Jesuits, Society of Jesus耶穌會士,社會的耶穌

General Information 一般資料

The Society of Jesus, the largest Roman Catholic religious order, whose members are called Jesuits, was founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola. Noted for its discipline, based on the Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius, and for its lengthy training period of as much as 15 years, the society is governed by a general who lives in Rome. 社會上的耶穌,最大的羅馬天主教的宗教秩序,其成員是所謂的耶穌會士,是由聖依納爵羅耀拉。指出,其紀律的基礎上,精神文明演習的主教,並為它的冗長訓練期高達15年,社會是由一個普通的人生活在羅馬。 Jesuits do not wear a special habit and are not subject to local ecclesiastical authority.耶穌會士不佩戴一個特殊的習慣,而且不會受當地教會權威。 Professed members are bound by a vow of obedience to the pope.自稱成員都遵守一整套發誓服從教宗。

The Jesuits began as a group of seven men who as students in Paris took (1534) vows of poverty and chastity.耶穌會士開始作為一個集團的七名男子,他們作為學生,在巴黎舉行( 1534 )誓言貧窮和貞潔。 Ordained as priests, they placed themselves at the disposal of the pope, Paul III, who gave formal approval to the society in 1540.祝聖為神父,他們置於自己的處置教皇保羅三世獲得了正式批准,向社會在第1540號決議。 Ignatius became (1541) its first general.伊格成為(第1541 ) ,其第一項一般性。 The order grew so rapidly that at Ignatius's death (1556) the little band had expanded to nearly a thousand persons.該命令的增長如此之迅速,在伊格之死( 1556 ) ,小樂隊已擴大到將近一千人。

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From the first, the Jesuits concentrated on foreign missions, education, and scholarship.從第一,耶穌會集中於外國使團,教育和獎學金。 Saint Francis Xavier, one of the original seven, was the first Jesuit to open the East to missionaries; Matteo Ricci and others followed at the court of China.聖芳濟,其中原七人,是第一位耶穌會打開東向傳教士;利瑪竇等人隨後在法庭上的中國。 Jesuits established missions throughout Latin America and founded a model commune for Paraguayan Indians.耶穌會設立的特派團在整個拉丁美洲和創建示範社區為巴拉圭印度人。 A remarkable account of the Jesuit mission to North America can be found in the Jesuit Relations (1632 - 73).了不起帳戶的耶穌會使命,以北美,可以發現在耶穌會的關係( 1632 -7 3) 。

When the Counter Reformation was launched, the Jesuit order was its driving force.當反改革展開後,耶穌會是其動力。 During the Council of Trent, several Jesuits, notably Diego Lainez, served as theologians.在安理會的遄達,幾位耶穌會士,特別是迭戈lainez ,充當神學家。 The English mission, a bold attempt to reclaim England for Catholicism during the reign (1558 - 1603) of Elizabeth I, was led by Edmund Campion and included the poet Robert Southwell.英文使命,大膽嘗試,以索回英國天主教統治期間( 1558 -1 603)的伊麗莎白一世,率領由何厚鏵c ampion,其中包括詩人羅伯特s outhwell。 Jesuits established schools in almost every important European city and were leaders in education until the 18th century.耶穌會學校,幾乎在每一個重要的歐洲城市和單位領導在教育,直到18世紀。 Members of the society taught the sons of leading families and served as spiritual advisors to kings.社會成員的教導兒子的領導家屬,並作為精神文明顧問國王隊。

Because of the extent of the Jesuits' influence, powerful forces opposed them - forces composed of such unlikely allies as Blaise Pascal and the Jansenists, Voltaire, the Bourbon monarchs of France and Spain, and certain cardinals at the Vatican.由於程度的耶穌會的影響力,強大的力量反對他們-部隊等部分組成不大可能盟國布萊斯帕斯卡爾和詹森教徒,伏爾泰,波旁王朝君主的法國和西班牙,以及某些樞機主教在梵蒂岡。 These forces were instrumental in bringing about the suppression of the society (1773) by Pope Clement XIV.這些部隊分別在使關於制止社會( 1773年)由教皇克萊門特十四。 Among the members of the order at that time was John Carroll, who later became the first Roman Catholic bishop in the United States.各成員之間的命令,在當時的約翰卡洛爾,後來成為第一個羅馬天主教的主教在美國。

. The Jesuit order was reestablished (1814) by Pope Pius VII and resumed its work. 耶穌命令是重新確立( 1814年)由教宗比約七和恢復其工作。 Jesuit schools and universities, such as Georgetown, Fordham, and Saint Louis in the United States, were opened. In Europe, Jesuit traditions of learning were continued by the Bollandists, who were charged with compiling the lives of the saints; the Jesuits also published several periodicals and journals.耶穌會學校和大學,如喬治敦大學,福德姆,聖路易斯,在美國,被打開, 在歐洲,耶穌會的傳統,學習繼續由bollandists ,他們被落案控以編纂聖人們的生命;耶穌會還出版幾個期刊和期刊。 Members of the order were in the forefront of many social and theological movements; several others undertook scientific pursuits, such as the study of earthquakes.委員對程序問題,在最前列的許多社會和神學運動;其他幾個答應科學的追求,如以研究地震。 Among noted modern Jesuits are the poet Gerard Manley Hopkins, the paleontologist Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, John LaFarge (1880 - 1963), who worked for interracial justice, and the theologian John Courtney Murray.其中指出,現代耶穌是詩人熱拉爾曼利霍普金斯,古生物皮埃爾德日進,約翰拉法基( 1880年-1 963年) ,工作,為跨種族,司法和神學家約翰州最高法院默里。

Cyprian Davis塞浦路斯戴維斯

Bibliography 參考書目
W Bangert, A History of the Society of Jesus (1986); M Barthel, The Jesuits (1984); C Hollis, The Jesuits (1968).瓦特bangert ,一個歷史的,社會的耶穌( 1986 ) ;米巴歇爾,耶穌會士( 1984條) , c霍利斯,耶穌會士( 1968 ) 。


Jesuits - The Society of Jesus耶穌-社會的耶穌

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) are a monastic order founded by Ignatius of Loyola and approved as a Roman Catholic religious order in 1540.社會上的耶穌(耶穌)是一個寺院的命令成立,由伊格的羅耀拉,並批准為羅馬天主教的宗教秩序,在第1540號決議。 The Jesuits are classified as mendicant clerks regular.耶穌被列為乞討書記員定期。 Unlike most earlier orders there is no parallel branch for women.不同於大多數先前的訂單是沒有平行分會,為婦女。

In 1534 Loyola and six companions, all students of theology at the University of Paris, took vows of poverty and chastity and promised to devote their lives to missionary work in Palestine if that were possible.在第1534羅耀拉和6個同伴,但所有學生的神學,在巴黎大學代為誓言貧窮和貞潔,並許諾將投入自己的生命傳教工作,在巴勒斯坦,如果可能的。 Since war between Venice and the Ottoman Empire kept them from Palestine, they began preaching, teaching catechism, and doing various charitable works in the cities of northern Italy.自從戰爭與威尼斯和奧斯曼帝國保持他們從巴勒斯坦後,他們開始傳道,教理講授,並做各種慈善工程,在城市中的意大利北部。 Gradually they gathered new recruits, and since they wished to give permanent structure to their way of life, they sought approval from Pope Paul III as a religious order.漸漸,他們聚集在新聘人員,因為他們希望能永久性結構,以他們的生活方式,他們尋求批准,由教宗保祿三世為一個宗教秩序。 Initially membership was restricted to sixty professed priests, but this was soon lifted, and the popes conferred many privileges on the new order and relied on it for many special tasks, including diplomatic missions to Ireland, Sweden, and Russia.最初的成員資格限制,六十名自稱牧師,但這個很快就被取消,教宗賦予許多特權,就新秩序,並依賴於它的許多特殊任務,其中包括外交使團,以愛爾蘭,瑞典和俄羅斯等國。 Jesuit - professed fathers take a special vow of obedience to the pope.耶穌-自稱父親採取特殊發誓服從教宗。

Loyola was elected the first superior general in 1540 and spent his remaining years directing the new order and writing its Constitutions.羅耀拉當選為第一優於一般在第1540號決議,並花了他的餘年導演的新秩序,並書面說明其憲法。 The new order had several distinctive features.新的秩序有幾個鮮明的特點。 The superior general is elected for life and appoints all subordinate superiors, hence the Jesuits are highly centralized.上級一般是由選舉產生的生命,並任命所有下屬的上司,因此,耶穌是高度集中統一的。 Obedience is especially stressed.順從是特別強調。 There is no distinctive religious habit or uniform, such as earlier orders had, no special fasts or bodily austerities, no common singing of the divine office.有沒有獨特的宗教習慣或制服,如早前定單,沒有特別的齋戒或身體austerities ,沒有共同歌唱的神聖辦公室。 Loyola demanded that recruits be carefully selected and trained and that those who did not measure up be dismissed.洛約拉要求新兵仔細挑選和培訓那些沒有測量了被開除。 Later the training normally lasted fifteen years.後來培訓通常歷時十五年。 Two years at the beginning (novitiate) and a year at the end of the training (tertianship) were devoted to the spiritual development of the members in contrast to a one year novitiate in the old orders.兩年,在一開始( novitiate ) ,並每年舉行集訓結束( tertianship )專門用於精神文明的發展,委員們相比之下,一一年novitiate在舊命令。

Since the Jesuits were to be active in working with outsiders, monastic discipline had to be interiorized by vigorous training.自從耶穌被積極同外界,寺院的紀律,都必須interiorized嚴厲的訓練。 Loyola's Spiritual Exercises shaped the Jesuits' interior life, and one hour's private meditation daily has been mandatory for most of the order's history.羅耀拉的神操塑造了耶穌會'內部生活,一小時的私人冥想每天已強制大部分的秩序的歷史。 The Jesuits were in the forefront in spreading systematic meditation, a characteristic of Counter Reformation piety.耶穌會士在全國前列傳播系統打坐,有一個特點,反改革的虔誠。 For the Jesuit, prayer and activity were to be mutually reinforcing.為耶穌會,祈禱和活性,以達到互惠互利,相輔相成的。 Popularization of the Spiritual Exercises in the retreat movement has been a major contemporary Jesuit apostolate; as many as five million Catholics annually make retreats.普及精神演習中,進退運動已經成為一個重要的當代耶穌使徒;多達五百萬天主教徒每年使務虛會。

Loyola stressed quality rather than quantity, but the Society of Jesus grew rapidly.羅耀拉強調質量而不是數量,但社會上的耶穌快速增長。 There were about a thousand Jesuits by the founder's death in 1556, mainly in Spain, Italy, and Portugal, but also in France, Germany, and Belgium, as well as missionaries in India, Africa, and Latin America.有大約1000名耶穌會士,由創辦人的死在1556年,主要是在西班牙,意大利和葡萄牙,而且在法國,德國和比利時,以及傳教士在印度,非洲和拉丁美洲。 By 1626 there were 15,544 Jesuits.由1626年有15544名耶穌會士。 Growth was steady but somewhat slower until 1773 when Clement XIV, under pressure from the Bourbon monarchs of France, Spain, and Naples, suppressed the society.增長平穩,但有點慢,直到1773年,當克萊門特十四的壓力下,從波旁王朝君主的法國,西班牙和那不勒斯,壓抑的社會。 A few Jesuit houses survived in Prussia and Russia where the monarchs refused to promulgate the suppression.數耶穌房子存活在普魯士和俄羅斯那裡君主拒絕頒布了鎮壓。 In 1814 Pius VII restored the Jesuits worldwide. 1814年比約七,恢復了耶穌會士在全世界。 Despite being exiled from most European Catholic countries at one time or another, the Jesuits grew steadily in numbers during the next hundred years and peaked at 36,038 in 1964.儘管被流放,從大多數歐洲天主教國家,在同一時間或那樣的耶穌會穩步增長,在數量,在未來一百年,並達到最高峰36038於1964年。 Membership declined after the Second Vatican Council, reaching 27,027 in 1981 with roughly one third in Europe, one third in the United States and Canada, and one third in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.會員國拒絕後,梵蒂岡第二屆大公會議,達到了27027 ,在1981年,大約有三分之一在歐洲,三分之一在美國和加拿大,三分之一在亞洲,非洲和拉丁美洲。

Education quickly became the largest single Jesuit apostolate.教育迅速成為最大的單一耶穌使徒。 Loyola supervised the founding of a dozen colleges in the order's first decade.羅耀拉督戰,成立了十幾個學院,在該命令的第一個十年。 By 1626 the Jesuits directed five hundred colleges or seminaries, a number which nearly doubled by the mideighteenth century.由1626年耶穌會針對500高校或修院,這一數字幾乎增加了一倍,由mideighteenth世紀。 Most of the Jesuit colleges approximated modern prep schools, but some were full fledged universities.大部分的耶穌會學院近似現代預備學校,但有些是正式的大學。 During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries a high percentage of educated Catholic males, particularly the nobility, were graduates of these schools.在十七世紀和十八世紀相當高比例的受教育的天主教男性,尤其是貴族,畢業的這些學校。 The basic charter of these schools was the Ratio Studiorum (the Plan of Studies) of 1599, which tried to purify and simplify Renaissance humanism.基本憲章,這些學校是比studiorum (該計劃的研究)的第1599 ,它試圖以淨化和簡化文藝復興時期的人文精神。 Classical languages and literatures and religion provided the core curriculum with Aristotelian philosophy for advanced students.古典語言和文學,宗教等提供了核心課程與亞里斯多德哲學為先進學生。 Attendance was compulsory and a planned curriculum carried students forward step by step in rod was largely replaced by friendly rivalry as a stimulus to study.出席是強制性的和有計劃的課程進行學生按部就班,在棒,主要是取代友好競爭以刺激經濟研究。

The Jesuit schools used drama, often with lush pageantry, to inculcate moral and religious values.耶穌會學校,用話劇,往往與茂密pageantry ,灌輸道德和宗教價值觀。 Education remains a major Jesuit apostolate today; the Jesuits run some four thousand schools worldwide, mainly in mission countries, as well as eighteen American universities.教育仍然是一個主要的耶穌使徒今天;耶穌會辦一些4000在世界各地的學校,主要是在團國家,以及18個美國大學。 The Jesuits adopted Thomas Aquinas as their official theologian but freely modified his system, as in the theology of Francisco Suarez (1548 - 1617).耶穌會通過多瑪斯作為其官方神學家,但可自由修改他的系統,如同在神學的弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯( 1548 -1 617) 。 Generally they stressed human action in the process of salvation in contrast to the Dominicans, who put more emphasis on the primacy of grace.一般來說,他們強調人的行動,在這個過程中的救贖比照去多米尼加人,他們更重視的首要恩典。 Blaise Pascal attacked their casuistry as laxist.布萊斯帕斯卡爾攻擊,他們決疑論作為laxist 。 The Jesuits overwhelmingly rejected the principle that the end justifies the means, which was often attributed to them.耶穌會以壓倒多數否決原則,即目的正當的手段,這是其原因往往是他們。 Prominent among recent Jesuit theologians are Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Karl Rahner, and Bernard Lonergan.其中最突出的,最近耶穌會神學家們皮埃爾德日進,卡爾拉內,和Bernard lonergan 。 The Jesuits presently edit some one thousand periodicals, including NT Abstracts, Theology Digest, and Theological Studies.耶穌會士,目前編輯部分1000期刊,其中包括新台幣文摘,神學消化,與神學研究。

Traditionally the Jesuits have reserved their highest regard for missionary work.傳統上,耶穌會已預留了他們崇高的敬意傳教工作。 Francis Xavier (1506 - 52), the first and greatest Jesuit missionary, laid the basis for Jesuit activity in India, Indonesia, and Japan.芳濟( 1506 -5 2) ,第一,且是最大的耶穌會傳教士,奠定了基礎,為耶穌會的活動在印度,印度尼西亞和日本。 The Japanese mission particularly flourished until it was wiped out by savage persecution in the early seventeenth century.日本代表團特別興盛,直到被殲滅由野蠻迫害,在早期17世紀。 In China Matteo Ricci (1552 - 1610) founded the Jesuit mission where he and his successors won the protection of the Ming emperors by introducing Western scientific and technical knowledge to court circles at Peking.在中國利瑪竇( 1552 -1 610)創立了耶穌的使命,他和他的繼任者獲得保護明代皇帝所引進西方科學技術知識,以法院各界在北平。 They pioneered the adaptation of the gospel to Chinese traditions and thought forms, although in this many Catholic critics felt that they had gone too far.他們開創了適應的福音,以中國傳統思維方式,雖然在這許多天主教的批評者認為,他們已經走得太遠。 Their writings introduced China to the West.其著作向西方介紹中國。

The goal of the Peking mission was the conversion of the emperor, but the Jesuits never found their Chinese Constantine.目標北平的任務是轉換皇帝,但耶穌從未發現自己的中文君士坦丁。 Ricci's idea of adapting Christianity to local culture was applied to India by Robert De Nobili (1577 - 1658).利瑪竇的相適應的思想觀念,基督教,以地方文化,是適用於印度,由羅伯特德諾比利( 1577 -1 658) 。 Jesuits such as Jacques Marquette and Issac Jogues worked among the Indians of North America.耶穌會士,如雅克馬凱特和伊薩克若格工作,其中印度人的北美之行。 Eusebio Kino (1644 - 1711) established a string of mission stations which introduced the Indians of northern Mexico and the present southwestern United States to advanced agriculture.尤西比奧電影院( 1644 -1 711)建立了一連串的使命監測站,其中介紹了印度人的墨西哥北部和現在的美國西南部,以先進的農業。 The Jesuits Christianized and civilized the Indians of Paraguay and Brazil in organized towns (reductions), which flourished for more than a century until the Jesuits were suppressed.耶穌christianized文明印度人的巴拉圭和巴西有組織鎮(裁減) ,其中,興盛了一個多世紀,直到耶穌會受到打壓。

Although the Jesuits were not founded to combat Protestantism, they were quickly drawn into the struggle.儘管耶穌會士不成立,以打擊基督教,很快將他們拖入這場鬥爭。 Many Jesuits published controversial works, for instance, Peter Canisius and Robert Bellarmine, both of whom also wrote catechisms that enjoyed wide use for three centuries.許多耶穌會士出版爭議性的工程,比如,彼得法爾斯和羅伯特bellarmine ,他們兩人還寫信catechisms享有廣泛使用,為三個世紀。 Other Jesuits influenced policy as court preachers or as confessors to the emperor; the kings of France, Spain, and Poland; and the dukes of Bavaria.其他耶穌會影響政策作為法院傳教士或作為confessors向皇帝,國王隊的法國,西班牙和波蘭,以及腫瘤的巴伐利亞州。 Well over a thousand Jesuits died as martyrs both in Europe and in the missions.以及超過一千耶穌死亡的烈士都在歐洲和任務。 The Roman Catholic Church has canonized thirty eight Jesuits, including twenty two martyrs.羅馬天主教教會冊封38名耶穌會士,其中包括22烈士。

JP Donnelly太平紳士91
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
J Brodrick, The Origins of the Jesuits; W Bangert, A History of the Society of Jesus; D Mitchell, The Jesuits; J de Guibert, The Jesuits: Their Spiritual Doctrine and Practice. j brodrick ,起源耶穌;瓦特bangert ,一個歷史的,社會的耶穌; d米切爾,耶穌會士; j德guibert ,耶穌:他們的精神學說與實踐結合起來。


Bollandists bollandists

General Information 一般資料

The Bollandists are a group of Belgian Jesuits who publish the Acta Sanctorum, a critical edition of the lives of the saints.該bollandists是一組比利時耶穌會士,他們出版學報sanctorum ,關鍵版聖人們的生命。 Named after their first editor, Jean Bolland (1596-1665), they also publish a quarterly review, the Analecta Bollandiana.命名後,他們的第一主編,讓bolland ( 1596至1665年) ,他們還公佈每季檢討時, analecta bollandiana 。


Society of Jesus社會上的耶穌

Additional Information 補充資料

Currently, there are around 16,500 Jesuit Priests worldwide, and about 3,000 in the United States.目前,有大約16500耶穌會神父世界範圍內,大約有3000名在美國。 This is around half of their numbers in the 1960s.這是大約一半的數量在20世紀60年代。


The Society of Jesus社會上的耶穌

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

(Company of Jesus, Jesuits) (公司的耶穌,耶穌會士)

See also DISTINGUISHED JESUITS, JESUIT APOLOGETIC, EARLY JESUIT GENERALS, and four articles on the history of the Society: PRE-1750, 1750-1773, 1773-1814, and 1814-1912.也見尊敬的耶穌會士,耶穌會表歉意,早期耶穌會將領,並有4條關於歷史的社會:前1750年, 1750年至1773年, 1773年至1814年, 1814年至1912年。

The Society of Jesus is a religious order founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola.社會上的耶穌是一個宗教秩序創辦的聖依納爵羅耀拉。 Designated by him "The Company of Jesus" to indicate its true leader and its soldier spirit, the title was Latinized into "Societas Jesu" in the Bull of Paul III approving its formation and the first formula of its Institute ("Regimini militantis ecclesia", 27 Sept., 1540).由他指定的"該公司的耶穌" ,以顯示其真正的領導者和其兵一卒的精神,題目是latinized成" societas jesu " ,在牛市的保羅三,批准其成立和第一公式,其研究所(簡稱" regimini militantis教會" , 1540年9月27日) 。 The term "Jesuit" (of fifteenth-century origin, meaning one who used too frequently or appropriated the name of Jesus), was first applied to the society in reproach (1544-52), and was never employed by its founder, though members and friends of the society in time accepted the name in its good sense.而言, "耶穌會" ( 15世紀起源,也就是一個人使用太頻繁或侵占耶穌的名字) ,是第一個應用到社會的非議( 1544年至1552年) ,以及從未聘用,其創辦人,雖然議員和朋友們的社會在時間接受名下,其良好的意識。 The Society ranks among religious institutes as a mendicant order of clerks regular, that is, a body of priests organized for apostolic work, following a religious rule, and relying on alms for their support [Bulls of Pius V, "Dum indefessae", 7 July, 1571; Gregory XIII, "Ascendente Domino", 25 May, 1585].社會躋身宗教院校作為乞討秩序書記員定期,即是一個機構的神職人員舉辦使徒工作,以下是一個宗教統治,依靠施捨,他們支持[公牛隊的比約五, "達姆彈indefessae " , 7 7月, 1571年;格雷戈里十三, " ascendente多米諾骨牌" , 1585年5月25日] 。

As has been explained under the title "Ignatius Loyola", the founder began his self-reform, and the enlistment of followers, entirely prepossessed with the idea of the imitation of Christ, and without any plan for a religious order or purpose of attending to the needs of the days.正如已經解釋的標題下, "依納爵羅耀拉" ,創辦人開始了他的自我改革,並招募信徒,完全prepossessed與理念的模仿基督,也沒有任何計劃,為宗教秩序或目的來參加有需要的天。 Unexpectedly prevented from carrying out this idea, he offered his services and those of this followers to the pope, "Christ upon Earth", who at once employed him in such works as were most pressing at the moment.不料無法履行這一思路,他提出他的服務,並對於這個信徒向教宗, "基督後,地球" ,他們在曾僱用他,在這樣的作品作為人的最迫切的當務之急。 It was only after this and just before the first companions broke to go at the pope's command to various countries, that the resolution to found an order was taken, and that Ignatius was commissioned to draw up Constitutions.它只是經過這次和剛剛才首次打破了同伴去,在教皇的指揮前往各國訪問,該決議成立一個命令是採取反措施,即伊格委託起草憲法。 This he did slowly and methodically; first introducing rules and customs and seeing how they worked.這他慢慢地,並有條不紊;首次引進規則和慣例,看看他們的工作。 He did not codify them for the first six years.他沒有編纂,為首次六年。 Then three years were given to formulating laws the wisdom of which had been proven by experiment.其後三年分別給予制定法律的智慧,這已證明了實驗。 In the last six years of the Saint's life the Constitutions so composed were finally revised and put into practice everywhere.在過去六年的聖人的生活,使憲法組成的小組最後修訂並付諸實踐,無處不在。 This sequence of events explains at once how the society, though devoted to the following of Christ, as though there were nothing else in the world to care for, is also excellently adapted to the needs of the day.這一系列事件說明,在一次怎樣的社會,雖然致力於以下的基督,好像有什麼都沒有了,在世界上要關心,也很好地切合他們需要的一天。 It began to attend to them before it began to legislate; and its legislation was the codification of those measures which had been proved by experience to be apt to preserve its preliminary religious principle among men actually devoted to the requirements of the Church in days not unlike our own.它開始注意他們後,才開始進行立法,而且它的立法編纂的這些措施已被證明了的體驗,以易維護其初步的宗教原則的男人,其實專門要求教會在天不是不像我們自己的事。

The Society was not founded with the avowed intention of opposing Protestantism.社會是不成立的,與公開說明的反對新教。 Neither the papal letters of approbation nor the Constitutions of the order mention this as the object of the new foundation.既不是教皇信用證的讚許,也沒有憲法秩序提及這一問題作為對象的新的基礎。 When Ignatius began to devote himself to the service of the Church, he had probably not even heard of the names of the Protestant Reformers.當伊格開始立志報國,服務教會,他大概沒有聽說過的名字新教改革者。 His early plan was rather the conversion of Mohammedans, an idea which, a few decades after the final triumph of the Christians over the Moors in Spain, must have strongly appealed to the chivalrous Spaniards.他的早期計劃,而不是轉化Mohammedan人,一個概念,在幾十年後,最終取得勝利的基督徒超過摩爾人在西班牙,就必須有強烈呼籲俠義西班牙人。

The name "Societas Jesu" had been born by a military order approved and recommended by Pius II in 1450, the purpose of which was to fight against the Turks and aid in spreading the Christian faith.取名" societas jesu "已出生,由一個軍事命令批准,並建議由比約二,在1450年,其目的是為了打擊土耳其人和援助,在傳播基督教信仰。 The early Jesuits were sent by Ignatius first to pagan lands or to Catholic countries; to Protestant countries only at the special request of the pope and to Germany, the cradle-land of the Reformation, at the urgent solicitation of the imperial ambassador.早期耶穌被送往由伊格首先異教的土地或以天主教國家;新教國家只有在特殊要求的教宗,並為德國,從搖籃土地的改革,在緊急徵求帝國駐華大使。 From the very beginning the missionary labours of the Jesuits among the pagans of India, Japan, China, Canada, Central and South America were as important as their activity in Christian countries.從一開始傳教勞動力的耶穌會士之間的異教徒的印度,日本,中國,加拿大,中美洲和南美洲為重要,因為他們的活動,在基督教國家。 As the object of the society was the propagation and strengthening of the Catholic faith everywhere, the Jesuits naturally endeavored to counteract the spread of Protestantism.作為對象的,社會是宣傳和加強天主教信仰無處不在,耶穌會士,自然竭力抵制傳播基督教。 They became the main instruments of the Counter-Reformation; the re-conquest of southern and western Germany and Austria for the Church, and the preservation of the Catholic faith in France and other countries were due chiefly to their exertions.他們成為了主要手段是反改革;再度征服的南部和西部地區,德國和奧地利對於教會,並保存了天主教的信仰,在法國及其他國家的人,主要是由於其exertions 。

INSTITUTES, CONSTITUTIONS, LEGISLATION院所,憲法,立法

The official publication which constitutes all the regulations of the Society, its codex legum, is entitled "Institutum Societas Jesu" of which the latest edition was issued at Rome and Florence 1869-91 (for full biography see Sommervogel, V, 75-115; IX, 609-611; for commentators see X, 705-710).官方出版物構成了各項規章制度,對社會,其食品法典委員會,專攻,標題是" institutum societas jesu " ,其中最新版的發行,在羅馬和佛羅倫斯1869年至1891年(適用於所有的傳記見sommervogel ,五, 75-115 ;第九, 609-611 ;評論家參閱X , 705-710 ) 。 The Institute contains:該研究所包含:

(1) The special Bulls and other pontifical documents approving the Society and canonically determining or regulating its various works, and its ecclesiastical standing and relations. ( 1 )特別公牛和其他宗座文件批准社會和canonically確定或調整其各項工程,它的宗教地位和關係。

Besides those already mentioned, other important Bulls are those of: Paul III, "Injunctum nobis", 14 March, 1543; Julius III, "Exposcit debitum", 21 July, 1550; Pius V, "Æquum reputamus", 17 January, 1565; Pius VII, "Solicitudo omnium ecclesiarum", 7 August, 1814, Leo XIII, "Dolemus inter alia", 13 July, 1880.除了已經提到過的,其他重要的公牛隊,是那些:保羅三, " injunctum的意識" , 1543年3月14日;戲劇三, " exposcit debitum " , 1550年7月21日;比約五, " æquum reputamus " , 1565年1月17日;比約七, " solicitudo omnium ecclesiarum " , 1814年8月7日,利奧十三世, " dolemus除其他外" , 1880年7月13日。 (2) The Examen Generale and Constitutions. ( 2 )的審查generale和章程。 The Examen contains subjects to be explained to postulants and points on which they are to be examined.有關的審查包含學科加以解釋,以postulants和點上,他們是需要加以審查。 The Constitutions are divided into ten parts:憲法分為十個部分:

admission; dismissal; novitiate; scholastic training; profession and other grades of membership; religious vows and other obligations as observed by the Society; missions and other ministries; congregations, local and general assemblies as a means of union and uniformity; the general and chief superiors; the preservation of the spirit of the Society.入場;解聘; novitiate ;學業培訓;界和其他職系的成員;宗教誓言和其他義務的,作為觀察社會;特派團和其他部委;畢業典禮,地方和大會作為一種手段,聯盟和統一性;一般性及行政上級;保存的精神上來,把社會。

Thus far in the Institute all is by Saint Ignatius, who has also added "Declarations" of various obscure parts.因此,到目前為止,在該研究所是由聖的主教,他也補充說: "聲明"的各種模糊部分。 Then come:然後:

Decrees of General Congregations, which have equal authority with the Constitutions;法令一般的畢業典禮,其中有平等的權力與憲法;

Rules, general and particular, etc.;規則,一般和特殊等;

Formulae or order of business for the congregations;公式或命令的業務,為教友;

Ordinations of generals, which have the same authority as rules; ordinations的將領,其中有相同的權力規則;

Instructions, some for superiors, others for those engaged in the missions or other works of the Society;指示,有的是上級,為他人從事的任務或其他工程的社會;

Industriae, or special counsels for superiors; industriae ,或特別大律師,為上級;

The Book of the Spiritual; and這本書的精神;

the Ratio Studiorum, which have directive force only.比例studiorum ,已指示陸軍只。

The Constitutions as drafted by Ignatius and adopted finally by the first congregation of the Society, 1558, have never been altered.憲法起草伊格並通過了,最後由第一聚集社會, 1558年,從來沒有被改動。 Ill-informed writers have stated that Lainez, the second general, made considerable changes in the saint's conception of the order; but Ignatius' own later recension of the Constitutions, lately reproduced in facsimile (Rome, 1908), exactly agree with the text of the Constitutions now in force, and contains no word by Lainez, not even in the declarations, or glosses added to the text, which are all the work of Ignatius.虐待知情作家都表示, lainez ,第二個一般,取得了相當大的變化,在聖的觀念秩序,但伊格自己後來recension的憲法,近來轉載傳真(羅馬, 1908年) ,正是同意文憲法已生效,並載有沒有這個詞, lainez ,即使是在申報,或敷衍了事,加上文,這是一切工作的主教。 The text in use in the Society is a Latin version prepared under the direction of the third congregation, and subjected to a minute comparison with the Spanish original preserved in the Society's archives, during the fourth congregation (1581).文中使用,在社會是一個拉丁語版本指導下編寫的第三聚集,並受到一分鐘的比較與西班牙原件保存在社會上的檔案,在第四次會眾( 1581 ) 。

These Constitutions were written after long deliberation between Ignatius and his companions in the founding of the Society, as at first it seemed to them that they might continue their work without the aid of a special Rule.這些憲法寫的,經過長期醞釀與伊格和他的同伴們在建國的社會,截至首先,它似乎向他們表示,他們可能會繼續工作,而不借助一個特殊的規則。 They were the fruit of long experience and of serious meditation and prayer.它們分別是水果的長期經驗和嚴重的冥想和祈禱。 Throughout they are inspired by an exalted spirit of charity and zeal for souls.各地,他們的靈感是一個崇高的精神,慈善機構和熱心的靈魂。

They contain nothing unreasonable.它們含有無可厚非。 To appreciate them, however, requires a knowledge of canon law applied to monastic life and also of their history in the light of the times for which they were framed.欣賞他們,不過,需要了解的佳能法適用於修道生活,以及他們在歷史上因時代,而他們的具體辦法。 Usually those who find fault with them either have never read them or else have misinterpreted them.通常那些尋找故障與他們要么從來沒有看過他們,否則,誤解了他們。 Monod, for instance, in his introduction to Böhmer's essay on the Jesuits ("Les jesuites", Paris, 1910, p. 13, 14) recalls how Michelet mistranslated the words of the Constitutions, p. monod ,例如,在他的介紹中,以böhmer的論耶穌會(簡稱"就業輔導組jesuites " ,巴黎, 1910年,第13頁, 14 )回憶michelet誤的話,憲法頁 VI, c.六,長 5, obligationem ad peccatum, and made it appear that they require obedience even to the commission of sin, as if the text were obligatio ad peccandum, where the obvious meaning and purpose of the text is precisely to show that the transgression of the rules is not in itself sinful. 5 , obligationem專案peccatum ,並講了,似乎他們所需要的服從,甚至犯下罪惡,如果案文obligatio專案peccandum ,那裡有明顯的意義和作用,該文正是這表明了海侵的規則本身並不是罪過。 Monod enumerates such men as Arnauld, Wolf, Lange, Ranke in the first edition of his "History", Hausser and Droysen, Philippson and Charbonnel, as having repeated the same error, although it has been refuted frequently since 1824, particularly by Gieseler, and corrected by Ranke in his second edition. monod列舉了這樣的男人,因為arnauld ,狼,蘭格,對蘭克在首版他的"歷史" , hausser和droysen , philippson和沙博內爾,具有重複了同樣的錯誤,雖然它已被批駁經常自1824年,特別是由基氏,糾正對蘭克在他的第二版。 Whenever the Constitutions enjoin what is already a serious moral obligation, or superiors, by virtue of their authority, impose a grave obligation, transgression is sinful; but this is true of such transgressions not only in the society but out of it.每當憲法責成什麼已經是一個嚴重的道德義務,或上司,憑藉其權力,強加給一個嚴重的義務,海侵是罪孽深重,但是這是事實,這些越軌行為不僅在社會上,但利用它。 Moreover such commands are rarely given by the superiors and only when the good of the individual member or the common good imperatively demands it.此外,如命令,是很少考慮由上級只有當良好的個人會員或者共同富裕是出於需求。 The rule throughout is one of love inspired by wisdom, and must be interpreted in the spirit of charity which animates it.法治整個是一個愛的啟發智慧,也必須加以解釋的精神,慈善機構,它以動畫的。 This is especially true of its provisions for the affectionate relations of members with superiors and with one another, by the manifestation of conscience, more or less practiced in every religious order, and by mutual correction when this may be necessary.這一點尤其如此,其規定為恩愛關係的成員與上級和配合,所體現的良心,更多或更少實行每個宗教秩序,並通過相互校正的時候,這可能是必要的。 It also applies to the methods employed to ascertain the qualification of members for various offices or ministries.它也適用於該方法,以確定資格的成員為各辦公室或各部委。

The chief authority is vested in the general congregation, which elects the general, and could, for certain grave causes, depose him.行政權力屬於一般聚集,其中直接選舉一般,而且可能,對某些嚴重的原因,廢黜他。 This body could also (although there has never yet been an occasion for so doing) add new Constitutions and abrogate old ones.這個機構還可以(雖然從未有尚未場合這樣做)添加新的憲法,並廢除舊的。 Usually this congregation is convened on the occasion of the death of a general, in order to elect a successor, and to make provisions for the government and welfare of the Society.通常這是聚集召開之際殺死了一名幹事,以選出一位繼任人,並訂定條文,為政府和福利的社會。 It may also be called at other times for grave reasons.它也可以被稱為在其他時間為嚴重的原因。 It consists of the general, when alive, and his assistants, the provincials, and two deputies from each province or territorial division of the society elected by the superiors and older professed members.它包括一般,當活著,和他的助手, provincials ,和兩名副總統,從每一個省或領土被分割的社會,由民選產生的上司和老年人自稱成員。

Thus authority in the Society eventually rests on a democratic basis.因此,房委會在社會上最終有賴於建立在民主的基礎上。 But as there is no definite time for calling the general congregation - which in fact rarely occurs except to elect a new general - the exercise of authority is usually in the hands of the general, in whom is vested the fullness of administrative power, and of spiritual authority.但由於沒有明確的時間要求一般會眾-這實際上極少發生,除選出新的秘書長-行使權力通常是在政府手中一般,在誰是既得利益者的豐滿的行政權力,並精神權威。 He can do anything within the scope of the Constitutions, and can even dispense with them for good causes, though he cannot change them.他可以做任何事情以內範圍的憲法,甚至可以免除他們良好的原因,他雖然不能改變他們。 He resides at Rome, and has a council of assistants, five in number at present, one each for Italy, France, Spain, and the countries of Spanish origin, one for Germany, Austria, Poland, Belgium, Hungary, Holland, and one for English-speaking countries - England, Ireland, United States, Canada, and British colonies (except India).他居住在羅馬,有一個會,助理員,在5個號碼,目前,每一個為意大利,法國,西班牙,和有關國家的西班牙語出身,一為德國,奧地利,波蘭,比利時,匈牙利,荷蘭和一對於以英語為母語的國家-英國,愛爾蘭,美國,加拿大和英國的殖民地(除印度) 。 These usually hold office until the death of the general.這些通常擔任職務,直至死亡一般。 Should the general through age or infirmity become incapacitated for governing the Society, a vicar is chosen by a general congregation to act for him.應通過一般的年齡或因年老體弱,成為喪失了執政的社會,副主教是選擇進行了一般性的會眾的行為,為他。 At his death he names one so to act until the congregation can meet and elect his successor.在他死後,他的名字之一,所以行事,直到眾能滿足並選出他的繼任者。

Next to him in order of authority comes the provincials, the heads of the Society, whether for an entire country, as England, Ireland, Canada, Belgium, Mexico, or, where these units are too large or too small to make convenient provinces they may be subdivided or joined together.下次給他的命令的權力,隨之而來的provincials上,首腦們的社會,不論是為整個國家,在英國,愛爾蘭,加拿大,比利時,墨西哥,或在這些單位過大或過小,使便捷的省份,他們還可以再或者一起。 Thus there are now four provinces in the United States: California, Maryland-New York, Missouri, New Orleans.因此,現在有四個省在美國:加利福尼亞州,馬里蘭州,紐約,密蘇里州,新奧爾良。 In all there are now twenty-seven provinces.在所有的是,現在有27個省。 The provincial is appointed by the general, with ample administrative faculties.省委任命是由一般,充足的行政學系。 He too has a council of "counselors" and an "admonitor" appointed by the general.他也有一個會"輔導員"和" admonitor "指定由一般。 Under the provincial come the local superiors.根據省委,來到當地的上司。 Of these, rectors of colleges, provosts of professed houses, and masters of novices are appointed by the general; the rest by the provincial.其中,大學校長的學院, provosts的自稱房子,和船長的生手委任是由一般;其餘的,由有關省。 To enable the general to make and control so many appointments, a free and ample correspondence is kept up, and everyone has the right of private communication with him.使一般製造和控制這麼多約會,一個自由和充裕的書信不斷,每個人擁有的權利,私人通信他的看法。 No superior, except the general, is named for life.沒有優越的,除了一般意義而言,命名為終身。 Usually provincials and rectors of colleges hold office for three years.通常provincials和校長的高校任職三年。

Members of the society fall into four classes:社會成員分為4個級別:

Novices (whether received as lay brothers for the domestic and temporal services of the order, or as aspirants to the priesthood), who are trained in the spirit and discipline of the order, prior to making the religious vows.生手(不論是否收到奠定兄弟,為國內顳服務的一聲令下,或作為有志從政神職人員) ,他們都是訓練有素的精神,嚴守紀律和秩序之前,使宗教誓言。

At the end of two years the novices make simple vows, and, if aspirants to the priesthood, become formed scholastics; they remain in this grade as a rule from two to fifteen years, in which time they will have completed all their studies, pass (generally) a certain period in teaching, receive the priesthood, and go through a third year of novitiate or probation (the tertianship).在去年底的兩年生手作簡單的誓言,如果有志要成為神職人員,成為形成scholastics ,他們繼續留在這個職系作為一項規則,由兩個月至十五年,在這時候,他們都將完成全部學業後,通過(一般) ,在一定期限內,在教學中,接受神職人員,並經過三年級的novitiate或感化( tertianship ) 。 According to the degree of discipline and virtue, and to the talents they display (the latter are normally tested by the examination for the Degree of Doctor of Theology) they may now become formed coadjutors or professed members of the order.根據程度的紀律和道德,有利於優秀人才,他們展示(後者通常檢驗所檢驗以博士學位神學) ,他們現在可以成為形成coadjutors或自稱成員的命令。

Formed coadjutors, whether formed lay brothers or priests, make vows which, though not solemn, are perpetual on their part; while the Society, on its side binds itself to them, unless they should commit some grave offense.形成coadjutors ,是否形成奠定兄弟姊妹或牧師,使誓言,雖然不是莊嚴的,是永遠對自己的一部分,而社會,就其副作用具有約束力本身對他們來說,除非他們應該承擔的一些嚴重違規。 The professed are all priests, who make, besides the three usual solemn vows of religion, a fourth, of special obedience to the pope in the matter of missions, undertaking to go wherever they are sent, without even requiring money for the journey.這個自稱都是神父,誰作,除了3種常用的莊嚴誓言的宗教,一個第四,對特殊服從教宗在這件事的使命,承諾去無論他們身在何處發送,甚至沒有要求金錢,為的征程。 They also make certain additional, but non-essential, simple vows, in the matter of poverty, and the refusal of external honours.他們還作出一些補充,但非必要的,簡單的誓言,在這件事的貧困,並拒絕對外授勳。

The professed of the four vows constitute the kernel of the Society; the other grades are regarded as preparatory, or as subsidiary to this.這個自稱的四個誓言構成內核的社會其他職系,被視為預備班,或作為附屬了這一點。 The chief offices can be held by the professed alone; and though they may be dismissed, they must be received back, if willing to comply with the conditions that may be prescribed.行政辦公室都可以舉行,由自稱單;儘管他們可能被解僱,他們必須得到回歸,如果願意遵守這些條件,可明。 Otherwise they enjoy no privileges, and many posts of importance, such as the government of colleges, may be held by members of other grades.否則,他們享有任何特權,並有不少職位的重要性,例如政府的學院, 5月舉行,由委員等職。 For special reasons some are occasionally professed of three vows and they have certain but not all the privileges of the other professed.因特殊原因,有些是偶爾自稱的三個誓言和他們有一定的,但不是所有的特權,其他自稱。

All live in community alike, as regards food, apparel, lodging, recreation, and all are alike bound by the rules of the Society.所有居住在社區一樣,至於食物,服裝,住宿,娛樂,都是同樣的約束規則的社會。

There are no secret Jesuits.有沒有秘密的耶穌會士。 Like other orders, the Society can, if it will, make its friends participators in its prayers, and in the merits of its good works; but it cannot make them members of the order, unless they live the life of the order.像其他命令,使社會,如果會,做出自己的朋友參與者在祈禱,並在優點,其優秀作品,但它不能使他們的成員一聲令下,除非他們的生活秩序。 There is indeed the case of St. Francis Borgia, who made some of the probations in an unusual way, outside the houses of the order.其中確有案件聖弗朗西斯博爾吉亞,他們提出了一些有關probations在一個不尋常的方式,外面的房子該命令。 But this was in order that he might be able to conclude certain business matters and other affairs of state, and thus appear the sooner in public as a Jesuit, not that he might remain permanently outside the common life.但是,這是為了表示他也許可以結束某些商業事務和其他事務的狀態,從而出現越早,在市民大眾,因為耶穌,而不是表示,他可能永遠外界共同生活。

Novitiate and Training novitiate和培訓

Candidates for admission come not only from the colleges conducted by the Society, but from other schools.考生入學不單來自學院所進行的社會,而是從其他學校。 Frequently post-graduate or professional students, and those who have already begun their career in business or professional life, or even in the priesthood, apply for admission.經常研究生或其他專業的學生,以及那些已經開始其職業生涯中的業務或職業生涯中,甚至神職人員,申請入學。 Usually the candidate applies in person to the provincial, and if he considers him a likely subject he refers him for examination to four of the more experienced fathers.通常適用於候選人親自到省,如果他認為他可能受到他是指他為考試,其中4個較具經驗的父親。 They question him about the age, health, position, occupation of his parents, their religion and good character, their dependence on his services; about his own health, obligations such as debts, or other contractual relations; his studies, qualifications, moral character, personal motives as well as the external influences that may have lead him to seek admission.他們質疑他的年齡,健康狀況,職業,他的父母,他們的信仰和良好的品格,它們依賴他的服務;自己的健康,義務,如債務,或其他合同關係,他的研究,資歷,品德,個人動機,以及外來因素的影響,可能導致他尋求入場。 The results of their questioning and of their own observation they report severally to the provincial, who weighs their opinions carefully before deciding for or against the applicant.結果,他們的質疑和他們自己的觀察,他們的報告分開到省,誰重他們的意見,審慎地,然後才決定支持或者反對申請。 Any notable bodily or mental defect in the candidate, serious indebtedness or other obligation, previous membership in another religious order even for a day, indicating instability of vocation, unqualifies for admission.任何明顯的身體或精神缺陷的候選人,嚴重負債或其他義務的,以前的會員在另一宗教秩序,甚至一,兩天,這表明不穩定的天職, unqualifies入學。 Undue influence, particularly if exercised by members of the order, would occasion stricter scrutiny than usual into the personal motives of the applicant.不正當的影響,特別是如果行使成員的一聲令下,將場合更嚴格的審核比平常存入個人動機的申請人。

Candidates may enter at any time, but usually there is a fixed day each years for their admission, toward the close of the summer holidays, in order that all may begin their training, or probation, together.考生可在任何時間,但通常有一個固定的每一天來為他們入場時,對密切的暑假,為了使所有可能開始接受訓練,或接受感化,一起。 They spend the first ten days considering the manner of life they are to adopt, and its difficulties, the rules of the order, the obedience required of its members.他們花費首次十天考慮的方式生活,他們通過,它的困難,這些規則的一聲令下,服從需要,其成員。 They then make a brief retreat, meditating on what they have learned about the Society and examining their own motives and hopes for perserverance in the new mode of life.然後,他們做一個簡單的務虛會,沉思什麼,他們已獲悉此事,社會和審視自己的動機,並希望perserverance在新的模式下生活。 If all be satisfactory to them and to the superior or director who has charge of them, they are admitted as novices, wear the clerical costume (as there is no special Jesuit habit) and begin in earnest the life of members in the Society.如果一切滿意,他們向上級或主管誰負責,他們都承認,作為新手,磨損文職服飾(有沒有特別的耶穌會習慣) ,並開始認真的生活,大家在社會中產生。 They rise early, make a brief visit to the chapel, a meditation on some subject selected the night before, assist at Mass, review their meditation, breakfast, and then prepare for the day's routine.他們早起,作一個簡短的訪問,小教堂,冥想一些課題選定的前一天晚上,在幫助群眾,檢討他們的冥想,早餐,然後準備為每天的例行公事。 This consists of manual labor in or out of doors, reading books on spiritual topics, ecclesiastical history, biography, particularly of men or women distinguished for zeal and enterprise in missionary or educational fields.這個委員會是體力勞動或調出的門,閱讀書籍的精神話題,教會歷史,傳記,尤其是男性或女性,為傑出的熱情和企業在傳教或教育領域的合作。 There is a daily conference by the master of the novices on some detail of the Institute, notes of which all are required to make, so as to be ready, when asked, to repeat the salient points.有一種日常會議由碩士生手就一些細節,該研究所也指出,其中的一切都必須提出等,以作好準備,當記者問,重複要點。

Wherever it is possible some are submitted to certain tests of their vocation or usefulness; to teaching catechism in the village churches; to attendance on the sick in hospitals; to going about on a pilgrimage or missionary journey without money or other provision.而這是有可能的,有些是提交給某些測試自己的職業或效用;教學講授在村里的教堂;入學就生病在醫院中去,約一個朝聖或傳教之旅,沒有錢或其他條文。 As soon as possible, all make the spiritual exercises for 30 days.為儘早為所有使精神文明演習為期30天。 This is really the chief test of a vocation, as it is also in epitome the main work of the two years of the novitiate, and for that matter of the entire life of a Jesuit.這實在是行政的考驗,職業,因為它也是在縮影主要的工作了兩年的novitiate ,並為這件事的整個生命的耶穌。 On these exercises the Constitutions, the life, and activity of the Society are based, so they are really the chief factor in forming the character of a Jesuit.對這些演習的憲法,人生觀和活動的社會基礎,所以他們真的是行政因素形成的特點耶穌。

In accordance with the ideals set forth in these exercises, of disinterested conformity with God's will, and of personal love of Jesus Christ, the novice is trained diligently in the meditative study of the truths of religion, in the habit of self-knowledge, in the constant scrutiny of his motives and of the actions inspired by them, in the correction of every form of self-deceit, illusion, plausible pretext, and in the education of his will, particularly in making choice of what seems best after careful deliberation and without self-seeking.按照理想闡述的這些演習,無私符合上帝的意願,以及個人耶穌的愛,新手訓練刻苦,在冥想研究真理的宗教,習慣,了解自我,在不斷審議他的動機和所採取行動的啟發,他們在糾正各種形式的自我欺騙,拋棄不切實際的幻想,似是而非的藉口,而在教育,他的意志,尤其是在作出的選擇是什麼,似乎最好的,經過慎重考慮和沒有自我追求。 Deeds, not words, are insisted upon as proof of genuine service, and a mechanical, emotional, or fanciful piety is not tolerated.事蹟,而不是言辭,是堅持以證明真正的服務,和一個機械,情緒,或幻想的孝道,是無法容忍的。 As the novice gradually thus becomes master of his will, he grows more and more capable of offering to God the reasonable service enjoined by St. Paul, and seeks to follow the divine will, as manifested in Jesus Christ, by His vicar on earth, by the bishops appointed to rule His Church, by his more immediate or religious superiors, and by the civil powers rightfully exercising authority.作為新手逐漸成為掌握他的意志,他長大後越來越能提供給上帝合理的服務責成由聖保羅,並謀求跟隨神的意志,體現在耶穌基督裡,由他的副主教在地球上,由主教委任統治他的教會,他更直接的或宗教的上司,由公務員的權力,正確地行使權力。 This is what is meant by Jesuit obedience, the characteristic virtue of the order, such a sincere respect for authority as to accept its decisions and comply with them, not merely by outward performance but in all sincerity with the conviction that compliance is best, and that the command expresses for the time the will of God, as nearly as it can be ascertained.這是指的是什麼,耶穌的服從性,特徵憑藉一聲令下,這種真誠的尊重權威,以接受政府決定,並加以遵守,不能僅僅以向外表現,但在所有的誠意與信念,即遵守是最好的,並該指揮部表示,為當時上帝的意志,為近,因為它能夠進一步確定。

The noviceship lasts two years.該noviceship歷時兩年。 On its completion the novice makes the usual vows of religion, the simple vow of chastity in the Society having the force of a diriment impediment to matrimony.就其完成新手使得通常的誓言宗教的,簡單的誓言的貞潔在社會上有力量,是一個diriment妨礙婚姻關係。 During the noviceship but a brief time daily is devoted to reviewing previous studies.在noviceship但短暫的時間,每天就是專門審查以前的研究。 The noviceship over, the scholastic members, ie, those who are to become priests in the Society, follow a special course in classics and mathematics lasting two years, usually in the same house with the novices.該noviceship以上,學術會員,即那些成為祭司在社會上,走一條特殊的課程經典著作和數學持久兩年,通常會在同一所房子與生手。 Then, in another house and neighbourhood, three years are given to the study of philosophy, about five years to teaching in one or other of the public colleges of the Society, four years to the study of theology, priestly orders being conferred after the third, and finally, one year more to another probation or noviceship, intended to help the young priest renew his spirit of piety and to learn how to utilize to the best of his ability all the learning and experience he has required.然後,在另一家和居民區, 3年內給予學習哲學,大約5年時間,在教學中的一個或其他的公立高校的社會,四年來研究神學,司鐸命令被授予後,第三次,最後,一年多來又試用或noviceship ,旨在幫助年輕的神父以自強不息的精神,虔誠,並學習如何利用,以己所能,所有的學習和經驗,他已要求。 In exceptional cases, as in that of a priest who has finished his studies before entering the order, allowance is made and the training periods need not last over ten years, a good part of which is spent in active ministry.在特殊情況下,例如在對一個神父,他們已完成了在研究後,才進入議事程序,津貼,並取得培訓期間不必上超過十年,一個良好的,其中一部分是用在積極部。

The object of the order is not limited to practicing any one class of good works, however laudable (as preaching, chanting office, doing penance, etc.), but to study, in the manner of the Spiritual, what Christ would have done, if He were living in our circumstances, and to carry out that ideal.對象的順序並不限於修煉任何一類的優秀作品,不過值得稱讚(如說教,高呼辦公室,做懺悔,等等) ,但以研究,在地的精神,什麼基督這樣做,如果他是生活在我們的實際情況,並進行這一理想。 Hence elevation and largeness of aim.因此,仰角和之大的目標。 Hence the motto of the Society, "Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam".因此座右銘的社會" ,專案majorem dei gloriam " 。 Hence the selection of the virtue of obedience as the characteristic of the order, to be ready for any call, and to keep unity in every variety of work.因此選用何種憑藉服從為特徵的一聲令下,可隨時呼叫,並保持團結,在每一個不同的工作。 Hence, by easy sequence, the omission of office in choir, of a special distinctive habit, of unusual penances.因此,由易序,遺漏辦事處合唱團,一個特別與眾不同的習慣,具有非同尋常的penances 。 Where the Protestant reformers aimed at reorganizing the church at large according to their particular conceptions, Ignatius began with interior self-reform; and after that had been thoroughly established, then the earnest preaching of self-reform to others.而新教改革者旨在改組教會廣大根據其特殊的概念,伊格開始與內部的自我改革,以及後,已徹底確立,然後語重心長的說教自我改革給他人。 That done, the church would not, and did not, fail to reform herself.認為這樣做,教會不會,但並沒有失敗,以改革的企圖。 Many religious distinguished themselves as educators before the Jesuits; but the Society was the first order which enjoined by its very Constitutions devotion to the cause of education.許多宗教尊敬自己,作為教育工作者面前的耶穌會士,但社會是第一個命令,責成其本身的憲法奉獻給教育事業。 It was, in this sense, the first "teaching order".這是,在這個意義上說,首個"教學秩序" 。

The ministry of the Society consists chiefly in preaching; teaching catechism, especially to children; administering the sacraments especially penance and the Eucharist; conducting missions in the parishes on the lines of the Spiritual; directing those who wish to follow those exercises in houses of retreat, seminaries or convents; taking care of parishes or collegiate churches; organizing pious confraternities, sodalities, unions of prayer, Bona Mors associations in their own and other parishes; teaching in schools of every grade - academic; seminary, university; writing books, pamphlets, periodical articles; going on foreign missions among uncivilized peoples.內政部社會構成,主要是在說教;教理講授,尤其是兒童的情況;治國聖禮特別是懺悔和聖體聖事;進行特派團在該教區於字裡行間的精神;引導那些希望仿效這些演習在房子的務虛會,修道院或修道院;照顧教區或合議教堂;組委會虔誠confraternities , sodalities ,工會的祈禱,真正的基準協會,在他們自己和其他教區;教學在學校的每一個年級-學術;修院,大學;寫作書籍,小冊子,期刊文章;正在進行外國使團之間的不文明人民。

In liturgical functions the Roman Rite is followed.在禮儀職能羅馬成年禮是其次。 The proper exercise of all these functions is provided for by rules carefully framed by the general congregations or by the generals.正確行使自己的所有這些職能是提供規則仔細誣陷由一般的畢業典禮或由將軍。 All these regulations command the greatest respect on the part of every member.這些法規的指揮非常尊重對部分每一個成員。 In practice the superior for the time being is the living rule - not that he can alter or abrogate any rule, but because he must interpret and determine its application.在實踐中上司的時候,是生活的規則-不說,他都無法改變或廢除任何規則,而是因為他必須解釋,並確定其申請。 In this fact and in its consequences, the Society differs from every religious order antecedent to its foundation; to this principally, it owes its life, activity, and power to adapt its Institutes to modern conditions without need of change in that instrument or of reform in the body itself.在這一事實,並在其後果,對社會不同於每個宗教秩序前因其基礎;這主要是,它欠其生活,經濟活動,並有權調整其機構,以現代條件下,沒有必要改變該文書或改革在身體本身。

The story of the foundation of the Society is told in the article Ignatius Loyola.故事的立黨之本,社會,是告訴在文章伊格羅耀拉。 Briefly, after having inspired his companions Peter Faber, Francis Xavier, James Lainez, Alonso Salmerón, Nicolas Bobadilla, Simon Rodriquez, Claude Le Jay, Jean Codure, and Paschase Brouet with a desire to dwell in the Holy Land imitating the life of Christ, they first made vows of poverty and chastity at Montmartre, Paris, on 15 August, 1534, adding a vow to go to the Holy Land after two years.簡單地說,之後,激發了他的同伴彼得費伯,芳濟,詹姆斯lainez ,阿隆索salmerón ,尼可拉斯bobadilla ,西蒙rodriquez ,克勞德勒傑伊,讓codure , paschase brouet與慾望糾纏在聖地模仿生命的基督,他們首先作了誓言貧窮和貞潔在Montmartre的,巴黎,於1534年8月15日,再增加一條發誓前往聖地的後兩年。 When this was found to be inpracticable, after waiting another year, they offered their services to the pope, Paul III.此時,這家被查出有inpracticable ,之後再等一年,他們所提供的服務,向教皇保羅三。 Fully another year was passed by some in university towns in Italy, by others at Rome, where, after encountering much opposition and slander, all met together to agree on a mode of life by which they might advance in evangelical perfection and help others in the same task.充分另一一年,是通過一些在大學城,在意大利,由他人在羅馬,那裡後,遇到了許多反對和詆毀,全部達到共同商定一個模式生活,使他們有可能提前在福音事工促進會,完善和幫助他人,在相同的任務。 The first formula of the Institute was submitted to the pope and approved of viva voce, 3 September 1539, and formally, 27 September, 1540.第一個公式,該研究所已提交給波普和批准的借助, 1539年9月3日,並正式, 1540年9月27日。

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Jesuit Apologetic Distinguished Jesuits History of the Jesuits Before the Suppression Jesuit Generals Prior to the Suppression History of the Jesuits During the Suppression (1750-1773) History of the Jesuits During the Interim (1773-1814) History of the Jesuits After the Restoration (1814-1912) Publication information Written by John Hungerford Pollen.耶穌會致歉尊敬的耶穌會歷史上的耶穌會前鎮壓耶穌將領之前,鎮壓的歷史,以及耶穌會士在鎮壓( 1750年至1773年)的歷史,以及耶穌會士在中期( 1773年至1814年)歷史上的耶穌修復後( 1814年-1912 )出版的書面資料由約翰hungerford花粉。 Transcribed by Michael Donahue.轉錄由Michael Donahue ) 。 In gratitude for four years of Jesuit education at Loyola University of Chicago.感謝四年的耶穌會教育羅耀拉大學芝加哥。 AMDG. amdg 。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. nihil obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

Constitutions.--Corpus institutorum Societatis Jesu (Antwerp, Prague, Rome, 1635, 1702, 1705, 1707, 1709, 1869-70; Paris, partial edition, 1827-38); Gagliardi, De cognitione instituti (1841); Lancicius, De praestantia instit.憲法.--語料庫institutorum societatis jesu (安特衛普,布拉格,羅馬, 1635年, 1702年, 1705年, 1707年, 1709年, 1869年至1870年;巴黎,局部版, 1827年至1838年) ;加利亞爾迪,德cognitione instituti ( 1841 ) ; lancicius ,德praestantia instit 。 Soc. SoC的。 Jesu (1644); Nadal, Scholia in constitutiones (1883); Suarez, Tract. jesu ( 1644 ) ;納達爾scholia在constitutiones ( 1883 ) ;蘇亞雷斯,呼吸道。 de religione Soc.德religione的SoC 。 Jesu (1625); Humphrey, The Religious State (London, 1889), a digest of the treatise of Suarez; Oswald, Comment. jesu (第1625 ) ;漢弗萊,宗教的國家(倫敦, 1889年) ,消化該論文的蘇亞雷斯;奧斯瓦爾德,發表評論。 in decem partes consit.在decem當事人之間consit 。 Soc. SoC的。 Jesu (3rd ed., Brussels, 1901); Rules of the Society of Jesus (Washington, 1939; London 1863). jesu (第三次版,布魯塞爾, 1901年) ;規則的社會的耶穌(華盛頓, 1939年,倫敦, 1863年) 。


The Bollandists該bollandists

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

An association of ecclesiastical scholars engaged in editing the Acta Sanctorum.一個協會的教會學者從事編輯學報sanctorum 。 This work is a great hagiographical collection begun during the first years of the seventeenth century, and continued to our own day.這項工作是一個偉大的hagiographical收集開始在頭幾年的17世紀,而且將繼續是我們自己的一天。 The collaborators are called Bollandists, as being successors of Bolland, the editor of the first volume.勾結被稱為bollandists ,作為被繼承人的bolland ,編輯的首卷。 The collection now numbers sixty-three volumes in folio, to which must be added a supplementary volume, published in 1875 by a French priest, and containing chiefly certain tables and directions facilitating research in the volumes.收集,現在有多少63冊,英文排版,還必須加上一個補充量,發表在1875年由一位法國神父,遏制主要是某些表和方向,促進研究在冊。 Although Bolland has given his name to the work, he is not to be regarded as its founder.雖然bolland給了他的名字,這項工作,他是不會被視為其創始人。 The idea was first conceived by Heribert Rosweyde (b. at Utrecht, 1569; d. at Antwerp, 1629).構想是先設想heribert rosweyde (乙在烏得勒支, 1569年; D.在安特衛普, 1629 ) 。 He entered the Society of Jesus in 1588.他走進社會,耶穌在1588年。

An indefatigable worker and a fearless but judicious investigator, notwithstanding his duties as professor of philosophy in the Jesuit college at Douai during the last years of the sixteenth century, Rosweyde devoted the leisure of his vacations and holidays to explore the libraries of the numerous monasteries scattered through Hainault and French Flanders.一個不知疲倦的工作者,還是作為一名無畏無懼,但明智的調查,儘管他的職責,作為哲學系教授,在耶穌會學院douai在過去數年中的16世紀, rosweyde專門康樂他的休假和節假日,探討圖書館的眾多寺廟散落通過hainault和法國佛蘭德地區。 He copied with his own hand a vast number of documents relating to church history in general, and to hagiography in particular, and found in the old texts contained in the manuscripts coming under his observation quite a different flavour from that of the revisions to which many editors, notably Lippomano and Surius, then the latest and most celebrated, had believed it necessary to subject them.他抄了他自己的手大量文件有關教會的歷史一般,並hagiography ,尤其是發現在舊文本包含在手稿未來根據他的觀察,一個截然不同的味道,從表示,在該訂正案,其中很多編輯,尤其是lippomano和surius ,然後提供最新和最有名的,曾認為,有必要使他們受到的。 Rosweyde thought it would be a useful work to publish the texts in their original form. rosweyde認為這將是一項有益的工作語文出版,在原有形式。 His superiors, to whom he submitted his plan in 1603, gave it their hearty approval, and allowed him to prepare the projected edition, without, however, relieving him of any of the occupations on which he was expending his prodigious activity.他的上級,向誰他提交了他的計劃是在1603年,給了他們衷心的審批,並給他準備的預測版本,但不解除對他的任何一種職業,對他所花費他prodigious活動。 So, for the time being, he was allowed merely the privilege of devoting his spare moments to the preparation of the work.所以,在這段期間,他被允許僅僅有幸投入閒暇時刻,以備有關的工作。 Rosweyde did not cease to pursue his project, which he announced publicly in 1607, as well as the plan he proposed to follow. rosweyde並沒有因此而停止追求他的項目,他公開宣布,在1607年,以及該計劃,他建議遵循。 Under the title: "Fasti sanctorum quorum vitae in belgicis bibliothecis manuscriptiae", he gave in a little volume in 16mo., published by the Plantin press at Antwerp, an alphabetical list of the names of the saints whose acts had been either found by him or called to his attention in old manuscript collections.根據標題: " fasti sanctorum法定人數簡歷在belgicis bibliothecis manuscriptiae "中,他先後在一個體積小,在16mo 。刊登由plantin記者在安特衛普,按字母順序排列的名單上的名字聖人,其行為已被發現,無論是他所或叫他注意在舊手稿珍藏。 This list filled fifty pages; the prefatory notice in which he indicates the character and arrangement of his work, as he had conceived it, takes up fourteen.這份名單充滿第五十一頁;序言通知他在其中顯示的性質和安排他的工作,正如他所構思的,佔據了14個。 Finally, the work contains an appendix of twenty-six pages containing the unpublished acts of the passion of the holy Cilician martyrs, Tharsacus, Probus, and Andronicus, which Rosweyde regarded -- wrongly -- as the authentic official report from the pen of a clerk of the court of the Roman tribunal.最後,這項工作包含一個附錄26頁,載有未出版行為的激情聖cilician烈士, tharsacus ,羅布斯和Andronicus " ,其中rosweyde視-錯-因為正宗的正式報告,從用筆一法庭的書記的羅馬法庭。 According to this programme the collection was to comprise sixteen volumes, besides two volumes of explanations and tables.根據這一方案,藏品將包含十六卷,除了兩卷本的解釋和圖表。 The first volume was to present documents concerning the life of Jesus Christ and the feasts established in honour of the special events of His life; the second volume would be devoted to the life and the feasts of the Blessed Virgin, and the third to the feasts of the Saints honoured with a more special cult.首卷,是目前文件的有關生命的耶穌基督和宴成立於榮譽的特別事件,他的生命;第二卷將專門向生活和節日的祝福處女,第三至宴該聖人榮幸一個更特別的邪教本質。 The twelve succeeding volumes were to give the lives of the saints whose feasts are celebrated respectively in the twelve months of the year, one volume for each month.十二接替卷給聖人們的生命,其宴慶祝,分別在12個月裡,一冊,每一個月。 This calendar arrangement had been prescribed by his superiors, in preference to the chronological order Rosweyde himself favoured.本日曆安排已指定由他的上級,在優先順序rosweyde自己喜歡的。 But this presented, especially at that time, formidable difficulties.但這一陳述,尤其是在那個時候,艱鉅的困難。 Lastly, the sixteenth volume was to set forth the succession of martyrologies which had been in use at different periods and in the various Churches of Christendom.最後,第十六卷,是闡明了繼承martyrologies其中已使用在不同的歷史時期,並在各教會的基督教。 The first of the two supplementary volumes was to contain notes and commentaries bearing on the lives divided into eight books treating respectively of the following subjects:第一次的兩個補充量是遏止說明和評論文章,事關生命,分為八個書籍分別對待的議題如下:

The authors of the lives;作者的生活;

the sufferings of the martyrs;痛苦的先烈;

the images of the saints;形象聖徒;

liturgical rites and customs mentioned in hagiographical documents;禮儀禮儀和習俗中提到hagiographical文件;

profane customs to which allusions had been made;褻瀆海關典故,其中已取得;

questions of chronology;問題的年表;

names of places encountered in these same documents;名字的地方,遇到這些相同的文件;

barbarous or obscure terms which might puzzle the readers.野蠻或模糊的條款可能益智以饗讀者。

The other supplement was to present a series of copious tables giving: the names of the saints whose lives had been published in the preceding volumes;其他補充,是目前一系列的衡量表作:名字的聖徒,他們的生活已公佈,在此之前的各卷;

the same names followed by notes indicating the place of the saint's birth, his station in life, his title to sanctity, the time and place in which he had lived, and the author of his life;同名其次是債券,說明地方的聖人的出生時,他站在現實生活中,他的所有權神聖不可侵犯,時間,地點,他在其中生活了,和作者的人生;

the state of life of the various saints (religious, priest, virgin, widow, etc.);國家生活的各個聖徒教會(宗教,牧師,處女,寡婦等) ;

their position in the Church (apostle, bishop, abbot, etc.);自己的位置,教會(使徒,主教,住持等) ;

the nomenclature of the saints according to the countries made illustrious by their birth, apostolate, sojourn, burial;名目聖徒據國家作出了傑出的,由出生時,使徒,滯留費,喪葬費;

nomenclature of the places in which they are honoured with a special cult;命名的地方,他們很榮幸有一份特殊的邪教;

enumeration of the maladies for the cure of which they are especially invoked;枚舉的弊端,為治愈的,他們特別引用;

the professions placed under their patronage;各專業劃歸其使用量;

the proper names of persons and places encountered in the published lives;正確的人的姓名和所遇到的地方,在出版的生命;

the passages of Holy Scripture there explained;有關的神聖的經文中有解釋;

points which may be of use in religious controversies;點,可使用在宗教爭議;

those applicable in the teaching of Christian doctrine;那些適用於教學的基督教教義;

a general table of words and things in alphabetical order.一般表的話,事情按照字母順序排列。

"And others still," adds the author, "if anything of importance presents itself, of which our readers may give us an idea." "等人還在" ,增加了作者, "如果有什麼重要意義的禮物本身,而我們的讀者,可讓我們知道" 。

Cardinal Bellarmine, to whom Rosweyde sent a copy of his little volume, could not forbear exclaiming after he had read this programme: "This man counts, then, on living two hundred years longer!"紅衣主教bellarmine ,向誰rosweyde發出了一份他的體積小,不能忍無可忍大叫後,他曾看過這份方案說: "這名男子算數的話,那麼,對生活二百年長" ! He addressed to the author a letter, the original of which is preserved in the present library of the Bollandists, signed, but not written by the hand of Bellarmine, in which he intimates in polished but perfectly plain language that he regarded the plan as chimerical.他給作者的信,原來的是保存在當前圖書館的bollandists ,簽名,但不寫的手bellarmine ,其中他暗示,在經過拋光,但絕對淺白語言,他認為,該計劃為嵌合。 Rosweyde was nowise disconcerted by this. rosweyde是nowise不協調的,由這點。 From various other sources he received encouragement, enthusiastic praise, and valuable assistance.從其他各種來源收到他的鼓勵,熱情的讚揚,並提供寶貴的援助。 The new enterprise found an especial protector, as generous as he was zealous and enlightened, in Antoine de Wynghe, abbot of the celebrated monastery of Liessies in Hainault.新的企業找到了一種特殊的保護器,因為慷慨,因為他是熱心和開明,在安托萬德wynghe ,住持的著名寺院liessies在hainault 。 Venerable Louis of Blois, whose third successor de Wynghe was, seemed to have bequeathed to him his affectionate devotion to the sons of St. Ignatius of Loyola.老路易的blois ,其三分之一的繼任者德wynghe是,似乎已經留給他的深情奉獻給兒子的聖依納爵的羅耀拉。 The large sympathy of this religious Maecenas manifested itself in every way; in letters of recommendation to the heads of the various houses of the great Benedictine Order which opened to Rosweyde and his associates monastic libraries; in loans and gifts of books, of manuscripts, and of copies of manuscripts; and in pecuniary assistance.大同情這個宗教maecenas體現在以各種方式,在推薦信,向元首的各種房子的大隱修院秩序開rosweyde和他的同夥寺院的圖書館,在貸款和禮物的書籍,手稿,並副本的手稿,以及在金錢上的援助。 Rosweyde quite counted on completing by his own efforts the monument of which he had dreamed, and on bringing it to a worthy end. rosweyde相當清點完成,由他自己的努力,紀念碑,其中他曾夢想,並把它不愧是結束。 As a matter of fact, he did not get beyond the first stages of the structure.作為一個問題,事實上,他並沒有超越第一階段的結構。 His literary activity was expended on a multitude of historical works, both religious and polemical, some of which, it is true, would have later formed a part of the great hagiographical compilation.他的文學活動是花費在眾多的歷史作品,無論是宗教和論辯,其中有一些,這是事實,將已形成了後來的一部份的偉大hagiographical彙編。 The majority, however, bear no relation whatever to the work.大多數人,但是,一點關係都沒有,不管這項工作。 The writings which would have been available are: the edition of the Little Roman Martyrology, in which Rosweyde believed he recognized the collection mentioned by St. Gregory the Great in his letter to Eulogius of Alexandria; the edition of the martyrology of Ado of Vienne (1613); the ten books of the Lives of the Fathers of the Desert, which he first published in Latin (1615 in fol.), dedicating the work to the Abbot of Liessies, and later in Flemish (1617) in fol., with an inscription to Jeanne de Bailliencourt, Abbess of Messines.該著作,其中已可有:版小羅曼martyrology ,其中rosweyde相信他承認收集提到聖格雷戈里偉大在他的信中,以eulogius亞歷山大;版的martyrology ADO技術的維埃納省( 1613 ) ;十個圖書的生命,父親的沙漠,這是他第一次發表在拉丁語( 1615年,在隨訪) ,無私奉獻的工作,以住持liessies ,後來在法蘭德斯( 1617 ) ,在接下來,隨著題詞,以珍妮德巴揚古,住持的messines 。 The rest, however, as for instance the Flemish edition of Ribadeneira's "Flowers of the Saints" (1619, two folio volumes), the "General History of the Church" (1623), to which he added as an appendix the detailed history of the Church in the Netherlands, both in Flemish; the Flemish lives of St. Ignatius and St. Philip Neri; the Flemish translation of the first part of the "Treatise on Perfection", drew his attention completely from what he should have regarded as his principal task.其餘的,不過,由於例如,佛蘭芒版ribadeneira的"花卉的聖徒" ( 1619年,兩個頁碼冊) , "一般教會的歷史" ( 1623 ) ,因為他補充說,作為附錄的詳細歷史教會在荷蘭,無論是在法蘭德斯;弗拉芒語區的生命,聖依納爵和聖菲裡;弗拉芒翻譯的第一部分的"傷寒論生死" ,提醒他注意,完全從什麼,他應該被視為他的主要任務。 It is due to him, however, to say that for several years his superiors, without ceasing to encourage him in the pursuit of his project, were forced through the necessity of filling vacant offices, to lay upon him duties which did not leave him the absolutely indispensable leisure.也正是由於他,不過,說幾年來他的上級,要不斷鼓勵他在追求他的計劃,被迫通過的必要性填補空缺處,打好後,他的職責並不就此罷休,他絕對不可缺少的休閒。 He set this forth clearly himself in the memorandum addressed to them in 1611, in response to their inquiry as to how he was progressing with the preparation of his volumes.他這一套明確提出自己在該備忘錄給他們,在1611年,為了響應他們的調查,至於他是如何被推展他編寫冊。 But it is not less true that nearly all his publications, the most important of which have been mentioned above, are of a later date than this, and undoubtedly Rosweyde himself was chiefly to blame for the delay, which, however, may be called a fortunate one, since it resulted in advantageous modifications of the plan of the work.但它似乎並不輸於真,幾乎所有他的出版物,其中最重要的有前文所述,是一個後來的日期比這個問題,無疑是rosweyde本人主要責任的延誤,其中,不過,可被稱為幸運的一個,因為它導致了有利的修改工作部署。 At the time of Rosweyde's death, then, which took place in Antwerp in 1629, not a page was ready for the printer.在時間的rosweyde的死亡,那麼,發生在安特衛普1629 ,而不是一個網頁已準備就緒,可打印機。 Moreover, the superiors of the order, on their part, hesitated to have the work carried on by another.此外,上級的命令,對他們的部分,毫不猶豫地向已經進行的工作就由另一。 For more than twenty years, however, Rosweyde had been extremely active; he had secured access to a quantity of manuscripts and had enlisted the co-operation of many learned men who had manifested the keenest interest in his undertaking; thanks to their assistance, he had collected many manuscripts and books relating to the lives of the saints; in a word, he had aroused an eager interest in his compilation, so great and so universal that it was necessary to satisfy it.以上二十年,但rosweyde一直非常活躍,他已確保獲得相當數量的手稿,並已物色到合適的協調運作,不少有識之士男子,他們已表現出keenest利益,在他的事業;感謝他們的協助,他收集了許多的手稿和書籍,涉及到生活的聖徒;一句話,引起了一個熱心的興趣,他的彙編,如此之大,因此普遍表示,要滿足它。

Father John van Bolland (b. at Julemont, in Limburg, 1596; d. at Antwerp, 12 September, 1665) was at this time prefect of studies in the college of Mechlin, and had charge of a congregation composed of the principal people of the city.父親約翰範bolland (乙在瑞萊蒙,在林堡, 1596年; D.在安特衛普, 1665年9月12日)是在這個時候紀的研究,在該學院的梅克林,並負責一個教區的組成主體的人城市。 It was called the "Latin Congregation", because all the exercises, sermons included, were conducted in that language.被稱為"拉美眾" ,因為所有的練習,說教在內,進行了該種語文。 His family either took their name from, or gave it to, the village of Bolland, near Julemont.他的家人或是上台,他們的名字,或給它,村里的bolland ,近瑞萊蒙。 Before making his theological studies he had taught belles-lettres with distinction in the three higher classes of the humanities at Ruremonde, Mechlin, Brussels, and Antwerp.才使他的神學研究工作後,他曾教導belles - lettres與區別,在這三個較高階層的人文ruremonde ,梅克林,布魯塞爾,安特衛普。 The superior of the Belgian province of the Society of Jesus bade him examine the papers left by Rosweyde, and report to him his opinion as to what it was advisable to do with them.優越的比利時省社會耶穌對他的下屬研究論文留下rosweyde ,向他報告,他認為,以什麼明智的做法是,做他們的。 Bolland went to Antwerp, familiarized himself with the manuscripts, and, while admitting that the work was still merely a rough and faulty draft, gave reasons for believing that without an undue expenditure of labour it might be brought to a successful completion. bolland前往安特衛普,熟悉了自己的手稿,並同時承認,這項工作仍然只是一個粗略的和錯誤的草案中,作了理由相信,沒有不必要的支出,勞動,它可能帶來一個圓滿的完成。 He even showed himself disposed to take charge of the work, but only under two conditions: first, that he should be left free to modify the plan of Rosweyde as he understood it; second, that the copies, notes, and books which had been collected by Rosweyde should be removed from the library of the Professed House, where they were interspersed among the books in common use, and set apart in a place of their own for the exclusive use of the new director of the undertaking.他甚至表明自己處置,以抓這項工作,但是,只有在兩個條件:第一,他應該離開免費修改計劃rosweyde按照他的理解,二是該份,筆記和書籍已收集rosweyde應予取消,從圖書館的自稱房子,他們將在那裡穿插其中書籍在共同使用,並訂定,除了在一個地方,他們自己的專供使用新的董事承諾書。 The provincial, Jacques van Straten, accepted with alacrity both offer and conditions.省委,雅克車straten ,接受踴躍爭取雙方提供和條件。 Bolland was removed from the college of Mechlin and attached to the Professed House at Antwerp, to be director of the Latin Congregation and confessor in the church, and with the charge of preparing, in his leisure hours (horis subsecivis) the Acta Sanctorum for publication. bolland被調離學院梅克林,並附在自稱家在安特衛普,以主任的拉美聚集和懺悔,在教堂,並與負責編寫,在他的閒暇時間( horis subsecivis )學報sanctorum出版。 Happily, he had not the least idea, any more than had the provincial, of all the undertaking involved.令人高興的是,他並不是最不重要的想法,任何超過了省,在所有的事業。 He fancied that he could finish it by his own unaided efforts, and that after the completion of the work proper and the preparation of historical, chronological, geographical, and other tables, as announced by Rosweyde, he could complete the publication by adding to it a comprehensive collection of notices of holy persons who flourished in the Church subsequent to the fifteenth century, but have not been honoured with a public cult.他希罕他能夠完成他自己的努力幫忙,那以後的工作已經完成,並適當編寫的歷史,年代學,地理,和其他表所宣布的那樣,由rosweyde ,他可以完成出版,以便加入全面收集告示聖地的人盛行在教會後來到第十五世紀,但都沒有兌現,與公眾的邪教本質。 "And after all that is done", he wrote in his general preface, at the beginning of the first volume of January, "if I still have any time to live, I shall lend a charm to the leisure hours of my old age by gathering the ascetical doctrine found in the teachings of the saints recorded in this work." "畢竟這是做" ,他寫道:在他的總序,在一開始的首卷月1日, "如果我還有什麼時間去住,我會幫忙的魅力向閒暇時間我的老年齡收集ascetical學說中發現的遺訓聖徒記錄在此工作" 。 And nevertheless, he began by outlining a plan of quite another vastness from that of Rosweyde, whose programme had already appalled Bellarmine.並儘管如此,他首先概述了一項計劃的另一回事了浩瀚從即rosweyde ,其方案已震驚bellarmine 。 Rosweyde had confined his quest of original texts to the libraries of Belgium and the neighbouring regions. rosweyde已局限於他的追求,原文給圖書館的比利時及鄰近地區。 He had not gone beyond Paris to the south, or Cologne and Trier to the east.他並沒有超越巴黎到南,或科隆和特里爾轉向東方。 Bolland made appeal to collaborators, either Jesuits or others, residing in all the different countries of Europe. bolland作出呼籲合作者,無論是耶穌會士或其他人,居住在所有不同的歐洲國家。 Then Rosweyde had proposed to publish at first only the original texts, without commentaries or annotations, relegating to the last volumes the studies intended to enable one to appreciate their value and to throw light on their difficulties.然後rosweyde曾建議公佈第一只有原文,但無評論或說明, relegating到最後一冊的研究,旨在使一個欣賞他們的價值,並揭示其困難。 Bolland recognized at once how defective this plan was. bolland承認,在一次如何瑕疵這一計劃。 So he decided to give in connection with each saint and his cult all the information he had been able to find, from whatever sources; to preface each text with a preliminary study destined to determine its author and its historical value, and to append to each notes of explanation for the purpose of clearing away difficulties.於是他決定給他們涉嫌與每個聖和他的邪教的全部資料,他已無法找到,無論從任何來源;序文各文本與初步研究注定要確定其作者和它的歷史價值,並以附錄,以每筆記的解釋為目的的清理困難。 The duties of the various offices filled by Bolland, added to the formidable correspondence imposed on him by his research into documents and other sources of information concerning the life and cult of the saints to be treated in the work, together with the answers to the numerous letters of consultation addressed to him from all parts, concerning matters of ecclesiastical learning, left him no leisure for the discharge of his duties as hagiographer.職責各辦事處填補bolland ,加上艱鉅的書信對他實行他的研究文件和其他信息來源的有關生活和邪教的聖人來對待工作,連同答案眾多信件的協商給他的所有部分,有關事項的教會學習,讓他沒有閒暇,為履行他的職責hagiographer 。 Thus, after five years at Antwerp, he was forced to admit that the work was almost where Rosweyde had left it, except that the mass of material which the latter had begun to classify was notably augmented; as a matter of fact it was more than quadrupled.因此,五年後,在安特衛普,他也不得不承認,這項工作幾乎是哪裡rosweyde留下了這件事,除了由於地下物質,其中後者已經開始分類明顯增強;一項,其實這是多翻了兩番。 Meanwhile, eager desire for the appearance of the hagiographical monument announced by Rosweyde almost thirty years previously grew apace in the learned and the religious world.與此同時,渴望出現的hagiographical紀念碑宣布rosweyde將近三十年以前增長迅速,在教訓和宗教世界。 There was nothing left for Bolland but to admit that the undertaking was beyond his individual strength and to ask for an assistant.有沒有留給bolland但不得不承認的承諾是超出他個人的實力,並要求一名助理。 The generous Abbot of Liessies, Antoine de Wynghe, effectually supported his demand by volunteering to defray the living expenses of the associate who should be assigned to Bolland, as the Professed House at Antwerp, which depended on the alms of the faithful for its support, could not pay a man to do work which was not strictly in the field of its ministrations.慷慨的住持liessies ,安托萬德wynghe ,有效地支持他的要求,由志願服務,以支付生活開支協理誰應被分配到bolland ,由於自稱家在安特衛普,這取決於對施捨的信徒們所給予的支持,無法支付一名男子做工作,因為這是不嚴格,在外地的,其ministrations 。 The assistant chosen, doubtless at Bolland's suggestion, for he had been one of his most brilliant pupils in the humanities, was Godfrey Henschen (b. at Venray in Limburg, 1601; d. 1681), who had entered the Society of Jesus in 1619.助理的選擇,無疑在bolland的建議,因為他已被他的一個最輝煌的學生在人文學科,是戈弗雷亨申(乙在venray在林堡, 1601年;四1681 ) ,已進入社會的耶穌在1619 。 He was assigned to his former master in 1635 and laboured at the publication of the Acts Sanctorum up to the time of his death in 1681, forty-six years later.他被分配到他的前主人在16時35分辛勞,在出版行為sanctorum最多的時候,他的逝世在1681年, 46年以後。 Twenty-four volumes had then appeared, of which the last was the seventh volume of May. 24卷了,然後出現了,其中最後一次是第七貨量可能。 He had, moreover, prepared a great amount of material and many commentaries for June.他,而且,準備了大量的材料和許多評論,為6月。 It may be safely said that the Bollandist work owes its final form to Henschen.它可以安全地說,該bollandist工作欠它的最後形式,以亨申。 When he arrived at Antwerp, Bolland had succeeded in putting into good order the documents relating to the saints of January, and had found a publisher in the person of John van Meurs.當他來到安特衛普, bolland已成功投入良好秩序的有關文件,向聖人月1日,並已找到了出版社在人的約翰範meurs 。 Doubtless for the purpose of trying Henschen, he bade him study the acts of the February saints, leaving him every latitude as to the choice of his first subjects and the manner of treating them.無疑為目的,試圖亨申,他的下屬對他的研究的行為二月聖人,讓他每一個緯度,以選擇他的第一個科目和方式善待他們。 Bolland then gave himself entirely to the printing of the volumes for January. bolland然後再去自己完全印刷的容積為1月。 It was well under way when Henschen brought to Bolland the first fruits of his activity in the field of hagiography.它正在順利進行時亨申提請bolland的第一批成果活動,在外地的hagiography 。 They were studies for the history of St. Vaast and that of St. Amand, printed later in the first volume of February under date of February sixth.他們研究歷史的聖vaast和聖amand ,印刷後,在首卷2月根據最新的二月第六位。 Bolland was absolutely astonished, and possibly somewhat abashed, by the great scope and solidity of the work which his disciple had to show him. bolland是絕對驚訝,並可能有點abashed ,由大範圍和穩固性的工作,他的弟子已經向他出示了。 He himself had not dared to dream of anything like it.連他本人都不敢夢想過這樣的事情。 His preliminary commentaries on the acts of the various saints of January were practically confined to designating the manuscript where the texts he was publishing had been found, to annotations, and a list of the variants in the various copies and the previous editions.他的初步評論,對行為的各項聖人一月幾乎只限於指定的手稿如文本,他出版了被發現,說明,並列出該變種在各個副本和以前兩個版本。 The commentaries and annotations of Henschen solved, or at least tried to solve, every problem to which the text of the Acts could give rise, in the matter of chronology, geography, history, or philological interpretation, and all these questions were treated with an erudition and a method which could be called absolutely unknown hitherto.評注和說明的亨申解決了,或者至少是試圖解決的問題,每一個問題,以何種文本的行為可能會造成,在這件事的年代學,地理學,歷史學,語言學或詮釋,而所有這些問題,處理一個博學和方法,可稱為絕對迄今不明。 Modest and judicious savant that he was, Bolland at once admitted the superiority of the new method and desired Henschen, despite the reluctance occasioned by his humility and the profound respect in which he held his master, to review the copy already in press.謙虛和卓識的學者說,他是在bolland一旦承認了這一優勢,採用新方法,並期望亨申,儘管不願因他的謙卑和深深的敬意,而他舉行了他的主人時,審查該作品的複製品,已經付印。 He held it back for a considerable time to enable his colleague to make the additions and corrections he judged necessary or advantageous.他回來了相當時間,讓他的同事作出補充和更正,他研判有必要或有利的。 The pages containing the material for the first six days of January had already come from the press; the pages which seemed most defective to Henschen were replaced by revises.網頁載有物資,為第一次6天的1月已開始從報章上;頁,其中大多數似乎欠妥,以亨申取代修改。 His hand is more clearly apparent in the following pages, although he persisted in employing a reserve and watchfulness which sometimes seems to have cost him an effort, in order to avoid too marked a difference between Bolland's commentaries and his own.他的手更是顯而易見的,在以下頁面,但他堅持僱用儲備和警惕,這有時似乎是導致他的努力,以避免太明顯的區別bolland的評論和他自己。 Papebroch, in his notice on Henschen printed at the beginning of the seventh volume of May, points out as particularly his the toil expended on the acts of St. Wittikind, St. Canute, and St. Raymond of Pennafort on the seventh of January; of St. Atticus of Constantinople and Blessed Laurence Justinian on the eighth; of Sts. papebroch ,在他的公告亨申印在一開始的第七貨量可能也指出,作為特別是他的辛勞,花費的行為,聖wittikind ,聖canute ,和聖雷蒙德彭納福特關於第七屆一月;聖atticus的君士坦丁堡,並祝福勞倫斯justinian關於第八屆;滲透STS 。 Julian and Basilissa on the ninth.朱利安和basilissa關於第九屆。 "But from this day on", he adds, "Bolland left to Henschen the Greek and Oriental saints, as well as the majority of those of France and of Italy, reserving for himself only those of Germany, Spain, Britain, and Ireland". "但是從今天開始" ,他補充說, " bolland留給亨申希臘和東方聖人,以及大多數人的法國和意大利,保留給自己,只有德國,西班牙,英國和愛爾蘭" 。 He still desired to associate the name of Henschen with his own on the title-page of the various volumes, but the humble religious would not allow it to appear except as his assistant and subordinate.他仍期望聯想的名字亨申符合他自己對標題頁的各卷,但謙虛的宗教也不會允許它出現的,除了作為他的助手和下屬。 Meanwhile Bolland, in his general preface to the first volume of January, did not fail to tell what he owed to his excellent collaborator.與此同時bolland ,他在總序首卷月1日,沒有忘記告訴他欠他的優秀合作者。 He then insisted that in the volumes of February and the following ones, Henschen's name should be on the title-page as prominently as his own and, moreover, that in the course of these volumes all commentaries from the pen of Henschen should be signed with his initials, claiming, doubtless not without some foundation, that he received a great number of letters relating to articles written by his colleague, which caused him difficulty.然後,他堅持認為,在這份厚厚的2月及以下者,亨申的名字,就應該由標題頁,為突出自己,而且,在這個過程中,這些貿易額都有評論,從用筆的亨申應簽訂他的名字縮寫,並聲稱,毫無疑問,不無一定的基礎,他收到了大量的信件有關的文章,他的同僚,這使他的困難。 The two volumes of January, containing respectively, if we take into account the various tables and preliminary articles, the first, 1,300 pages, the second, more than 1,250, appeared in the course of the same year, 1643.這兩卷月1日,載有分別,如果我們考慮到各種圖表和初步的文章,首先, 1300頁,第二,有超過1250名,出現在執行過程中的同一年, 1643年。 They aroused in the learned world positive enthusiasm, which is easily understood when we consider how far the new publication surpassed anything of the kind known up to that time -- the Golden Legend, Guido Bernardus, Vincent of Beauvais, St. Antoninus of Florence, Peter de Natali, Mombritius, Lippomano, and Surius.他們引起了在了解到世界的積極熱情,這是很容易理解的,當我們考慮在多大程度上新的出版物超過了任何的一種被稱為了那個時候, -金色的傳奇人物, , G uido。 B ernardus,鄭海泉的b eauvais,聖a ntoninus的佛羅倫斯,彼得德後衛納塔利, mombritius , lippomano , surius 。 There was another marked difference when, fifteen years later, in 1658, the three volumes for February were published, showing a notable improvement over those for January.還有一個顯著的差別時, 15年後,在1658年,三冊為2月出版,呈現出顯著的改善,這些為一月。 Congratulations and warm encomiums came from every side to testify to Bolland and his companion the admiration aroused by their work.祝賀,並熱烈encomiums來自每一方作證,以bolland和他的同伴欽佩,引起了他們的工作。 The encouragement was not only from Catholics.鼓勵,不只是從天主教徒。 Learned Protestants of the foremost rank did not hesitate to praise highly the truly scientific spirit which marked the new collection.據悉,新教徒的首要秩沒有猶豫,盛讚真正的科學精神,這標誌著新的收藏。 Among others who had been heard from even before the publication of the February volumes, was the celebrated Gerard Vossius.除其他的人已經聽到,甚至從公佈前的2月卷,是著名的熱拉爾vossius 。 The editors had the satisfaction of seeing added to all these approbations that of Alexander VII, who publicly testified that there had never been undertaken a work more useful and glorious to the Church.編輯曾滿意地看到,加入所有這些approbations認為亞歷山大七人公開作證說,似乎從來沒有開展工作,更為有用,光榮送到教堂。 The same pontiff and, at his suggestion, the General of the Society of Jesus, Goswin Nickel, immediately invited Bolland to Rome, promising him a rich harvest of materials.同時,教宗,在他建議下,一般的社會上的耶穌, goswin鎳,立即邀請bolland到羅馬,答應他一個收穫豐富的材料。 The invitation was equivalent to a command, though for that matter this literary journey was of too great advantage to the work in hand for Bolland to do anything but gladly accept it.邀請相當於一個指揮,雖然這件事,這文學之旅是太大的優勢,向工作在手,為bolland做任何事情,但很樂意接受它。 Finding, however, that he was too much enfeebled by recent illness to stand the fatigues of the journey, and that, moreover, it was necessary for one of the editors to remain in Antwerp, the centre of correspondence, he easily obtained permission from the Father General to send in his place Henschen, who was already favourably known through his collaboration in volumes published.尋找,但是,他是太多enfeebled最近的病情,以經得起迷彩服的征途上,並說,而且,有必要對其中的編輯留在安特衛普,該中心的信函,他輕鬆地獲得了許可,從父親一般派在他的位置亨申,他們已經毫不遜色,已知通過他的合作,在冊出版。

At this time, the hagiographers were joined by a new companion, who was to accompany Henschen on his journey, and who later was to shed as glory on the work as had his two predecessors.在這個時候, hagiographers加入了一個新的同伴,他們是伴隨亨申此行來去匆匆,和他後來被以棚為榮耀,對工作,他的兩位前任。 This was Father Daniel von Papenbroeck, better known under the slightly altered form of Papebroch (b. Antwerp, 1628; d. 28 June, 1714).這是丹尼爾的父親馮papenbroeck ,更廣為人知下稍有改動形式papebroch (乙安特衛普, 1628年;四1714年6月28日) 。 He entered the Society in 1646, after having been, like Henschen, a brilliant pupil of Bolland's in the course of the humanities.他走進社會,在1646年,之後一直像亨申,燦爛悠久的瞳孔bolland的在這個過程中的人文學科。 He had just completed his thirty-first year when he was called on, in 1659, to give himself entirely to the work of hagiography, in which he was to have a remarkably long and fruitful career, for it lasted till his death, which occurred in the eighty-seventh year of his age, and the fifty-fifth of his work in this field.他剛剛完成了他的第31次年度的時候,他呼籲,在1659年,讓自己完全的工作hagiography ,他在其中是有一個顯著長期和富有成效的職業生涯,因為它延續到他死後,發生在80 -第七個年頭的他的年齡,並在第五十五屆的,他在這一領域的工作。 At the same time that they appointed Papebroch a collaborator to Bolland and Henschen, the superiors of the order, at the instance of important persons who wished the publication of the "Acta Sanctorum" hastened as much as possible, relieved the Fathers in charge of the work of every other regular occupation, in order that they might thenceforth devote their entire time to the hagiographical work.在同一時間,他們任命papebroch合作者,以bolland和亨申,上級的命令,在舉例來說具有重要的人希望"交代學報sanctorum "催生盡可能多地緩解了,父親負責本工作中的每一個其他經常性的佔領,為了使他們可以投入此後他們整個時間向hagiographical工作。 They were not obliged to fulfil any duties of the sacred ministry except for the distraction and rest that men of such great intellectual activity might find in a change of occupation.他們沒有義務履行任何義務的神聖部除為分心和休息認為,男性的這種偉大的智力活動可能是在改變的佔領。 About the same time they were granted another favour.大約同一時間,他們分別獲准以另一種贊成票。 We have seen that Bolland, in accepting the succession to Rosweyde's post, had obtained that a special place should be set apart for the manuscript copies and books collected by Rosweyde, which had hitherto been scattered among the books belonging to the general library of the Professed House.我們已經看到, bolland ,在接受繼承rosweyde的職位,得到了一個特殊的地位,應定為除了手稿複製品和書籍中收集rosweyde ,自那時以來,分散的書籍屬於一般圖書館的自稱房子。 This embryo of the Bollandist Museum consisted of two small mansard rooms, lighted by dormer windows so narrow that in the corners it was impossible to clearly enough to read the titles of the books, even at noonday.這個胚胎的bollandist博物館組成的兩個小mansard室,燈光由dormer窗戶狹窄以致在彎道中這是不可能的,以明確不夠閱讀標題的書籍,即使在noonday 。 Moreover, the walls were not fitted with shelves where the books could be arranged.此外,牆壁都沒有裝設貨架那裡的書籍可以安排。 They were merely piled one above the other without any attempt at order.他們只是把堆在一個以上的,沒有其他任何企圖秩序。 It required Bolland's wonderful local memory to find anything in this chaos.它要求bolland美好的地方記憶體,以找出什麼在這混亂。 About 1660, he had the satisfaction of having a spacious hall on the first floor placed at his disposal, where books and manuscripts could be placed on shelves in methodical order.約1660 ,他的滿意度有一個寬敞的一層大廳擺放在他的處置,那裡的書籍和手稿,可以放在貨架上有條不紊的秩序。 The library or the "Hagiographical Museum", as it became customary to call it, had already received, and continued to receive daily, thanks to the gifts of generous benefactors and judicious purchases, many acquisitions, so that Henschen during the course of his literary journey was able to say that he found very few libraries, public or private, that could compare with the Hagiographical Museum" of Antwerp. This library was greatly enriched some years later when Papebroch, through the death of his father, a rich merchant of Antwerp, was enabled to apply to the work on which he was engaged his large inheritance.圖書館或" hagiographical博物館" ,因為它成了習慣稱呼它,已經收到,並繼續接受每日多虧了禮物慷慨的恩人,以及明智的採購,許多收購,使亨申過程中,他的文學旅程能夠說,他發現很少有圖書館,公共或私人的,可以比較與hagiographical博物館" ,安特衛普,這個圖書館是極大地豐富了若干年後,當papebroch ,通過他父親去世,具有豐富的商船的安特衛普,是能夠適用於工作,對他所從事他的龐大遺產。

Bolland's two companions began their journey on the feast of St. Mary Magdalen, 22 July, 1660. bolland的兩位同伴開始了他們的征程上盛宴的聖瑪麗magdalen , 1660年7月22日。 Their old master accompanied them as far as Cologne, where they left him after a week's stay.他們的舊主人陪伴他們據科隆,在那裡,他經過一個星期的逗留。 An almost daily correspondence kept up with him, and preserved nearly entire at Brussels, partly at the Royal Library and partly at the Library of the Bollandists, allows us to follow each step of the learned pilgrimage through Germany, Italy, and France.幾乎每天函授保持了他的見解,並保存幾乎全是在布魯塞爾,部分在皇家圖書館和部分在圖書館的bollandists ,使我們能夠跟踪每一步的了解,朝聖通過德國,意大利,法國等國家。 In Germany, they visited successively Coblenz, Mainz, Worms, Speyer, Frankfort, Aschaffenburg, Würzburg, Bamberg, Nuremberg, Eichstädt, Ingolstadt, Augsburg Munich, and Innsbruck.在德國,他們先後參觀了科布侖茲,美因茨,蠕蟲,施佩耶爾,法蘭克福, aschaffenburg ,維爾茨堡,班貝克,紐倫堡, eichstädt , Ingolstadt中,奧格斯堡慕尼黑,因斯布魯克。 Everywhere the name of Bolland ensured them an enthusiastic welcome and opened every library to them; everywhere they found precious material to take with them for use in the succeeding volumes of the "Acta".無處不在的名字bolland保證了他們熱烈的歡迎,並開放每一個圖書館給他們;無處不在,他們發現了珍貴的材料,採取與它們的使用在接替冊的"學報" 。 A reception no less friendly and a harvest even more abundant awaited the travellers in Italy, at Verona, Vicenza, Padua, Venice, Ferrara, Imola, Florence, Ravenna, Forlì, Rimini, Pesaro, Fano, Sinigaglia, Ancona, Osimo, Loreto, Assisi, Perugia, Foligno, and Spoleto.酒會不低於友好而且收穫更豐富,期待已久的旅客在意大利,在維羅納,維琴察,帕多瓦,威尼斯,費拉拉,伊莫拉,佛羅倫薩,拉文納, forlì ,裡米尼,佩扎羅,法諾,西尼加利亞,安科納, osimo ,洛雷托,阿西西,佩魯賈, foligno ,斯波萊托。 They arrived in Rome the day before the Vigil of Christmas, and remained there until 3 October of the following year, 1661.他們抵達羅馬的前一天,守夜的聖誕,並在那裡停留了,直到10月3日的次年, 1661年。 During all this time they were overwhelmed with attentions and favours by Alexander VII, who in person did the honours of his rich Chigi library and commanded by special Briefs that all libraries should be opened to them, and especially that they should be allowed access to the manuscripts of the Vatican.在這一切的時候,他們被壓倒,與注目,並贊成由Alexander第七,他們在沒有人授勳的他豐富的基吉圖書館和指揮的特別簡報說,所有圖書館應該向他們開放,特別是應讓他們接觸到手稿梵蒂岡。 They were received with no less courtesy by the cardinals, the heads of the various orders, the savants Allatius, Aringhi, Ughelli, Ciampini, and others, then shining lights in the capital of the Christian world.他們共收到與不低於禮貌,由紅衣主教,首腦們的各種命令, savants allatius , aringhi ,烏蓋利,錢皮尼,和其他人,然後擦燈,在首都的基督教世界。 The five or six copyists placed at their disposal were kept constantly busy during the nine months they were in Rome in transcribing manuscripts according to their directions, and this occupation was continued by them a long time after the Bollandists departure. 5個或6個copyists置於其處置則留不斷忙碌,在9個月內,他們分別在羅馬抄寫手稿根據自己的方向,這是佔領,繼續進行他們很長時間後bollandists離境。 As for the Bollandists themselves, their time was principally employed in collecting Greek manuscripts, in which they were diligently assisted by the celebrated Hellenist, Laurentius Porcius, and the abbot Francesco Albani, later cardinal, and pope under the name of Clement XI.對於bollandists自己,自己的時間,主要是從事收集希臘手稿,在他們的辛勤協助下,由著名hellenist ,勞倫丘斯porcius ,與住持法albani ,後來樞機,教宗的名義下,克萊門特十一。 The learned Maronite, Abraham of Eckel, who had just brought to Rome a great number of Syriac manuscripts, was willing to make extracts and translate for them the Acts of the Saints found therein.學到的龍族,亞伯拉罕的eckel ,他們剛剛帶到羅馬大量的敘利亞文手稿,是願意作出提取物和翻譯,為他們的行為聖徒發現的。 Ughelli gave them two volumes in folio of notes which he had collected for the completion of his "Italia Sacra".烏蓋利給了他們兩冊英文排版的筆記,他已經收集了為完成他的"意大利骶" 。 The Oratorians put them in touch with the manuscripts of Baronius, and a large collection of lives of the saints which they had intended to publish themselves.該oratorians把它們接觸這些手稿的巴若尼,並有大量收集的聖人們的生命,他們曾打算發表自己。 On leaving Rome they visited Naples, Grotta-Ferrata, and Monte Casino, then Florence, where they remained for four months, and lastly Milan.在離開羅馬,他們參觀了那不勒斯, grotta -費拉塔,和Monte賭場,然後佛羅倫薩,在那裡停留4個月,最後是AC米蘭。 Everywhere, as at Rome, they left behind them copyists who continued for years the work of transcribing which had been marked out for them.無處不在,因為在羅馬,他們留下了他們copyists誰續多年的工作,抄寫已顯出來給他們。 They then spent more than six months in travelling through France, where they halted successively at the Grande Chartreuse of Grenoble, at Lyons, at the monasteries of Cluny and Cîteaux, at Dijon, Auxerre, Sens, and lastly at Paris.然後,他們用了6個月以上,在途經法國,在那裡停止,先後在大chartreuse的格勒諾布爾,在里昂,在寺廟的cluny和cîteaux ,在第戎,歐塞爾隊,靈敏度,最後在巴黎舉行。 They arrived in the great capital, 11 August, 1662, and were immediately put in touch with whatever distinguished savants Paris could then boast of.他們來到偉大首都, 1662年8月11日,並立即付諸接觸無論傑出savants巴黎便可以誇耀的。 They found at their command, with unrestricted leave to copy whatever served their purpose, the wealth of hagiographical matter contained in the rich libraries of Saint-Germain-des-Prés and St. Victor, as well as those of the Celestines and Feuillants, of Wion d'Hérouval, de Thou, de Séguier, and lastly the Mazarine and the Royal Library.他們發現,在他們的指揮,無限制許可副本,無論其目的,財富hagiographical此事載於豐富的圖書館,聖隊-萬-佩區和聖維克多,以及那些對celestines和feuillants , wion -h érouval,德主,德s éguier,最後m azarine和皇家圖書館。 Their stay at Paris extended over three months, every moment of which time they spent in transcribing and collating, besides enlisting the services of several copyists during the entire time.他們留在巴黎延長超過3個月,每刻的,當時他們花了抄寫和整理,除了爭取服務的幾個copyists在整個時間。

They left Paris 9 November and turned their steps toward Rouen, then went through Eu, Abbeville, and Arras, omitting, to their great regret, the city of Amiens, because of the impassable roads, and the impossibility of securing means of transportation.他們在離開巴黎11月9日,並把他們一步步邁向盧昂,隨後又通過歐盟, Abbeville鄉村,阿拉斯,省略,他們感到非常遺憾,這個城市亞眠,由於對道路不通,以及無法保證運輸手段。 They reached Antwerp 21 December, 1662, after an absence of twenty-nine months.他們抵達安特衛普1662年12月21日,經過一個缺乏29個月。 They not only brought back with them an enormous mass of documents transcribed by themselves and by the copyists they had been obliged to engage, but they found awaiting them at Antwerp a like number from the copyists they had employed in the principal cities they had visited (notably, Rome, Florence, Milan, and Paris) and who were still carrying on with the labour with which they had been charged.他們不僅帶回了與他們的一個巨大的地下文件轉錄自己所copyists他們不得不從事的,但他們發現,等待他們的,在安特衛普類似數目從copyists他們聘請了在主要城市,他們曾經訪問(值得注意的是,羅馬,佛羅倫斯,米蘭,巴黎)和他們仍然繼承與勞工與他們已被落案起訴。 This long journey caused little delay in the progress of the work, for which, on the other hand, it was so productive of good results.這漫長的旅途造成少延誤的工程進度,為此,在另一方面,它使生產的良好效果。 Thanks to the incredible activity of the three eminent hagiographers, the three volumes for March were given to the public in 1668.多虧了令人難以置信活動的三名傑出hagiographers ,共三冊,為三月份向公眾1668年。 They bore only the name of Henschen and Papebroch, as Bolland had passed to a better life, 12 September, 1665, thirty-six years after succeeding Rosweyde in the preparation of the "Acta Sanctorum".他們只膛的名義亨申和papebroch ,作為bolland已通過,以更好的生活, 1665年9月12日,三十六年後,接替rosweyde在編制"學報sanctorum " 。 Seven years later, in 1675, the three volumes for April appeared, preceded by preliminary treatises, the subjects of which were respective: in the first volume, the two most ancient collections of notices on the popes (catalogues of Liberius, and Felix) and the date of St. Ambrose's death, both by Henschen; in the second, the attempt at a diplomatical treatise by Papebroch, "whose chief merit", as the author himself was fond of saying with as much sincerity as modesty, "was that it inspired Mabillon to write his excellent work: "De re diplomatica"; in the third, a new revised edition of the new revised edition of the "Diatribi de tribus Dagobertis", which had made the name of Henschen celebrated twenty years previously. The custom of having these "Parerga" was kept up in the succeeding volumes; there was even an entire volume, the "Propylaeum ad tomos Maii", filled with notes of Papebroch on the chronology and history of the popes from St. Peter to Innocent XI. Another happy thought first carried out at that time was the publication of the Greek acts in their original text; previously, only Latin versions had been given. The Greek texts were still relegated to the end of the volumes in the form of appendices; it was only in the fourth volume of May that they were first printed in the body of the work. The first three volumes of May were published in 1688. Besides the names of Henschen and Papebroch, the title-page bore those of Conrad Janninck and François Baert, who had been appointed to the work, the former in 1679; the latter in 1681, at the same time as Father Daniel Cardon, who was carried off by a premature death the second year after his appointment.七年之後,在1675年,共三冊,為4月出現,在此之前的初步論文,課題,其中分別有:首先是體積,這兩個最古老的收藏告示教宗(目錄的利比里奧,和Felix )當日聖劉漢銓之死,無論是由亨申,在二,圖謀在diplomatical傷寒由papebroch " ,其主要好處" ,如作者自己喜歡說的,與作為有多少誠意,因為謙虛, "就是它靈感mabillon寫他出色的工作: "去重新diplomatica " ,在第三,一個新的修訂版的新修訂版的" diatribi德tribus dagobertis " ,其中已作出的名義亨申慶祝二十年以前。習俗有這些" parerga "被關起來,在繼承冊;甚至有人一整卷, " propylaeum專案tomos (星期日" ,充滿註釋papebroch就年表和歷史的教宗從聖伯多祿無辜十一。另一種快樂以為首先進行的,在當時出版的希臘行為,在他們的原始文本;以前,只有拉丁語版本已經給出了希臘文本仍在降級到去年底,該卷的形式,附錄,它被只有在第四卷的,可說,他們第一次印在小冊子的工作。第3卷,可分別發表在1688年,除了姓名亨申和papebroch ,題目頁膛那些康拉德janninck和弗朗索瓦baert他被任命為工作,前者在1679個;後者在1681年,在同一時間,作為父親丹尼爾cardon ,進行了起飛,由過早死亡後第二年,他的任命。

Up to this time Bolland and his first two companions had met with nothing but encouragement.到這時候bolland和他的首兩位同伴曾與無關,但鼓勵。 A severe storm was soon to burst on the one who was now head of the undertaking and on the work itself.嚴重的風暴很快就被戳破,對一個人,現在負責人的承諾及對工作本身。 In the first volume of April Papebroch had occasion to treat, under date of the eighth, the Acta of St. Albert Patriarch of Jerusalem, and author of the Carmelite rule.在首卷四月papebroch有機會治療,根據最新的第八,學報的聖何俊仁牧首的耶路撒冷,以及作者的carmelite統治。 In his preliminary commentary he had combated, as insufficiently grounded, the tradition universally received by the Carmelites, that the origin of the order dated back to the prophet Elias, who was regarded as its founder.在他的初步評論中,他曾打擊,因為沒有充分接地,傳統,普遍受到carmelites ,即原產地的命令可追溯到先知的愛麗絲,他們被視為是其創始人。 This was the signal for an outburst of wrath on the part of these religious.這是信號的一個突出的憤怒,對一部分這些宗教。 From 1681 to 1693 there appeared no less than twenty or thirty pamphlets filled with abusive language against the unfortunate critic, and adorned with titles often ludicrous through their very efforts at violence: "Novus Ismaël, cuius manus contra omnes et manus omnium contm eum, sive P. Daniel Papebrochius . . . ; Amyclae Jesuiticae, sive Papebrochius scriptis Carmeliticis convictus . . . . ; "Jesuiticum Nihil .從1681年至1693年出現了不下二十或三十小冊子充滿粗言穢語,對不幸的影評人,並貼著職稱往往是可笑的是通過他們非常努力,在暴力: "新聞ismaël , cuius馬努斯合同義務等馬努斯omnium contm eum , sive體育丹尼爾papebrochius … … 。 ; amyclae jesuiticae , sive papebrochius scriptis carmeliticis convictus … … 。 " ; jesuiticum nihil 。 . ."; "Hercules Commodianus Johannes Launoius redivivus in P Daniele Papebrochio . " ; "大力神commodianus約翰內斯launoius redivivus在P熱力papebrochio 。 . . "; "RP Papebrochius Historicus Conjecturalis Bombardizans S.Lucam et Sanctos Patres", etc. The series culminated in the large quarto volume signed with the name of Father Sebastian of St. Paul, provincial of the Flemish-Belgian province of the Carmelite Order, and entitled: "Exhibitio errorum quos P. Daniel Papebrochius Societatis Jesu suis in notis ad Acta Sanctorum commisit contra Christi Domini Paupertatem, Aetatem, etc. Summorum Pontificum Acta et Gesta, Bullas, Brevia et Decreta; Concilia; S. Scripturam; Ecclesiae Capitis Primatum et Unitatem; SRE Cardinalium Dignitatem et authoritatem; Sanctos ipsos, eorum cultum, Reliquias, Acta et Scripta; Indulgentiarum Antiquitatem; Historias Sacras; Breviaria, Missalia, Maryrologia, Kalendaria, receptasque in Ecclesia traditiones ac revelationes, nec non alia quaevis antiqua Monumenta Regnorum, Regionum, Civitatum, ac omnium fere Ordinum; idque nonnisi ex meris conjecturis, argutiis negativis, insolentibus censuris, satyris ac sarcasmis, cum Aethnicis, Haeresiarchis, Haereticis aliisque Auctoribus ab Ecclesia damnatis. " , "反相papebrochius historicus conjecturalis bombardizans第lucam等sanctos patres "等一系列終於在四開大的體積與該公司簽訂的名字父親塞瓦斯蒂安聖保羅,省的弗拉芒語區-比利時省的carmelite秩序,題為: " exhibitio errorum quos頁丹尼爾papebrochius societatis jesu鏈球菌在notis專案學報sanctorum commisit矛盾基督教多米尼paupertatem , aetatem等summorum pontificum學報等gesta , bullas , brevia等decreta ; concilia ;第scripturam ; ecclesiae capitis primatum等unitatem ;返回式航天器cardinalium dignitatem等authoritatem ; sanctos這份, eorum cultum ,雷利基亞甚,學報等scripta ; indulgentiarum antiquitatem ; historias sacras ; breviaria , missalia , maryrologia , kalendaria , receptasque在教會traditiones交流revelationes , NEC公司非特別quaevis antiqua古蹟遺址regnorum , regionum , civitatum ,交流電omnium幾乎ordinum ; idque nonnisi特惠meris conjecturis , argutiis negativis , insolentibus censuris , satyris交流sarcasmis ,暨aethnicis , haeresiarchis , haereticis aliisque auctoribus抗體Ecclesia的damnatis 。 Oblata Sanctissimo Domino Nostro lnnocentio XII . oblata sanctissimo骨牌nostro lnnocentio十二。 . . Coloniae Agrippinae, 1693." Papebroch, who was receiving at the same time from the most distinguished scholars lively protests against the attacks of which he was made the object, met them at first merely with a silence which perhaps seemed disdainful. But learning that active steps were being taken at Rome to obtain a condemnation of the collection of the Acta Sanctorum or of some of its volumes, he and his companions decided that the time for silence had passed. It was Father Janninck who entered the lists in an open letter to the author of the "Exhibitio Errorum", followed soon afterwards by another in which he replied to a new little book published in support of the work of Father Sebastian of St. Paul. The two letters were printed in 1693. They were followed by a more extended apology for the "Acta", published by the same Janninck in 1695; and lastly there appeared in 1696, 1697, and 1698 the three volumes of the "Responsio Danielis Papebrochii ad Exhibitionem Errorum", in which the valiant hagiographer takes up one by one the charges hurled against him by Father Sebastian and confutes each with an answer as solid in argument as it was temperate in tone. The adversaries of Papebroch, fearing lest they should not be able to obtain from the Court of Rome the condemnation for which they were begging, addressed themselves, with the utmost secrecy, to the tribunal of the Spanish Inquisition, where they won over to their side the most powerful influences. Before the writers of Antwerp had any suspicion of what was being plotted against them, there was issued, in November, 1695, a decree of this tribunal condemning the fourteen volumes of the Acta Sanctorum published up to that time, under the most rigorous qualifications, even going so far as to brand the work with the mark of heresy. Papebroch was painfully and deeply moved by the blow. He could submit to all the other insults heaped upon him, but he was obliged to refute the charge of heresy. He made the most vehement entreaties and had all his friends in Spain on the alert to let him know which propositions the Holy Office of Spain had regarded as heretical, in order that he might retract them, if he was unable to furnish satisfactory explanations, or secure the correction of the sentence, if his explanations were acceptable. His efforts proved fruitless. Having fallen seriously ill in 1701, and believing himself at the point of death, immediately after receiving the last sacraments he had a notary-public draw up in his presence and before witnesses a solemn protest which shows how greatly he was affected by the condemnation levelled at his head by the Spanish Inquisition. "After forty two years of assiduous toil, devoted to the elucidation of the Acts of the Saints, hoping to go to the enjoyment of their society, I ask only one thing on earth, and it is that His Holiness Clement XI be immediately implored to grant me after death what in life I have sought in vain from Innocent XII. coloniae agrippinae , 1693 " 。 papebroch ,他接到在同一時間,從最傑出的學者生動抗議活動,反對襲擊,其中他提出的目標,滿足他們在第一只是一個沉默,這也許似乎蔑視,但學習的積極正在採取步驟,在羅馬獲得譴責收集的學報sanctorum或其某些卷中,他和他的同伴們決定的時候了沉默已通過,它是父親janninck人進入名單的一封公開信作者的" exhibitio errorum " ,然後緊接著又被另一其中他回答到一個新的小書出版的支持,工作的父親塞瓦斯蒂安聖保羅。兩封信分別印在1693年,他們之後都進行了更延長了道歉,為"學報" ,出版了由同一janninck在1695年;最後出現在1696 , 1697和1698這三卷的" responsio丹尼利斯papebrochii專案exhibitionem errorum " ,在這種英勇hagiographer佔據了一由一個收費的玻璃瓶,對他的父親塞巴斯蒂安和confutes每個都帶有一個答案,因為在堅實的論據,因為它是在溫帶的語調。敵手的papebroch ,怕以免他們不應該能夠獲得來自法院的羅馬受到譴責,其中他們乞討,處理自己,以最大的秘密,給法庭的西班牙宗教裁判所,在那裡贏得了自己的一方最強大的影響力。之前,作家的安特衛普有任何懷疑的是什麼,正在策劃針對他們,有發行, 11月, 1695年,一項法令,該法庭的譴責十四卷本學報sanctorum公佈了這一時間,根據最嚴格的學歷,甚至傳出,要在品牌與商標的異端。 papebroch是心疼並深受感動的打擊,他可以提交所有其他侮辱堆後,他的意思,但他不得不站出來駁斥有關負責異端,他作出了最強烈的entreaties了他的所有朋友,在西班牙就警覺,讓他知道其中命題聖地辦公室西班牙已被視為異端邪說,為了表示他可能會收回他們,如果他不能提供令人滿意的解釋,或更正刑期,如果他的解釋,都是可以接受的。他的努力證明是徒勞的。下跌身患重病1701 ,並相信自己在該點的死因,後,立即接受最後聖禮他進行了公證-公共制訂在他的存在和證人面前莊嚴的抗議,這表明如何大大他是受國際譴責,拉平了,在他的頭部是由西班牙宗教裁判所" ,在42年的刻苦辛勞,忠於職守,以澄清有關的行為的聖人,希望去享受自己的社會,我只要求一件事,在地球上,那就是他的聖潔克萊門特喜立即懇請給予我死後如何在生活中我一直試圖白費,從無辜十二。 I have lived a Catholic, and I die a Catholic, by the grace of God.我曾住著一個天主教徒,我死了一名天主教徒,由天主的恩典。 I have also the right of dying a Catholic in the eyes of men, which is not possible so long as the decree of the Spanish Inquisition shall appear justly issued and published, and so long as people read that I have taught in my books heretical propositions for which I have been condemned.我也有權利,臨終天主教在眼裡的男人,這是不可能的,只要有關的法令,西班牙宗教法庭出庭應理直氣壯地發出印發,因此,只要人們看到我教授在我的書邪教命題為這個我已經譴責。 Papebroch had accepted without appeal or murmur the decision of the Roman Congregation of 22 December, 1700, placing on the Index his chronological and historical Essay on the Popes, published in the "Propylaeum Maii", a decree issued, as was expressly stated, on account of the sections bearing on certain conclaves and requiring merely the correction of the passages in question. papebroch已經接受了,沒有上訴或雜音的決定,羅馬聚集1700年12月22日,配售該指數他的時間順序和歷史散文對教皇,刊登在" propylaeum (星期日" ,頒布的一項法令,明文,就賬戶的路段,事關某些秘密會議,並要求只更正通道的問題。 But he did not cease working during the twelve years and a half that he still lived, both by his own efforts and those of his friends, not only to prevent the confirmation by Rome of the decree of the Spanish Inquisition, but also to secure the retraction of the decree.但他並沒有因此而停止工作,在十二年一個半表示,他仍然住,無論是由他自己的努力和他的朋友們,這不僅是為了防止確認羅馬的法令,西班牙宗教裁判所,而且也有利於保障撤銷該法令。 Father Janninck was even sent to Rome with this end in view and remained there for over two years and a half, from the end of October, 1697, till June, 1700.父親janninck甚至送往羅馬達到這個目的的意見,並在那裡停留了超過兩年半的時間內,從10月底, 1697年,一直到6月, 1700 。 He was completely successful with respect to the first object of his mission, as in December, 1697, he received the assurance that no censure would be passed against the volumes condemned in Spain.他是完全成功的敬意,向第一個對象是他的任務,因為在12月, 1697年,他獲得了保證,沒有責難,將通過對各卷譴責在西班牙。 The persecutors of Papebroch were compelled to sue for an injunction to silence for both parties, which was accorded them by a Brief of 25 November, 1698, gratefully accepted by Papebroch.該迫害者的papebroch被強迫控告禁制令,以默哀兩黨派的要求,這是給予他們一個簡短的1698年11月25日,感激地接受papebroch 。 More time was necessary, however, to bring about a final decision in the second matter.更多的時間是必要的,但是,為了實現一個最終的決定,在第二件事。 Whether it was judged prudent in Rome not to enter into conflict with the Spanish tribunal, or whether the latter prolonged the affair by passive resistance, the decree of condemnation made in 1695 was not revoked until 1715, the year following the death of Papebroch.無論是審慎的判斷,在羅馬沒有進入衝突與西班牙法庭,還是後者延長內政由消極抵抗,該法令的譴責作出了在1695年是不會被撤銷,直到1715年去世之後, papebroch 。 As for the "Propylaeum Maii", it was not withdrawn from the Index of Forbidden Books until the last edition (1900); but this did not prevent the French editor, Victor Palmé, from publishing it in his reprint of the Acta Sanctorum, which he undertook about 1860.至於" propylaeum (星期日" ,它不是退出指數禁止書籍,直至最後一版( 1900 ) ,但這並不能阻止法國主編,維克托palmé ,從出版,它在他的重印本學報sanctorum ,他答應約1860年。

A grievous trial of another sort was visited on Papebroch during the last years of the seventeenth century.嚴重試用另一種是訪問papebroch在過去數年中的17世紀。 A cataract affecting both eyes reduced him for about five years to a state of total blindness, which compelled him to give up all literary composition.白內障的影響是既減少了眼睛,他為5年左右,以一國的完全失明,這迫使他放棄所有的文學成分。 The sight of his left eye was restored in 1702 by a successful operation.看見他的左眼恢復了1702年由一個成功的行動。 He immediately took up his work again and continued the Acta Sanctorum as far as the fifth volume of June, the twenty-fourth of the whole collection, which appeared in 1709.他立即接手他的工作,再繼續學報sanctorum據第五貨量月6日,第24次的整收集,其中出現在1630 。 The weight of age -- he was then eighty-one -- compelled him to abandon the more arduous work of the Bollandist museum.重量的年齡-他當時8 1-迫使他放棄了更為艱鉅的工作,該b o llandist博物館。 He lived for almost five years, which he devoted to editing the "Annales Antverpienses" from the foundation of Antwerp down to the year 1700.他生活了近5年,這是他專門編輯的"年鑑antverpienses " ,從基礎的安特衛普下降至今年的1700 。 The manuscript of this work comprised eleven volumes in folio, seven of which are at the Royal Library of Brussels, the others probably having been lost.手稿這方面的工作包括11冊,英文排版,其中7個在皇家圖書館的布魯塞爾,別人可能已經遺失。 An edition of the volumes which have been preserved to us was published at Antwerp, 1845-48, in five volumes in octavo.一個新版本的卷已被保存下來,我們發表在安特衛普, 1845年至1848年,在五冊,在八開。

We shall not pursue further the history of the Bollandist work during the eighteenth century up to the suppression of the Society of Jesus, in 1773.我們應追求的不是進一步發展的歷史,以及bollandist工作,在十八世紀至壓制社會的耶穌,在1773年。 The publication continued regularly, though with more or less unevenness as to the value of the commentaries, up to the third volume of October, which appeared in 1770.該刊物繼續定期,但更多或更少不勻,以價值的評論文章,上升至第三卷的10月,出現在1770年。 The suppression of the Society brought about a crisis in which the work nearly foundered.制止社會帶來了危機,在其中工作的近失敗。 The Bollandists then in office were Cornelius De Bye, James De Bue, and Ignatius Hubens.該bollandists然後在辦公室被科尼利厄斯德再見,詹姆斯德bue ,伊格烏文斯。 The Fathers Jean Clé and Joseph Ghesquière had but recently been transferred from the work.父親讓clé和約瑟夫ghesquière了,但最近已轉移到工作中。 The former, at the time of the suppression of the Society, was superior of the Flemish-Belgian province; the latter was in charge of the projected publication of the "Analecta Belgica", a collection of documents relating to the history of Belgium, a work for which the funds of the Musée Bellarmine were appropriated.前者,在當時的鎮壓社會,是優越的弗拉芒語區-比利時省;後者負責預計出版的" analecta belgica " ,這是一個收集有關的文件,以歷史的比利時,工作,其中的資金博物館bellarmine分別核撥。 This Museum was established at Mechlin at the beginning of the eighteenth century, for the purpose of opposing the Jansenists, but was afterwards transferred to the Professed House at Antwerp.這個博物館成立於梅克林在開始的18世紀,為了反對詹森教徒,但後來被移交給自稱家在安特衛普。 On 20 September, 1773, commissaries of the Government presented themselves at the residence of the professed Jesuit Fathers at Antwerp, and before the assembled community read the Bull of suppression of Clement XIV and the imperial letters patent empowering them to execute it.於1773年9月20日, commissaries的政府提出了自己在香港居住的自稱耶穌的父親在安特衛普,並在組裝社區閱讀牛市鎮壓克萊門特十四與帝國英皇制誥,使他們有能力執行。 They then affixed seals to the entrances of the archives, libraries, and any rooms of the Fathers which contained money or objects of value.然後,他們貼上封條,以入口處的檔案館,圖書館,以及任何房間的父親,其中載有金錢或物品的價值。 A like proceeding took place on the same day in all the houses of the Society then existing in Belgium.類似的訴訟發生在同一天,所有的房子都該學會現有然後在比利時。 Nevertheless a special order was issued enjoining the members of the commission charged with executing the decree on the Professed House at Antwerp "to summon the ci-devant Jesuits employed in the publication of the 'Acta Sanctorum' and to announce to them that the government, satisfied with their labours, was disposed to exercise special consideration in their regard".然而一個特別令下達責令成員組成的委員會,負責執行這項法令對自稱家在安特衛普" ,以喚起詞devant僱用耶穌會士在出版的'學報sanctorum ' ,並宣布向他們表示,政府,滿意他們的勞動,被棄置行使特別考慮,在這方面的" 。 Father Ghesquière and his collaborators in the "Analecta Belgica" were included in this indulgence granted to the Bollandists.父親ghesquière和他的合作者在" analecta belgica "被列入這一放縱批給bollandists 。 This favourable attitude of the Government resulted, after various tiresome conferences, in the removal, in 1778, of the Bollandists and the historiographers of Belgium, together with their libraries, to the abbey of Caudenberg, at Brussels.這有利於政府的態度,導致了後,各種會議的勞累,在搬遷,在1778年,該bollandists和史官的比利時,連同其圖書館,以修道院的caudenberg ,在布魯塞爾舉行。 Each of the, Bollandists was to receive an annual pension of 800 florins, besides the 500 florins to be given to the community of Caudenberg in payment for their board and lodging.每一項, bollandists是接收每年的退休金800 florins ,除了500 florins要考慮社會需求的caudenberg在支付其食宿。 The same indulgence was accorded to Ghesquière in consideration of his office of historian.同時,放縱自己是給予ghesquière考慮到他的辦公室的歷史學家。 The results of the sale of the volumes were to be divided between the abbey and the editors on condition that the abbey should take charge of the matter on hand, and provide a copyist to make fair copies of manuscripts for the printers, as well as religious who should be trained under the direction or the elder Bollandists for the continuation of the work.結果,出售該卷,將其分為修道院和編輯,條件是修道院應負責此事的手,並提供一個複製,從而作出公正的副本手稿為印表機,以及宗教誰的訓練,應根據指示或長輩bollandists為工作的延續。 The other half of the profits was to be divided in equal portions among the writers.另一半的利潤,將其分為相等的部分,其中作家。 The four hagiographers took up their residence at the Abbey of Caudenberg, and with the consent of the abbot adopted two young religious assistants.四個hagiographers了,他們住在修道院的caudenberg ,並徵得住持通過了兩項宗教界青年助手。 One of these soon left them to pursue his scientific studies, feeling that he had not the vocation for this work; the other was John-Baptist Fonson, at that time (1788) twenty-two years of age, whose name soon afterwards appeared on the title page as editor.其中這些即將離開他們能夠追尋他的科學的研究,覺得他並沒有使命,為完成這項工作;另一個是約翰-浸會fonson ,當時( 1788 )二十二年的年齡,他的名字,不久後,就出現扉頁為主編。 Under this new condition of things there appeared in 1780 Volume IV of October under the names of Constantine Suyskens (d. 1771), Cornelius De Bye, John De Bue, Joseph Ghesquière, and Ignatius Hubens, all former Jesuits.根據這項新的條件下的東西出現在1780年第四卷10下的名字君士坦丁suyskens (四1771年) ,科尼利厄斯德再見,約翰德bue ,約瑟夫ghesquière ,伊格烏文斯,所有前耶穌會士。 In 1786, Volume V appeared, signed with the names of De Bye, De Bue, and Fonson.在1786 ,第五卷出籠後,與該公司簽訂的名字德輪空,德bue , fonson 。 In the interval between these two volumes the corps of hagiographers had lost, in 1782, the youngest of the Antwerp members, Ignatius Hubens.在間隔這兩卷隊伍hagiographers失去了,在1782年,最年輕的安特衛普成員,伊格烏文斯。 He was replaced in October, 1784, by a French Benedictine, Dom Anselm Berthod, who voluntarily resigned the high positions he held in his order and those for which he was intended, so that he might devote himself to the learned work which the Imperial Government of Vienna requested him to take up.接替他的是10月份,可以追溯到1784年,由一位法國本篤會, DOM的anselm berthod ,自願辭職,高級職位,他為他舉行的秩序和那些為他的用意,因此,他可能在致力於學術工作,其中帝國政府維也納要求他採取行動。 He was to be engaged upon it only a little more than three years, for he died at Brussels, in March, 1788.他將被聘請後,它才超過三年,因為他死在布魯塞爾舉行,在3月, 1788 。

Two new volumes were issued from the royal press of Brussels, to which had been sent all the equipments of the printing establishment which the Bollandists had founded at Antwerp exclusively for their work.兩個新的卷發出皇家新聞布魯塞爾的中心,以已經送交所有設備的印刷成立,其中bollandists已建在安特衛普專門為他們的工作。 The printing expenses as well an those of pensions and indemnities were largely made up to the public treasury by the confiscation of the capital through the sale of their volumes, the collective pension of 2,000 Brabant florins received from the government all through the eighteenth century up to the suppression of the Society, and the liberality of certain benefactors.印刷費用,以及一個這些退休金和償很大程度上彌補了向公眾金庫沒收資本,通過出售其卷,集體養老保險金2000年Brabant的florins從政府收到的所有通過18世紀行動鎮壓的社會和自由精神的某些恩人。 This capital had grown by 1773 to the sum of 130,000 florins ($47,166) yielding an annual revenue of 9,133 florins and 18 sous to which were added the results of the sale of the Acta Sanctorum which averaged 2,400 florins yearly.這種資本增加了1773至總和130000 florins ( 47166美元)高產,每年收入9133 florins和18 sous其中加入的結果出售該學報sanctorum其中平均每2400個florins年度。 The Empress Maria Theresa to the very last showed favour to the work of the Bollandists.皇后瑪麗亞的Theresa到最後的結果顯示,贊成這項工作的bollandists 。 The same benevolence was not experienced from her successor, Joseph II.同時善,是沒有經歷過,從她的繼任者約瑟夫二。 The Bollandists now felt the consequences of one of the so-called reforms introduced into the ecclesiastical domain by this imperial philosopher.該bollandists現在感受到的後果之一,即所謂的改革,引入到教會域,由這個帝國的哲學家。 Among the religious houses suppressed as useless was the Abbey of Caudenberg.各宗教鎮壓房子作為無用的是修道院的caudenberg 。 The decree of suppression was enforced in May, 1786.該法令的鎮壓是執行今年5月, 1786 。 The Bollandists were not at first involved in the catastrophe, as they were assigned a dwelling-place and library in a part of the buildings formerly occupied by the college of the Society of Jesus, and were allowed to retain the pensions and privileges granted them in 1778.該bollandists當時我們並沒有首先參與了災難,因為他們分到一處住家位和圖書館中的一部分,該建築物佔用學院社會的耶穌,並獲准保留養老金和特權,他們在1778 。 This was only a short postponement, however, of the complete destruction of the work.這只是一個短暫推遲,然而,在徹底銷毀工作。 Already, in 1784, the Prince von Kaunitz, minister of Joseph II and his chief counselor in the matter of religious reform, had intimated that the Emperor was not content with slow progress of the undertaking, and that for the future he would expect to see the publication of at least a volume a year, so that the work might be entirely finished in ten years.目前,可以追溯到1784年,王子馮考尼茨部長約瑟夫二和他的政務參贊在這件事的宗教改革,納瓦爾說,天皇是沒有內容與進度緩慢的承諾,並為未來他會期待看到出版至少貨量一年,使這項工作可能完全完工的十年。 The minister even went so far as to send word to the municipality of Brussels that "he attributed the lack of activity on the part of the Bollandists to their desire to keep up forever [èterniser] the profits accruing from the work, and that if they did not give satisfaction there was nothing to do but suppress the establishment."部長甚至竟然以傳送Word ,以市政府布魯塞爾說, "主要原因是缺乏活動對部分的bollandists來,他們渴望跟上永遠[ èterniser ]利潤所得的,從工作,並表示,如果他們沒有給予滿意,也沒有任何這樣做,但壓制成立" 。 The accused had no difficulty in justifying themselves.被告有沒有困難,在證明自己。 But the Court of Vienna had fully decided to hear no explanation, and in 1788 asked for a report from the Court of Accounts concern the expenses entailed by the work of the Bollandists.但法院的維也納已完全決定聽取並沒有解釋,並在1788年提出一份報告,由審計法庭關注的開支節省的工作,該bollandists 。 The conclusion deduced from this report was that the suppression of this work and that of the historiographers would result in an annual gain to the treasury of two to three thousand florins.結論推斷,從這份報告認為,抑制了這種工作,並表示,在該史官將導致每年增益向庫房兩至3000 florins 。 The Chamber, moreover, took it on itself to say that there was no advantage to be gained by continuing it.會議廳,此外,又把它自己說有什麼好處,所得繼續這麼做。 The ecclesiastical commission and commission of studies (one and the same), consulted in its turn, gave a decision to the same effect (11 October, 1788).教會委員會和委員會的研究報告(同一個) ,在徵詢其反過來,進行了決定相同的法律效力( 1788年10月11日) 。 It said,它說,

The work of the Bollandists is far from completion, and we cannot flatter ourselves at the end is yet in sight.工作,該bollandists是遠遠沒有完成的,我們不能說奉承自己,在去年底尚未在望。 This work has no merit but that of being an historical repertory, filled with an enormous quantity of details, which will always have but slight attraction for real savants.這項工作也沒有好處,但對作為一個歷史的劇目,充滿了巨大數量的細節,這將永遠有,但有輕微的吸引力真正savants 。 It is astonishing that at the time of the suppression of the Jesuit Order, they should have been successful in interesting the Government in such trash, and that it is such is proved by the scanty profit the Bollandists have derived from their labours.這是令人驚訝的是,在當時的鎮壓耶穌會秩序,他們應該已經成功地有趣,政府在這種垃圾桶,並認為正是這些證明了微薄利潤的bollandists都來自他們的勞動。 In business parlance.在商業用語。 it is a very poor investment, and as it is not better, regarded from a scientific standpoint, it is quite time to put an end to it.這是一個非常貧窮的投資,因為它是不是更好,把從科學的角度來說,是相當的時間來制止它。

Strengthened by this advice, the "Government Council" notified the Court of Accounts by a despatch dated 16 October, 1788, that it had decided to put a stop to the work of the "Acta Sanctorum", and that in consequence, beginning from that date, no more payments should be made to the Fathers De Bye, De Bue, Fonson, Ghesquière, and Cornelius Smet (a former Jesuit, associated first with Ghesquière in the publication of the "Analecta Belgica and later enrolled among the Bollandists) of the annual pension of 800 florins which had been assured them. It would be decided later what be done with the printing outfit and the other effects of the suppressed establishment. These spoils comprised the library of the Bollandists and the copies of the volumes already published which they had in stock. This involved no slight annoyance. Once the series was abandoned, it would be difficult to find a purchaser for these works, and they wished to realize as much money as possible from them. It was decided to ask the Bollandists themselves to undertake the sale of these effects for the benefit of the public treasury. The Bollandists willingly accepted the charge, hoping to keep intact the treasures of their library and thus to ensure, in a certain measure, the resumption of the work, if not at once, at least in the near future.加強我們的這一意見後, "政府會"通知法院的帳戶,由寄發日期為1788年10月16日,它已決定予以制止"的工作學報sanctorum " ,並表示,因此,從一開始即迄今為止,還沒有更多的款項提出,要父親德輪空,德bue , fonson , ghesquière ,科尼利厄斯Smet的(前耶穌會,美聯社首次與ghesquière在出版物中的" analecta belgica和後來加入其中bollandists )的全年養老保險金800 florins已經向他們保證,那將是決定以後有什麼做的,與印刷裝備和其他影響被抑制的建立,這些贓物包括圖書館的bollandists和複製該卷已經出版了,他們曾在股票,這並不涉及輕微的煩擾,一旦一系列被放棄,就很難找到買主,為這些工程的,他們希望看到最多的錢,盡可能從他們的,它是決定要求bollandists自己承諾出售的這些效應,為市民的利益國庫。 bollandists心甘情願地接受了這一指控,希望能完整保留的寶藏,他們的圖書館,因此,以確保在某一措施,恢復工作,如果不是在一次的,至少在不遠的將來。

Cornelius De Bye, who had been especially commissioned to conduct the sale, turned first to Martin Gerbert, the learned abbot of the monastery of St. Blasius in the Black Forest.科尼利厄斯德再見,曾經特別是受委託去進行銷售,轉向先馬丁gerbert ,據悉住持的修道院聖blasius在黑森林。 On behalf of the Government commissioners he named a purchase price for the library and such of the published volumes as remained unsold, and offered to come to St. Blasius for some months in order to train some of the young religious of the abbey for the work of publishing the Acta Sanctorum.代表政府的專員,他任命了購買價格為圖書館等的出版量,因為仍然未售出的,並主動提出來聖blasius一些月,以便在火車部分年輕宗教的修道院,為工作出版學報sanctorum 。 His letter, dated 11 November, 1788, remained unanswered, whether as a result of dispositions little favourable to the Society of Jesus, such as had been more than once manifested by this famous abbot, or whether, already absorbed by many important works, he felt he could not think of undertaking yet another entirely new.他的信中,日期為1788年11月11日,仍沒有答案,不管是由於處分權很少有利於社會的耶穌,如已不止一次地體現在這一著名的住持,又或者,已經吸納了許多重要工程,但他我感到自己無法相信的承諾,又一個全新的問題。 About the same time, ie in November and December, 1788, the Congregation of Benedictines of Saint-Maur, in France, of its own accord made advances to the officials of the Imperial Government of Vienna for the acquisition of the Bollandist library, with a view to continuing the publication.大約同一時間,即在11月和12月, 1788年,聚集benedictines聖maur ,在法國,它自己的協議方面取得了進展,以政府官員的帝國政府的維也納,為取得該bollandist圖書館,一以期繼續出版。 This attempt was equally void of result.這一嘗試也同樣無效的結果。 It was with the abbey of the Premonstratensians of Tongerloo that arrangements were finally concluded.正是憑著修道院的premonstratensians的通厄洛安排,終於結束了。 By a contract signed 11 May, 1789, the Government transferred to the abbey the Bollandist library and the Bellarmine Museum, together with the furnishings appertaining to them, and the volumes already printed and the printing equipment.所簽的合約, 1789年5月11日,政府移交給修道院的bollandist圖書館和bellarmine博物館,連同裝修appertaining壓給他們,該卷已印刷及印刷設備。 In return, the abbey was to pay the government for the libraries 12,000 Brabant florins ($4,353.84) and for the other things 18,000 florins.作為回報,該修道院是向政府支付,為圖書館12000 Brabant的florins ( 4353.84美元) ,並為其他事物18000 florins 。 Half of the latter sum was turned over to the three hagiographers, De Bye, De Bue, and Fonson.一半的款項,後者轉交給了三個hagiographers ,德輪空,德bue , fonson 。 Moreover, the abbey agreed to pay a yearly salary to these three as well as to Ghesuière and Smet.此外,修道院同意支付年薪,以這3個以及作為ghesuière和Smet的。 The Bollandists were scarcely established in their new home when the Brabantine Revolution broke out.該bollandists人幾乎不成立,他們的新家園時, brabantine革命爆發。 Nevertheless, they continued their labours and in 1794 published the sixth volume of October, signed with the names of Cornelius De Bye and James De Bue, former Jesuits, John Baptist Fonson, ex-Canon of Caudenberg, Anselm Berthod the Benedictine, and Siard van Dyck, Cyprian van de Goor, and Matthias Stalz, Premonstratensian canons.儘管如此,他們繼續他們的勞苦與在1794年公佈了第六屆貨量10月,與該公司簽訂的名字科尼利厄斯德再見,詹姆斯德bue ,前耶穌會士,約翰浸會fonson ,當然佳能的caudenberg , anselm berthod隱修院,並siard車dyck ,塞浦路斯範德goor ,薩默爾stalz , premonstratensian大砲。 The same year Belgium was invaded by French troops and reunited to the great Republic.同年比利時被入侵,由法國軍隊和重聚向偉大的共和國。 Ecclesiastical goods were confiscated, priests and religious hunted like criminals, the Premonstratensians of Tongerloo and the Bollandists whom they harboured forced to disperse, and the work of the Bollandists actually suppressed.教會貨物被沒收,教士和宗教打獵如同對待刑事罪犯, premonstratensians的通厄洛和bollandists他們窩藏被迫分散,工作量和工作的bollandists其實打壓。 Part of the treasures of the library were concealed in the homes of neighbouring peasants, and the rest, hastily piled into wagons, were taken to Westphalia.部分珍寶圖書館被隱蔽在院鄰國的農民和休息,匆匆成堆成車,被帶到威斯特伐利亞。 When the storm of persecution had somewhat abated, an attempt was made to collect these scattered effects.當風暴的迫害已經有所減弱,但有人試圖收集這些零散的影響。 Naturally many of them were lost or destroyed.當然他們中的許多人失去或被毀。 The remainder were restored to the abbey of Tongerloo, where they were undisturbed until 1825.其餘則恢復到了修道院的通厄洛,他們將在那裡受到干擾,直到1825年。 Then, as all hope of resuming the Bollandist work seemed lost, the canons of Tongerloo disposed of a great number of the books and manuscripts by public sale.然後,大家都希望恢復bollandist工作似乎失去了,大砲的通厄洛處置了大量的書籍和手稿,由公開發售。 Such as remained were given to the government of the Netherlands, which hastened to incorporate the volumes into the Royal Library of The Hague.如仍給荷蘭政府,趕緊把卷到皇家圖書館的海牙。 The manuscripts seemed destined to a like fate, but as a result of earnest solicitations they were deposited in the Library of Bourgogne, Brussels, where they still remain.手稿似乎注定是一個命運一樣,但由於認真募捐,他們已存放在圖書館的bourgogne ,布魯塞爾,在那裡仍然存在。 Nevertheless, the idea of resuming the publication of the Acta Sanctorum had never been entirely abandoned in Belgium.但是,這一想法的恢復出版的學報sanctorum從未完全放棄了在比利時。 The prefect of the department of the Deux Nèthes (province of Antwerp), in 1801; the Institute of France, with the Minister of the Interior of the French Republic as a mediator, in 1802; and lastly, in 1810, the Baron de Tour du Pin, Prefect of the Department of the Dyle (Brussels), at the request of the incumbent of the same important office, then the Count de Montalivet, applied to such of the former Bollandists as were still living, to induce them to resume their task once more.縣長該部的兩種nèthes (省安特衛普) , 1801年;研究所的法國,與內部部長的法蘭西共和國作為一個調停人,在1802年;最後,在1810年,男爵德之旅杜品,省長署的dyle (布魯塞爾)的請求,於任職者一樣重要領導職務,那麼指望德蒙塔利維,適用於這類的前bollandists作為仍然生活,促使他們恢復工作一次。

But the attempts were futile.但企圖是徒勞的。

Matters rested here until 1836.事情落在這裡直到1836年。 It was then learned that a hagiographical society had been formed in France under the patronage of several bishops and of M. Guizot, Minister of Public Instruction, and that it especially proposed to itself the resumption of the work of the Bollandists.當時聽到一名hagiographical社會已形成了在法國的贊助下,幾位主教和分枝桿菌基佐,部長公開指示,並特別提出自己的恢復工作,該bollandists 。 The chief promoter of the enterprise, Abbé Théodore Perrin, of Laval, came to Belgium the same year, 1836, to solicit the support of the Government and the collaboration of Belgian savants.政務推動者的企業, abbé théodore波倫,拉瓦爾,來到比利時同年, 1836年,以爭取政府的支持和協作下,比利時savants 。 He did not meet with the reception he had hoped for.他沒有會見了招待會,他所希望的結果。 On the contrary, it aroused indignation in Belgium that a work which had come to be regarded as a national glory should pass into the hands of the French.與此相反,它引起的憤慨,在比利時的一個工作,已經到了被視為一個國家的榮耀,應該通過到手中的法語。 The Abbé de Ram, Rector Magnificus of the University of Louvain and member of the Royal Commission of History, expressed this feeling in a letter addressed Count de Theux, Minister of the Interior, urgently imploring him to lose no time in securing for their native land of Belgium the honour of completing the great hagiographical collection, and engaged him to entrust the work to the Fathers of the Society of Jesus, by whom it had been begun and carried so far in the preceding centuries.該abbé德內存,校長magnificus的魯汶大學和會員的皇家委員會的歷史,表達了這種感覺,在信中計數德特鎮,內務部長,緊急懇求他失去任何時候都在爭取對自己的故土比利時的榮幸完成偉大hagiographical收集,並聘請他委託工作,以父親的社會的耶穌,誰發現它已開始進行至今,在此之前的幾個世紀。 The Minister immediately took the field, and conducted negotiations with such energy that by January, 1837, he received from Father van Lil, Provincial of the Society in Belgium, assurance of the appointment by the Society of new Bollandists, with their residence at the College of Saint-Michel at Brussels.部長立即接手領域,並進行了談判,如能源,到明年1月, 1837年,他收到了來自父親範律,省的社會在比利時,保證這項任命的,由社會的新bollandists地位,其居住地在高校聖-米歇爾在布魯塞爾舉行。 These were Fathers Jean-Baptiste Boone, Joseph Van der Moere, and Prosper Coppens, to whom was added in the course of the same year, Father Joseph van Hecke.這些人的父親讓-巴蒂斯特博,約瑟夫的Van der moere ,及蓬勃發展coppens ,向誰是補充,在這個過程中的同一年,父親約瑟夫車hecke 。 The provincial, in behalf of these Fathers, asked the privilege of taking home with them from the Library of Bourgogne and the Royal Library, such manuscripts and books as they would need for reference in the course of their work.省,在代表這些父親,要求特權,以家庭,與他們從圖書館的bourgogne和皇家圖書館,如手稿和書籍,他們將需要以供參考,在其工作過程中。 Both requests were immediately granted.雙方請求立即獲准。 Moreover, an annual subsidy was promised, which was fixed in May, 1837, at 6,000 francs.此外,每年補貼的承諾,這是固定在5月, 1837年, 6000法郎。 This subsidy was continued from year to year under the different governments, both Catholic and Liberal, which succeeded to power, until the parliamentary session of 1868, in the course of which the Deputies cut it out of the budget.這項補貼是繼續每年都根據不同的政府,無論是天主教和自由,這成功掌權,直到議會會議上的1868年,在這個過程中,其中人大代表削減它的財政預算案。 It has never been re-established.它從未被重新建立。

The new hagiographers began by drawing up a list of the saints whose acts or notices remained to be published, that is to say, those who are honoured in the Catholic Church on the various days of October, November, and December, beginning from 15 October, the day at which the work of their predecessors had been brought to a halt.新hagiographers開始擬訂一份清單聖人,其行為或告示,仍有待公佈,這就是說,那些有幸在天主教會就各天的10月, 11月和12月,從10月15日日,在其中工作的前輩,已提請停下。 This list was published in the month of March, 1838, with an introduction containing a summary of the history of the Bollandist movement, the announcement of the resumption of the work, and an earnest appeal to all friends of religious learning, imploring their assistance in securing what was felt by the new workers as the most necessary thing for their success, namely, a hagiographical library.這份名單刊登在3月份的, 1838年,隨著介紹含有總結了歷史的bollandist運動,宣布恢復工作,並語重心長地呼籲所有的朋友的宗教學習,懇求他們協助爭取什麼有人認為,由新工人,作為最必要的事,他們的成功,即一個hagiographical圖書館。 This was published under the title of "De prosecutione operis Bollandiani" (in octavo, 60 pp.).這是出版的標題下的"德prosecutione operis bollandiani " (八開, 60頁) 。 The appeal was heard.上訴聆訊。 Most of the European governments, many societies of learned men, and several great publishers sent copies of the historical works undertaken by them; private individuals made generous donations of books, often precious and rare volumes that had adorned their libraries.大部分的歐洲各國政府,許多社會有識之士的男子,和幾個大出版商的副本送交歷史工程,由他們來主宰;個人作出了慷慨捐贈的書籍,往往是珍貴稀有卷了貼著自己的收藏。 Everywhere, also, on their literary journeys, the Bollandists were accorded the most enthusiastic and flattering receptions.無處不在,而且,對他們的文學旅程, bollandists們受到了最熱烈,阿諛奉承的接待。 The first volume published after the resurrection of Bollandism, Volume VII of October, appeared in 1845, containing over 2,000 pages in folio.首卷出版後復活的bollandism ,體積七至十月,出現在1845年,載有2000多頁的頁碼。 There followed successively Volumes VIII to XIII of October, and I and II of November, besides the "Propylaeum Novembris", an edition of the Greek Synaxarion called "de Sirmond", with the variants of sixty manuscripts scattered through the various public libraries of Europe.隨後,相繼卷第八至第十三條的10月,我和二11月,除了" propylaeum novembris " ,一個新版本的希臘synaxarion所謂的"德西爾蒙" ,與變種的第六十一手稿分散,通過各種公共圖書館的歐洲。

The author of this article does not consider himself qualified to give an estimate of the work of these later Bollandists, having himself been a member of the body for too long a time.本文作者並不認為自己有資格作出估計的工作,這些後來bollandists ,有自己的一個成員體時間過長。 He is able, however, to cite the appreciations of the most distinguished and capable scholars in this field, who testify that the volumes published by the later Bollandists are in no wise inferior to those of their predecessors of the seventeenth an eighteenth centuries.他可以,不過,舉升值的最傑出的和有能力的學者在這一領域,他作證說,該卷出版以後bollandists是在沒有明智不亞於那些他們的前輩的第十七一個18世紀。 The reservations made by certain critics in their commendation are generally due to the prolixity of the commentaries, which they think is often excessive, and to the timidity of certain conclusions, which do not seem to them to correspond with what the discussions had led them to expect.保留意見所作出的某些批評者在他們的讚許的是一般是由於在冗長的評論,他們認為,往往過多,並能膽怯的某些結論,這似乎並沒有給他們以符合哪些討論了導致他們期望。 Another class of censors reproach the Bollandists for quite the reverse, accusing them of not showing sufficient respect towards what they call tradition, and of being too often hypercritical.另一個階級的檢查員譴責bollandists為事實完全相反,指責他們沒有顯示出足夠的尊重,對他們所謂的傳統,以及過於常常hypercritical 。 The present members of the body are firmly resolved to be on their guard against these contrary excesses, something, indeed, which becomes easier to them as time passes, owing to the constant progress of good scientific methods.本機構成員的堅定決心,以對他們的防範這些過激行為,相反,一些,而事實上,它已經成為我們更容易向他們隨著時間的推移,由於不斷進步的良好科學方法。 We may be permitted one word, in conclusion, as to what has been done during these latter years towards keeping the work up to the high level of contemporary historical erudition.我們可以允許一個字,最後,至於做了什麼,在這幾年後者對兌現工作,到高水平的當代歷史博學。 It has been judged opportune, in the first place, to publish, besides the great volumes of the principal collection itself, which appear at undetermined intervals, a periodical review intended chiefly to make known to the learned public materials recently discovered by the Bollandists or their friends which go towards completing either the Acts published in the volumes already printed or the entire mass of the work.它已被認定的時機,擺在首位,出版,除了偉大冊主要收集本身,它似乎是在未確定時間間隔,定期審查的用意,主要是讓人們了解,向市民汲取材料最近發現由bollandists或其朋友,其中用於完成要么行為發表在冊已印製或整個集體的工作。 This review was begun under the title of "Analecta Bollandiana" in 1882.這項審查是開始下的標題" analecta bollandiana "於1882年。 At the rate of one volume in octavo a year, it has reached in the present year (1907) the twenty-sixth volume.在利率為一冊,在八開一年,但是已經達到,在目前一年( 1907年)第二十六屆量。 In volumes subsequent to the sixth there have been inserted, besides unedited documents, various notes bearing on hagiographical matters.在冊隨後向第六有插入,而且未經編輯的文件,各種債券,事關hagiographical事宜。 Since the publication of the tenth volume, each quarterly issue has contained a "Bulletin des publications hagiogphiques" in which are announcements and summary appreciations of recent works and articles in reviews which concern matters of hagiography.自從公佈第十屆量,每季發行了載有"公報萬刊物hagiogphiques " ,其中有短片和簡要升值的近期作品和文章評論,其中關注的事項hagiography 。 Other auxiliary works have exacted long years of laborious preparation.其他輔助工程已經付出了這麼多年辛苦的準備。 They are the "Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca" and the "Bibliotheca Hagiographica Latina", in which are enumerated under the name of each saint, following the alphabetical order of their names, all documents relating to his or her life and cult written in Greek or in Latin before the beginning of the sixteenth century, together with the indication of all collections and books where they can be found.他們是"書目hagiographica graeca "和"書目hagiographica拉丁" ,其中列舉的名義下,每個聖之後,按字母順序排列的上自己的名字,所有的文件上有關他或她的生命和邪教寫在希臘還是在拉丁語開始前的16世紀,再加上註明的所有收藏品和書籍的地方,他們可以找到。 The first of these collections, which appeared in 1895, numbers 143 pages.第一次的這些藏品,其中出現在1895年,號碼143頁。 (There is now in preparation a new edition notably enlarged.) The second, issued 1898-99, has 1,387 pages. (現在是在籌備新一輯特別擴大會議) ,第二次發行的1898年至1899年,已有1387頁。 It is hoped that a "Bibliotheca Hagiographica Orientalis" will soon be printed.目的是希望"書目hagiographica金龜" ,將很快被打印。 Moreover, there is a third class of auxiliary works to which the Bollandists of the present generation are directing their activity, and that is the careful preparation of catalogues containing a systematic detailed description (if the Greek and Latin hagiographical manuscripts of various great libraries. A great many of these catalogues have been incorporated in the "Analecta". Such are the catalogues of the Greek manuscripts in the Roman libraries of the Barberini, the Chigi, and the Vatican; the National Library of Naples; the library of the University of Messina, and that of St. Mark's, in Venice; catalogues of the Latin manuscripts in the Royal Library of Brussels (2 vols. in octavo), in the libraries of the cities, or of the universities, of Bruges, Ghent, Liège, and Namur, in Belgium; of the municipal libraries of Chartres, Le Mans, Douai, and Rouen, in France; those of the Hague in Holland, and, in Italy, of Milan (the Ambrosian), as well as the various libraries of Rome; also in the private library of his Majesty the Emperor of Austria, at Vienna, and that of Alphonsus Wins at Nivelles; and lastly, of the Bollandist Library. Besides the "Analecta", there have appeared the catalogue of the old (before 1500) Latin manuscripts in the National Library of Paris (three octavo volumes, also the tables) and a list of the Greek manuscripts in the same library (compiled in collaboration with MH Omont). All these publications, although certainly delaying somewhat the appearance of succeeding volumes of the Acta Sanctorum, have gained for the Bollandists warm words of encouragement and commendation from the greatest scholars.此外,還有一個第三類的輔助工程,其中bollandists對現在這一代人是指揮他們的活動,這是認真準備的目錄,其中載有一個系統詳細說明(如希臘文和拉丁文hagiographical手稿的各種大圖書館。很多人愛好已被納入" analecta "這些都是目錄的希臘手稿在羅馬圖書館的barberini ,基吉,與梵蒂岡;國家圖書館的那不勒斯;高校圖書館的墨西拿,並表示,聖馬克,在威尼斯;目錄的拉美手稿在皇家圖書館的布魯塞爾( 2卷在八開) ,在圖書館的城市或大學,布魯日,根特,列日,並那慕爾,在比利時;的市圖書館chartres ,勒芒, douai ,魯昂,在法國的那些海牙與荷蘭,並在意大利,在米蘭( ambrosian ) ,以及各圖書館的羅馬;同時,私營圖書館陛下皇帝的奧地利,在維也納,並認為阿方贏在nivelles ;最後,該bollandist圖書館除了" analecta " ,因此出現了中央定價目錄的舊(前1500名)拉丁語手稿在國家圖書館巴黎(三八開冊,也表) ,並列出了希臘手稿在同一圖書館(編譯協同晚上omont ) ,所有這些出版物中,雖然肯定拖有點外表創佳績各卷的學報sanctorum ,積累了為bollandists熱情勉勵的話,表彰會,由最大的學者。

There is a final detail which may not be without interest.有一個最後的細節可能不無興趣。 The Bollandists had found themselves greatly hampered in the arrangement of their library at their residence in the Rue des Ursulines at Brussels which they had occupied since the resumption of the work in 1837.該bollandists發現自己大受打擊,在安排他們的圖書館,在其居住地在客房萬於蘇林在布魯塞爾,他們也佔領了,因為恢復工作在1837年。 During the latter part of 1905 they were transferred to the new College of Saint-Michel on the Boulevard Militaire, where ample and convenient quarters for the library were assigned in the lofty buildings of the vast establishment.在後一部分, 1905年,他們被轉移到新的學院聖-米歇爾於林蔭大道軍隊,而充足而方便的宿舍,為圖書館被分配在共產主義的遠大大廈的廣大編制。 The 150,000 volumes contained in their literary museum are most suitably arranged here. 15萬冊,載在他們的文學館是最適當的安排在這裡。 A large space was also set apart for historical and philological reviews (about 600), nearly all of which are sent regularly by learned societies, either gratuitously or in exchange for the "Analecta Bollandiana".大空間也設置除了為歷史和古籍評語(約600 ) ,幾乎所有這些都是定期送交由學術團體,無論是無償或換取" analecta bollandiana " 。 To class these according to the place of publication and the language chiefly employed in their preparation: 228 are French (a certain number of which are published in Belgium, Switzerland, and other countries than France); 135, German; 88, Italian; 55, English (of which ten are American); 13, Russian; 11, Dutch; 7, Flemish; 7, Spanish; 7, Croatian; 4, Swedish; 3, Portuguese; 2, Irish; 2, Hungarian; 1, Czech; 1, Polish; 1, Rumanian; 1, Dalmatian; and 1, Norwegian.以一流的,這些根據地方的出版和語言,主要是僱用他們編制: 228是法國人(一定數量,其中發表在比利時,瑞士和其他國家比法國) , 135人,德語; 88 ,意大利55 ,英語(其中有十項美國) 13 ,俄羅斯11 ,荷蘭7日,佛蘭芒; 7 ,西班牙語7日,克羅地亞; 4 ,瑞典語; 3 ,葡萄牙語; 2 ,愛爾蘭2 ,匈牙利1 ,捷克; 1 ,波蘭1 ,羅馬尼亞1 ,達爾馬提亞以及1 ,挪威語。 Moreover, there are 9 printed in Greek, 6 in Latin, 4 in Armenian and 1 in Arabic.此外,有9個印有希臘文, 6個在拉丁美洲, 4個在亞美尼亞, 1個在阿拉伯語。 Finally, a large hall near the library has been set apart, and after October, 1907, it will be thrown open to foreign students who may wish to consult original sources of information likely to assist them in their researches.最後,一個大型音樂廳附近的圖書館已經成立外,並10月以後, 1907年,它將會拋出開放給外國學生不妨徵詢原有的資料來源可能,以協助他們在其研究工作。

The quotations of the Acta Sanctorum refer to three different editions.引文該學報sanctorum指三個不同的版本。 The first, the original one, commonly called the Antwerp edition, has been sufficiently described in the above article.第一,原有的一個,被稱為安特衛普版,已足以形容,在上述文章。 The volumes of the Antwerp collection were first reprinted at Venice from 1764 to 1770.厚厚的安特衛普收集首次重印,在威尼斯,從1764年至1770年。 They reached then to volume VI of September.他們達成的,然後第六卷9 。 The main difference between this reimpression and the Antwerp edition lies in the fact that the supplementary additions to sundry commentaries printed by the Bollandists at the end of the single volumes, or of a set of volumes are transposed in the Venetian edition and joined to the commentary to which they refer; hence the contents of each volume are not in close correspondence in the volumes similarly marked in both editions.二者的主要區別,這重印和安特衛普版,是一個事實,即追加增補為雜評印製,由bollandists在去年底的單冊,或一組好的卷換位在威尼斯版,並加入了以評向他們提及,因此,每次的內容量並不密切函授在冊同樣顯著兩種版本。 Moreover, many of the parerga or preliminary treatises scattered through the Antwerp collection have been brought together in three separate volumes.此外,很多有關的parerga或初步論文分佈在安特衛普收集已聚集在三個不同的冊。 But the whole printing teems with typographical blunders.但整個印刷匯聚到排版印刷失誤。 Lastly another reprinting of the Antwerp publication was undertaken by the Parisian editor, Victor Palmé, from 1863 to 1869, and carried on to the tenth volume of October.最後又重印安特衛普出版,是由巴黎的主編,維克托palmé ,從1863年至1869年,並進行到第十屆量10 。 This edition reproduces exactly, volume by volume, the original one, except for the months of January and June.這版轉載準確地說,容積量,原一,除1月和6月。 The two big volumes of January have been divided into three, and in the volumes of June also some changes have been made in the disposition of matter, in order to render the use of them easier to readers.兩大冊一月已分成三個,而在冊的6月也有一些變化,已在處置此事,以使利用它們更加容易,以饗讀者。 Besides, to each of the volumes of the first four months were added a few unpublished short notes (filling from one to six pages) of Daniel Papebroch, found in his papers and relating to the commentaries printed in the volume.此外,為每一個厚厚的頭4個月增加了幾顆未發表的短期債券(加油站,從5時59頁)的丹尼爾papebroch發現,在他的論文和有關評論,印刷量。

Publication information Written by Charles De Smedt.出版信息書面查爾斯德smedt 。 Transcribed by Michael C. Tinkler.轉錄由Michael長tinkler 。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全書,第二卷。 Published 1907. 1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, 1907. nihil obstat , 1907 。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約


Also, see:此外,見:
Religious Orders 宗教命令
Franciscans
Benedictines benedictines
Cistercians cistercians
Trappists trappists
Christian Brothers 基督教兄弟
Dominicans 多米尼加
Carmelites carmelites
Discalced Carmelites discalced carmelites
Augustinians 奧古斯丁會士
Marist Brothers 聖母兄弟

Monasticism 修道
Nuns 修女
Friars 方濟各會士
Convent 修道院
Ministry 財政部
Major Orders 大訂單
Holy Orders 神聖的訂單


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