Jehovah's Witnesses耶和華見證人

General Information 一般資料

Jehovah's Witnesses are a society of Christians who promote home study of the Bible, which they hold to be the complete Word of God. They believe that God's kingdom is an actual government now ruling in heaven that will soon restore the earth to its original paradisaic condition.耶和華見證人是一個社會的基督徒促進家庭研究聖經,而他們手中掌握的是完整的上帝的話,他們相信上帝的王國是一個實際的,政府現在執政黨在天上,就是盡快恢復地球到原來paradisaic條件。 They expect an early end to the present world system in a "great tribulation" from God that will rid the earth of wickedness and suffering.他們期望早日結束目前的世界體系中的"大磨難" ,從神將擺脫地球的邪惡和痛苦。 Following Armageddon will come a millennial reign over the earth by Jesus. The gaining of eternal life depends on complete obedience to Jehovah God and faith in the provision of Jesus Christ's ransom sacrifice.以下為世界末日將走過了千年統治過地球的耶穌。 獲得了永恆的生命取決於完成服從耶和華神和信念,在提供耶穌基督的贖金犧牲。

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The Witnesses encourage adherence to the Bible's moral standards.目擊者鼓勵遵守聖經中的道德標準。 Because of their neutrality as to affairs of secular government, their refusal to salute any flag, and their rejection of the practice of blood transfusion (which they believe is forbidden by the Bible), the Witnesses have been the subject of controversy.由於他們的中立性,以事務的世俗政府,他們拒絕敬禮任何旗,他們拒絕接受的做法,輸血(他們認為是被禁止的,由聖經) ,證人都一直備受爭議。

The activities of Jehovah's Witnesses are coordinated by a governing body at international headquarters in Brooklyn, New York.活動耶和華見證人協調,由理事機構,在國際總部設在紐約布魯克林。 In the more than 63,000 congregations worldwide, elders, male members meeting certain scriptural qualifications, preside as a body.在超過63000畢業典禮世界範圍內,老年人,男性成員會議上某些聖經的資格,主持作為一個機構。 Instruction and training are provided for all at five meetings a week, held primarily in "Kingdom Halls."指導和訓練提供了所有在5次會議,每週召開的,主要是在"英國會堂" 。 The Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania and the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc., are the legal agencies of Jehovah's Witnesses.這座瞭望塔聖經和呼吸道社會的賓夕法尼亞州和這座瞭望塔聖經和道學會紐約公司,是政法機關的耶和華見證人。 They print and distribute the Bible.他們印製和散發聖經。 Their principal periodical, The Watchtower, has a circulation of 15,290,000 copies in more than 100 languages.他們的主要期刊,這座瞭望塔,有一個流通的1529.0萬份以上的100種語言。

The Witnesses acknowledge Jehovah God as their founder.證人在承認耶和華神,因為他們的創始人。 The modern movement was organized in the 1870s by Charles Taze Russell.現代主義運動組織在19世紀70年代由查爾斯taze羅素。 By 1990, Jehovah's Witnesses numbered 4.2 million in more than 200 lands.到1990年,耶和華見證人編號為420萬美元,在200多個地。

FW Franz又一城的Franz

Bibliography 參考書目
J Bergman, Jehovah's Witnesses and Kindred Groups (1984); MJ Penton, Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses (1988); Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses (annual). j Bergman表示,耶和華見證人和骨肉集團( 1984 ) ;兆焦耳聚氯,延遲啟示:這個故事的耶和華見證人( 1988年) ;瞭望塔聖經和呼吸道社會,年鑑的耶和華見證人(每年) 。


Jehovah's Witnesses耶和華見證人

Advanced Information 先進的信息

This name was adopted in 1931 by the movement founded by Charles Taze Russell in the 1870s.這個名字是通過在1931年所創立的運動由查爾斯taze羅素在19世紀70年代。 Russell was born in 1852 in Pittsburgh, Pa. His family were Congregationalists but Russell reacted strongly against his religious upbringing.羅素出生於1852年在匹茲堡,賓夕法尼亞州,他的家人被稱為"公理派" ,但羅素作出強烈反應,對他的宗教缺乏教養。 At the age of eighteen he started a Bible class in Pittsburgh, and this group grew into the organization which we now know as the Jehovah's Witnesses.在年滿18歲的他從一本聖經級在匹茲堡,和這個小組長入組織,我們現在知道,因為耶和華的見證人。 In 1876 Russell became the group's pastor, and in 1879 he started a magazine, Zion's Watchtower, the forerunner of today's Watchtower.在1876年的羅素,成為該集團的牧師,並於1879年開始了他一本雜誌,錫安的瞭望塔的前身今天的瞭望塔。 Russell's organization became the Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society in 1884.羅素的組織,成為錫安的觀賞塔道協會於1884年。 In 1908 Russell moved the headquarters of his organization to Brooklyn, New York.在1908年羅素提出的總部,他的組織向紐約布魯克林。 The organization has been based in Brooklyn ever since.該組織一直設在布魯克林區至今。

In 1886 Russell published the first of a series of seven books entitled Studies in the Scriptures. 1886年羅素出版了系列的第一個七書題為研究會念經。 Volume 6 appeared in 1904 and the seventh volume in 1917, a year after Russell's death.第6冊出現在1904年和第七卷分別於1917年,一年後,羅素逝世。 The publication of Volume 7 of Studies in the Scriptures led to a schism in the organization.出版第7卷的研究,在經文導致裂,在該組織。 The majority of members followed JF Rutherford, while a smaller group formed itself into the Dawn Bible Student's Association.多數委員其次架JF盧瑟福,而規模較小的集團,形成自己融入了黎明前聖經學生的協會。 This group is still in existence and publishes the Dawn magazine, which has a circulation of about 30,000 copies.這個小組依然存在,並出版了曙光雜誌,它有一個循環的約30000份。 The larger group following Rutherford became today's Jehovah's Witnesses.規模較大的集團後,盧瑟福成為今天的耶和華見證人。 Their magazine, The Watchtower, has a circulation of over 64 million worldwide.他們的雜誌,這座瞭望塔,有一個流通的超過6400萬世界各地。

Following Russell's death in 1916 Judge Joseph Franklin Rutherford became the leader of the organization.以下羅素逝世於1916年,法官約瑟夫富蘭克林盧瑟福成為領導該組織。 An able organizer, he developed the group into its present organization.一個有為的組織者,他發展了集團納入其目前的組織。 Rutherford wrote over a hundred books and fundamentally shaped the group's theology.盧瑟福寫了超過一百名的書籍,並從根本上改變了整個集團的神學。 He increased its hostility toward organized religion and developed a variety of highly successful missionary methods.他增加了敵視宗教組織,並制定了各種各樣的非常成功的傳教方法。 Rutherford, who was born in 1869, died in 1942, leaving behind an organization which has continued to grow at a remarkable rate.盧瑟福,她生於1869年,死於1942年,留下了一個組織的持續成長在一個了不起的速度。

In 1981 the Jehovah's Witnesses were shaken by a series of schisms which led to a large number leaving the organization. 1981年,耶和華見證人被震撼了一系列的分裂問題,而導致大批離開該組織。 The leader of the opposition to the Brooklyn headquarters group was Professor James Penton, a Canadian, whose family had been among Russell's earliest converts.反對黨領袖向布魯克林區的總部組教授詹姆斯聚氯,加拿大,其家人已其中羅素最早的轉換。 Penton and those who sided with him sought to reemphasize the doctrine of justification by faith and return the group to its original interest in Bible study.聚氯以及那些片面與他試圖再次強調中庸之道,因信稱義,並返回該集團其原有的興趣,聖經研究。 The intention of Penton and other Witnesses who shared his ideas appears to have been to reform the group from within.意圖的聚氯和其他證人的人認同他的理念,似乎已到改革小組從內部產生。 The Brooklyn leadership strongly rejected their arguments and expelled anyone who supported their views.布魯克林的領導,堅決拒絕了他們的論據和被驅逐的人表示支持他們的意見。 Although this division was a serious one, it appears that the majority of Witnesses remained within the official organization, which retained control over all of the group's assets.雖然這個師是一個嚴重的,但看來大多數的證人仍然在官方組織,它仍然控制了所有的集團資產。

As a religious organization the Jehovah's Witnesses are typical of many nineteenth century groups.作為一個宗教組織,耶和華見證人的,是典型的許多十九世紀的群體。 Although their theology bears some resemblance to that of the Arians in early church history, they are essentially a modern group strongly influenced by rationalism.雖然他們的神學熊有些相似,是由arians在早期教會歷史上,他們基本上是一個現代集團的強烈影響理性主義。 Like many other new religions in the nineteenth century the Witnesses represent a strong reaction to the scientific world view.像其他許多新興宗教在十九世紀的見證人代表強烈反應,以科學的世界觀。 The rationalism of the group can be seen in their rejection of Trinitarian doctrines and traditional teachings about the person and work of Jesus Christ.理性的集團可以看出,在他們拒絕接受三位一體的教義和傳統的教誨,對人與工作的耶穌基督。 Their rationalistic attitude toward the Bible comes out in their literal interpretation of prophecy and failure to appreciate the symbolic character of biblical language.他們的理性,實事求是的態度對待聖經出來,在其字面解釋的預言並沒有欣賞象徵性質的聖經語言。 Their rejection of blood transfusions reflects this rejection of modern science as well as the extreme literalism of their exegesis.他們拒絕接受輸血反映了這種排斥現代科學以及極端literalism自己的註釋。

In attempting to justify their interpretation of Christianity and rejection of orthodoxy the Witnesses produced their own translation of the Bible, The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures and The New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, in 1950.在試圖證明自己的解釋,基督教和排斥正統證人製作了自己的翻譯聖經,新的世界翻譯基督教希臘經文和新的世界翻譯希伯萊經文,在1950年。 Although this work claims to be a translation, the Witnesses have yet to name the translators or prove their credentials as competent scholars.雖然這項工作,聲稱自己是一個翻譯,證人尚未名稱翻譯或證明其全權證書,因為合格的學者。 What one finds in fact is a rendering of the Bible in terms of the theology of the organization.一,認定其實是一個繪製的聖經條款對神學的組織。

Probably the best introduction to the theology of the Jehovah's Witnesses is their book Let God Be True.大概是最好的介紹給神學的耶和華見證人的,是他們的著作讓上帝是如此。 In addition to their rejection of the Christian doctrine of the Trinity they teach a number of distinct doctrines.此外,他們拒絕接受基督教教義的三位一體他們傳授了一些獨特的教義。 In their view the atonement is a ransom paid to the God Jehovah by Jesus Christ which removes the effects of Adam's sin, laying the foundation for a new righteousness and enabling men to save themselves by their good works.在他們看來贖罪是贖金支付給上帝耶和華以基督耶穌的去除效果亞當的罪過,奠定了良好的基礎,為新義,使官兵救自己,他們的優秀作品。 They teach that Jesus was resurrected a divine spirit after offering this ransom to God.他們教導說,耶穌復活的神的精神後,開始提供這種贖金上帝。 At death humans either sleep until the resurrection or, if they are evil, suffer annihilation.在死亡的人要么睡覺,直到復活或者,如果他們是邪惡,遭受毀滅。

In their view Jesus Christ returned to earth spiritually in 1914 and is now proceeding to overthrow Satan's worldly organization and to establish a theocratic millennial kingdom. This kingdom will arrive in the near future with the battle of Armageddon. 他們認為耶穌返回地球精神上,在1914年,並正著手推翻撒旦的世俗組織,並建立一個神權千禧年王國,這王國將抵達,在不久的將來與戰役決戰。 After Armageddon true believers will be resurrected to a life on earth while a select group of 144,000 will rule in heaven with Christ.經過世界末日真正信教的人將被復活到一個地球上的生命,而一個專責組144000將統治在天堂與基督。 In addition to holding these doctrines Jehovah's Witnesses reject a professional ministry and, until recently, the idea of church buildings.除了舉辦這些學說耶和華見證人拒絕一個專業部,直到最近,這個想法蓋教堂。 They are pacifists and call upon their members to have nothing to do with worldly politics.他們是和平主義者,並呼籲其成員已完全與世俗的政治。

Today there are over three million Witnesses worldwide.今天有300萬個以上的證人。 They have an extensive missionary network throughout the world and operate in most countries.他們有廣泛的傳教網絡整個世界,並在大多數國家。 In some places, particularly in Africa, the Witnesses have suffered severe persecution.在一些地方,特別是在非洲,證人都遭受了嚴重的迫害。 In others, especially North America, they are rapidly coming to resemble a religious denomination.在另一些國家,特別是北美,他們很快類似於宗教派別。

I Hexham i將赫克瑟姆
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
WR Martin and N Klawn, Jehovah of the Watch Tower; T Dencher, The Watch Tower versus the Bible; J Penton, The End Delayed; A Hoekema, The Four Major Cults.西鐵馬丁和N klawn ,耶和華的觀賞塔和t dencher ,觀賞塔銀兩聖經; j聚氯,最終延誤;赫克瑪,四大教派。


Charles Taze Russell查爾斯taze羅素

General Information 一般資料

Charles Taze Russell, b.查爾斯taze羅素,乙 Pittsburgh, Pa., Feb. 16, 1852, d.匹茲堡,賓夕法尼亞州, 1852年2月16日,四 Oct. 31, 1916, called Pastor Russell, was the first president of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania, the legal agency of Jehovah's Witnesses. 1916年10月31日,所謂的牧師羅素,是首任總統的手錶塔聖經和呼吸道社會的賓夕法尼亞州,法律機構的耶和華見證人。 In 1870, at the age of 18, Russell began a systematic study of the Bible with a small group of associates.在1870年,當時年僅18歲的羅素開始系統地研究聖經與一小群同夥。 Becoming convinced of the imminence of Christ's millennial reign, he began to preach and spread his teachings, and in 1879 he founded the Watch Tower journal.成為信服的緊迫基督千年統治後,他開始公開傳教和傳播他的教義,並於1879年他創建了觀賞塔雜誌。 In 1884 he established the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, of which he was president until his death.在1884年,他建立了觀賞塔聖經和呼吸道社會,其中,他擔任總統,直到他去世。 Notable among Russell's writings is a 6 volume collection, Millennial Dawn (1886 - 1904).其中值得注意的羅素的著作,是一個6卷收集,千年曙光( 1886 -1 904) 。

Frederick W Franz馮瓦特的Franz


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