猶太千頭萬緒,其中他應該做的是什麼,文士和法利賽指揮的,即使他們不應該充當文士行事。 (二十三。 3 ) 。 Jesus, however, does not appear to have taken into account the fact that the Halakah was at this period just becoming crystallized, and that much variation existed as to its definite form; the disputes of the Bet Hillel and Bet Shammai were occurring about the time of his maturity.耶穌,但是,似乎沒有考慮到一個事實,就是halakah在這個時期剛剛成為結晶,而且大部分變異存在,以它的確切形式;糾紛的投注hillel和BET shammai發生約時間他的成熟。

It is, however, exaggerated to regard these variations from current practises as exceptionally abnormal at the beginning of the first century.但是,它誇大了,把這些變化,從目前的做法是特大異常,在開始的第一個世紀。 The existence of a whole class of 'Am ha-Areẓ, whom Jesus may be taken to represent, shows that the rigor of the Law had not yet spread throughout the people.存在的一整類'時,房委會- areẓ ,耶穌的人可以採取代表,顯示了嚴謹的法律還沒有擴散到整個人。 It is stated (iii. 7) that, owing to the opposition aroused by his action on the Sabbath, Jesus was obliged to flee into heathen parts with some of his followers, including two or three women who had attached themselves to his circle.它說明( iii.七日)表示,由於在野黨引起他的行動,對安息日,耶穌不得不逃離到異教徒零件與他的一些追隨者,其中包括兩名或三名婦女,她們曾在自己的重視他的循環。 This does not seem at all probable, and is indeed contradicted by the Gospel accounts, which describe him, even after his seeming break with the rigid requirements of the traditional law, as lodging and feasting with the Pharisees (Luke xiv.), the very class that would have objected to his behavior.這似乎並不在所有可能的,確實是矛盾的福音帳戶,其中敘述了他,即使他似乎打破了僵化的要求,傳統的國際法,住宿和酒綠燈紅與法利(路加福音十四) ,很工人階級中有反對他的行為。

Tone of Authority.聲調的權威。

Nothing in all this insistence upon the spirit of the Law rather than upon the halakic development of it was necessarily or essentially anti-Jewish; but the tone adopted in recommending these variations was altogether novel in Jewish experience.沒有這一切後,堅持法律精神,而不是當halakic資訊科技的發展是必然或本質上反猶太人,但語氣通過在推薦這些差異是完全新型的,在猶太經驗。 The Prophets spoke with confidence in the truth of their message, but expressly on the ground that they were declaring the word of the Lord.先知們以信心的真相,他們的訊息,但明文規定,所持理由是,他們宣稱天主聖言。 Jesus adopted equal confidence; but he emphasized his own authority apart from any vicarious or deputed power from on high.耶穌通過平等信任,但他強調,他自己的權威,除了從任何替代或deputed權力來自於高。 Yet in doing so he did not-at any rate publicly-ever lay claim to any authority as attaching to his position as Messiah.但在這樣做時,他也未在任何公開率有史以來聲稱任何權威附在他的立場作為彌賽亞。 Indeed, the sole evidence in later times of any such claim seems to be based upon the statement of Peter, and was intimately connected with the personal demand of that apostle to be the head of the organization established by or in the name of Jesus.事實上,唯一的證據,在稍後的時間的任何此種索賠似乎是基於聲明的彼得,並有著密切的聯繫,與個人的需求這一使徒成為兼組織設立的,或者在耶穌的名字。 It is expressly stated (Matt. xvi. 20) that the disciples were admonished not to make public the claim, if it ever was made.這是明文規定。 (十六20 )表示,該弟子被告誡不要公開聲稱,如果政府作出解釋。 Peter's own pretensions to succession in the leadership appear to be based upon a half-humorous paronomasia made by Jesus, which finds a parallel in rabbinic literature (Matt. xvi. 18; comp. Yalḳ., Num. 766).彼得自己的偽裝,以繼承,在領導看來應立足於一個半幽默paronomasia所作的耶穌,而認定一個平行於rabbinic文學。 (十六, 18歲;可比。 yalḳ ,序號。 766 ) 。

Indeed, the most striking characteristics of the utterances of Jesus, regarded as a personality, were the tone of authority adopted by him and the claim that spiritual peace and salvation were to be found in the mere acceptance of his leadership.事實上,最引人注目的特點,該言論的耶穌,被視為個性,人的語氣管理局通過由他和中指的精神和平與救贖被發現,在僅僅接受了他的領導。 Passages like: "Take my yoke upon you . . . and ye shall find rest unto your souls" (Matt. xi. 29); "whosoever shall lose his life for my sake . . . shall save it" (viii. 35); "Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me" (Matt. xxv. 40), indicate an assumption of power which is certainly unique in Jewish history, and indeed accounts for much of modern Jewish antipathy to Jesus, so far as it exists.段落是這樣的: "把我的枷鎖後,你… … 。你們會發現,其餘所不欲,你的心靈" 。 (十一29 ) ; "凡應喪失他的生命為我… … 。均應保存" ( viii. 35 ) "因為你們這樣做所不欲,一個最小的,這些我的弟兄們,你們這樣做所不欲,我的" 。 (二十五40 ) ,表明一個上台,這肯定是獨一無二的猶太歷史,而事實上佔許多現代猶太人的反感,以耶穌,因此只要它存在。 On the other hand, there is little in any of these utterances to show that they were meant by the speaker to apply to anything more than personal relations with him; and it might well be that in his experience he found that spiritual relief was often afforded by simple human trust in his good-will and power of direction.在另一方面,有一點是在任何這些言論,以顯示他們的用意是由議長適用於任何多個人同他的關係,以及它可能會認為,根據他的經驗,他發現精神救濟往往是給予由簡單的人相信他有良好的意志和力量的方向發展。

This, however, raises the question whether Jesus regarded himself as in any sense a Messiah or spiritual ruler; and there is singularly little evidence in the synoptic Gospels to carry out this claim.然而,這提出了一個問題,是否耶穌把自己在任何意義上的救世主或精神的統治者;有奇很少證據顯示,在天氣福音來進行這項索賠。 These assert only that the claim was made to some of the disciples, and then under a distinct pledge of secrecy.這些斷言,只說,索賠了部分的弟子,然後再根據一個獨特的服務承諾保密。 In the public utterances of Jesus there is absolutely no trace of the claim (except possibly in the use of the expression "Son of Man").在公共話語的耶穌是絕對不存在的微量的索賠(除了可能在使用的"人子" ) 。 Yet it would almost appear that in one sense of the word Jesus regarded himself as fulfilling some of the prophecies which were taken among contemporary Jews as applying to the Messiah.然而,它幾乎出現在某種意義的字,耶穌把自己履行的一些預言,其中被帶到當代猶太人為適用於彌賽亞。 It is doubtful whether it was later tradition or his own statements that identified him with the servant of Yhwh represented in Isa.這是令人懷疑是否是後來傳說或他自己的陳述,認定他與僕人yhwh的代表伊薩。 liii.; but there appears to be no evidence of any Jewish conception of a Messiah suffering through and for his people, though there possibly was a conception of one suffering together with his people (see Messiah). liii 。 ;但似乎沒有任何證據證明任何猶太觀一個彌賽亞的痛苦經歷,為他的人,雖然有可能是一個概念,一個痛苦連同他的人(見彌賽亞) 。 Jesus himself never used the term "Messiah."耶穌自己從未使用的是"彌賽亞" 。 He chose for specific title "Son of Man," which may possibly have been connectedin his mind with the reference in Dan.他選擇了為特定商品的"人子" ,有可能被connectedin ,他的頭腦中提到丹。 vii.七。 13, but which, according to modern theologians, means simply man in general. 13 ,但據現代神學家,是指純粹的男子一般。 In his own mind, too, this may have had some reference to his repudiation by his family.用他自己的心目中,太來說,這可能是有一定的參考作用,以他的休妻其家屬表示慰問。 In other words, Jesus regarded himself as typically human, and claimed authority and regard in that aspect.或者換句話說,耶穌把自己作為典型的人,並聲稱管理局和方面,在這方面。 He certainly disclaimed any application to himself of the ordinary conception of the Messiah, the Davidic descent of whom he argues against (xii. 35-57) entirely in the Talmudic manner.他當然disclaimed任何申請,以自己的一般概念的彌賽亞, davidic血統的人,他辯稱票反對( xii. 35-57 ) ,全部暴露在talmudic方式。

No New Organization, Contemplated.沒有新的組織,訂立合同。

It is difficult to decide the question whether Jesus contemplated a permanent organization to carry out his ideals.這是很難決定的問題,是否耶穌爭議常設機構進行他的理想。 The whole tendency of his work was against the very idea of organization.整個傾向他的工作是針對極組織理念。 His practical acceptance of the Law would seem to imply an absence of any rival mode of life; and his evident belief in an almost immediate reconstruction of the whole social and religious order would tend to prevent any formal arrangements for a new religious organization.他的實際接受的法律,似乎是在暗示,沒有任何競爭對手的模式生活,以及他的顯而易見的信仰,幾乎立即重建整個社會和宗教秩序會傾向於以防止任何正式安排,讓一個新的宗教組織。 The opposition between his followers and the "world," or settled and organized conditions of society, would also seem to imply that those who were to work in his spirit could not make another "world" of their own with the same tendency to conventionality and spiritual red tape.兩國之間的對立,他的追隨者和"世界" ,或者定居,並且有組織條件的社會,也似乎是在暗示,那些工作,他的精神是不能做的另一個"世界"他們自己的具有相同的趨勢,常規和精神文明繁文縟節。 On the whole, it may be said that he did not make general plans, but dealt with each spiritual problem as it arose.就整體而言,可以說,他並沒有做出總體規劃,但處理每一個精神問題,因為這個問題出來了。 "It would almost seem as if he had no consciousness of a mission of any definite sort, so content had he been to let things merely happen" (EP Gould, "St. Mark," p. lxxv.): that is certainly how his career strikes an outside observer. "這幾乎好像如果他沒有意識的一個代表團任何明確的排序,所以內容如果他讓事情發生,只是"程序( EP古爾德, "聖馬克" ,頁lxxv ) :這肯定是如何他的職業生涯罷工的一個旁觀者。 He was content to let the influence of his own character work upon the persons immediately surrounding him, and that they should transmit this influence silently and without organization; working by way of leaven, as his parable puts it (Matt. xiii.).他的內容,讓影響自己的工作性質後,有關人員立即圍繞他,並認為他們應該傳遞這種影響力,默默無組織工作的方式,神曲,因為他的寓言所說的。 (十三) 。 His chief work and that of his disciples consisted in the conscious attempt at "saving souls."他的主要工作和他的弟子在地中有意識地嘗試"拯救靈魂" 。 Jesus was justified in thinking that this new departure would tend to bring dissension rather than peace into families, dividing sons and parents (ib. x. 53).耶穌是有道理的,在思考這個新的出發點,往往會帶來糾紛,而不是和平的進入家庭,除以兒子與父母( ib.十, 53 ) 。

On the character which, whether designedly or otherwise, produced such momentous influence on the world's history, it is unnecessary in this place to dilate.關於性格,是否designedly或以其他方式,產生這種重大的影響,對世界的歷史上,這是不必要的,在這個地方擴張。 The reverential admiration of the greater part of the civilized world has for a millennium and a half been directed toward the very human and sympathetic figure of the Galilean Jew as presented in the Gospels.該reverential欽佩的更大的文明世界的一部分已為千禧年半以來針對極人力和同情的數字伽利略猶太人,因為在福音。 For historic purposes, however, it is important to note that this aspect of him was shown only to his immediate circle.具有歷史價值的用途,不過,必須注意的是,這方面對他的表現只能以他的切身循環。 In almost all of his public utterances he was harsh, severe, and distinctly unjust in his attitude toward the ruling and well-to-do classes.幾乎在他所有的公開言論,他是苛刻,嚴厲,並有明顯的不公正,他的態度,即執政黨和油井到做班級。 After reading his diatribes against the Pharisees, the Scribes, and the rich, it is scarcely to be wondered at that these were concerned in helping to silence him.看完他的抨擊法利,文士,以及豐富的,它是幾乎不被懷疑,在這些被關注,幫助他的沉默。 It must also be remembered that in his public utterances he rarely replied directly to any important question of principle, but evaded queries by counter-queries.它也必須記住,在他的公開言論,他很少直接回答任何重要的原則問題,但都迴避質詢反質疑。 In considering his public career, to which attention must now be turned, these two qualities of his character have to be taken into account.在考慮他的公眾生涯中,要注意哪些現在必須轉向,這兩個素質,他的性格都必須考慮在內。

During the ten months which elapsed between the ripening of the corn about June of the year 28 and his death in March or April of the following year Jesus appears to have wandered about the north-west shore of Lake Gennesaret, making excursions from time to time into the adjacent heathen territories, and devoting himself and his disciples to the spread of John the Baptist's message of the nearness of the kingdom of heaven and of the need of repentance in order to enter it.在10個月過去了,這與成熟的玉米約6月的28年和他的去世,在3月或4月的下一年度耶穌似乎已經洪荒之約西北岸上的湖革尼撒勒,使遠足不時到毗鄰的異教徒領土,並把他自己和他的弟子的蔓延施洗約翰的信息的貼近度的天國的和必要的悔過書,以進入。 The details of these wanderings are very obscure, and need not be discussed here (see Briggs, "New Light on the Life of Jesus," New York, 1904).這些詳情wanderings很模糊,也不需要在這裡討論(見布里格斯, "新光源對耶穌的生命中, "紐約, 1904年) 。

The antinomianism of Jesus became more evident to the rulers of the people; and many of the more religious classes avoided contact with him.該antinomianism耶穌會變得更加明顯,以統治者的人,以及許多較宗教班避免接觸他的看法。 He had from the beginning laid stress upon the difficulty of associating sanctity with riches; and in this he adopted the quasi-socialistic views of the later Psalms, Ps.他從一開始就注重後難的締神聖性與財富,以及在此,他通過了準社會主義色彩的意見,後來的詩篇,聚苯乙烯。 ix., x., xxii., xxv., xxxv., xl., lxix., cix.九,十,二十二,二十五,三十五,四十, lxix , cix 。 (comp. I. Loeb, "La Littérature des Pauvres dans la Bible," Paris, 1894). ( comp.一勒布的" La littérature萬pauvres dans香格里拉聖經" ,巴黎, 1894年) 。 He insisted to the fullest extent on the view implied in those Psalms and in various utterances of the Prophets, that poverty and piety, riches and antisocial greed, were practically synonymous (comp. the form of the beatitudes given in Luke vi. 20, 24-26).他堅持,以最充分的程度上看法隱含在這些詩篇,並在各種話語的先知,貧窮和孝道,財富和反社會的貪婪,幾乎同義( comp.形式的beatitudes由於在路加六20 , 24 -26 ) 。 The parable of Lazarus and Dives and the interview with the rich young man show a distinct and one-sided tendency in this direction similar to that of the later Ebionites; though, on the other hand, Jesus was willing to lodge with Zaechæus, a rich publican (Luke xix. 2, 5).寓言拉撒路和俯衝和訪談與豐富的小伙子表現出鮮明的和片面的傾向,在這個方向相似,即後來的ebionites ;不過,在另一方面,耶穌願意提出與zaechæus ,具有豐富publican (路加福音十九, 2日, 5日) 。 In the form of the interview with the rich young man given in the "Gospel According to the Hebrews," sympathy seems to be restricted to the poor of the Holy Land: "Behold, many of thy brethren, sons of Abraham, are clothed but in dung, and die for hunger, while thy house is full of many goods, and there goeth not forth aught from it unto them."在形式的訪談與豐富的年輕男子,由於在"福音根據希伯來人, "同情似乎僅限於窮人的聖地: "看哪,有很多你的兄弟,兒子亞伯拉罕的是豐衣足食,但在畜糞,死為飢餓,而你的房子是充滿了許多貨物,並有阿蒙不出來聽取任何來自它賜給他們" 。

Jesus in Jerusalem.耶穌在耶路撒冷。

As the Passover of the year 29 approached, Jesus determined to carry out the injunction of the Law which made it incumbent to eat the sacrificial lamb at Jerusalem.由於逾越節的今年29越接近,耶穌決心進行強制的法律,這使現任吃替罪羔羊在耶路撒冷。 In the later tradition attempts were made to convey the impression that Jesus was aware of the fate that awaited him at Jerusalem: but in the earliest forms (ix. 32, x. 32) it is recognized that the disciples did not understand the vague hints, if they were at all given; and there is little to show that his visit to Jerusalem was a case of sublime suicide.在後來的傳統,也曾試圖傳達的印象是,耶穌被察覺的命運表示期待他在耶路撒冷:但在最早的形式( ix. 32個,十, 32 ) ,它是認識到,弟子不明白以含糊的提示,如果他們倆都對;很少有跡象表明,他訪問耶路撒冷是一個案件崇高而自殺。 At the last moment at Gethsemane he made an attempt to avoid arrest ("Rise up, let us go," xiv. 42).在最後一刻,在gethsemane他企圖逃避逮捕( "起來,讓我們去, "十四42 ) 。 Jerusalem at this time appears to have been in a very unsettled state.耶路撒冷在這個時候似乎已經處於一個非常不穩定的狀態。 An attempted revolution seems to have broken out under one Jesus bar Abbas, who had been captured and was in prison at the time (xv. 7).企圖革命似乎時有發生,下一個耶穌酒吧阿巴斯,他們已被抓獲,並在監獄中,在時間( xv. 7 ) 。 It appears to have been the practise of Pontius Pilate to come up to Jerusalem each year at Passover for the purpose of checking any revolt that might break out at that period recalling the redemption of Israel.這似乎已成為執業的,祂比拉多拿出耶路撒冷每年在逾越節為目的,制止任何反抗表示,有可能打破在這一時期回顧贖回以色列。 It is indicative of the temper of the people that during the first half of the first century several risings occurred against the Romans: against Varus, 4 BC; under Judas against the Census, 6 CE; by the Samaritans against Pilate in 38; and by Theudas against Fadusin 45-all indicating the continuously unsettled condition of the people under Roman rule.它表明了脾氣的人表示,在今年上半年第一世紀的幾個risings發生針對入鄉隨俗:針對內翻, 4公元前;下猶大對普查工作中, 6條行政長官;由撒瑪利亞防止比拉多在38個,並通過塞烏達斯對fadusin 45 -所有標明不斷不穩定的狀況,以及人民羅馬人統治。

In the Temple.在寺廟中。

As far as can be judged, his reception was as much a surprise to Jesus as it was to his followers and to the leaders of the people.據,可以判斷出,他的接待,是因為很多人感到意外,耶穌,因為這是對他的弟子,向各國領導人在人民手中。 His reputation as a miracle-worker had preceded him; and when the little cavalcade of some twenty persons which formed his escort approached the Fountain Gate of Jerusalem he was greeted by many of the visitors to the city as if he were the long-hoped-for deliverer from bondage.他的聲譽,作為一個奇蹟-工人之前,他和當小主題講演約2 0人,形成了他的護送走近噴泉門耶路撒冷的他,迎接他的許多遊人在城市裡,如果他被期待已久的為送料,從勞役。 This would appear to have been on the first day of the week and on the 10th of Nisan, when, according to the Law, it was necessary that the paschal lamb should be purchased.這似乎已對首日的一周內,並於10日尼散月14日,時,根據法律規定,這是需要逾越的羔羊,應購買。 It is therefore probable that the entry into Jerusalem was for this purpose.因此,這是有可能進入耶路撒冷作此用途。 In making the purchase of the lamb a dispute appears to have arisen between Jesus' followers and the money-changers who arranged for such purchases; and the latter were, at any rate for that day, driven from the Temple precincts.在作出購買的羔羊之爭似乎已經出現了與耶穌的追隨者和外幣找換店的負責安排,例如購買和後者,在任何速率為這一天,被趕出廟宇區。 It would appear from Talmudic references that this action had no lasting effect, if any, for Simon ben Gamaliel found much the same state of affairs much later (Ker. i. 7) and effected some reforms (see Derenbourg in "Histoire de la Palestine," p. 527).這樣看來,從talmudic參考,這一行動沒有持久的影響,如果有的話,對本西蒙加馬發現許多同一國家的內政晚得多( ker.一7 ) ,並實施一些改革(見德朗堡" ,歷史學德香格里拉巴勒斯坦" ,頁527 ) 。 The act drew public attention to Jesus, who during the next few days was asked to define his position toward the conflicting parties in Jerusalem.該法提請公眾注意耶穌,將在未來數天內被要求確定他的立場就是對衝突各方在耶路撒冷。 It seemed especially to attack the emoluments of the priestly class, which accordingly asked him to declare by what authority he had interfered with the sacrosanct arrangements of the Temple.它似乎尤其攻擊酬金的司鐸級,因此,要求他宣布由什麼權威,他曾干預與神聖不可侵犯安排的廟宇。 In a somewhat enigmatic reply he placed his own claims on a level with those of John the Baptist-in other words, he based them on popular support.在一個有點神秘的答复他把自己的債權的水平,相對於施洗約翰-或者換句話說,他基於他們對人民的支持。 Other searching questions put to him by the Sadducces and the Scribes received somewhat more definite answers.其他搜尋向他提出的問題,由sadducces和文士收到了較為明確的答案。 On the former asking what evidence for immortality he derived from the Old Testament, he quoted Ex.就前者提出什麼證據,為不死他來自舊約,他引述前。 iii.三。 6, and deduced from it that as God is God of the living, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob must have been living after their death-a deduction quite in the spirit of Talmudic Asmakta (comp. Sanh. 90b). 6 ,並推斷,從它表示,由於上帝是上帝的生活,亞伯拉罕,以撒,雅各必須一直生活在他們死後-扣除相當,在精神talmudic asmakta ( comp. sanh 。第九十B ) 。

The Test of the Tribute.測試的敬意。

To a scribe asking him (in the spirit of Hillel) to what single commandment the whole Law could be reduced, he quoted the doctrine of the Didache, which gives the two chief commandments as the Shema' (Deut. vi. 4) and "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself" (Lev. xviii. 19), thus declaring the essential solidarity of his own views with those of the Old Testament and of current Judaism, But the most crucial test was put to him by certain of the adherents of Herod, who asked him whether it was lawful to pay tribute to Cæsar.一文士,問他(在精神hillel )在何種單一誡整個法律可以減少,他引述學說的didache ,這使兩個行政誡命作為架構』 (申命記六。 4 )和"你愛你的鄰居,因為你自己" ( lev.十八,十九) ,從而宣告必不可少的團結,他自己的看法,相對於舊約和當前猶太教,但最關鍵的考驗是向他提出的某些教徒希律的,他們問他是否是合法的敬意cæsar 。 Here again he scarcely answered directly, but, asking for a denarius of tribute, deduced from the image and superscription thereon the conclusion that it ought to be returned unto Cæsar (Matt. xxii. 21).在這裡他又幾乎沒有直接答复,但要求一個denarius的敬意,推斷,從形象和superscription就此結論,認為它應該是又轉回cæsar 。 ( 22 。 21 ) 。 A very probable tradition, retained in Tatian's "Diatessaron," declares that the colloquy with Peter recorded in Matt.一個很可能的傳統,保留tatian的" diatessaron , "聲明說,該次座談會,與彼得記錄在馬特。 xvii.十七。 24-26 occurred on this occasion. 24日至26日發生的這次會議。 Neither the original answer nor his further defense of it was satisfactory to the Zealots, who were anxious for an uprising against the Romans.無論是原來的答复,也沒有進一步的防衛,它是滿意的痴迷者,他們急於為起義反對羅馬人。 He had made it clear that he had no sympathy with the nationalistic aspirations of the common people, though they had welcomed him under the impression that he was about to realize their hopes.他已說得很清楚,他沒有同情與民族主義訴求的普通百姓,儘管他們歡迎他的印象是,他當時正準備實現自己的希望。 It is only this incident which accounts historically for the contrast between the acclamations of Palm Sunday and the repudiation on the succeeding Friday.這只是這件事,其中戶口在歷史上為對比acclamations棕櫚週日和不可否認性就接替週五。

This change of popular sentiment cleared the way for action by the priestly class, which had been offended in both pride and pocket by Jesus' action in clearing the purlieus of the Temple.這個轉變的民心掃清了道路所採取的行動而司鐸級,已經得罪了,在雙方的自豪感和Pocket由耶穌的行動,在清理purlieus的廟宇。 They may have also genuinely feared a rising under Jesus, having in view the manner in which he had been welcomed on the previous Sunday, though this was possibly brought forward merely as a pretext.他們也可能真的害怕崛起下耶穌,有鑑於以何種方式在他的歡迎,被於前週日,雖然這可能是提出了,只是作為一個藉口。 It would appear that they determined to seize him before the Feast of the Passover, when the danger of an outbreak would be at its greatest height and when it would be impossible for them to hold a court (Yom-Ṭob v. 2).這樣看來,他們決心抓住他之前的節日逾越節,當危險的爆發,將在其最大高度時,將不可能為他們舉行一次法院(贖罪- ṭob訴2 ) 。

The Last Supper.最後的晚餐。

According to the synoptic Gospels, it would appear that on the Thursday evening of the last week of his life Jesus with his disciples entered Jerusalem in order to eat the Passover meal with them in the sacred city; if so, the wafer and the wine of the mass or the communion service then instituted by him as a memorial would be the unleavened bread and the unfermented wine of the Seder service (see Bickell, "Messe und Pascha," Leipsic, 1872).根據天氣福音,這樣看來,對週四晚間的最後一個星期他的生命耶穌與他的弟子進入耶路撒冷,以吃逾越節的一頓飯,他們在神聖的城市;若有,晶圓及酒大眾或共融的服務,然後由他作為紀念,將無酵餅和未葡萄酒的seder服務(見bickell , "展覽und逾越節時, " leipsic , 1872 ) 。 On the other hand, the Gospel of John, the author of which appears to have had access to some trustworthy traditions about the last days, represents the priests as hurrying on the trial in order to avoid taking action on the festival-which would, according to this, have begun on Friday evening-though this view may have been influenced by the desire to make the death of Jesus symbolize the sacrifice of the paschal lamb.另一方面,關於福音的約翰,作者似乎已經獲得了一些值得信賴的傳統,對過去幾天來,代表祭司為趕關於審判,以避免採取行動,在電影節將根據這一點,已經開始對週五晚間儘管這種看法可能是受到慾望,使之死,象徵著耶穌的犧牲逾越羔羊。 Chwolson ("Das Letzte Passahmal Christi," St. Petersburg, 1893) has ingeniously suggested that the priests were guided by the older Halakah, according to which the law of the Passover was regarded as superior to that of the Sabbath, so that the lamb could be sacrificed even on Friday night; whereas Jesus and his disciples would seem to have adopted the more rigorous view of the Pharisees by which the paschal lamb ought to be sacrificed on the eve of the 14th of Nisan when the 15th coincided with the Sabbath (see Bacher in "JQR" v. 683-686).奇沃爾松( "之letzte passahmal基督教, "聖彼得斯堡, 1893年)已經巧妙的建議祭司的指導思想是由兩國老一輩halakah ,根據該法的逾越節被視為優於即安息日,使羔羊可以被犧牲,甚至上週五晚,而耶穌和他的弟子似乎已採取更嚴格的看法法利其中逾越節的羔羊,應以犧牲在除夕夜的14時,尼散月15日,正值安息日(見bacher在" jqr "五683-686 ) 。

It would seem that by this time Jesus had become aware of the intention of the high priests to do him harm; for after the Seder ceremony he secreted himself in the Garden of Gethsemane outside the city walls, where, however, his hiding-place was betrayed by one of his immediate followers, Judas, a man of Kerioth (see Judas Iscariot).這似乎是這個時候,耶穌已經成為意識到的意圖高級神職人員做他的傷害;之後seder儀式分泌他在自己的花園gethsemane外城牆,但是,如果他的藏身之位的是背叛了他的一個切身的追隨者,猶大,一名男子的kerioth (見猶大iscariot ) 。 On what grounds Jesus was arrested is not quite clear.基於什麼理由,耶穌被逮捕不太清楚。 Even if he had claimed to be the Messiah, he would have committed no crime according to Jewish law.即使他自稱為彌賽亞,他將沒有犯罪根據猶太人的法律。 It appears that he was taken first to the house of the high priest, probably Anan's, which was without the walls, and where in a hurried consultation the only evidence against him was apparently an assertion that he could overthrow the Temple and replace it with one made without hands-in other words, with aspiritual kingdom.看來,他被帶到首先向眾議院高級神職人員,阿南可能的,這是沒有圍牆,並在在急急忙忙協商唯一對他不利的證據,顯然是一個斷言,他可以推翻廟,取而代之的是一未經手中-換言之,與a spiritual英國。 This, according to Holtzmann ("Leben Jesu," p. 327), was equivalent to a claim to the Messiahship.為此,根據holtzmann ( " ,生活jesu " ,頁327 ) ,相當於債權向messiahship 。 Jesus is reported to have distinctly made this claim in answer to a direct question by the high priest; but the synoptic Gospels vary on this point, xiv.耶穌是據報,有鮮明提出這個要求,在回答一個直接的問題是由高級神職人員,但天氣福音不同,在這一點上,十四。 62 making the claim, and Matt. 62 ,使索賠,以及馬特。 xxvi.二十六。 64 and Luke xxii. 64和路加福音二十二。 69 representing an evasion, which was more in accord with the usual practise of Jesus when questioned by opponents. 69個代表逃避,這是更符合一貫奉行耶穌的時候,質疑對手。 The rending of his clothes by the high priest seems rather to imply that the charge was one of "gidduf" or blasphemy (Sanh. vii. 10, 11).該再現了他的衣服,由高級神職人員似乎相當暗示收費是一個" gidduf "或褻瀆( sanh.七, 10日, 11日) 。

There could be no question of anything corresponding to a trial taking place on this occasion before the Sanhedrin.不可能有任何問題,有什麼相應的試點正在發生的這個場合之前公會。 Whatever inquest was made must have occurred during the Thursday night and outside Jerusalem (for on entering the city a prisoner would have had to be given up to the Roman garrison), and can not have been held before a quorum of the seventy-one members of the Sanhedrin.無論死因是必須發生在週四晚間和耶路撒冷以外的(對進入城市的囚犯將不得不放棄以羅馬駐軍) ,並不能已舉行之前符合法定人數的71成員該公會。 It is more probable that the twenty-three members of the priestly section of the latter, who had most reason to be offended with Jesus' action in cleansing the Temple, met informally after he had been seized, and elicited sufficient to justify them in their own opinion in delivering him over to the Romans as likely to cause trouble by his claims or pretensions to the Messiahship, which, of course, would be regarded by them as rebellion against Rome.這是更可能因為23成員組成的聖節後者,他們最有理由被冒犯與耶穌的行動在潔淨聖殿,非正式會面後,他已被收繳,並引起足夠的理由讓他們有自己的看法,在提供他交給羅馬人,因為可能會引起麻煩,他的說法或偽裝向messiahship ,其中,當然會被認為是他們為反抗羅馬。 Nothing corresponding to a Jewish trial took place, though it was by the action of the priests that Jesus was sent before Pontius Pilate (see Crucifixion).沒有相應的一個猶太審判事件發生後,雖然是由行動的牧師說,耶穌被派到美國,祂比拉多(見釘死在十字架上) 。 The Gospels speak in the plural of the high priests who condemned him-a seeming contradiction to Jewish law which might throw doubt upon their historic character.福音發言複數的高級神職人員,他們譴責他的一個看似矛盾的猶太法律而可能丟懷疑自己所肩負的歷史性格。 Two, however, are mentioned, Joseph Caiaphas and Annas (Hanan), his father-in-law.然而,在二者都提到,約瑟夫亞法和annas (哈南) ,他的岳父。 Hanan had been deposed from the high-priesthood by Valerius Gratus, but he clearly retained authority and some prerogatives of the high priest, as most of those who succeeded him were relatives of his; and he may well have intervened in a matter touching so nearly the power of the priests.哈南已被廢黜的,從高神職人員由valerius gratus ,但他清楚地保留了權威和一些特權的高級神職人員,因為大多數人的成功是他的親戚,他和他可能已經插手的事,感人的,所以近權力的祭司。 According to the Talmud, Hanan's bazaars were on the Mount of Olives, and probably therefore also his house; this would thus have become the appropriate place for the trial by the Sanhedrin, which indeed just about this time had moved its place of session thither (see Sanhedrin).根據猶太法典,哈南的集貿市場分別於橄欖山,並可能因此也是他的房子,這將成為合適的地點,為審判,審判廳,這確實只是這個時間已轉移其位置的會議上去(見公會) 。

The Crucifixion.受難日。

In handing over their prisoner to the procurator, Pontius Pilate, the Jewish officials refused to enter the pretorium as being ground forbidden to Jews.在移交囚犯,他們向檢察長,祂比拉多,猶太官員拒絕進入pretorium作為地面禁止猶太人。 They thereby at any rate showed their confidence in the condemnation of Jesus by the Roman power.他們從而在任何速度說明了他們的信心,在譴責耶穌由羅馬權力。 Before Pilate the sole charge could be attempted rebellion against the emperor.之前,比拉多唯一電荷可以試圖反抗皇帝。 In some way, it would appear, the claim to be king of the Jews (or possibly of a kingdom of heaven) was made before him by Jesus himself, as is shown by the inscription nailed up in derision on the cross.在某種程度上,它會出現,聲稱自己是國王的猶太人(或者有可能一個天國王朝)是在他面前的,由耶穌本人,作為呈現出來,碑文被釘在揶揄就在十字架上。 To Pilate the problem presented was somewhat similar to that which would present itself to an Indian official of to-day before whom a Mohammedan should be accused of claiming to be the Mahdi.比拉多的問題,是可以有點類似表示,將提出自己是一位印度官員的到前一天的人,穆罕默德應該被指責的男子自稱為馬赫迪。 If overt acts in a disturbed district had accompanied the claim, the official could scarcely avoid passing sentence of condemnation; and Pilate took the same course.如果行為,在一個不安區曾陪同索賠時,官方可以幾乎避免一句譴責;和比拉多了同樣的課程。 But he seems to have hesitated: while condemning Jesus, he gave him a chance of life.但他似乎已將遲疑了:一方面譴責耶穌,他給了他一個機會的生活方式。 It appears to have been the practise to grant to the Jewish populace the privilege of pardoning a prisoner on public holidays; and Pontius Pilate held out to the rabble surrounding the pretorium (for most responsible heads of families must have been at this time engaged in searching for leaven in their own homes) a choice between Jesus and the other Jesus (bar Abbas), who also had been accused of rebellion.這似乎已成為執業發放給猶太民眾的特權赦免一名囚犯在公眾假期;祂比拉多舉行向暴民包圍pretorium (最負責任的家庭戶主必須已在這個時候進行搜索為尚基在自己的家)之間作出抉擇。耶穌和其他耶穌(酒吧阿巴斯) ,他也被指控叛亂。 The mob had naturally more sympathy for the avowed rebel than for the person who had recommended the payment of tribute.暴徒了,自然更同情宣稱叛軍比人曾建議支付的敬意。 It chose Barabbas; and Jesus was left to undergo the Roman punishment of Crucifixion in company with two malefactors.它選擇了barabbas ;耶穌被留下接受羅馬懲治釘死在十字架上,在公司與兩個malefactors 。 He refused with some not overkindly words (Luke xxiii. 28-31) the deadening drink of frankincense, myrrh, and vinegar which the ladies of Jerusalem were accustomed to offer to condemned criminals in order that they might pass away in an unconscious state (Sanh. 43a).他拒絕了一些不overkindly話(路二十三28-31 )隔阻飲料的乳香,沒藥,醋類,其中女裝耶路撒冷習慣於提供,譴責犯罪分子,使他們有可能去世,在昏迷狀態( sanh 。 43 A條) 。 Whatever had been Jesus' anticipations, he bore the terrible tortures, due to the strain and cramping of the internal organs, with equanimity till almost the last, when he uttered the despairing and pathetic cry "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?"不管已經耶穌的預期,他無端背負了可怕的折磨,由於應變和抽筋的內部器官,以平常心到幾乎最後,當他說出了絕望和悲情吶喊" eloi , eloi ,達賴喇嘛sabachthani " ? (the Aramaic form of Ps. xxii. 1, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?"), which showed that even his resolute spirit had been daunted by the ordeal. (阿拉姆語形式的PS 。二十二。 1 , "我的上帝,我的上帝,為什麼祢被拋棄我嗎? " ) ,這表明,即使是他那堅決的精神已被沮喪所折磨。 This last utterance was in all its implications itself a disproof of the exaggerated claims made for him after his death by his disciples.這最後一句是在其所有的影響,本身就是一個反證的誇大聲稱取得了對他逝世後由他的弟子。 The very form of his punishment would disprove those claims in Jewish eyes.非常形式的懲罰,他會反駁這些說法猶太眼睛是雪亮的。 No Messiah that Jews could recognize could suffer such a death; for "He that is hanged is accursed of God" (Deut. xxi. 23), "an insult to God" (Targum, Rashi).沒有彌賽亞猶太人可以承認可能遭受這種死亡; "他說,是絞刑是招致譴責的神" (申命記二十一,二十三) , "是一種侮辱,以神之名" ( targum , rashi ) 。 How far in his own mind Jesus substituted another conception of the Messiah, and how far he regarded himself as fulfilling that ideal, still remain among the most obscure of historical problems (see Messiah).有多遠,在他自己心目中耶穌取代另一個概念的彌賽亞,並有多遠,他視自己為實現這一理想,但仍然是其中最模糊的歷史問題(見彌賽亞) 。

Bibliography: Of the enormous literature relating to Jesus it is unnecessary to refer in this place to more than a few of the more recent works, which give in most cases references to their predecessors.參考書目:的巨大文學有關耶穌,這是不必要的轉介,在這個地方多一些較近期的作品,它使在多數情況下,參照他們的前輩。 On the sources the best work, at any rate in English, still remains EA Abbott's Gospels in Encyc.就來源最好的工作,無論如何,在英語,但仍然是環境因素雅培的福音,在encyc 。 Brit.英國人。 On the parallels with rabbinic sources:就在同rabbinic來源:

Lightfoot, Horœ Talmudieœ; (best ed., Oxford, 1854); A. Wünsche, Neue Beiträge zur Erlduterung der Evangelien aus Talmud und Midrasch, Göttingen, 1878; GH Dalman, The Words of Jesus, Edinburgh, 1901. lightfoot , horœ talmudieœ ; (最佳版,牛津, 1854年) ;甲wünsche , neue beiträge zur erlduterung明鏡evangelien澳大利亞猶太法典und midrasch ,哥廷根, 1878年;生長激素dalman ,換句話說耶穌,愛丁堡, 1901 。 On the life of Jesus the best and most critical recent work is that of O. Holtzmann, Leben Jesu, Leipsic, 1901 (Eng. transl. London, 1904).對耶穌的生命中最好的和最關鍵的近期工作,是對澳holtzmann ,生活jesu , leipsic , 1901年(英譯,倫敦, 1904年) 。 W. Sanday, in Hastings, Dict.小sanday ,在黑斯廷斯,字典。 Bible, sv, presents a moderate and candid estimate of the various aspects of the life from the orthodox Christian standpoint, and gives a critical bibliography to each section.聖經sv ,提出了一種溫和的和坦誠的估計,各方面的生活,從正統基督教的立場,並給出了一個關鍵的書目,以每節。 A similar critical view, with a fuller account of the literature attached to each section, is given by Zöckler in Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc.類似批評的角度,以更詳盡的文獻附於每節,是由zöckler在赫爾佐克- Hauck先生,實時encyc 。 sv With regard to the relation of the Law to Jesus, the Christian view is expressed by: Bousset, Jesu Predigt in Ihrem Gegensatz zum Judentum, Göttingen, 1892; GH Dalman, Christianity and Judaism, London, 1901. sv方面關係的法律,以耶穌,基督教的看法是,所表達的: bousset , jesu predigt在ihrem gegensatz zum judentum ,哥廷根, 1892年;生長激素dalman ,基督教和猶太教,倫敦, 1901年。 Of Jewish writers on Jesus may be mentioned: G. Solomon, The Jesus of History, London, 1880; H. Weinstock, Jesus the Jew, New York, 1902; J. Jacobs, As Others Saw Him, London, 1895.猶太作家對耶穌的,可提到: g.用於所羅門,耶穌的歷史,倫敦, 1880年;每小時溫斯托克,耶穌的猶太人,紐約, 1902年的J.雅各布斯,正如其他人看到他,倫敦, 1895年。

See also Polemics.J.也見polemics.j 。

-In Theology: -神學:

Because the Gospels, while containing valuable material, are all written in a polemical spirit and for the purpose of substantiating the claim of the Messianic and superhuman character of Jesus, it is difficult to present an impartial story of his life.因為福音,而含有有價值的材料,都是寫在論辯精神,並為了充實索賠的救世主和超人的性格耶穌的,是很難提出一個不偏不倚的故事,他的生命。 Nor is the composite picture ofJesus drawn from the synoptic Gospels, such as is presented by modern Christian writers and in which the miraculous is reduced to the minimum, an approximation to the real Jesus.也不是綜合圖片ofjesus取自天氣福音,例如是由現代基督教作家,其中神奇的是減少到了最低程度,是一個近似真實的耶穌。 The Jesus of history was equally as remote from Paulinian antinomianism as from the antagonism to his own kinsmen which has been ascribed to him; the Pharisees having had no cause to hate and persecute him, nor had they given any cause for being hated by him even if their views differed from his (see New Testament).耶穌的歷史同樣作為遠程從paulinian antinomianism從對抗到他自己的親人致敬,其中已被歸咎於他;法利過任何事業,以仇恨和迫害他,他們也沒有給出任何理由被深惡痛絕的,他甚至如果他們的看法不同,他(見新約全書) 。

It was not as the teacher of new religious principles nor as a new lawgiver, but as a wonder-worker, that Jesus won fame and influence among the simple inhabitants of Galilee in his lifetime; and it was due only to his frequent apparitions after his death to these Galilean followers that the belief in his resurrection and in his Messianic and divine character was accepted and spread.它是不是像老師說,新的宗教原則,也作為一個新的lawgiver ,但作為一個不知工作者,即耶穌贏得知名度和影響力,其中一個簡單的居民加利利在他的一生;它,是因為只有他頻繁的幻影後,他的死亡的這些伽利略信徒的信念,在他的復活,並在他的救世主和神聖品格被接受和傳播。 The thaumaturgic and eschatological views of the times must be fully considered, and the legendary lives of saints such as Onias, Ḥanina ben Dosa, Phinehas ben Jair, and Simeon ben Yoḥai in the Talmud, as well as the apocalyptic and other writings of the Essenes, must be compared before a true estimate of Jesus can be formed.該thaumaturgic和eschatological意見的時候,必須充分考慮,而且在傳說中的生命聖人如阿尼亞, ḥanina賁劑量,非尼哈賁jair ,西麥賁yoḥai在猶太法典,以及為世界末日和其他著作的essenes ,必須加以比較,才真實的估計,耶穌就可以形成。

However, a great historic movement of the character and importance of Christianity can not have arisen without a great personality to call it into existence and to give it shape and direction.但是,一個偉大的歷史運動的特點和重要性的基督教不能出現沒有一個偉大的人格,稱其存在,並給予它的形狀和方向。 Jesus of Nazareth had a mission from God (see Maimonides, "Yad," Melakim, xi. 4, and the other passages quoted in Jew. Encyc. iv. 56 et seq., sv Christianity); and he must have had the spiritual power and fitness to be chosen for it.拿撒勒的耶穌了使命來自上帝(見邁蒙尼德, "亞得, " melakim ,十一, 4 ,和其他段落引述猶太人。 encyc 。四, 56段及以下各段, sv基督教) ,他必須有精神電力及健身,以選擇它。 The very legends surrounding his life and his death furnish proofs of the greatness of his character, and of the depth of the impression which it left upon the people among whom he moved.非常傳說圍繞他的生活和他的逝世提供證據的偉大品格,以及深度的印象,它離開後,人,其中他感動。

Legends Concerning His Birth.傳說他出生。

Some legends, however, are artificial rather than the natural product of popular fancy.一些傳說,然而,有些是人為的,而不是自然的產物,流行花式。 To this category belong those concerning Jesus' birthplace.這一類屬於那些有關耶穌的誕生地。 The fact that Nazareth was his native town-where as the oldest son he followed his father's trade of carpenter (Mark i. 9, vi. 3; comp. Matt. xiii. 55; John vii. 41)-seemed to be in conflict with the claim to the Messiahship, which, according to Micah v. 1 (AV 2) (comp. John vii. 42; Yer. Ber. ii. 5a; Lam. R. i. 15), called for Beth-lehem of Judah as the place of his origin; hence, the two different legends, one in Luke i.事實拿撒勒是家鄉-那裡作為長子他跟他父親的貿易匠(馬克一9 ,六3個;可比。馬特。十三。 55 ;約翰七, 41 ) -似乎是在衝突與索賠向messiahship ,其中,根據彌迦五1 (視聽2 ) ( comp.約翰七。 42 ;也門里亞爾。誤碼率二。 5A條;林。傳譯一15 ) ,要求什麼- lehem的猶大作為代替他的出身,因此,兩種不同的傳說,其中一個在路加一。 26, ii. 26 ,二。 4, and the other in Matt. 4 ,與其他在馬特。 ii.二。 1-22, where the parallel to Moses (comp. Ex. iv. 19) is characteristic. 1月22日,凡平行摩西( comp.前四。 19 )的特點。 In support of the Messianic claim, also, the two different genealogies were compiled: the one, in Matt.支持救世主的要求,同時,這兩個不同的族譜被編譯:一,在馬特。 i.一。 1-16, tracing Joseph's pedigree through forty-two generations back to Abraham, with a singular emphasis upon sinners and heathen ancestresses of the house of David (comp. Gen. R. xxiii., li., lxxxv.; Ruth R. iv. 7; Naz. 23b; Hor. 10b; Meg. 14b); the other, in Luke iii. 1-16 ,追查約瑟夫的譜系,通過42幾代人回到亞伯拉罕,以奇異重視的罪人和異教徒ancestresses的眾院大衛( comp.將軍傳譯二十三,李, lxxxv ;羅思傳譯四7段; naz 。 23B條;激素。指明的標準;梅格。第14B ) ;另一方面,在路加三。 23-38, tracing it back to Adam as "the son of God" in order to include also the non-Abrahamic world. 23-38 ,追踪到亞當為"神的兒子" ,以還包括非亞伯拉罕世界。 Incompatible with these genealogies, and of pagan origin (see Boeklen, "Die Verwandtschaft der Jüdisch-Christlichen mit der Parsichen Eschatologie," 1902, pp. 91-94; Holtzmann, "Hand-Commentar zum Neuen Testament," 1889, p. 32; Soltau, in "Vierteljahrschrift für Bibelkunde," 1903, pp. 36-40), is the story representing Jesus as the son of the Virgin Mary and of the Holy Ghost (taken as masculine, Matt. i. 20-23; Luke i. 27-35).不符合這些族譜,以及異教的起源(見boeklen , "死verwandtschaft明鏡jüdisch - christlichen麻省理工學院明鏡parsichen eschatologie " , 1902年,頁91-94 ; holtzmann , "手commentar zum neuen全書" , 1889年,第32頁;索爾陶,在" vierteljahrschrift f黵bibelkunde " , 1903年,頁36-40 ) ,是故事中,代表耶穌的兒子,聖母瑪利亞和聖靈(作為陽剛,馬特一20-23 ;路加福音一27-35 ) 。 So also the story of the angels and shepherds hailing the babe in the manger (Luke ii. 8-20) betrays the influence of the Mithra legend (Cumont, "Die Mysterien des Mithra," 1903, pp. 97, 147; "Zeitschrift für die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft," 1902, p. 190), whereas the legend concerning the prophecy of the two Essene saints, Simeon and Anna, and the bar miẓwah story (Luke ii. 22-39, 40-50) have a decidedly Jewish character.所以還的故事,天使和牧羊人祝賀貝比在馬槽(路加福音二, 8月20日)出賣影響力的密特拉傳奇(庫蒙, "死mysterien萬密特拉" , 1903年,第97條, 147個; " : Zeitschrift f黵die neutestamentliche wissenschaft " , 1902年, 190頁) ,而傳說有關的預言,兩essene聖人,西麥和安娜,和律師miẓwah故事(路加福音二, 22-39 , 40-50 )有一個堅決猶太性格。

From the "Gospel According to the Hebrews" (Jerome, commentary on Matt. iii. 13, 16), it seems that Jesus was induced by his mother and brothers to go to John to be baptized in order to obtain the forgiveness of his sins; his vision, too, is there described differently (comp. Justin, "Dial. cum Tryph." lxxxviii., ciii.; Usener, "Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen," 1889, pp. 1, 47; and Holy Spirit).從"福音根據希伯來人" (杰羅姆,評馬特。三, 13 , 16 ) ,似乎耶穌是誘發他的母親和兄弟去約翰受洗,以取得寬恕他的罪過;他的遠見,也有不同的描述( comp.的Justin , "撥號。暨tryph " 。 lxxxviii , ciii ;烏澤納, " religionsgeschichtliche untersuchungen " , 1889年,第1 , 47和聖靈) 。 Genuinely Jewish also is the legend which depicts Jesus as spending forty days with God among the holy "ḥayyot" (not "wild beasts," as rendered in Mark i. 13) without eating and drinking (comp. Ex. xxxiv. 28; Deut. ix. 9); and his encounter with Satan is similar to the one which Moses had in heaven (Pesiḳ. R. xx., based upon Ps. lxviii. 19; comp. Zoroaster's encounter with Ahriman [Zend Avesta, Vend., Fargard, xix. 1-9]) and to Buddha's with Mara (Köppen, "Die Religion des Buddha," 1857, i. 88, and R. Seydel, "Das Evangelium von Jesu," 1882, p. 156).真正的猶太人,也就是傳說中描繪耶穌為消費四十天與上帝之間的聖地" ḥayyot " (而不是"野獸" ,為提供在馬克一13 )沒有進食和飲水( comp.特惠。三十四。 28 ; deut九, 9 ) ;以及他遭遇撒旦是相似的一個,摩西曾在天堂( pesiḳ.傳譯二十,根據聚苯乙烯。 lxviii 19條;可比。 zoroaster的遭遇ahriman [的Zend avesta ,台灣銷售, fargard ,十九1-9 ] ) ,並在佛祖的與馬拉( köppen , "死宗教萬菩薩" , 1857年,一88 ,和R. seydel "之evangelium馮jesu " , 1882年,頁156 ) 。

As Healer and Wonder-Worker.作為醫治和難怪工作者。

When, after John's imprisonment, Jesus took up the work of his master, preaching repentance in view of the approach of the kingdom of God (Mark i. 14; Luke i. 79; comp. Matt. iii. 2, iv. 16-17), he chose as his field of operations the land around the beautiful lake of Gennesaret, with Capernaum as center, rather than the wilderness; and he had as followers Peter, Andrew, John, and others, his former companions (John i. 35-51; comp. Matt. iv. 18; Mark i. 16 with Luke v. 1).當後,約翰的監禁,耶穌拿起了工作,他的師父,弘法悔改,鑑於該辦法的神的國度(馬克一14個;盧克一, 79個;可比。馬特。三,二,四,第16條- 17 ) ,他選擇了,因為他的外地業務的土地周圍美麗的湖革尼撒勒,與迦百農為中心,而不是曠野和他的追隨者,因為彼得,鄭家富,約翰,和其他人,他的前伴侶(約翰一。 35-51 ;可比。馬特。四, 18歲;馬克一16與盧克訴1 ) 。 His chief activity consisted in healing those possessed with unclean spirits who gathered at the synagogues at the close of the Sabbath (Mark i. 32-34; Luke iv. 40).他的主要活動是在醫治那些擁有與不潔烈酒的人聚集在猶太教堂,在結束安息日(馬克一32-34 ;路加福音四40 ) 。 Wherever he came in his wanderings through Galilee and Syria the people followed him (Matt. iv. 23-24; xii. 15; xiv. 14, 34; xv. 30; xix. 1; Mark iii. 10; Luke vi. 17-19), bringing to him the sick, the demoniacs, epileptics, lunatics, and paralytics to be cured; and he drove out the unclean spirits, "rebuking" them (Matt. xvii. 18; Luke iv. 35, 39, 41; ix. 42; comp. "ga'ar" in Zech. iii. 2; Isa. 1. 2; Ps. lxviii. 31 [AV 30]) with some magic "word" (Matt. viii. 8, 16; comp. "milla," Shab. 81b; Eccl. R. i. 8), even as he "rebuked" the wind and told the sea to stand still (Mark iv. 35 and parallels).而他來到他wanderings通過加利利和敘利亞人民跟隨他。 (四23-24 ;十二, 15票;十四, 14 , 34 ;十五, 30日;十九。一日; Mark III的10段;路加六, 17 -19 ) ,使他患病, demoniacs ,癲癇患者,狂人,並paralytics無法治愈;趕走不潔的精神狀態, "譴責"他們。 (十七,十八歲;路加福音四35 , 39 , 41 ;九。 42 ;可比" 。 ga'ar "撒加利亞三。 2 ;伊薩1 。 2 ;聚苯乙烯。 lxviii 31 [視聽30 ] )與一些神奇的"詞語" 。 (八8日, 16日;可比" 。達的"沙巴。 81b ; eccl 。傳譯一8 ) ,甚至在他的"罵"風,並告知海停滯不前(馬克四35和平行線) 。 At times he cured the sufferers by the mere touch of his hand (Mark i. 25; Matt. viii. 8, ix. 18-25), or by powers emanating from him through the fringes of his garment (ib. ix. 20, xiv. 36), orby the use of spittle put upon the affected organ, accompanying the operation with a whisper (Mark vii. 32, viii. 23; John ix. 1-11; comp. Sanh. 101a; Yer. Shab. xiv. 14d: Loḥesh and Roḳ).有時他治好的患者,由單純觸摸他的手(馬克一25 ;馬特。八,八,九, 18-25 ) ,或以權力來自他透過條紋的他的製衣( ib.九, 20 , 14 。 36 ) , orby使用唾沫提出後,受到影響的器官,隨行的運作與耳語(馬克七, 32 ,八, 23歲;約翰九1-11 ;可比。 sanh 。 101A條;也門里亞爾。沙巴。十四。 14d : loḥesh和roḳ ) 。 By the same exorcismal power he drove a whole legion of evil spirits, 2,000 in number, out of a maniac living in a cemetery (Josephus, "BJ" vii. 6, § 3; Sanh. 65b) and made them enter a herd of swine to be drowned in the adjacent lake (Luke viii. 26-39 and parallels; comp. Ta'an. 21b; Ḳid. 49b; B. Ḳ. vii. 7).由同一exorcismal有權不用,將整個軍團中的邪靈,在2000年有多少,出於一種瘋狂的生活在一個墳場(約瑟夫, " BJ的"七。 6 , § 3 ; sanh 。 65 B條) ,使他們進入一個群豬被淹死在鄰接湖(路八26-39和平行線;可比。 ta'an 。 21 ; ḳid 。第49B ;乙ḳ第七章7節) 。 It was exactly this Essenic practise which gained for him the name of prophet (Matt. xxi. 11, 46; Luke vii. 16, 39; xxiv. 19; John iv. 19).它就是這樣一個essenic行醫取得了他的名字先知。 ( 21 。 11 , 46 ;路加七, 16日, 39歲;二十四。 19 ;約翰四19 ) 。 In fact, by these supernatural powers of his he himself believed that Satan and his hosts would be subdued and the kingdom of God would be brought about (Luke ix. 2, x. 18, xi. 20); and these powers he is said to have imparted to his disciples to be exercised only in connection with the preaching of the kingdom of God (Matt. ix. 35-x. 6; Mark vi. 7; Luke ix. 1-2).事實上,由這些超自然的權力,他的,他本人認為撒旦和他的東道主,將制服和神的國度,將帶來約(路加福音九,二,十, 18日,西安20條) ;以及這些權力,他說:有傳授給他的弟子也只能行使涉嫌與宣揚神的國度。 (九35 -十6 ;馬克六七;路加九1-2 ) 。 They are to him the chief proof of his Messiahship (Matt. xi. 2-19; Luke vii. 21-22).他們給他行政證明他的messiahship 。 (十一2月19日;路加七21-22 ) 。 It was as the healer of physical pain that Jesus regarded himself "sent to the lost sheep of the house of Israel"; and in the same spirit he sent forth his disciples to perform cures everywhere, yet always excluding the heathen from such benefits (Matt. x. 6-8, xv. 22-28).這是作為醫治身體痛苦,耶穌把自己"送亡羊的以色列家" ,而且在同樣的精神,他派出了他的弟子表演,到處醫治,但總是不計異教徒從這種利益(馬特第十6-8 ,十五22-28 ) 。 Other miracles ascribed to Jesus, such as the feeding of the 5,000 and the 4,000 (Mark vi. 30-46, viii. 1-9, and parallels), have probably been suggested by the miracles of Moses, and the raising of the dead (Luke vii. 11-17, viii. 40-56; John xi. 1-46) by those of Elijah.其他奇蹟歸功於耶穌,如餵養的5000和4000 (馬克六30-46 ,八1-9 ,並平行線) ,有可能是有人建議,由奇蹟的摩西,並提高死亡(路七11-17 ,八40-56 ;約翰十一1-46 ) ,由那些以利亞。

As Helper of the Poor and Forsaken.作為幫工的窮人和被遺棄的。

While the Essenes in general were not only healers and wonder-workers but also doers of works of charity, there was aroused in Jesus, owing to his constant contact with suffering humanity, a deep compassion for the ailing and the forsaken (Matt. xiv. 14, xv. 32).而essenes在一般人不僅醫士和難怪工,但還者的作品,慈善,有引起了耶穌,由於他不斷的接觸與人類的痛苦,深切的同情患病被遺棄。 (十四。十四,十五, 32 ) 。 With this there came to him the consciousness of his mission to bring good tidings to the poor (Luke iv. 16-30, vii. 22) and to break down the barrier which Pharisaism had erected between the Pharisees as the better class of society and the 'Am ha-Areẓ, the publicans and fallen ones (Matt. ix. 10-13, xi. 19, and parallels; Luke vii. 36-50).與此有來找他的意識,他的使命帶來喜訊,向窮人(路四16-30 ,七22 ) ,並試圖突破這一障礙,其中pharisaism已豎立之間法利作為工人階級更好的社會和'時,房委會- areẓ , publicans大跟頭的。 (九10-13 ,十一, 19條,並平行線;路加七36-50 ) 。 This was a great departure from Essenism, which, in order to attain a higher degree of pharisaic sanctity, kept its adherents entirely apart from the world, in order that they might not be contaminated by it.這是一個偉大的偏離essenism ,其中,以期實現更高程度的pharisaic神聖性,保持其擁護者完全除了從世界,使他們有可能不會受它。 Jesus, on the contrary, sought the society of sinners and fallen ones, saying, "They that are whole need not a physician, but they that are sick. I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance" (Luke v. 31-32; comp. parallels).耶穌,與此相反,尋求社會的罪人,大跟頭的,他說: "他們說是整個不需要醫生,但他們認為有病,我之所以不打電話正義,但罪人悔改" (路五。 31-32 ;可比。相似之處) 。 No wonder that, when performing his miracles, he was believed to be in league with Satan or Beelzebub, the spirit of uncleanness, rather than to be filled with the Holy Spirit (Mark iii. 22 and parallels).無怪乎,當表演他的神蹟,他被認為是聯盟與撒旦或beelzebub ,精神的腐壞,而不是充滿聖靈( Mark III的22和平行線) 。 This anti-Essenic principle, once announced, emboldened him to allow the very women he had cured to accompany him and his disciples-in sharp contrast to all tradition (Luke viii. 1-3); and they repaid his regard with profound adoration, and subsequently were prominent at the grave and in the resurrection legend.這個反essenic原則,一經宣布,有恃無恐,他允許極婦女他曾治愈陪他和他的弟子-形成鮮明對比的所有傳統(路八1 -3) ,以及他們還清他把帶著深厚的崇拜,並隨後被突出,在墓地與復活的傳奇故事。

Another departure from pharisaic as well as Essenic practise was his permission to his disciples to eat with unwashed hands.另一種偏離pharisaic以及essenic行醫是他的許可,他的弟子們吃飯未經手中。 When rebuked he declared: "Whatsoever from without entereth into the man can not defile him, but that which proceedeth out of the man [evil speech], that defileth the man" (Mark vii. 15 and parallels)-a principle which scarcely implied the Paulinian abrogation of the dietary laws, but was probably intended to convey the idea that "the profane can not defile the word of God" (Ber. 22a).當謾罵,他宣稱: "無論如何,從沒有entereth到人不能強姦他,但那些proceedeth出該名男子的[邪惡講話] ,即defileth該名男子" (馬克七, 15日和平行線)的一個原則問題絕不隱含該paulinian廢止的飲食規律,但很可能是為了傳達那種"褻瀆不能強姦上帝的話" ( ber. 22A條) 。

In another direction, also, Jesus in his practises as a physician was led to oppose the rigorists of his day.在另一個方向,同時,耶穌在他的做法,作為一個醫生,是導致反對rigorists的他那一天。 The old Hasidæan Sabbath laws were extremely severe, as may be seen from the last chapter of the Book of Jubilees; to these the Shammaites adhered, prohibiting healing on Sabbath.舊hasidæan安息日法律都非常嚴重,可以看出,從最後一章書的jubilees ;這些shammaites堅持,禁止癒合對安息日。 But there were also the Hillelites, who accepted liberal maxims, such as "Where a life is at stake the Sabbath law must give way" and "The Sabbath is handed over to you, not you to the Sabbath" (Mek., Ki Tissa).但也有該hillelites ,接受自由格言,如: "那裡的生活,是關係到安息日法律必須讓路" , "安息日是移交給你,你不是要安息日" ( mek. ,奇tissa ) 。 Jesus, following these latter, performed cures on the Sabbath (Mark ii. 27, iii. 1-16, and parallels; Luke xiii. 10-21, xiv. 1-8); but that the Pharisees should on this account have planned his destruction, as the Gospels record, is absurd.耶穌,以下這後者,表現痊癒就安息日(馬克二27 ,三1-16 ,平行線;路加福音十三, 10日至21日,十四1-8 ) ;但法利應該對這個帳戶有計劃他的破壞行動,福音紀錄,是荒唐可笑的。 In fact, the compilers misunderstood the phrase "The son of man is lord of the Sabbath"-as if this abrogation of the Sabbath were the privilege of the Messiah-as well as the story of the plucking of grain by the disciples, which Luke (vi. 1) alone has preserved more correctly.事實上,編譯器誤解了這句話: "人子是上帝的安息日" ,因為如果這個廢除安息日被特權彌賽亞-以及為故事的採摘糧食由弟子,其中盧克( vi. 1 ) ,僅保留了更正確的。 It was not on the Sabbath, but on the first day of the second Passover week (called δετεροπρώτη from the Biblical expression "the morrow of the Sabbath," Lev. xxiii. 11-14), when no new corn was allowed to be eaten before some had been offered on the altar, that the disciples of Jesus passed through the field and plucked the new corn, called "ḥadash" in rabbinical literature.這是不是就安息日,但就在第一天的第二個逾越節週(所謂δετεροπρώτη從聖經中的表達: "明天的安息日, "列夫。二十三11-14 ) ,當時並沒有發現新的玉米被允許吃之前,一些已提供的祭壇上,即門徒耶穌通過實地和彈撥新玉米,所謂的" ḥadash " ,在猶太教文獻。 In defending their action Jesus correctly referred to David, who ate of the holy bread because he was hungry (I Sam. xxi. 5-7)-an argument which would not at all apply to the Sabbath.在捍衛自己的行動,耶穌正確地提到大衛,他們吃的聖地麵包,因為他是餓(我心。二十一5-7 ) ,這是一種說法,將不會在所有適用於安息日。

Man of the People; Not a Reformer.男子的人,不是改革者。

Jesus spoke with the power of the Haggadists-compare, eg, "the men of little faith" (Soṭah 48b); "the eye that lusts, the hand that sins must be cut off" (Nid. 13b); "no divorce except for fornication" (Giṭ. 90b); "purity like that of a child" (Yoma 22a)-and not like the men of the Halakah (Luke iv. 32; comp. Matt. vii. 29, "not like the scribes").耶穌以與電力的haggadists -比較起來,例如, "男人小信" ( soṭah 48b ) , "眼說,欲,物慾,手,在我的罪孽,必須切斷" ( nid. 13B條) ; "不離婚,除非為私通" ( giṭ.第九十B ) , "純潔像一個小孩" ( yoma 22A條) ,並不會像男人的halakah (路四32 ;可比。馬特。七, 29 " ,而不是像文士" ) 。 He often opposed the legalism of the Halakists (Matt. xxiii. 9; Mark vii. 6-23), but he affirmed in forcible and unmistakable language the immutability of the Law (Matt. v. 17-19).他經常反對法家的halakists 。 (二十三。九日;馬克七6月23日) ,但他肯定在強行無誤的語言變通適用法律。 (五17-19 ) 。 The Sermon on the Mount, if this was ever delivered by him, was never intended to supplant the law of Moses, though the compiler of the Gospel of Matthew seeks to create that impression.山上寶訓中,如果這是以往所發表的他,絕不是為了取代摩西的律法,雖然編譯器的福音馬太旨在製造這種印象。 Nor does any of the apostles or of the epistles refer to the new code promulgated by Jesus.也沒有任何的使徒或教會指新法典頒布的耶穌。 As a matter of fact the entire New Testament teaching is based upon the Jewish Didache (see Seeberg, "Katechismus der Urchristenheit," 1903, pp. 1-44).作為一個問題,事實上,整個新約全書教學,是基於猶太didache (見seeberg , " katechismus明鏡urchristenheit " , 1903年,第1-44 ) 。

The Kingdom of God.神的國度。

Only in order to be prepared for the kingdom of God, which he expected to come in the immediatefuture and during the lifetime of his hearers (Matt. xvi. 28, xxiv. 42-44, xxv. 13), Jesus laid down especial rules of conduct for his disciples, demanding of them a higher righteousness and purity and a greater mutual love than the Pharisees practised (Matt. v. 20, xviii. 4-5).不僅是為了準備為神的國度,而他預計將會在immediatefuture和在世時,他hearers 。 (十六28 , 24 。 42-44 ,二十五, 13 ) ,耶穌所訂的特別規則操守,為他的弟子們,要求他們更高的正義和純潔性,更大的互愛比法利實行。 (五20 ,十八4-5 ) 。 It was the Essenic spirit which dictated a life of voluntary poverty, of abstinence from marriage and domestic life, and of asceticism (Matt. xix. 12, 21-24, 29), as well as that principle of non-resistance to evil which the Talmud finds commendable in "the lovers of God" who "take insult and resent not" and shall in the life to come "shine like the sun" (Shab. 88b).這是essenic精神所支配的生活,自願貧困,禁慾,從婚姻,家庭生活和禁慾主義。 ( 19 。 12 , 21日至24日, 29 ) ,以及這一原則,採取不抵抗的罪惡該塔木德經認定值得稱道的"迷神" ,他們"採取的侮辱和反感,而不是" ,並應於現實生活中來"油光滿面像太陽" ( shab. 88 B條) 。 The kingdom of God of which Jesus spoke had a decidedly political character, and all the apocalyptic writers so regard it.神的國度,其中耶穌發言進行了堅決的政治品格,以及所有世界末日作家,所以把它。 The Messiah with the twelve judges of the twelve tribes was expected to rule over the land (Matt. xvi. 27, xix. 28); the Judgment Day was to have its tortures of Gehenna for the wicked, and its banquet in Paradise for the righteous, to precede the Messianic time (Matt. viii. 11-12, xviii. 8-9; Luke xiii. 28-29, xiv. 15-24); the earth itself was to produce plenty of grapes and other fruit of marvelous size for the benefit of the righteous, according to Jesus' own statement to John (Papias, in Irenæus, "Adversus Hæreses," v. 33-34).彌賽亞同十二名法官組成的十二支族,預料統治的土地。 (十六27 ,十九28 ) ;末世論,是有其折磨的地獄之為惡人,其宴會在天堂為正義的,必須先於救世主的時候。 (八11-12 ,十八,第8-9頁;路加福音十三28-29 ,十四15-24 ) ;地球本身是要產生大量的葡萄等水果的神乎其神尺寸為造福正義,根據耶穌自己的聲明中,以約翰( papias ,在irenæus , "相反hæreses , "五33-34 ) 。

Often Jesus spoke of the "secrets" of the kingdom of God in allegories and enigmas (not "parables"; see Matt. xiii. 1-52; comp. ii. 35), "dark sayings hidden from the foundation of the world (Ps. lxxviii. 2; John xvi. 25, 29), because they referred to the kingdom of Satan (Matt. xiii. 39)-that is, Rome-whose end was nigh. Of course such "secrets" were afterward turned into spiritual mysteries, too deep even for the disciples to comprehend, while simple words announcing the immediate nearness of the end were changed into phrases such as "The kingdom of God is within you" (Luke xvii. 21, for "among you"). On the other hand, the rabbinical phrase "the yoke of God's kingdom which liberates from the yoke of the kingdom of the worldly power" (Ab. iii. 5) is spoken of as "my yoke" and declared to be "easy" (Matt. xi. 29); for the allegory of the tares and the wheat (Matt. xiii.) used for the heathen and the Jews in the Judgment Day, comp. Midr. Teh. to Ps. ii. 12.往往是耶穌說的"機密"的神的國度,在寓言和謎題(不是" parables " ,見馬特。十三。 1-52 ;可比二。 35 ) , "暗鬥熟語隱藏的立黨之本,世界(聚苯乙烯。 lxxviii 2款;約翰十六, 25 , 29 ) ,因為他們轉介到英國的撒旦。 (十三39 ) -也就是在羅馬的末日將要來臨。當然這樣的"機密"的人後來變成心靈的奧秘,太深,甚至對弟子理解,而簡單的話,宣布立即貼近的年底被改變成短語,如"神的國度,是你" (路十七21 , "你們中間" ) 。另一方面,關於猶太教"的枷鎖上帝的王國中解放出來,從桎梏王國的世俗力量" ( ab.三,五日) ,是口語的,因為"我的軛" ,並宣布為"易" (馬特。十一, 29 ) ;寓言的tares和小麥。 (十三)用來為異教徒和猶太人在判決當天,可比。 midr 。 。向PS二。 12 。

Occasionally political strife, as a means of bringing about the catastrophe, is approved by Jesus (Luke xii. 51-53, xxii. 36; comp. verses 49-50).偶爾政治紛爭中,作為一種手段,實現了災難,是批准了耶穌(路十二, 51-53 , 22 。 36 ;可比。小詩49-50 ) 。

His Death.他的死因。

Like all the Essenes of his time (Tosef., Men. xiii. 21-23), Jesus was a sworn enemy of the house of the high priest Hanan.象所有essenes他的時間( tosef. ,男人第十三21-23 ) ,耶穌是一個死敵的眾院最高祭司哈南。 His indignation at seeing the Temple hill turned into a poultry-and cattle-market for the benefit of the arrogant hierarchy (Mark xi. 15-18) fired him into action against these "bazaars of the Hananites" (Derenbourg, "Histoire de la Palestine," p. 466), which he called with Jeremiah (vii. 1) "a den of thieves"; he seized the tables of the money-changers and drove their owners out of the Temple.他憤慨地看到廟山變成了家禽和牲畜市場,為造福於傲慢等級(馬克十一15-18 )炒了他化為實際行動,對抗這些"集貿市場的hananites " (德朗堡" ,德史香格里拉巴勒斯坦, "頁466 ) ,這是他所謂與耶利米( vii. 1 ) "書齋的賊" ,他抓住表的外幣找換店,並迫使其業主出廟。 Whether he had then actually claimed for himself the title of Messiah in order to be empowered to act thus, or whether he allowed the band of his followers to call him thus, it is certain that he laid no claim to the Messiahship before his entrance into Jerusalem (see Jew. Encyc. iv. 51, sv Christianity; Son of Man).他是否有那麼實際上聲稱為自己的名稱彌賽亞為了得到授權行事,因此,還是讓他帶他的追隨者稱他因此,可以肯定的是,他並沒有奠定聲稱該messiahship前他進入耶路撒冷(見猶太人。 encyc四。 51 , sv基督教;人子) 。 According to the more authentic older records (Mark viii. 31, x. 33, xi. 18, xiv. 43, and parallels), he was seized by the high priests and the Sanhedrin, and was delivered over to the Roman authorities for execution.據越正宗老記錄(馬克八31 ,十33 ,十一,十八,十四, 43人,平行線) ,他被檢獲由高級神職人員和公會,並於交付給羅馬當局處決。 The high priests feared the Roman prefect (John xviii. 14); but the people clung to Jesus (Matt. xxvi. 5; Luke xix. 48, xxi. 38, xxiii. 27), and lamented over his death (Luke xxiii. 48).高級神職人員擔心羅馬省長(約翰十八14 ) ,但人們醉心於耶穌。 (二十六。五日;路加十九。 48 , 21 。 38 ,二十三27 ) ,並慨嘆他的逝世(路加福音二十三。 48 ) 。 Later "the Pharisees" were added to the list of the persecutors of Jesus (Matt. xxii. 15; Mark xii. 13; John xviii. 3; and elsewhere), and the guilt of shedding his blood was laid upon the Jews, while the bloodthirsty tyrant Pontius Pilate was represented as having asserted Jesus' innocence (Matt. xxvii. 24; John xviii. 28-xix. 16).後來"法利賽"的名單上又增加了對迫害者的耶穌。 ( 22 。 15 ;馬克十二。 13 ;約翰十八。 3 ;和其他地方) ,和他有罪換掉他的血液被打下後,猶太人,而嗜血暴君,祂比拉多派過斷言,耶穌的清白。 (二十七。 24 ;約翰十八28 -十九16 ) 。 The term "heathen" or "Romans" was changed into "sinners" or "men" (Mark ix. 31, xiv. 41, and parallels), and the charge of rebellion against Rome with the implied instigation to refuse the tribute (Luke xxiii. 2) was put into the mouth of the Jewish authorities, whereas Jesus is represented as having declared: "My kingdom is not of this world" (John xviii. 36) and "Render to Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's" (Mark xii. 13-17 and parallels).術語"異教徒"或"入鄉隨俗" ,變成了"罪人"或"男性" (馬克九。 31 , 14 。 41 ,和平行線) ,以及負責反抗羅馬與隱含的唆使下,拒絕致敬(路加福音二十三。 2 )被放進口中的猶太當局,而耶穌是派已宣布: "我的王國是沒有的,這世界" (約翰福音十八, 36歲)和"使以cæsar事情都是cæsar的" (馬克十二, 13-17和平行線) 。

The Resurrection.復活。

The story of the resurrection of Jesus is the natural consequence of the belief of his followers in his miraculous powers as the subduer of Satan.故事的復活的耶穌是自然的後果,相信他的追隨者在他的奇蹟般的權力作為subduer的撒旦。 Indeed, it is stated that it was not he alone who arose from the grave, but that many saints arose with him (Matt. xxvii. 52) just as many saints in Jewish folk-lore overcame death (Shab. 55b; Mas. Derek Ereẓ, i.); and resurrection is the proof of the working of the Holy Spirit (Soṭah xv. 15; Cant. R., Introduction, 9; see Resurrection).事實上,這是說,它不單單他的人產生了嚴重的,但許多聖人出現了與他。 (二十七。 52 )正如許多聖人,在猶太民間傳說克服死亡( shab.山東; MAS的。德里克ereẓ ,一)和復活是證明工作的聖靈( soṭah十五, 15個;斜面。傳譯,引進, 9歲;見復活) 。 The disciples and the women who had been his constant companions when he was alive beheld him in their entranced state as partaking of their meals and heard him address to them instruction and argumentation (Matt. xxviii. 9, 18-20; Luke xxiv. 27-49; John xx. 15-xxi. 23).門徒和婦女已被他的同伴不斷的時候,他是活著看到他,在他們進了國家作為partaking他們吃飯,並聽取了他的地址給他們指導和論證。 (二十八。 9 , 18-20 ;路加福音24 27 -49 ;約翰二十。 15 - 21 。 23 ) 。 Many apparitions of Jesus after his death were in the course of time related as having taken place during his lifetime.許多幻影耶穌後,他的逝世在這個過程中的時間有關,因為有發生在他的一生中。 Thus the strange stories of his walking at night as a spirit upon a lake (Matt. xiv. 24-36; Luke ix. 28-36; and parallels), of his transfiguration and conversation with Moses and Elijah (Matt. xvii. 1-13), and others became current in those credulous times when all the Apostles had their visions and direct communications from their master, whom they beheld as "the Son of Man in the clouds" waiting for "his return with myriads of angels" to take possession of this earth.因此,奇怪的故事,他走在夜晚作為精神後,一個湖泊。 (十四24-36 ;路加九, 28-36和平行線) ,其變形與會話與摩西和以利亞。 (十七1 -13 ) ,其他人則成為目前在那些輕信的時代,當所有的使徒了他們的視野和更加直接溝通,從自己的主人,他們看到為"人子在雲彩"等待" ,他的回報與不斷湧現的天使"佔有這個地球上。 And so it came about that, consciously or unconsciously, the crystallized thought of generations of Essenes and entire chapters taken from their apocalyptic literature (Matt. xxiv.-xxv.) were put into the mouth of Jesus, the acme and the highest type of Essenism.所以來的,自覺或不自覺地,凝結著思想的幾代人的essenes和整個章節,從他們的世界末日的文獻。 ( xxiv. - 25 )被放進口中的耶穌,頂點和最高的類型essenism 。

It was not the living but the departed Jesus that created the Church with Peter as the rock (Matt. xvi, 18); while, according to the Jewish Haggadah, Abraham was made the rock upon which God built His kingdom (Yalḳ., Num. 766).那不是生活,但離開耶穌創立的教會與彼得由於岩石。 ( 16 , 18 ) ;同時,根據猶太人haggadah ,亞伯拉罕是岩石後,即上帝建成了他的王國( yalḳ. ,序號。 766 ) 。 See Lord's Prayer; Lord's Supper.見主禱文;主的晚餐。 Bibliography: Grätz, Gesch.參考書目: grätz , gesch 。 4th ed., iii.第四版,三。 281-314; F. Nork, Rabbinische Quellen Neu-Testamentlicher Stellen, Leipsic, 1839; August Wünsche, Neue Beiträge zur Erläuterung der Evangelien aus Talmud und Midrasch, Gättingen, 1872.K. 281-314 ;樓nork , rabbinische quellen神經testamentlicher stellen , leipsic , 1839年8月wünsche , neue beiträge zur erläuterung明鏡evangelien澳大利亞猶太法典und midrasch , gättingen , 1872.k.

-In Jewish Legend:在猶太傳說:

The Jewish legends in regard to Jesus are found in three sources, each independent of the others-(1) in New Testament apocrypha and Christian polemical works, (2) in the Talmud and the Midrash, and (3) in the life of Jesus ("Toledot Yeshu'") that originated in the Middle Ages.猶太傳說中關於耶穌被發現在三個來源,每一個獨立於他人( 1 )在新約聖經apocrypha和基督教論辯工程, ( 2 )在猶太法典和midrash ,以及( 3 )在耶穌的生命( " toledot yeshu " )起源於中世紀。 It is the tendency of all these sources to be-little the person of Jesus by ascribing to him illegitimate birth, magic, and a shameful death.這是趨勢,所有這些來源可有點人的耶穌所指稱,他的私生子出生,魔術,和一個可恥的死刑。 In view of their general character they are called indiscriminately legends.鑑於它們的一般性質,他們被稱為胡亂傳說。 Some of the statements, as that referring to magic, are found among pagan writers and Christian heretics; and as the Ebionites, or Judæo-Christians, who for a long time lived together with the Jews, are also classed as heretics, conclusions may be drawn from this as to the origin of these legends.一些發言,因為這是指魔術,發現其中異教作家和基督教的異端,並且隨著ebionites ,或judæo基督徒,他們在相當長的時間住在一起,與猶太人,也被歸類為異端,結論可能從這個以原產地,這些傳說。

It ought also to be added that many of the legends have a theological background.它也應予以補充說,許多的傳說,有一個神學背景。 For polemical purposes, it was necessary for the Jews to insist on the illegitimacy of Jesus as against the Davidic descent claimed by the Christian Church.為論辯的目的,它需要為猶太人堅持對非婚生子女的耶穌對davidic後裔索賠的基督教教堂。 Magic may have been ascribed him over against the miracles recorded in the Gospels; and the degrading fate both on earth and hereafter of which the legends speak may be simply directed against the ideas of the assumption and the resurrection of Jesus.魔術可能已被歸因於他對神蹟記載在福音書和有辱人格的命運都對地球和來世的,其中的傳說講,可簡單地針對思想的假設和復活的耶穌。 The Jewish legends relating to Jesus appear less inimical in character when compared with the parallel passages which are found in pagan authors and Christian sources, more especially as such legends are fixed and frequently occurring themes of folk-lore; and imaginations must have been especially excited by the historical importance which the figure of Jesus came to have for the Jews.猶太傳說中有關耶穌似乎少不利於在性格比較平行通道被發現在異教作家和基督教的來源,尤其是這樣的傳說都是固定,而且經常出現的主題,民間傳說和想像力,必須是被格外興奮由歷史上的重要意義,其中的數字耶穌來已為猶太人。

The earliest authenticated passage ascribing illegitimate birth to Jesus is that in Yeb.最早的認證通過,指稱非婚生子女出生時,以耶穌的是,在yeb 。 iv.四。 3. 3 。 The mysterious phrase ("that man") cited in this passage as occurring in a family register which R. Simeon ben Azza is said to have found seems to indicate that it refers to Jesus (see Derenbourg in "REJ" i. 293), and here occur also the two expressions so often applied to Jesus in later literature- (= "that anonymous one," the name of Jesus being avoided) and (="bastard"; for which in later times was used).神秘的詞組( "好男人" )引用的這段話,因為發生在一個家庭中的登記簿傳譯西麥賁azza ,據說已發現似乎表明,它是指耶穌(見德朗堡在"相互執行判決, "一293 ) ,在這裡還發生了兩個方案中,所以經常被採用,以耶穌在以後的文學- ( = "無名氏一" ,以耶穌的名義被廢止)和( = "私生子" ,而在稍後的時間用) 。 Such a family register may have been preserved at Jerusalem in the Judæo-Christian community.這種戶籍可能已被保存在耶路撒冷,在judæo -基督教社區。

Birth of Jesus.耶穌誕生的。

The Jews, who are represented as inimical to Jesus in the canonical Gospels also, took him to be legitimate and born in an entirely natural manner.猶太人,他們派代表作為有損耶穌在典型福音另外,帶他到是合法的,而且出生在一個完全自然的態度。 A contrary statement as to their attitude is expressed for the first time in the "Acts of Pilate" ("Gospel of Nicodemus," ed. Thilo, in "Codex Apoc. Novi Testamenti," i. 526, Leipsic, 1832; comp. Origen, "Contra Celsum," i. 28).相反的聲明中,以他們的態度是對前一段時間內"的行為,比拉多" ( "福音的尼哥底母, "海關。現場總線系統,在"食典載脂蛋白C 。格testamenti , "一526 , leipsic , 1832年;可比。淵源,成了" Contra celsum , "一28 ) 。 Celsus makes the same statement in another passage, where he refers even to a written source (ἀναγέγραπται), adding that the seducer was a soldier by the name of Panthera (lci 32). celsus作出了同樣的聲明,在另一條通道,在那裡他指即使以書面源( ἀναγέγραπται ) ,並補充說笑話是一個士兵的名字( Panthera (國際獅子總會32 ) 。 The name "Panthera" occurs here for the first time; two centuries later it occurs in Epiphanius ("Hæres." lxxviii. 7), who ascribes the surname "Panther" to Jacob, an ancestor of Jesus; and John of Damascus ("De Orthod. Fide." iv., § 15) includes the names "Panther" and "Barpanther" in the genealogy of Mary.取名" ( Panthera "發生在這裡的第一時間,兩個世紀後,它出現在epiphanius ( " hæres " 。 lxxviii 7 ) ,誰賦予了姓"豹" ,以雅各,是一個祖先,耶穌和John大馬士革( "德orthod 。真正的"四, § 15 ) ,包括姓名, "豹"和" barpanther " ,在族譜的瑪麗。 It is certain, in any case, that the rabbinical sources also regard Jesus as the "son of Pandera" (), although it is noteworthy that he is called also "Ben Sṭada" () (Shab. 104b; Sanh. 67a).這是肯定的,在任何情況下,即猶太教來源,也把耶穌為"兒子潘特羅" ( ) ,雖然這是值得注意的是,他是所謂的還"奔sṭada " ( ) ( shab. 104 B條; sanh 。第67A ) 。

It appears from this passage that, aside from Pandera and Sṭada, the couple Pappus b.看來,從這段文字,除了潘特羅和sṭada ,夫婦倆pappus乙 Judah and Miriam the hairdresser were taken to be the parents of Jesus. Judah和劉健儀理髮被帶到得到父母的耶穌。 Pappus has nothing to do with the story of Jesus, and was only connected with it because his wife happened to be called "Miriam" (= "Mary"), and was known to be an adulteress. pappus已完全與耶穌的故事,並不僅與它,因為他的妻子發生了被稱為"劉健儀" ( = "瑪麗" ) ,以及被稱為是一個姦婦。 The one statement in which all these confused legends agree is that relating to the birth of Jesus.在一個聲明中,所有這些困惑傳說同意的是,有關耶穌誕生的。 Although this is ascribed only to the Jews, even in Celsus, the Jews need not necessarily be regarded as its authors, for it is possible that it originated among heretics inimical to Jesus, as the Ophites and Cainites, of whom Origen says "they uttered such hateful accusations against Jesus as Celsus himself did" ("Contra Celsum," iii. 13).雖然這可能歸因於只向猶太人說,即使是在celsus ,猶太人可不必視為其作者,因為這是有可能的,它起源之間的異端有損耶穌,因為ophites和cainites ,其中淵源說, "他們這些說詞這種可恨的指責耶穌celsus自己也曾" (下稱"合同celsum , "三, 13 ) 。 It is probable, furthermore, that the accusation of illegitimacy was not originally considered so serious; it was ascribed to the most prominent personages, and is a standing motive in folk-lore (Krauss, "Leben Jesu," p. 214).這是可能的,此外,被指為不合法,是不是原先認為是如此嚴重,這是歸因於最突出的人物,是一個常設的動機,在民間傳說(克勞斯" ,生活jesu " ,頁214 ) 。

The incident of Jesus concerning the dispute with the Scribes was copied by the rabbinical sources (Kallah 18b [ed. Venice, 1528, fol. 41c]; comp. N. Coronel, "Comment. Quinque," p. 3b, Vienna, 1864, and "Batte Midrashot," ed. Wertheimer, iii. 23, Jerusalem, 1895).事件中的耶穌有關糾紛與文士被抄猶太教來源( kallah 18B條[版威尼斯, 1528年,接下來。 41C條〕 ;可比。 12月31日coronel "發表評論。五個"第3B室維也納, 1864年, " batte midrashot , "海關。 wertheimer ,三, 23日,耶路撒冷, 1895年) 。 All the "Toledot" editions contain a similar story of a dispute which Jesus carried on with the Scribes, who, on the ground of that dispute, declared him to be a bastard.所有" toledot "版本中載有類似的故事發生爭執,其中耶穌進行與文士,他們在地面上的這場爭端,宣布他是一個私生子。 Analogous to this story are numerous tales of predictions by precocious boys.類似於這樣的故事很多,故事的預測性早熟男孩。

Sojourn in Egypt.滯留在埃及。

The sojourn of Jesus in Egypt is an essential part of the story of his youth.逗留耶穌在埃及是一個重要的部分真相,他的青春。 According to the Gospels he was in that country in his early infancy, but Celsus says that he was in service there and learned magic; hence he was there in early manhood.據福音書,他是在該國在他的早期萌芽階段,但celsus說,他是在服務,並學到魔法,因此他是有早期氣概。 This assumption may serve to throw more light on the obscure history of Jesus than the account found in the Gospels.這個假設可能有助於更清楚就掩蓋歷史的耶穌比帳戶發現,在福音。 The Talmud also says that Jesus was in Egypt in early manhood.猶太法典也說,耶穌在埃及早期氣概。 R. Joshua b.傳譯約書亞乙 Peraḥyah is said to have fled with his pupil Jesus to Alexandria in order to escape the persecutions of the Jewish king Yannai (103-76 BC); on their return Jesus made a remark on the not faultless beauty of their hostess, whereupon R. Joshua excommunicated him; and when Jesus approached him again and was not received he set up a brick for his god, and led all Israel into apostasy (Sanh. 107b; Soṭah 47a; Yer. Ḥag. 77d). peraḥyah ,據說已逃往他的瞳孔耶穌亞歷山大為了逃避迫害的猶太國王yannai (公元前103-76 ) ,對他們返回耶穌取得了一句話,就沒有萬無一失的首美妙的主持人,在這種情況下傳譯約書亞驅逐了他,當耶穌走近與他再見面,並沒有收到他成立了一個磚,他的神,並導致所有以色列成為叛教( sanh. 107b ; soṭah 47A條;也門里亞爾。 ḥag 。 77d ) 。 This account is supplemented by the statement, made on the assumption that Ben Sṭada is identical with Ben Pandera, that Ben Sṭada brought magic from Egypt (Shab. 104b).這個帳戶是輔之以聲明,就假設本sṭada是一致的,與本潘特羅,賁sṭada帶來了魔術,從埃及( shab. 104 B條) 。 The story that Joshua b.故事說,約書亞乙 Peraḥyah, a contemporary of Simeon b. peraḥyah ,一個當代的西麥乙 Sheṭaḥ, was the teacher of Jesus, is not clearly stated in the various "Toledot"; it is saidmerely that Jesus was named after this brother of his mother. sheṭaḥ ,是教師的耶穌,是沒有明確說明,在種種" toledot " ,它是saidmerely耶穌被命名後,這個弟弟的他的母親。 The assumption that Joshua b.假設約書亞乙 Peraḥyah was the uncle of Jesus is confirmed by Ḳirḳisani, who wrote about 937 a history of Jewish sects (ed. Harkavy, § 1, St. Petersburg, 1894; comp. "JQR" vii. 687). peraḥyah是叔叔的耶穌是證實ḳirḳisani ,誰寫約937個歷史的猶太支派(編輯harkavy , § 1 ,聖彼得堡, 1894年;可比" 。 jqr "七。 687 ) 。 The references to Yannai, Salome Alexandra, and Joshua b.對凡出現yannai ,莎樂美亞歷山德拉和約書亞乙 Peraḥyah indicate that according to the Jewish legends the advent of Jesus took place just one century before the actual historical date; and some medieval apologists for Judaism, as Naḥmanides and Salman Ẓebi, based on this fact their assertion that the "Yeshu'" mentioned in the Talmud was not identical with Jesus; this, however, is merely a subterfuge. peraḥyah表明,據猶太傳說的來臨,耶穌的發生只是一個世紀前的實際歷史日期和部分中世紀辯護士為猶太教,作為naḥmanides和Salman ẓebi ,在此基礎上,其實他們的論斷,即" yeshu "中提到猶太法典是不等同於耶穌;不過,這只是一個說辭。

Jesus as Magician.耶穌為魔術師。

According to Celsus (in Origen, "Contra Celsum," i. 28) and to the Talmud (Shab. 104b), Jesus learned magic in Egypt and performed his miracles by means of it; the latter work, in addition, states that he cut the magic formulas into his skin.據celsus (淵源,成了" Contra celsum , "一, 28歲) ,向猶太法典( shab. 104 B條) ,耶穌據悉,魔術在埃及演出,他的神蹟的方式;後者的工作,此外,國說,他削減魔術公式進他的皮膚。 It does not mention, however, the nature of his magic performances (Tosef., Shab. xi. 4; Yer. Shab. 13d); but as it states that the disciples of Jesus healed the sick "in the name of Jesus Pandera" (Yer. Shab. 14d; 'Ab. Zarah 27b; Eccl. R. i. 8) it may be assumed that its author held the miracles of Jesus also to have been miraculous cures.它沒有提到,不過,其性質就他的魔術表演( tosef. ,沙巴。十一。 4層。沙巴。第13 ) ,但由於該國表示,弟子耶穌治愈病人" ,在耶穌的名義潘特羅" ( yer.沙巴。 14d ; '抗體。 zarah 27 B款; eccl 。傳譯一8 ) ,可假定其作者舉行的奇蹟耶穌也已萬應靈丹。 Different in nature is the witchcraft attributed to Jesus in the "Toledot."性質不同,是巫術歸功於耶穌在" toledot " 。 When Jesus was expelled from the circle of scholars, he is said to have returned secretly from Galilee to Jerusalem, where he inserted a parchment containing the "declared name of God" ("Shem ha-Meforash"), which was guarded in the Temple, into his skin, carried it away, and then, taking it out of his skin, he performed his miracles by its means.當耶穌被驅逐出圈的學者,據說他已返回偷偷從加利利到耶路撒冷,在那裡他加入了羊皮紙含有"宣布以上帝的名義" (下稱" SHEM後,房委會- meforash " ) ,這是守衛在寺廟到他的皮膚,進行了扔掉,然後把它出他的皮膚,他的表現他的神蹟,由它的手段。 This magic formula then had to be recovered from him, and Judah the Gardener (a personage of the "Toledot" corresponding to Judas Iscariot) offered to do it; he and Jesus then engaged in an aerial battle (borrowed from the legend of Simon Magus), in which Judah remained victor and Jesus fled.這個神奇的公式,然後不得不收回他,並猶大的園丁(一人物的" toledot "對應猶大iscariot )提供了這樣做,他和耶穌,然後從事戰鬥機空戰(借來的,從傳說中的西門magus ) ,其中猶大仍是勝利者和耶穌逃走。

The accusation of magic is frequently brought against Jesus.被指為神奇,是很多人提出反對耶穌。 Jerome mentions it, quoting the Jews: "Magum vocant et Judæi Dominum meum" ("Ep. lv., ad Ascellam," i. 196, ed. Vallarsi); Marcus, of the sect of the Valentinians, was, according to Jerome, a native of Egypt, and was accused of being, like Jesus, a magician (Hilgenfeld, "Ketzergesch." p. 370, Leipsic, 1884).杰羅姆提到,引用猶太人說: " magum vocant等judæi dominum meum " (下稱"的EP 。低壓,專案ascellam , "一196 ,教育署。 vallarsi ) ;馬庫斯,該教派的valentinians ,是根據杰羅姆一個土生土長的埃及,並於被指控,像耶穌,魔術師( hilgenfeld , " ketzergesch "頁370 , leipsic , 1884 ) 。 There were even Christian heretics who looked upon the founder of their religion as a magician (Fabricius, in "Codex Apocr. Novi Testamenti," iii. 396), and public opinion at Rome accused all Christians of magic (WM Ramsay, "The Church in the Roman Empire Before AD 170," pp. 236, 392, London, 1897).甚至還有基督教異端的人看的創始人,他們把宗教作為魔術師(黃,在"食典apocr 。格testamenti , "三, 396 ) ,和公眾輿論在羅馬被告所有基督徒的魔術(西醫結合拉姆齊, "教會在羅馬帝國之前,專案170個, "頁236 , 392 ,倫敦, 1897年) 。 The Apostles were regarded in the same light ("Acta Petri et Andreæ," ed. Bonnet, § 8).使徒保羅也被認為是在同一光(簡稱"學報的Petri等andreæ , "海關。恩奈, § 8 ) 。 Neither this accusation nor that concerning the birth of Jesus is found in the canonical Gospels, but it occurs in the apocryphal accounts; eg, "Gesta Pilati," ii.無論這一指控,也表示,關於耶穌誕生的,是發現典型福音,但它發生在猜測,決算;例如, " gesta pilati , "二。 1; "Acta Pilati," version B, ii. 1 , "學報pilati " ,案文B ,二。 3, iii. 3 ,三。 1; ib. 1 ;興業。 i.一。 1 (μαγεΊαι; comp. γόης ἐστιν = "he is a magician"); ib. 1 ( μαγείαι ;可比。 γόης ἐστιν = "他是一個魔術師" ) ;興業。 in ed.在海關。 Tischendorf, 2d ed., p.蒂申多夫,第2版,頁 216, "maleficus est"; ib. 216 , " maleficus預測" ;興業。 p. 338 ("Zeit. für die Neutest. Wissenschaft," 1901, iii. 94), with which comp "veneficus" = "poisoner" ("Evang. Infantiæ Arab." ed. Thilo, § 36). 338 ( "得主。 f黵die neutest 。 wissenschaft " , 1901年,三94 ) ,其中比較" veneficus " = " poisoner " (下稱"埃旺。 infantiæ阿拉伯"版現場總線系統, § 36 ) 。 Somewhat different is the accusation that Jesus imposed upon the people and led them astray (comp. Bischoff, "Ein Jüdisch. Deutsches Leben Jesu," p. 20, Leipsic, 1895: , often also , and in the Greek texts πλανός, λαοπλανός; comp. πλανᾷ τὸν ὅχλον = "he deceives the people"; John vii. 12).有所不同的是,該指控稱耶穌強加給人民,並帶領他們誤入歧途( comp. Bischoff ) , "艾因jüdisch 。德國,生活jesu " ,第20頁, leipsic , 1895年: ,還常常的,而在希臘文πλανός , λαοπλανός ;可比。 πλανᾷ τὸν ὅχλον = "他欺騙人民" ;約翰七, 12 ) 。 As Balaam the magician and, according to the derivation of his name, "destroyer of the people," was from both of these points of view a good prototype of Jesus, the latter was also called "Balaam."作為balaam魔術師,而根據推導他的名字, "驅逐艦的人" ,是由這兩項的角度來看,一個好的原型的耶穌,後者也被稱為" balaam " 。

The Disciples of Jesus.門徒對耶穌。

Celsus (i. 62) says there were ten or eleven apostles. celsus (一62 )說,有10或11使徒。 A passage of the Talmud (Sanh. 43a) ascribes five disciples to Jesus: "Matthai" (Matthew), "Nakai" (Luke), "Nezer" (Nazarene, a general designation for Christian in antiquity), "Boni" (probably the Nicodemus mentioned by John), and "Thoda" (Thaddæus).一個通道的猶太法典( sanh. 43 A條) ,賦予五個門徒對耶穌說: " matthai " (馬太) , "服務員" (路) , " nezer " (拿撒勒,一般指定為基督教在古代) , "渤泥" (可能該尼哥底母提到約翰) ,和" thoda " ( thaddæus ) 。 The following are mentioned in the "Toledot" (Huldricus, p. 35): "Simeon" (Peter), "Matthia" (Matthew), "Elikum" (Luke), "Mordecai" (Mark), "Thoda" (Thaddæus), and "Johannos" (John)-that is, the four evangelists plus Peter and Thaddæus.以下是在" toledot " ( huldricus ,第35頁)說: "西蒙" (彼得) , " matthia " (馬太) , " elikum " (路) , " mordecai " (馬克) , " thoda " ( thaddæus ) ,和" johannos " (約翰) -那就是,四福音加上彼得與t haddæus。 Paul is mentioned in another connection, and (p. 48) Judas "the betrayer": it is to be noted that the last-named does not occur at all in Talmudic legends.保羅提到,在另一個方面,和(第48頁)猶大"叛徒" :這是需要指出的是,去年命名並不發生在所有在talmudic傳說。 The Twelve Apostles are mentioned in other versions of the "Toledot" (ed. Wagenseil, p. 19; ed. Bischoff, p. 21), while still other versions frequently mention a following of 300, 310, 320, 330 men.十二使徒提到了其它版本的" toledot " (編輯瓦根賽爾,第19頁;海關。 Bischoff ) ,第21頁) ,同時還有其他版本的頻繁更遑論以下的300名, 310名, 320名, 330名男性。 It is especially striking that all these disciples are described as eminently wise and learned, while according to Celsus (i. 63, ii. 46) the disciples of Jesus were common men, toll-keepers and seamen, an assumption that agrees to some extent with the canonical Gospels.這是格外引人注目的是,這些弟子被形容為非常明智和教訓,而據celsus (一63 ,二46 )的弟子耶穌的人共同的男人,不收費的飼養及海員,一個假設,即同意在一定程度上與典型福音。

The Doctrines of Jesus.該學說的耶穌。

In all the editions of the "Toledot" the doctrine of Jesus is summed up in the statements that he was the son of God, born of a virgin mother, a descendant of David and the promised Messiah; this he proved from passages of Scripture, in the rabbinic-Talmudic manner.在所有版本的" toledot "中庸耶穌是總結了在陳述說,他是上帝的兒子,出生在日本一個童貞的母親,子孫的大衛和答應彌賽亞,這證明他從通道的經文,在rabbinic - talmudic方式。 In connection with these statements he is also represented as engaging in disputations with Jewish scholars.他們涉嫌與上述報表,他也有代表,作為從事disputations與猶太學者。 The only specifically Christian doctrine mentioned by the Talmud is (Shab. 116a, b) that the law of Moses has been annulled and the Gospels put in its place-the well-known Christian doctrine of the abrogation of the Law; the saying of Jesus, "I have not come to take away the law of Moses, but to add to it," is also cited (ib.).唯一明確的基督教教義所說的猶太法典是( shab. 116a ,乙)說,摩西的律法已廢止和福音放在其位置-著名的基督教教義的廢除法律;俗語耶穌"我來不是要拿走摩西的律法,而是要再說些什麼, "也是引用( ib. ) 。 In the "Toledot" the doctrine of abrogation is put into the mouth of Peter, and the latter, secretly intending to separate the Christians from the community in the interest of the Jews, promulgates the following tenets: Jesus suffered the pain and punishment of death in order to redeem from hell those that believe in him (comp. I Cor. xv. 26, 55); believers shall not hurt the Jews (comp. Acts iii. 26); one who deserves to be accompanied one mile only shall be accompanied two miles; both cheeks shall be offered if one cheek has been struck (comp. Matt. v. 39-41); instead of the Sabbath, Sunday shall be kept holy; Easter shall be celebrated instead of the Passover, Pentecost instead of the Feast of Weeks, etc.; circumcision is abrogated, and the dietary laws annulled.在" toledot "中庸廢止放進口中的彼得,而後者,暗中打算單獨基督徒,從社會利益的猶太人,特頒布如下原理:耶穌蒙受痛苦和處以極刑,我心服口服為了贖回來自地獄的那些相信他( comp.林前, 15 。 26 , 55 ) ;信徒不得傷害了猶太人( comp.行為三, 26 ) ,一人,應該伴隨著一哩只應伴隨著2英里;臉頰均不得提供,如果一個臉頰已被擊中( comp.馬特訴39-41 ) ;不是安息日,週日應保存聖地;復活節應在慶祝不是逾越節,五旬而不是七七節等;割禮是廢止,與膳食法律廢止。 All these doctrinesare merely external, while the essential points of the teachings of Jesus are hardly alluded to.所有這些doctrinesare只是外在因素,而基本點的遺訓耶穌是難以提及。

Jesus performed all his miracles by means of magic, as stated above.耶穌表演他的所有奇蹟的方式魔術,正如以上所述。 These miracles are not specified in the Talmud, but they are in the "Tole-dot"; they are partly such as are mentioned in the Gospels, as the healing of the halt, blind, and leprous, and are somewhat different in nature, though based on the Gospels, as the story of Jesus walking on the sea on a heavy millstone ("Toledot"-ed. Wagenseil, p. 14; ed. Huldricus, p. 43; ed. Bischoff, p. 25; MS. Adler, in Krauss, "Leben Jesu," p. 119; comp. Matt. xiv. 25, xviii. 6).這些奇蹟是不會在指定的猶太法典,但它們在" tole點" ,她們有一部分是如提到了福音,因為癒合的停頓,失明,並leprous ,是有所不同的性質,雖然基於福音,因為耶穌的故事行走在海上的一個沉重的磨石( " toledot "男女。瓦根賽爾,第14頁;海關。 huldricus ,第43頁;海關。 Bischoff ) ,第25頁;女士。阿德勒,在克勞斯" ,生活jesu " ,第119頁;可比。馬特。十四, 25 , 18 。 6 ) 。 Other miracles are derived from apocryphal accounts, as the story that Jesus fashioned birds from clay or marble and put life into them; this occurs also in the "Gospel of Thomas," in "Evang. Infantiæ Arab."其他的奇蹟源自猜測帳戶,作為故事,耶穌是不合時宜的鳥類由粘土或大理石,並把生命溶入他們,這也發生在"福音托馬斯" ,在"埃旺。 infantiæ阿拉伯" 。 § 36 (Thilo, ib. i. 111), and in the Koran. § 36 (現場總線系統的步兵營,一111 ) ,而在可蘭經。 These legends are much amplified in the later "Toledot," although the substance remains the same.這些傳說大大擴增在後來的" toledot , "雖然物質仍然是一樣的。

Trial and Death of Jesus.審判和死亡的耶穌。

The Talmudic account of the manner of executing a person guilty of leading the people astray (Sanh. 67a) would be of signal historical importance if it were certain that it referred to Jesus.該talmudic帳戶的方式執行一個人觸犯領導人民歧途( sanh.第67A ) ,將信號具有重要的歷史意義,如果它被肯定的是,它是指耶穌。 The proceeding against one who incites others to deny the religion of their fathers consists in convicting him of his guilt by means of concealed witnesses, as follows: The accused is placed in an inner room with a light, so that witnesses unknown to him and watching him from an outer room can see and hear him clearly.該訴訟對一個人煽動他人以否定宗教,他們父輩組成,在他有罪,他有罪,手段隱蔽證人,具體情況如下:被告人是放置在一個房間內,與一輛輕型,使證人未知他,並觀看了他從外空間,可以看到和聽到他清楚了。 Then a companion says to him: "Tell me again what you told me in confidence [in regard to renouncing our religion]."然後同伴說,對他說: "告訴我,又是什麼,你告訴我,在信心[就放棄我們的宗教] " 。 If he does so, the other replies: "How could we leave our God in heaven and serve idols?"如果他這樣做,其他答复說: "我們怎麼能離開我們的上帝在天上,服務偶像" ? If he recants now, it is well; but if he says, "It is our duty and we must do it," then the witnesses outside take him into court and he is stoned.如果他recants現在,它是好,但是如果他說, "這是我們的責任,我們必須這樣做" ,那麼,證人以外帶他到法院,他投擲石塊。 "Thus they did with Ben Sṭada at Lydda, who was hanged on the eve of the Passover." "因此,他們沒有與本sṭada在lydda ,他被絞死對即將到來的逾越節" 。 This passage refers to Jesus only if he is regarded as identical with Ben Sṭada; this can hardly be assumed in view of the reference to Lydda.這段話是指耶穌只是,如果他被視為是完全相同的,與本sṭada ;此事很難假定鑑於該參考lydda 。 The frequently repeated statement that Jesus was condemned for inciting to apostasy () is based on Sanh.經常反复聲明說,耶穌被譴責為煽動叛教( ) ,是基於sanh 。 43a; there is added the entirely improbable statement that forty days before the condemnation of Jesus a herald called upon any one who could say anything in his favor to come forward and testify, but that no one appeared. 43 A條,有補充,完全難以琢磨的聲明說,四十天前,譴責耶穌的先聲呼籲任何一個人能說什麼他有利時挺身作證,但沒有人出現。

The proceeding is related very differently in the "Toledot"; although the several editions of the same differ in detail they agree in substance.該訴訟涉及非常不同,在" toledot " ;雖然幾個版本的同時,會有不同的細節,他們同意在實質內容。 The following account is found in a rather old edition (see Krauss, lc pp. 43 et seq.).以下帳戶是發現了一個較舊版本(見克勞斯,信用證頁43頁起) 。 The scholars of Israel took Jesus into the synagogue of Tiberias and bound him to a pillar; when his followers came to liberate him, a battle occurred in which the Jewish party was worsted and his disciples took him to Antiochia.與會學者對以色列採取了耶穌進入會堂的太巴列和約束他的支柱,當他的追隨者來到解放他,戰鬥發生在猶太人的黨是精紡和他的弟子將他帶到安蒂奧基亞。 On the eve of Passover he entered Jerusalem riding on an ass (comp. Matt. xxi. 4-17), disguised-according to several editions-so that his former disciple Judas had to betray him in order to secure his seizure.在逾越節前夕,他進入耶路撒冷騎一個驢( comp.馬特。二十一, 4月17日) ,偽裝成-根據幾個版本,因此,他的前弟子猶大不得不出賣他,以保證他扣押。 He was executed on the eve of the Passover festival, which was also the eve of the Sabbath.他被處死的前夕逾越節節,而這亦是除夕夜的安息日。 The executioners were not able to hang him upon a tree, for he had conjured all trees, by means of the name of God, not to receive him, and therefore they all broke; he was finally received by a large cabbagestalk (comp. Targ. Sheni to Esth. vii. 9).該劊子手沒能坑後,他的一棵樹,因為他已經喚出了所有的樹木,即通過以上帝的名義,而不是接受他,所以他們都打破了,他終於收到一個大cabbagestalk ( comp. targ 。 sheni以esth七。 9 ) 。 He was buried on the same day, in conformity with the Law, and the apostates, his disciples, wept at his tomb.他被安葬在同一天,在符合法律規定,並變節,他的弟子們,在哭泣,在他的墳墓。

According to the "Toledot" his disciples sought for his body in the tomb, but being unable to find it they used the incident as proof before Queen Helena that he who had been slain had ascended into heaven.要按照" toledot "他的弟子徵求他的屍體在墓穴中,但無法找到它,他們使用的事件,以證明前皇后赫勒拿他的人已被殺害已躋身於天堂。 It then appeared that a man-sometimes called "Judas the Gardener" (Judas Iscariot), sometimes, indefinitely, the "master of the garden"-had taken the body out of the grave, used it as a dam to keep the water out of his garden, and had flooded the tomb.接著出現了一個男人-有時也被稱為"猶大的園丁" (猶大iscariot ) ,有時候,無限期, "碩士花園" -採取了身體失去了,用它作為一個壩,以保持水他的花園,並已淹沒了整個墓室。 Then there was joy again in Israel; the body was taken before the queen at Jerusalem, and the Christians were shamed.那麼,有喜悅,又在以色列;屍體前,女王在耶路撒冷和基督信徒被羞辱。 Three points deserve notice in this account: (1) The fact that the body was stolen.有三點值得預告,在這個帳戶: ( 1 )事實上,這具屍體被盜竊的案件。 According to Matt.據馬特。 xxvii.二十七。 64, the Pharisees asked Pilate to guard the tomb so that the disciples might not steal the body and say that Jesus had ascended into heaven; but when the report was nevertheless circulated that Jesus had ascended, the Pharisees bribed the soldiers to say that the body had been stolen by the disciples (Matt. xxviii. 13). 64 ,法利問比拉多看守墳墓,使門徒們可能不會竊取身體,並說耶穌已躋身於上天,但這份報告出台之時不過分發給耶穌已躋身,法利買通兵說,這具屍體曾被盜,由弟子。 ( 28 。 13 ) 。 The "Gospel of Nikodemus," § 13 (Thilo, ib. i. 616), adds that the Jews still persisted in this statement. "福音nikodemus , " § 13 (現場總線系統的步兵營,一616 ) ,補充說,猶太人仍然堅持這項聲明。 A similar story is known to Justin ("Dial. cum Tryph." § 108; comp. § 17) and Eusebius ("Hist. Eccl." ch. iv. 18), while in the pseudo-Clementine "Recognitiones" (i., § 42) this assertion is ascribed to "others" (probably the Jews).類似的故事,是眾所周知的Justin ( "撥號。暨tryph " § 108 ;可比。 § 17 )和尤西比烏斯( "歷史。 eccl "你的四。 18 ) ,而在偽克萊門泰" recognitiones " (一, § 42 ) ,這種說法歸因於"其他" (可能是猶太人) 。 (2) The statement of the theft of the body and the statement of the gardener who was afraid that the multitude of disciples might destroy his lettuce-beds were both known to Tertullian ("De Spectaculis," § 30). ( 2 )聲明的盜竊屍體和聲明的園丁,他們是怕眾多的弟子,可能摧毀他的萵苣床都知道戴爾都良(下稱"德spectaculis , " § 30 ) 。 (3) The insult offered to the body in the streets of Jerusalem is alluded to in the Koran (see below). ( 3 )侮辱,提供給機構在街道上的耶路撒冷是暗示,在可蘭經(見下文) 。

The Resurrection.復活。

It is clear, therefore, that the Jewish legends deny the resurrection of Jesus; the halakic assertion that Balaam (ie, the prototype of Jesus) had no part in the future life must also be especially noted (Sanh. x. 2).很明顯,因此,在猶太傳說中否認復活的耶穌; halakic斷言balaam (即原型的耶穌)沒有參加在今後的生活中還必須特別指出( sanh.十2 ) 。 It is further said: "The pupils of the recreant Balaam inherit hell" (Abot v. 19).它進一步說: "學生的recreant balaam繼承地獄" ( abot訴19 ) 。 Jesus is accordingly, in the following curious Talmudic legend, thought to sojourn in hell.耶穌是據此,在以下幾個好奇talmudic傳說中,以為寄居在地獄裡。 A certain Onḳelos b.某onḳelos乙 Ḳaloniḳos, son of Titus' sister, desired to embrace Judaism, and called up from hell by magic first Titus, then Balaam, and finally Jesus, who are here taken together as the worst enemies of Judaism. ḳaloniḳos ,兒子的弟兄姐妹,渴望擁抱猶太教,並徵集了來自地獄的魔術首次提,然後balaam ,最後耶穌,在這裡一併作為最壞的敵人猶太教。 He asked Jesus: "Who is esteemed in that world?"他問耶穌: "誰是尊敬在這個世界" ? Jesus said: "Israel."耶穌說: "以色列" 。 "Shall one join them?" "一位參加他們的" ? Jesus said to him: "Further their well-being; do nothing to their detriment; whoever touches them touches even the apple of His eye."耶穌對他說: "繼其福祉;無能為力有害無益;誰觸動他們觸及甚至蘋果他的眼睛" 。 Onḳelos then asked the nature of his punishment, and was told that it was the degrading fate of those who mock the wise (Giṭ. 56b-57a). onḳelos接著問性質,其處罰的,並得知這是有辱人格的命運,那些模擬英明( giṭ. 56b - 50 ) 。 This most revolting passage was applied in the Middle Ages to another Jesus (eg, by R. Jeḥiel, in the Paris disputation; "Wikkuaḥ," p. 4, Thorn, 1873).這個最厭惡通過應用在中世紀到另一個耶穌(例如,由R. jeḥiel ,在巴黎的爭議; " wikkuaḥ " ,第4頁,眼中釘, 1873年) 。 A parallel to the story is found in the statement of the "Toledot" that when Judas found he could not touch Jesus in any way in the aerial battle, he defiled him.一個平行的,以這個故事被發現在該聲明中的" toledot "當猶大發現他不能觸摸耶穌以任何方式在空中戰役中,他玷污他。 This feature naturally especially angered Christians (see Wagenseil, "Tela Ignea Satanæ," p. 77).這一特點自然是激怒了基督徒(見瓦根賽爾, "影視處ignea satanæ " ,第77頁) 。 According to a passage in the Zohar (Steinschneider, "Polemische Litteratur," p. 362) the same degrading fate is meted out to both Jesus and Mohammed.根據一項通過在佐哈爾( steinschneider , " polemische litteratur " ,頁362 ) ,同時有辱人格的命運是在平時都耶穌和穆罕默德。

Legends regarding Jesus are found in Mohammedan folk-lore.傳說耶穌就發現穆罕默德民間傳說。 Although the innocence of Mary is most emphatically asserted, there are such striking parallels to Jewish legends that this material must certainly have been taken from Judaism into the Koran.雖然是無辜的瑪麗是最強調斷言,有這樣驚人的相似之處,以猶太傳說認為,這種材料一定已經採取了從猶太教到可蘭經。 In that work, also, it is stated that Jesus formed birds out of clay and endowed them with life (sura iii. 43); both the Koran and Jalal al-Din (in Maracci, "Refutatio Alcorani," fol. 114b, Patavii, 1698) refer to the peculiar clothing worn by the disciples of Jesus; and in Ibn Said (Maracci, lc fol. 113b) is found the statement that the body of Jesus was dragged with ropes through the streets.在這項工作中,也時,它說明耶穌形成鳥出的粘土並賦予他們與生活(蘇拉三, 43 ) ;都古蘭經和賈拉拉巴德基地丁( maracci , " refutatio alcorani , "隨訪。 114b , patavii , 1698 ) ,是指以奇特的服飾穿的門徒耶穌的,而且在伊本說: ( maracci ,立法會隨訪。 113b ) ,是發現該聲明中說,耶穌的身體被拖進與繩索通過街頭。

Karaites and Samaritans.卡拉和撒瑪利亞。

The cardinal point in the Jewish legends concerns the birth of Jesus.樞機點在猶太傳說,是關於耶穌誕生的。 This question is discussed by both the Samaritans ("Chronique Samaritaine," ed. Neubauer, p. 18, Paris, 1873) and the Karaites, as may be seen in a recently published passage from the work of the Karaite Judah Hadassi ("JQR" viii. 440).這個問題是討論雙方撒瑪利亞( " chronique samaritaine , "海關。 neubauer ,第18頁,巴黎, 1873年)和卡拉派,可以看出在最近出版的通道,從工作的karaite猶大hadassi ( " jqr "八, 440 ) 。 Other essential points are that Jesus performed his miracles by conjuring with the name of God (ib. viii. 436), and the legend appended to the "Toledot" editions regarding the finding of the cross (ib. viii. 438).其他要點是:耶穌演出他的神蹟,由變戲法與真主的名義( ib.八436 ) ,與傳說附在" toledot "版本,就發現過( ib.八438 ) 。 The Karaites, however, had their own "Toledot."本卡拉,不過,也有自己的" toledot " 。 Meswi al'Akkbari, the founder of a Karaite sect, engaged in similar polemics against the Christian doctrines ("REJ" xxxiv. 182). meswi al'akkbari ,創辦一個karaite節,從事過類似的爭論和對基督教教義( "相互執行判決"第三十四182 ) 。

Antichrist Legends.箴傳說。

The Jewish legends referring to Jesus can not be regarded as originally purely Jewish, because the Christian Antichrist legends also make use of them.猶太傳說指耶穌,不能被視為原本純粹猶太人的,因為基督教箴傳說,也利用了他們。 The Antichrist is born of a wandering virgin, the latter being, according to one version, a Danitic, hence Jewish, woman, while the father belongs to the Latin race (corresponding to the Roman soldier Panthera).該箴,是出生在日本一個流浪處女,而後者是根據一個版本, danitic ,因此猶太人,女人,而父親屬於整個拉美種族(相當於古羅馬士兵( Panthera ) 。 Similar details are found in the Armilus legend (Bousset, "Der Antichrist," p. 99, Göttingen, 1895; Krauss, "Das Leben Jesu," p. 216).類似的細節被發現,在armilus傳奇( bousset , "明鏡箴" ,第99頁,哥廷根, 1895年;克勞斯, "直接查冊,生活jesu " ,第216頁) 。

Joseph Jacobs, Kaufmann Kohler, Richard Gottheil, Samuel Krauss約瑟夫雅各布斯,考夫曼科勒,理查德戈特海爾塞繆爾克勞斯
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版1901年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Mehlführer, Jesus in Talmude, Altorf, 1699; Andr. mehlführer ,耶穌在talmude , altorf , 1699年; andr 。 Conr. conr 。 Werner, Jesus in Talmude, Stade, 1738; D'Herbelot, Bibliothèque, Orientale, ii.維爾納,耶穌在talmude ,比賽, 1738年; -埃貝洛,國家圖書館,東方,二。 349; Wagenseil, Tela Ignea Satanœ, Altorf, 1681 (where the Confutatio of the Toledot is separately paged); Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Judenthum, i. 349 ;瓦根賽爾,影視處ignea satanœ , altorf , 1681 (凡confutatio的toledot是分開篇) ;艾森曼格, entdecktes judenthum ,一。 105, 133, 249, passim; Von der Alm, Die Urtheile, Heidnischer und Jüdischer Schriftsteller über Jesus, Leipsic, 1864; Hoffmann, Das Leben Jesu nach den Apokryphen, ib. 105 , 133 , 249 ,各處;馮明鏡的ALM ,模具urtheile , heidnischer und jüdischer schriftsteller黚er耶穌, leipsic , 1864年;霍夫曼之,生活jesu nach書齋apokryphen ,興業。 1851; G. Rosch, Jesusmythen, in Theologische Studien und Kritiken, 1873, pp. 1851年; g. : Rosch , jesusmythen ,在theologische研究會und kritiken , 1873年,頁。 77-115; Jüdische Sagen über das Leben Jesu, by Conard, in Neue Kirchliche Zeitschrift, pp. 77-115 ; jüdische sagen黚er之,生活jesu ,由conard ,在neue kirchliche : Zeitschrift頁。 164-176, Erlangen and Leipsic, 1901; Baring-Gould, Lost and Hostile Gospels, 1875; Laible, Jesus Christus im Talmud (with Appendix-Die Talmudischen Texte, by G. Dalman), Berlin, 1891 (has been transl. into English); Krauss, Das Leben Jesu nach Jüdischen Quellen, Berlin, 1902; R. Travers Herford, Christianity in Talmud and Midrash, pp. 164-176 ,埃爾蘭根和leipsic , 1901年;霸菱-古爾德,丟失和敵對福音, 1875年; laible ,耶穌基督的IM猶太法典(附錄-模具talmudischen文本,由G. dalman ) ,柏林, 1891年(已譯。成英語) ;克勞斯之,生活jesu nach jüdischen quellen ,柏林, 1902年;傳譯Travers的黑爾福德,基督教在猶太法典和midrash頁。 1-96, London, 1903.GS Kr. 1-96 ,倫敦, 1903.gs氪。


Son of Man人子

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

In Contrast to Deity.相比之下,以神。

The rendering for the Hebrew "ben adam," applied to mankind in general, as opposed to and distinct from non-human relationship; expressing also the larger, unlimited implications of humanity as differentiated from limited (eg, national) forms and aspects of human life.渲染為希伯來語"奔亞當" ,適用於人類的普遍問題,並反對和有別於非人類的關係;還表示較大的,無限的影響,人類有區別的,從有限的(例如國家)的形式和方面的人生活。 Thus, contrasted with the "sons of God" ("bene Elohim") are the "daughters of man" ("benot ha-adam"), women taken by the former, non-human or super-human, beings as wives (Gen. vi. 2 et seq.).因此,對比與"神的兒子" ( "益處耶洛因" ) ,這是"女兒的男人" (下稱"房委會benot -亞當" ) ,婦女所採取的是前者,非人類或超人類,而作為妻子(將軍六2頁起) 。 As expressing difference from God, the term occurs in the blessing of Balaam: "God is not a man, that he should lie; neither the son of man, that he should repent" (Num. xxiii. 19).作為表達差異,從神,其任期內發生的祝福balaam : "上帝是不是一個人,他應該謊言;既不人子,他應該有悔改表現" ( num.二十三。 19 ) 。 Similarly, David appealing to Saul puts Yhwh over and against the children of men (I Sam. xxvi. 19).同樣,大衛呼籲娑羅雙樹把yhwh以上,並針對孩子的男人(我心。 26 。 19 ) 。 The punishment of God, also, is contrasted with that of the "children of men," the former being much more severe, as appears from the promise solemnly given to David (II Sam. vii. 14).該處罰的上帝,也就是對比的,與"兒童的男人" ,而前者更為嚴峻,因為似乎從莊嚴承諾給大衛(二薩姆七。 14 ) 。 God alone knows the heart of the "children of man" (II Chron. vi. 29 et seq.).只有上帝知道,心臟的"兒童的人" (二慢性第六節29頁起) 。 In the prayer in which this thought is expressed, "man" is used in distinction to the "people of Israel"; indeed, "children of men" appears to mark a contrast to "children of Israel" in the Song of Moses (Deut. xxxii. 8, RV).在禱告中,這個思路是表示, "人"是用來在區別" ,以色列人民" ,事實上, "孩子們" ,似乎標誌著一個對比的孩子" ,以色列" ,在這首歌的摩西( deut 。三十二。 8 , RV )的。

"Son of man" is a common term in the Psalms, used to accentuate the difference between God and human beings. "人子"是一個共同的任期詩篇,用來加劇區別上帝和人的人。 As in Ps.由於在PS 。 viii.八。 4 (AV 5), the phrase implies "mortality," "impotence," "transientness,"as against the omnipotence and eternality of God. 4 (房室5 ) ,這句話意味著"死亡" , "陽萎" , " transientness , "作為對全能和外部的上帝。 Yhwh looks down from His throne in heaven upon the "children," or "sons," of "man" (Ps. xi. 4, xxxiii. 13). yhwh期待從他的寶座在天上時, "兒童"或"兒子" , "好男人" (詩篇十一。 4 ,三十三13 ) 。 The faithful fail among them (Ps. xii. 2 [AV 1]); the seed of Yhwh's enemies will not abide among the "children of men" (Ps. xxi. 10).忠實失敗當中(詩篇十二2 [視聽1 ] ) ;種子yhwh的敵人將不會遵守其中的"孩子們" (詩篇21 。 10 ) 。 "Children of men" is thus equivalent to "mankind" (Ps. xxxvi. 8 [AV 7], lxvi. 5). "小孩的男人" ,因此相當於"人類" (詩篇三十六。 8 [影音7 ] , lxvi 5段) 。

"Sons of men," or "children of men," designates also the slanderers and evil-doers in contrast to the righteous, that is, Israel (Ps. lvii. 5 [AV 4], lviii. 2 [AV 1]). "兒子的男子, "或"兒童的男子, "指定,也slanderers和惡人相反,以正義的,那就是以色列(詩篇57 。 5 [影音4 ] , lviii 2 [視聽1 ] ) 。 It occurs most frequently, however, as a synonym for "mankind," "the human race" (Ps. xc. 3, cvii. 8, cxv. 16, cxlv. 12); it has this sense also in the passage in which wisdom is said to delight with the "sons of men" (Prov. viii. 31).它出現的頻率最高,但是,作為一個別名為"人類" , "人類" (詩篇越野。 3 , cvii 8 , cxv 16 cxlv 12 ) ,它有這個意義上,也通過在其中智慧是說高興, "兒子們" ( prov.八31 ) 。 Job(xvi. 21) employs the expression in the passionate plea for his rights while he is contending against God and against his neighbors.求職( xvi. 21 )採用了表達激情的呼籲,為自己的權利而他是爭創對上帝和他的鄰居。 But Bildad insists that the "son of man," who is a mere worm, can not be justified with God (Job xxv. 4-6).但bildad堅持說, "人子" ,他們僅僅是一種蠕蟲病毒,是沒有道理的,與神(求職二十五。 4-6 ) 。 In the same spirit the prophet (Isa. li. 12) censures Israel for being afraid of "the son of man which shall be made as grass" when Yhwh is their Comforter; but in Isa.在同一精神先知(以賽亞李12 )指責以色列為怕"人子應作草"的時候, yhwh是他們的撫慰者,但在伊薩。 lvi. 56 。 2-3 the Sabbath is extolled as making the "son of man" (ie, any man, regardless of birth) blessed; indeed, God has His eyes "open upon all the ways of the sons of men: to give every one according to his ways" (Jer. xxxii. 19). 2-3安息日是頌揚為使"人子" (即任何人,不論出生)有福了,事實上,上帝有他眼中的"開放後,採取一切辦法,對兒子的男子:讓每個人都根據以他的方式" ( jer.三十二。 19 ) 。 The meaning of the term as employed in these passages admits of no doubt; it connotes in most cases the mortality of man, his dependence upon God, while in only a few it serves to differentiate the rest of the human race from Israel.一詞的含義,作為受聘於這些通道承認的,毫無疑問,它蘊含在大多數情況下,死亡率的男子,其依靠上帝,而只能在少數,它只是為了區分其餘的人類免受以色列。

In Ezekiel, Daniel, and Enoch.在以西結書,丹尼爾,並伊諾克。

In Ezekiel the term occurs in Yhwh's communications as the prevailing form of address to the prophet (ii. 1; iii. 1, 4, 10, 17; iv. 1 et al.; in all about 90 times).以西結書一詞出現在yhwh的通信作為普遍的形式向先知( ii. 1 ;三, 1日, 4日, 10日, 17日;四, 1等人;所有約90倍) 。 It has been held that it conveyed the special idea that a wide chasm stood between God, the speaker, and the prophet so addressed, but that it implied at the same time that Ezekiel was considered to be the ideal man.它已舉辦了,它傳達了特殊的想法廣泛的鴻溝之間站在上帝,議長和先知如此提及,但它隱含在同一時間,即以西結書被認為是理想的人。 This view must be abandoned as unwarranted.這一觀點必須放棄,因為沒有必要的。 The term "ben adam" is merely a cumbersome but solemn and formal substitute for the personal pronoun, such substitution being due, perhaps, to the influence of Assyro-Babylonian usage (see Delitzsch, "Wörterbuch," sv "Amelu"; comp. "zir amiluti" in the Babylonian myth concerning Adapa).而言, "奔亞當" ,純粹是累贅,但莊嚴和正式取代個人的代名詞,這種替代是由於或許,影響assyro -巴比倫的使用(見delitzsch , " wörterbuch , " sv " amelu " ;可比。 " zir amiluti "在巴比倫神話關於達帕) 。 Similarly in Aramaic, "son of man" is the usual designation for "man," and occurs in the inscriptions in Syriac, Mandaic, Talmudic, and other dialects (see Nathanael Schmidt in Cheyne and Black, "Encyc. Bibl." iv. 4707-4708).同樣在阿拉姆語, "人子"是通常指定為"人" ,並且發生在該碑文在敘利亞文, mandaic , talmudic ,和其他方言(見nathanael施密特在進益及黑色, " encyc 。 bibl "四。 4707年至4708年) 。 In Dan.在丹。 vii.七。 13, the passage in which it occurs in Biblical Aramaic, it certainly connotes a "human being." 13 ,通過在它發生在聖經阿拉姆語,它肯定蘊含的"人" 。 Many see a Messianic significance in this verse, but in all probability the reference is to an angel with a human appearance, perhaps Michael.許多看到一個救世主式的意義,這首詩,但在所有的概率所指的是一個天使與一個人的外觀,也許邁克爾。

"Son of man" is found in the Book of Enoch, but never in the original discourses. "人子"是發現,在這本書的伊諾克,但從來沒有在原來的論述。 It occurs, however, in the Noachian interpolations (lx. 10, lxxi. 14), in which it has clearly no other meaning than "man," if, indeed, Charles' explanation ("Book of Enoch," p. 16), that the interpolator misused the term, as he does all other technical terms, is untenable.它發生,但是,在noachian插值( lx. 10 , lxxi 14 ) ,其中已明確,沒有別的意思,比"人" ,事實上,如果查爾斯的解釋(下稱"本書的伊諾克" ,第16頁) ,即內插誤用的詞,就要像他那樣所有其他技術而言,是站不住腳的。 In that part of the Book of Enoch known as the "Similitudes" it is met with in the technical sense of a supernatural Messiah and judge of the world (xlvi. 2, xlviii. 2, lxx. 27); universal dominion and preexistence are predicated of him (xlviii. 2, lxvii. 6).在這一部分,這本書的伊諾克稱為" similitudes : "這是會見在技術意義上的神靈,彌賽亞和判斷的世界( xlvi. 2 , 48 。 2 , lxx 27 ) ;普遍統治和preexistence是前提是他( xlviii. 2 , lxvii 6段) 。 He sits on God's throne (xlv. 3, li. 3), which is His own throne.他坐在神的寶座( xlv. 3 ,李3 ) ,這是他自己的王位。 Though Charles does not admit it, these passages betray Christian redaction and emendation.雖然查爾斯並不承認,這些通道出賣基督編撰學和校勘。 Among Jews the term "son of man" was not used as the specific title of the Messiah.其中猶太人而言, "人子" ,並不是用來作為特定商品的彌賽亞。 The New Testament expression ὅ ὑιὸς τοῦ ἀνθρόπου is a translation of the Aramaic "bar nasha," and as such could have been understood only as the substitute for a personal pronoun, or as emphasizing the human qualities of those to whom it is applied.新約聖經表達ὅ ὑιὸς τοῦ ἀνθρόπου是中文翻譯的阿拉姆語"酒吧nasha " ,因為這種可以被理解的,而且只作為代替一個人稱代詞,或強調人的素質的那些人將它應用。 That the term does not appear in any of the epistles ascribed to Paul is significant.這一術語沒有出現在任何的書信歸功於保羅,具有重要意義。 Psalm viii.詩篇八。 5-7 is quoted in Ḥeb. 5-7是引述ḥeb 。 ii.二。 6 as referring to Jesus, but outside the Gospels, Acts vii.六指耶穌,但外界福音,行為七。 56 is the only verse in the New Testament in which the title is employed; and here it may be a free translation of the Aramaic for "a man," or it may have been adopted from Luke xxii. 56 ,是唯一的詩句,在新約聖經中的標題是受僱於;這裡,它可能是一個自由翻譯的阿拉姆語為"一個男人" ,或者它可能已被採納,從路加福音二十二。 69. 69 。

In the New Testament.在新約聖經。

In the Gospels the title occurs eighty-one times.在福音書的標題出現81倍。 Most of the recent writers (among them being II. Lietzmann) have come to the conclusion that Jesus, speaking Aramaic, could never have designated himself as the "son of man" in a Messianic, mystic sense, because the Aramaic term never implied this meaning.大多數最近的作家(其中有正二。利茨曼)曾得出這樣的結論:耶穌,講阿拉姆語,絕不可指定自己為"人子"在一個救世主,神秘感,因為阿拉姆語來說,從來沒有暗示這含義。 Greek translators coined the phrase, which then led, under the influence of Dan.希臘語翻譯創造了一句,然後率領的影響下,丹。 vii.七。 13 and the Logos gospel, to the theological construction of the title which is basic to the Christology of the Church. 13和標識福音,神學建設的稱號,這是最基本的,以該christology的教會。 To this construction reference is made in Abbahu's controversial saying in Ta'an.這一建設也提到了在abbahu的爭議說,在ta'an 。 65b. 65 B條。 Indeed, examination of many of thepassages shows that in the mouth of Jesus the term was an equivalent for the personal pronoun "I."事實上,考試的,很多thepassages顯示,在口耶穌的任期是一個相當於為個人的代詞"一"

Emil G. Hirsch Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.埃米爾g.赫希猶太百科全書出版1901年至1906年之間。


Also, see:此外,見:
Christ 基督
God 上帝
Bible 聖經
Christianity 基督教
The Arising of Jesus 產生的耶穌


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