Holy Spirit, Holy Ghost, Paraclete, Comforter聖靈,聖靈, paraclete ,撫慰者

General Information 一般資料

In Christian theology, the Holy Spirit, or Holy Ghost, is the third person of the Trinity, distinct from but coequal with God the Father and God the Son. The Holy Spirit is sometimes described as the creative, healing, renewing presence of God. Theologians point to a gradual development of the doctrine in Scripture. 在基督教神學,聖靈,或聖靈,是世界上第三人的三位一體,有別於但coequal與上帝和上帝的兒子。聖靈有時被說成是創意,癒合,自強不息在場的上帝。神學家點,以循序漸進的發展學說中的經文。 In the Old Testament, the Spirit was at work in the creation of the world (Gen. 1) and in prophecy (Isa. 61:1).在舊約,精神是在工作中創造的世界(創1 ) ,並預言(以賽亞書61:1 ) 。 In the New Testament, the Spirit was present in the life and works of Jesus Christ (Mark 1:12) and continues to be present as the Paraclete (advocate) in the Christian community (John 14:26).在新約聖經的精神,是當前在生活和作品耶穌基督(馬克1:12 ) ,並繼續向在場作為paraclete (律師)在基督教共同體(約翰14時26分) 。 The early church saw the descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles at Pentecost as the outpouring of divine gifts of holiness, love, prophecy, healing, and speaking in Tongues.早期教會看見後裔的聖靈對門徒在五旬作為源源不斷的神聖禮物成聖的人,愛護人,預言,癒合情況,並談到在舌頭。 The doctrine of the Holy Spirit was formulated at the Council of Constantinople in 381.該學說的聖靈制定了在安理會的君士坦丁堡,在381名。

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Holy Ghost聖靈

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The third Person of the adorable Trinity.第三人的可愛三一。

His personality is proved他的個性就是證明
  1. from the fact that the attributes of personality, as intelligence and volition, are ascribed to him (John 14:17, 26; 15:26; 1 Cor. 2:10, 11; 12:11). He reproves, helps, glorifies, intercedes (John 16:7-13; Rom. 8:26).從這一事實,即屬性的人格,智力和意志,是認定他(約翰14時17分, 26個; 15:26 1肺心病。 2時10分, 11人; 12時11分) , 他譴責,有利於,美化, intercedes (約翰16:7-13 ;光碟。 8時26分) 。
  2. He executes the offices peculiar only to a person.他的執行辦公室特有的,只有一個人。 The very nature of these offices involves personal distinction (Luke 12:12; Acts 5:32; 15:28; 16:6; 28:25; 1 Cor. 2:13; Heb. 2:4; 3:7; 2 Pet. 1:21).很自然,這些辦事處的涉及到個人的區別(盧克12時12分;使徒行記5:32 ; 15:28 ; 16時06分; 28:25 1肺心病。 2時13分;以弗所書2時04分;則為3:7 ;寵物1時21分) 。

His divinity is established他的神性,是確立

  1. from the fact that the names of God are ascribed to him (Ex. 17:7; Ps. 95:7; comp. Heb. 3:7-11); and從事實的名稱,上帝是認定他的(例如: 17時07分;聚苯乙烯。 95:7 ;可比。以弗所書3:7-11 ) ;
  2. that divine attributes are also ascribed to him, omnipresence (Ps. 139:7; Eph. 2:17, 18; 1 Cor. 12:13); omniscience (1 Cor. 2:10, 11); omnipotence (Luke 1:35; Rom. 8:11); eternity (Heb. 9:4).神屬性,也得益於他說,無處不在(詩篇139:7 ;以弗所書2:17 , 18 , 1肺心病。 12時13分) ;無所不知( 1肺心病。 2點10 , 11 ) ;全能(路加福音1 :第35條;光碟。 8時11分) ;永恆(希伯來書9時04分) 。
  3. Creation is ascribed to him (Gen. 1:2; Job 26:13; Ps. 104:30), and the working of miracles (Matt. 12:28; 1 Cor. 12:9-11).創作就是得益於他(創1:2求職26:13 ;聚苯乙烯。 104:30 ) ,而且工作的奇蹟 。 ( 12:28 1肺心病。 12:9-11 ) 。
  4. Worship is required and ascribed to him (Isa. 6:3; Acts 28:25; Rom. 9:1; Rev. 1:4; Matt. 28:19).崇拜是有需歸功於他(以賽亞選手;行為28:25 ;光碟。 9:1 ; 1:4牧師;馬特。 28:19 ) 。


(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Holy Spirit聖靈

Advanced Information 先進的信息

In the NT, the third person of the Trinity; in the OT, God's power. 在NT ,則第三人的三位一體,在城市旅遊局,上帝的力量。

The Old Testament舊約

In the OT the spirit of the Lord (ruah yhwh; LXX, to pneuma kyriou) is generally an expression for God's power, the extension of himself whereby he carries out many of his mighty deeds (eg, 1 Kings 8:12; Judg. 14:6ff; 1 Sam. 11:6).在城市旅遊局主的聖靈( ruah yhwh ; lxx , pneuma kyriou )普遍表達了上帝的權力,擴大自己,讓他履行他的許多威武事蹟(例如, 1國王8時12分; judg 。 14點06法郎, 1薩姆。 11時06分) 。 As such, "spirit" sometimes finds expression in ways similar to other modes of God's activity, such as "the hand of God" (Ps. 19:1; 102:25); "the word of God" (Ps. 33:6; 147:15, 18); and the "wisdom of God" (Exod. 28:3; 1 Kings 3:28; Job 32:8).因此, "精神" ,有時表現為類似方式,其他方式的上帝的活動,如"上帝之手" (詩篇19時01分; 102:25 ) , "上帝的話" (詩篇33 : 6 ; 147:15 , 18 )和"上帝的智慧" ( exod. 28:3 1國王3時28分;求職32:8 ) 。 The origins of the word "spirit" in both Hebrew (ruah) and Greek (pneuma) are similar, stemming from associations with "breath" and "wind," which were connected by ancient cultures to unseen spiritual force, hence "spirit" (cf. John 3:8, note the association with air in English; eg, "pneumatic," "respiration," etc.). The AV uses the term "Holy Ghost" for "Holy Spirit" based on an obsolete usage of the word "ghost" (from Middle English and Anglo-Saxon, originally meaning "breath," "spirit", cf. the German Geist).起源字"精神" ,在這兩個希伯來語( ruah )和希臘( pneuma )很相似,源於協會與"呼氣" , "風" ,即相連,古代文化,以看不見的精神力量,因此, "精神" (比照約翰3點08分,說明該協會與空氣中的英語;例如, "氣" , "呼吸"等) 。 殺毒使用的術語是"聖靈" , "聖靈"基於一個過時的用法的"鬼見愁" (從中古英語和盎格魯-撒克遜人,原本意思是"呼吸" , "精神" ,比照德國geist ) 。 Thus it is understandable that God's creative word (Gen. 1:3ff.) is closely akin to God's creative breath (Gen. 2:7).因此,這是可以理解的上帝的創造字(創1:3幾段) ,是密切近似神的創造呼氣(創2時07分) 。 Both ideas are identified elsewhere with God's spirit. As an agent in creation, God's spirit is the life principle of both men and animals (Job 33:4; Gen. 6:17; 7:15).這兩個想法都是確定的其他地方與上帝的精神作為代理人,在創作,上帝的精神是生命的原則,男人和動物 (求職33:4 ;上將6時17分; 7:15 ) 。

The primary function of the spirit of God in the OT is as the spirit of prophecy. God's spirit is the motivating force in the inspiration of the prophets, that power which moved sometimes to ecstasy but always to the revelation of God's message, expressed by the prophets with "thus saith the Lord." 其主要功能上帝的精神,在城市旅遊局,是因為精神的預言上帝的精神是動力,在靈感的先知,這一權力而提出的,有時狂喜,但始終以啟示的上帝的訊息,表示所先知" ,因此仰上主" 。 Prophets are sometimes referred to as "men of God" (1 Sam. 2:27; 1 Kings 12:22; etc.); in Hos.先知,有時被稱為"男人的上帝" ( 1薩姆。 2時27分, 1國王12:22 ,等等) ,在居者有其屋。 9:7 they are "men of the Spirit." 9時07分,他們是"男人的精神" 。 The general implication in the OT is that the prophets were inspired by the spirit of God (Num. 11:17; 1 Sam. 16:15; Mic. 3:8; Ezek. 2:2; etc.).一般蘊涵在城市旅遊局是先知們無不感到歡欣鼓舞上帝的精神( num. 11:17 1薩姆。 16:15 ;麥克風。 3時08分; ezek 。 2:2等) 。

The phrase "Holy Spirit" appears in two contexts in the OT, but is qualified both times as God's holy Spirit (Ps. 51:11; Isa. 63:10-11, 14), such that it is clear that God himself is the referent, not the Holy Spirit which is encountered in the NT. "聖靈" -這個詞在兩個背景下,在城市旅遊局,而且是合格的,均視為上帝的聖靈(詩篇5 1:11;伊薩。 6 3:10-11, 1 4) ,例如說,很顯然,上帝是該指涉,而不是聖靈是遇到在新台幣。 The OT does not contain an idea of a semi-independent divine entity, the Holy Spirit. Rather, we find special expressions of God's activity with and through men. 職能治療不包含一個想法的一個半獨立的實體神,聖靈,而我們覺得特別表達上帝的活動,並通過男人。 God's spirit is holy in the same way his word and his name are holy; they are all forms of his revelation and, as such, are set in antithesis to all things human or material. The OT, especially the prophets, anticipates a time when God, who is holy (or "other than/separate from" men; cf. Hos. 11:9) will pour out his spirit on men (Joel 2:28ff.; Isa. 11:1ff.; Ezek. 36:14ff.). who will themselves become holy. The Messiah/ Servant of God will be the one upon whom the spirit rests (Isa. 11:1ff.; 42:1ff.; 63:1ff.), and will inaugurate the time of salvation (Ezek. 36:14ff.; cf. Jer. 31:31ff.).上帝的精神,是神聖的一樣,在他的字,他的名字是神聖的,他們是所有形式的啟示,因此,是一套在對立面,對所有事情的人力或材料。 職能治療,尤其是先知,預期的時候,上帝,是神聖的(或曰"以外/分開的"男人;比照居者有其屋。 11時09分) ,將傾訴他的精神,對男子 (約珥2時28分幾段;伊薩。 11點01法郎; ezek 。 36:14法郎) 。 人士將自己成為聖地。彌賽亞/僕人,上帝會是一個人後的精神,在於(以賽亞書11點01法郎; 42:1幾段; 63:1幾段) ,並主持開幕時間的救贖( ezek. 36:14幾段;比照哲。 31:31幾段) 。

Intertestamental Judaism intertestamental猶太教

Within intertestamental Judaism several significant developments shaped the idea of "Holy Spirit" as it was understood in NT times.內部intertestamental猶太教若干重大的發展形"的理念聖靈" ,因為據了解,在新台幣倍。 After the OT prophets had proclaimed the coming of the Spirit in the messianic age of salvation, Judaism had developed the idea that the spirit of prophecy had ceased within Israel with the last of the biblical prophets (Syriac Bar. 85:3; 1 Macc. 4:46; 14:41; etc.; cf. Ps. 74:9).之後,城市旅遊局先知已宣布未來的精神,在救世主的年齡救恩,猶太教制定了思想,即精神的預言已經停止在以色列境內,與去年的聖經中的先知(敘利亞文酒吧。 85:3 1排雷。 4時46分; 14時41分;等;比照聚苯乙烯。 74:9 ) 。 Consequently, there arose from time to time a hope of the dawning of the new age, especially within the apocalyptic movement, which generally pointed to a supposed messiah and/or prophetic reawakening of some kind (cf. Acts 5:34ff.).因此,因而產生了,不時有希望的曙光的新時代,特別是在世界末日的運動,一般都指出了一個假設的彌賽亞和/或預言果然喚醒某種(參見行為的5點34分幾段) 。 The Qumran community is illustrative of this, since it understood itself to be involved in the fulfillment of Israel's messianic hope as the "preparers of the way of the Lord" (Isa. 40:3; cf. 1QS 8. 14-16).該庫姆蘭社區說明了這一點,因為它知道自己能參與實現以色列的救世主,希望為"編制的方式上主" (以賽亞書40:3 ;比照1qs八14-16 ) 。 The Qumran literature also shows increased identification of the spirit of prophecy with "God's Holy Spirit" (1QS 8. 16; Zadokite Documents II. 12).該庫姆蘭文獻也顯示增加鑑定的精神,預言與"上帝的聖靈" ( 1qs 8 。 16 ; zadokite文件二, 12 ) 。 The phrase, "the Holy Spirit," occasionally occurs in Judaism (IV Ezra 14:22; Ascension of Isa. 5:14; etc.), but, as in the rabbis, it generally meant "God's spirit of prophecy."這句話, "聖靈" ,偶爾會出現在猶太教(四以斯拉14時22分;阿森松的伊薩。 5時14分;等) ,但正如在拉比,它一般指的是"上帝的精神讖" 。 Thus, the messaianic expectation of Judaism, which included the eschatological outpouring of God's spirit (eg, 1 Enoch 49:3, citing Isa. 11:2; cf. Sybilline Oracle III, 582, based on Joel 2:28ff.), was bound up with the conviction that the Spirit had ceased in Israel with the last of the prophets; the Holy Spirit was understood as God's spirit of prophecy, which would be given again in the new age to a purified Israel in conjunction with the advent of a messiah.因此, messaianic的期望,猶太教,其中包括eschatological流露上帝的精神(例如, 1伊諾克49:3為由,伊薩。 11時02分;比照sybilline甲骨文三, 582的基礎上的Joel 2時28分幾段) ,是約束與信念,即精神已經停止在以色列與最後的先知;聖靈被理解為上帝的精神預言,這將給予再次在新的歷史時期,以淨化以色列一起出現一個彌賽亞。

The concept of the Holy Spirit was broadened through the Wisdom Literature, especially in the personification of wisdom as that idea came into contact with the idea of Spirit. 概念聖靈是拓寬透過智慧文學,特別是在人格化的智慧,為這一設想接觸到的思想,精神的豐富內涵。 As early as Prov.早在省。 8:22ff. 8點22法郎。 and Job 28:25ff.和求職28:25以後。 wisdom is presented as a more or less independent aspect of God's power (here as agent in creation), and wisdom is credited with functions and characteristics that are attributed to the Holy Spirit in the NT.智慧是作為一個較為獨立的方面上帝的權力(在這裡,作為代理人在設定) ,和智慧,記入其職能和特點,這是由於聖靈在新台幣。 Wisdom proceeded from the mouth of God and covered the earth as a mist at creation (Sir. 24:3); she is the breath of the power of God (Wisd. Solomon 7:25); and by means of his wisdom God formed man (Wisd. Sol. 9:2).智慧從口入的上帝和涵蓋地球作為一個薄霧在創作( sir. 24:3 ) ,她是一口氣的上帝的力量( wisd.所羅門7:25 ) ,並通過這種手段,他的智慧神的形成男子( wisd.溶膠。 9時02分) 。 The Lord poured out wisdom upon all his works, and she dwells with all flesh (Sir. 1:9-10).主傾注了智慧後,他的所有作品,她懷抱著與所有肉( sir. 1:9-10 ) 。 Moreover, wisdom is full of spirit, and indeed is identified with the Spirit (Wisd. Sol. 7:22; 9:1; cf. 1:5).此外,智慧,是充滿精神,而事實上是確定與精神( wisd.溶膠。 7時22分; 9:1 ;比照1:5 ) 。 Thus the Jews of NT times were familiar with the background of these ideas as they are variously expressed in the NT, ideas which use these background concepts but move beyond them to some unexpected conclusions.因此,猶太人的新台幣時代熟悉的背景,這些想法,因為他們以不同方式表達了在新台幣,構思使用這些概念的背景,但此舉超越了他們一些意想不到的結論。 Indeed, Jesus taught that his messiahship and the corresponding outpouring of the Spirit were firmly rooted in OT understanding (Luke 4:18ff., citing Isa. 61:1-2), and, similar to intertestamental Judaism, understood the messianic Spirit of the Lord to be the Holy Spirit (Matt. 12:32), the spirit which had foretold through the prophets that the coming Messiah would inaugurate the age of salvation with the pouring out of the Spirit on all flesh.事實上,耶穌教導說,他messiahship和相應的源源不斷的精神被牢牢植根在加時賽理解(路加福音4點18法郎。為由,伊薩。 61:1-2 ) ,以及類似intertestamental猶太教,相互理解救世主的精神上來,把主被聖靈。 ( 12:32 ) ,精神曾預言透過先知說,未來彌賽亞將主持開幕年齡的救贖與澆築出來的精神,對所有的血和肉。 Jesus developed the idea of the Holy Spirit as a personality (eg, John 15:26; 16:7ff.), specifically as God working in the church. 耶穌發達的想法聖靈作為一個人格 (例如,約翰15:26 ; 16時07分及以下) ,特別是作為上帝的工作在教會裡。

The New Testament新約聖經

The NT teaching of the Holy Spirit is rooted in the idea of both the spirit of God as the manifestation of God's power and the spirit of prophecy. Jesus, and the church after him, brought these ideas together in predicating them of the Holy Spirit, God's eschatological gift to man. When Mary is "overshadowed" by the power of the Most High, a phrase standing in parallel construction to "the Holy Spirit" (Luke 1:35; cf. 9:35), we find echoes of the OT idea of God's spirit in the divine cloud which "overshadowed" the tabernacle so that the tent was filled with the glory of the Lord (Exod. 40:35; Isa. 63:11ff. identifies God's presence in this instance as "God's Holy Spirit").新台幣教學的聖靈是植根於構思,無論是上帝的精神為體現上帝的力量和精神的預言。 耶穌,並教會後,他帶來的這些想法,一併預測他們的聖靈上帝的eschatological禮物給男子時 ,瑪麗是"黯然失色" ,由權力的最高級,一個短語常委會在平行施工,以"聖靈" (路加福音1時35分;比照9時35分) ,我們找到呼應的城市旅遊局的上帝觀的精神,在神聖的雲"黯然失色"的帳幕,讓在帳篷裡洋溢著榮耀上帝( exod. 40:35 ;伊薩。 63:11以後。確定了上帝的存在,在這一點上,作為"上帝的聖地精神" ) 。 Luke records Jesus' power to cast out demons "by the finger of God," an OT phrase for God's power (Luke 11:20; Exod. 8:19; Ps. 8:3).路加記錄耶穌的權力,投出魔" ,由手指的神" ,一個城市旅遊局短語上帝的權力(路加福音11:20 ; exod 。 8時19分;聚苯乙烯。 8時03分) 。 This power is identified as the "Spirit of God" (Matt. 12:28), ie, the Holy Spirit (Matt. 12:32). At Jesus' baptism the spirit came upon him (Mark 1:10; "the spirit of God," Matt. 3:16 "the Holy Spirit," Luke 3:21), and he received God's confirmation of his divine sonship and messianic mission (Matt. 3:13ff., par.).這個權力是被確定為"的精神,以神之名" 。 ( 12:28 ) ,即聖靈。 ( 12:32 ) 。 在基督的洗禮精神來後,他 (馬克1:10 , "美國精神上帝, "馬特。 3:16 "聖靈" ,盧克3時21分) 而且他所收到的上帝的確認了他的神聖sonship和救世主的使命 。 ( 3時13分幾段,桿) 。 Jesus went up from the Jordan full of the Holy Spirit (Luke 4:1), and after the temptation began his ministry "in the power of the Spirit" (Luke 4:14).耶穌上升,從約旦充滿聖靈(路加福音4:1 ) ,以及之後的誘惑, 開始了他的內政部"在權力的精神" (路加福音4時14分) 。 Taking up the message of John the Baptist, Jesus proclaimed the coming of the kingdom of God (Matt. 4:17; cf. 3:1), a coming marked by the presence of the Holy Spirit (Matt. 12:28ff., par.) as the sign of the messianic age of salvation (Luke 4:18ff.; Acts 10:38; etc.).接手的訊息,施洗約翰,耶穌宣布未來的神的國度。 ( 4時17分;比照3:1 ) ,是一位未來的標誌在場的聖靈。 ( 12:28幾段,相提並論)為標誌的救世主時代的救贖(路加福音4時18分及以下;行為10:38等) 。

From the beginning of Jesus' ministry he identified himself with both the victorious messiah king and the suffering servant figures of OT prophecy (Isa. 42:1ff.; cf. Mark 10:45), ideas which Judaism had kept separate.從一開始的耶穌'內政部他認定自己與這兩個戰勝國彌賽亞國王和苦難的僕人數字城市旅遊局的預言(以賽亞42:1幾段;比照馬克10:45 ) ,構思猶太教已分開。 Jesus further defined the role of God's Messiah as proclaiming God's favor, God's salvation, in the new age, a message stressed far beyond that of "judgment of the nations," which the Jews had come to expect.耶穌進一步明確了上帝的作用的彌賽亞作為宣告上帝對我們的愛,上帝的救恩,在新的時代,一個信息,強調遠遠超出了"判斷的國家" ,其中猶太人有更大的企盼。 At the synagogue in Nazareth (Luke 4:16ff.) when Jesus identified himself with the Messiah promised in Isa.在猶太教堂,在拿撒勒(路加福音4時16分幾段)當耶穌自稱與彌賽亞承諾,在伊薩。 61:1-2a he stopped short of reading the "words of judgment" of Isa. 61:1 - 2A的,他停止了短期的讀"字的判斷" ,伊薩。 61:2b (even though Isa. 61:2c, "comfort to those who mourn," is part of Jesus' teaching at Matt. 5:4). 61:2乙(即使伊薩。 61:2 C節" ,以安慰那些哀悼" ,是耶穌的'教於馬特。 5時04分) 。 This emphasis is made again when John the Baptist asks whether Jesus is indeed the one who was to come (Luke 7:18-23).這強調的是再次提出時,施洗約翰詢問是否耶穌的確是一個人來(路加福音7:18-23 ) 。 Indeed, even though John the Baptist proclaimed Jesus to be the one who would "baptize in the Holy Spirit and in fire" as aspects of the new age (salvation and judgment, respectively, Luke 3:15ff; note the clear judgment connections of "baptism with fire" in 3:17), Jesus' own focus was on the positive, salvific aspect of the new age as represented in the baptism with the Holy Spirit (Acts 1:5; 11:16).事實上,即使施洗約翰宣告耶穌是一個人,將" baptize在聖靈和火" ,因為各方面的新時代(救恩和判斷能力,分別路加福音3:15法郎;注意明確判斷連線"洗禮與火" ,在3時17分) , 耶穌自己的工作重點是積極, salvific方面的新時代為代表的洗禮與聖靈 (使徒行1:5 ; 11:16 ) 。

Jesus understood the Holy Spirit as a personality. This comes out especially in John's Gospel, where the Spirit is called the "Paraclete," ie, the Comforter (Counselor, Advocate). Jesus himself was the first Counselor (Paraclete, John 14:16), and he will send the disciples another Counselor after he is gone, ie, the Spirit of truth, the Holy Spirit (14:26; 15:26; 16:5). The Holy Spirit will dwell in the believers (John 7:38; cf. 14:17), and will guide the disciples into all truth (16:13), teaching them "all things" and bringing them "to rememberance of all that [Jesus] said" to them (14:26). 耶穌明白聖靈作為一個人格,這將出來,特別是在約翰的福音,那裡的精神,是被稱為" paraclete " ,即,保惠(輔導員,提倡) 。 耶穌自己是第一個輔導員( paraclete ,約翰14時16分) ,以及他將派遣門徒另一輔導員後,他走了,也就是說,真理的聖靈,聖靈 ( 14時26分; 15:26 ; 16時05分) 。 聖靈會住在信者 (約翰七日: 38 ;比照14時17分) ,將引導門徒進入一切的真理 ( 16:13 ) ,教導他們: "所有的事情" ,並給他們帶來" ,以紀念這一切對眾人說: "他們( 14時26分) 。 The Holy Spirit will testify about Jesus, as the disciples must also testify (John 15:26-27).聖靈會出面作證耶穌,因為門徒也必須出庭作證(約翰15:26-27 ) 。

In Acts 2:14ff.在行為2點14法郎。 Peter interpreted the Pentecost phenomena as the fulfillment of Joel's prophecy of the outpouring of the spirit upon all flesh in the messianic age (Joel 2:28ff.).彼得解釋五旬的現象,為圓滿約珥的預言的源源不斷的精神後,所有肉救世主的年齡(約珥2時28分幾段) 。 The outpouring of the spirit upon all flesh was accomplished for the benefit of Jew and Gentile alike (Acts 10:45; 11:15ff.), and individual converts had access to this gift of the age of salvation through repentance and baptism into the name of Jesus Christ (Acts 2:38).該流露的精神後,所有肉是在為造福猶太人和gentile一樣(使徒行10:45 ; 11:15幾段) ,並轉換為個人獲得這份禮物的年齡救國通過懺悔和洗禮進入名稱耶穌基督 (使徒2時38分) 。 This, according to Peter, put the converts in contact with the promise of Joel's prophecy, the gift of the Holy Spirit; "for to you is the promise..., for all whom the Lord our God will call" (Acts 2:39; Joel 2:32).對此,據彼得,把轉換接觸承諾約珥的預言,聖靈的恩賜; "你是允諾… … ,所有的人耶和華我們的神將拜會" (使徒2 : 39 ;的Joel 2時32分) 。 The apostles and others carried out their ministries "full of the Holy Spirit" (4:31; 6:5; 7:54; etc.), and the Holy Spirit, identified in Acts 16:7 as the Spirit of Jesus, directed the mission of the fledgling church (Acts 9:31; 13:2; 15:28; 16:6-7).使徒們和其他人進行了自己的各部"充滿聖靈" ( 4時31分; 6時05分; 7時54分;等) ,以及聖靈,查明行為16時07分,作為精神的耶穌,指示使命幼稚教會(使徒9時31分; 13時02分; 15:28 ; 16:6-7 ) 。 The salvific aspects of the new age practiced by Jesus, notably healing and exorcism, were carried out by the early church through the power of the Holy Spirit.該salvific方面的新時代實行的耶穌,特別是醫治創傷和驅魔,進行了由早期教會透過權力的聖靈。 Visions and prophecies occurred within the young church (Acts 9:10; 10:3; 10:ff.; 11:27-28; 13:1; 15:32) in keeping with the Acts 2 citation of Joel 2:28ff.遠見和預言發生在年輕的教會(使徒9時10分; 10時03分, 10 :幾段; 11:27-28 ;十三; 15:32 ) ,符合行為二日引文約珥2點28法郎。 The experience of the early church confirmed that the messianic age had indeed come.經歷了早期教會證實救世主的時代確實到來。

Paul taught that the Holy Spirit, poured out in the new age, is the creator of new life in the believer and that unifying force by which God in Christ is "building together" the Christians into the body of Christ (Rom. 5:5; II Cor. 5:17; Eph. 2:22; cf. I Cor. 6:19). Romans 8 shows that Paul identified the spirit, the spirit of God, and the spirit of Christ with the Holy Spirit (cf. the spirit of Christ as the spirit of prophecy in I Pet. 1:10ff.), and that these terms are generally interchangeable.保羅教導說,聖靈倒在新的歷史時期,是創造新生活的信徒,並凝聚力,使上帝在基督裡是"建起來" ,基督徒到基督的身體(羅馬書5:5 ;二,肺心病。 5時17分;以弗所書2時22分;比照,我肺心病。 6時19分) 。 入鄉隨俗8顯示,保羅確定的精神,上帝的精神,和基督的靈與聖靈 (參見精神,以基督為中心的精神,預言在I寵物。 1:10幾段) ,而這些條件一般都可以互換。 If anyone does not have the spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Christ (Rom. 8:9); but those who are led by the spirit of God are sons of God (Rom. 8:14).人若沒有基督的靈,他不屬於基督(羅馬書8時09分) ,但那些都是由上帝的精神,是神的兒子(羅馬書8:14 ) 。 We all have our access to the Father through one spirit (Eph.2:18), and there is one body and one spirit (Eph. 4:4).我們都有接觸到父親通過一個精神( eph.2 : 18 ) ,並有一個機構和一個精神(以弗所書4時04分) 。 We were all baptized by one spirit into one body, and we were all given the one spirit to drink (I Cor.12:13).我們全都洗禮的一個精神,使之成為一個機構,我們都考慮到了一個精神的飲料(我cor.12 : 13 ) 。 The believer receives the spirit of adoption or "sonship" (Rom. 8:15), indeed, the spirit of God's own Son (Gal. 4:6), by whom we cry, "Abba, Father," that intimate address of filial relationship to God pioneered by Jesus, the unique Son of God (Mark 14:36).信徒得到精神領養或" sonship " (羅馬書8:15 ) ,而事實上,上帝的精神自己的兒子( gal. 4:6 ) ,誰發現我們哭了, "天父,創始者" ,即體內地址孝道的關係,以上帝首創耶穌,獨特的神的兒子(可11:24 ) 。

The believers are being built together into a dwelling place of God in the spirit (Eph. 4:22).信教的是正在興建中匯集成的居住地,在上帝的精神(以弗所書4時22分) 。 To each one was apportioned grace according to the measure of the gift of Christ (Eph. 4:7; cf. Rom. 12:3), and Christ has given different ones to be prophets, apostles, evangelists, pastors, and teachers (Eph. 4:11) for the edification of the body. Similarly, the Spirit gives different kinds of spiritual gifts for different kinds of service (I Cor. 12:4-5;7), all for the common good. The way of love is to be followed in all things; indeed, the fruit of the spirit is love, joy, peace, etc. (Gal. 5:22ff.).每一個被攤派的寬限期,根據這項措施的禮物基督(以弗所書4時07分;比照光盤。 12時03分) ,基督也有不同的,以被先知,使徒,福音使者,牧人和教師(以弗所書4時11分) ,用於教化的身體,同樣的精神,使各種不同的精神禮物,為不同類型的服務(我肺心病。 12:4-5 7 ) ,所有謀求共同利益。方式愛情是必須遵循的一切事情,事實上,聖靈的果子就是仁愛,喜樂,和平,等( gal. 5時22分幾段) 。 All of this is because God has initiated the new covenant (Jer. 31:31ff.; Ezek. 36:14ff.;26) in the hearts of men by means of his eschatological spirit (II Cor. 3:6ff.).所有這一切都是因為上帝已啟動了新的盟約( jer. 31:31幾段; ezek 。 36:14幾段;二十六日)在心底的男子通過他的eschatological精神(二肺心病。 3時06分幾段) 。 In this new age the spirit is the earnest of our inheritance (II Cor. 1:22; 5:5; Eph. 1:14), a "firstfruits," the seal of God (II Cor. 1:22; Eph. 1:13; 4:30).在這個新時代的精神是認真的,我們繼承(二肺心病。 1:22 ; 5:5 ;以弗所書1:14 ) , " firstfruits , "印章的神(二肺心病。 1:22 ;厄。 1:13 ; 4:30 ) 。 These phrases point out the "already vs. the not yet" tension of the new age: the new age has dawned, and the eschatological spirit has been poured out, yet all of creation awaits the final consummation.這句話指出, "已經惡化,還沒有"關係緊張的新時代:新的時代已經來臨,以及eschatological精神已澆出,但所有的創作等待著最後的圓滿。 Even though the spirit bears witness with our spirit that we are sons of God (Rom. 8:16) and we truly have the firstfruits of the spirit (Rom. 8:23), we await the adoption as sons (8:23) at the final consummation. Until that time Christians have the Comforter, the Spirit who intercedes on behalf of the saints according to the will of the Father (Rom. 8:27).即使精神,見證了我們的精神,我們是神的兒子(羅馬書8時16分) ,我們真正有firstfruits的精神(羅馬書8時23分) ,我們正等待收養的兒子( 8時23分)在最後的圓滿。 在這一時刻到來之前基督徒的安慰,精神的人intercedes代表聖徒根據該會的父親 (羅馬書8時27分) 。

Patristic and Medieval Theology教父和中世紀的神學

In the patristic period we encounter little that moves beyond the biblical ideas of the Holy Spirit.在教父時期,我們遇到的少,超越了聖經的思想聖靈。 The apostolic fathers reflect the NT idea that the spirit is operative in the church, inspiring prophecy and otherwise working within individuals (Barnabas 12:2; Ignatius, Phil . 7:1).使徒父親反映新台幣思想,即精神,是執行在教會裡,鼓舞人心的預言和其他工作的個人(巴納巴斯12:2 ;伊格菲爾。 7:1 ) 。 Itinerant Christian prophets are dealt with as a present reality in the Didache, but as time passes, such charismata are treated as theoretical.流動基督教先知,是處理作為當前現實,在didache ,但隨著時間的推移,這種charismata被當作理論。 The view that the spirit of OT prophecy is one and the same Holy Spirit that inspired the apostles is periodically encountered (Justin, Dialogues 1-7; 51; 82; 87; etc.; Irenaeus, Against Heresies II, 6.4; III, 21.3-4), and the apostles emerge as the "Spirit-bearers" (pneumatophoroi), a designation given to the OT prophets (Hos. 9:7, LXX).認為精神的城市旅遊局的預言是來自同一個神聖的精神鼓舞了使徒是定期遇到(賈斯汀,對話1-7 ; 51 ; 82 87 ;等;愛任紐,對異端邪說第二,為6.4 ;三, 21.3 -4 ) ,以及使徒出現的"精神主事" ( pneumatophoroi ) ,指定給該城市旅遊局先知( hos. 9時07分, lxx ) 。 The Holy Spirit is credited with empowering the church, even with inspiring certain noncanonical writings, as late as the fourth century.聖靈是貸賦予教會,甚至催人奮進的某些noncanonical著作,遲至四世紀。

Even though the "trinitarian" formula of Matt. 即使"三位一體"公式的馬特。 28:19 is found in the apostolic fathers, the word "trinity" is first applied to the Godhead by Theophilus of Antioch (To Autolycus 2:15). 28:19發現在教宗的父親,用"三位一體"的是首次應用到神的源頭由西奧菲勒斯安提 (奧托呂科斯2時15分) 。 Tertullian clearly taught the divinity of the Holy Spirit, an idea that was later to occupy the church in discussion for a thousand years.戴爾都良清楚地教導神的聖靈,一個概念後來被佔用的教堂討論,為1000年。 Tertullian wrestled with the problem of the tension between the authority of the Spirit in the church versus apostolic tradition and Scripture as received revelation. He espoused montanism for a time, a system which placed primary importance on the current inspiration of the Spirit in the body. The church, however, rejected montanism in favor of the objective authority of apostolic tradition as reflected in Scripture, and montanism eventually died out. The church's stand against the montanist heresy was largely responsible for the demise of Christian prophecy and other charismata. The Muratorian Canon (lines 75ff.) states that the number of prophets is settled, and even the Apostolic Tradition of Hippolytus, which elevates charismatic leadership above ecclesiastical structure, restricts the term "prophet" entirely to the canonical prophets.戴爾都良搶奪與問題之間的緊張關係的權威的精神,在教會與使徒傳統和經文,因為收到的啟示, 他信奉montanism ,一時間,這個制度放在首要的重要性就當前靈感的精神,在身體。教會,但拒絕montanism主張客觀權威的使徒傳統反映在經文中,並montanism最終凋謝。 教會的立場,反對montanist異端,主要是負責為消亡基督教的預言和其他charismata 。 muratorian佳能(系75ff )指出,有多少先知是穩定下來,即使是使徒傳統的hippolytus ,提升魅力領導以上的教會結構,限制而言, "先知" ,完全是典型的先知。 In the late fourth century John Chrysostom could speak of the spiritual gifts as belonging to an age in the past.在晚四世紀金口約安會說話的精神禮物,是屬於一個時代,在過去的。

In the period immediately prior to Nicaea the church was preoccupied with the famous "Christological controversies" and paid scant attention to a doctrine of the Holy Spirit. The Nicene Creed confesses faith in the Holy Spirit, but without any development of the idea of the Spirit's divinity or essential relationship to the Father and the Son. This question became a major issue within the church in the late fourth century and following, and the Council of Constantinople added to the words of the Nicene Creed, describing the Holy Spirit as "the Lord and Giver of Life, proceeding from the Father, to be worshiped and glorified together with the Father and the Son." A controversy developed around the source of the Spirit, specifically concerning whether he ought not also be confessed as "proceeding from the Son." Following Augustine's teaching, the phrase filioque ("and the Son") was added by the Western church to the above creed at the Council of Toledo in 589.在這期間,之前的尼西亞教會忙於與著名的"基督論的爭論" ,並付出很少注意學說的聖靈。 尼西亞confesses信仰在聖靈的,但沒有任何發展的思想,精神的神或基本關係,以父親和兒子,這個問題已成為一個重大問題,教會在晚四世紀後, 安理會的君士坦丁堡加入的話尼西亞,並形容聖靈為"主並賜予生命,從父親,以崇拜和歌頌連同父親和兒子"的爭論圍繞發展的精神之源,特別是關於他是否應該也不會供認,因為"從兒子。 " 繼奧古斯丁對他的教誨,這句話filioque ( "兒子" ) ,加上由西方教會,以上述信條在安理會的托萊多在589 。 The Eastern church rejected the filioque doctrine, and the creed constituted confessional grounds for the split between East and West which had already taken place in practice.東部教會拒絕filioque學說和信仰構成翻供理由分裂於東西方之間,其中已發生的做法。

Although other aspects of the Spirit were occasionally discussed, the procession of the Spirit continued to occupy theologians in the West.雖然其他方面的精神,偶有討論,讓遊行的精神,繼續佔領著神學家在西部地區。 Anselm of Canterbury brought the debate into the era of scholasticism and, although reason as proof of doctrine was unevenly received, filioque remained the standard of the church. anselm的坎特伯雷把辯論變成時代的士林,儘管理由,以證明教義是不均勻收到filioque仍是標準的教會。 Peter Lombard argued from Scripture for filioque, and the fourth Lateran Council again espoused Trinitarianism and filioque. Although Aquinas rejected reason as a means to know the distinctions of the Divine Persons, he affirmed that the spirit proceeds from the special relationship that exists between the Father and the Son.彼得倫巴第辯稱,從經文為filioque ,以及第四次lateran安理會再次闡明trinitarianism和filioque雖然阿奎那駁回的理由為手段,以了解區別神聖的人,他肯定了這一精神是從英美特殊關係之間存在的父親和兒子。 Such discussions as this continued into the fifteenth century, when the Council of Florence again attempted to unite the Western and Eastern churches.這種討論,因為這一直持續到15世紀,當安理會佛羅倫薩的圖謀再次團結一致,西部與東部的教堂。 The filioque idea was reaffirmed and, although a cosmetic change of wording was made in an attempt to satisfy the Eastern church, the Greek Orthodox Church rejected the substance of the creed. The position of the Roman Catholic Church has remained essentially unchanged, and the rift between East and West over this issue remains to the present.該filioque主意得到肯定,雖然外觀上的改變措辭是在企圖以滿足東部教會,希臘東正教教堂拒絕了物質的信條。 立場與羅馬天主教會已基本未變,和裂谷東方與西方之間在這一問題上仍然到現在。

The Reformation改革

Although other aspects of the Spirit's work were of importance in medieval theology, including sanctification and illumination, it was not until the Reformation that the work of the Spirit in the church was truly rediscovered.雖然其他方面的精神的工作的重要性,在中世紀的神學, 包括成聖和光照,但直到改革,這項工作的精神,在教會是真正找到了。 This was due at least in part to the rejection of Rome's dogma of church tradition as the gurantor of correct Scripture interpretation and formation of true doctrine.這主要是由於至少有一部分是為了反對羅馬教廷的教義的教會傳統,為gurantor正確的經文解釋,並形成真正的教義。 This reaction led to a Reformation stress on the idea of sola Scriptura and the work of the Spirit in salvation independent of the Catholic Church's "unbroken succession back to Christ."這一反應導致了改革的壓力就構思唯獨聖經和工作的精神,在救贖的獨立的天主教教會的"連續不斷回到基督" 。 While Luther rejected "enthusiasm" (the subjective claim of direct guidance by the Spirit independent of Scripture or church structure, he stressed Spirit over structure, and understood the Spirit to be at work through the Word (the gospel), primarily in preaching, and in the sacraments, and therefore in salvation.而路德拒絕的"熱情" (主觀索賠的直接指導所體現的精神,獨立的經文或教堂的結構,他強調,精神超越結構,並了解精神,要在工作中通過話語(福音) ,主要是在說教,在聖禮,因此,在救贖。

The Spirit works in salvation by influencing the soul to reliance, by faith, on Christ.精神的作品在救贖通過影響靈魂,以自力更生,由信仰,對基督。 Faith is itself a mystical gift of God whereby the believers mit Gott ein Kuche werden (become kneaded into one cake with God). Without the grace and work of the Spirit man is incapable of making himself acceptable to God or of having saving faith (cf. The Bondage of the Will, 1525).信仰本身就是一個神秘的神的恩賜,讓信徒麻省理工學院gott艾因庫車werden (成為意大利面成一個蛋糕與上帝) 。 未經恩典和工作精神,人是無法使自己接受的上帝或具有儲蓄信仰 (參見。桎梏的意志, 1525年) 。 This is accomplished by the Holy Spirit through the Word of God. Salvation is thus a gift bestowed by the grace of God, and Luther implies that the Word (the Gospel) as preached is primarily the efficacious Word of God after the Spirit works upon the heart of the hearer.做到這一點,是由聖靈透過神的話語。 救恩是一個禮物賜予的,由天主的恩典,並路德意味的話語(福音) ,因為鼓吹,主要是有效的上帝的話後,精神工程後,心臟聴。 For Luther, the Word is the main sacrament, for faith and the Holy Spirit are conveyed through the preaching and the teaching of the gospel (Rom. 10:17); baptism and the Lord's Supper are signs of the "sacrament of the Word," in that they proclaim the Word of God. Luther favored the preached Word over the written Word, but did not hold the two to be mutually exclusive. To be Christian the preaching of the church had to be faithful to the Scripture; but to be faithful to Scripture, the church had to preach.為路德,這個詞是主要的聖餐,為信仰和聖靈是透過傳教和教學的福音(羅馬書10時17分) ;洗禮和主的晚餐跡象的"聖餐的字, " ,因為他們宣告神的話語。 路德主張鼓吹字以上文字,但沒有舉行,兩國將相互排斥。不得基督教的傳教的教會都必須忠實於聖經,但要忠實於聖經,教會傳教。

The Word, primarily the incarnate Logos, is God's channel for the Spirit. Man brings the Word of the Scripture to the ear, but God infuses his Spirit into the heart; the word of Scripture thus becomes the Word of God (Lectures on Psalms; Epistle to the Romans). No one can rightly understand the Word of Scripture without the working of the Spirit; where the Word is, the Spirit inevitably follows. The Spirit does not operate independent of the Word.這個詞,主要是肉身的標誌,是上帝的渠道,讓精神。 男子帶字的經文,以聽,但神注入他的精神轉化為心臟;字的經文,於是成為天主的聖言(講座詩篇;書中說,羅馬人) , 沒有人可以正確地理解字的經文中,沒有工作的精神;凡字是,精神難免如下。精神,並不具有獨立的字眼。 Luther resisted the enthusiasts' sharp distinction between inward and outward Word.路德抵制愛好者'區分抵港及離港字。 On the other hand, he rejected the Roman Catholic idea that the Spirit is identified with church office and that the sacraments are effective in and of themselves (ex opere operato).在另一方面,他拒絕了羅馬天主教思想,即精神,是確定與教會辦公室,並認為聖禮是有效的和自己的(當然opere operato ) 。 Thus the Spirit makes Christ present in the sacraments and in Scripture; only when the Spirit makes Christ present in the word is it Gods own living Word.因此,精神,使基督目前在聖禮,並在經文中,只有當精神,使基督在目前這個詞是神自己的生活字。 Otherwise the Scripture is letter, a law, it merely describes, it is only history.否則經文是一封信,一個法律,它只是描述了,這只不過是歷史。 But as preaching, the Word is gospel (as opposed to law); the Spirit makes it so.但作為傳道,單詞是福音(而非法律) ;精神,使之如此。 The Spirit is not bound to the Word; he exists in God's eternal glory, away from the Word and our world.精神卻是不必然字,他存在於上帝的永恆的榮耀,使之遠離這個詞和我們的世界。 But as revealing Spirit he does not come without the Word.但由於揭示的精神,他不來,沒有一句話。

Melanchthon followed Luther with few exceptions.梅蘭希頓其次路德少數例外。 Although allowing more room for man's response to the gospel than did Luther, he still stressed the primary work of the Spirit in salvation.雖然讓更多的空間,人的回應福音比路德,但他仍強調,基層工作的精神救贖。 Melanchthon showed more flexibility than Luther in the issue of the real presence in the Lord's Supper (cf. the Wittenberg Concord), but was in basic agreement with Luther as seen in the Augsburg Confession and its Apology. Zwingli departed from Luther and Melanchthon over the work of the Spirit in the sacraments, denying the necessity of baptism and asserting the largely commemorative significance of the Lord's Supper. The radical Reformers, too, were at odds with Luther and Melanchthon, and taught the priority of immediate revelation over Scripture.梅蘭希頓顯示更大的靈活性,比路德,在這個問題上的真實存在,在主的晚餐(參見維滕貝格康科德) ,但在基本協議與路德看在奧格斯堡懺悔與道歉。 zwingli偏離路德和梅蘭希頓比工作的精神,在聖禮,否認必然性的洗禮,並宣稱在很大程度上紀念意義的主的晚餐。激進的改革者,也都是對立的路德和梅蘭希頓,並教導優先切身revelation超過經文。 Lutherans and Catholics alike were condemned by the Schwarmer (fanatics) for their dependence upon the letter of Scripture instead of making the Bible subject to tests of religious experience. lutherans和天主教徒都不約而同地譴責了schwarmer (狂熱分子) ,他們依靠的信經文不是使聖經受考驗的宗教體驗。

Calvin taught that the Spirit works in regeneration to illumine the mind to receive the benefits of Christ and seals them in the heart. By the Spirit the heart of a man is opened to the penetrating power of the Word and sacraments. 卡爾文教授的這一精神,在工程再生去照亮心靈得到好處,耶穌和印章在他們的心臟,通過精神的核心,一個人,是開放給穿透力的Word和聖禮。 Calvin went beyond Luther in asserting that not only is the preached Word the agent of the Spirit, but the Bible is in its essence the Word of God (Genevan Catechism). The Spirit works in the reading of Scripture as well as in the preaching of the Word, and the Word, preached or read, is efficacious through the work of the Holy Spirit. The divine origin of Scripture is certified by the witness of the Spirit; the Scripture is the Word of God given by the Spirit's guidance through limited human speech.卡爾文超出了路德在宣稱不僅是鼓吹詞代理人的精神,但聖經是在其本質天主的聖言( genevan問答) 。 精神的作品,在讀經文以及在鼓吹的軍隊這個詞,這個詞,鼓吹或閱讀,是通過有效的工作,聖靈神聖的起源經文證明證人的精神;聖經是上帝的話給予精神的指導意見,通過有限的人力講話。 Thus the exegete must inquire after God's intention in giving Scripture for us (eg, in the modern application of the OT; Institutes 2.8.8).因此exegete必須詢問後,神的用意是讓經文,為我們(例如,在現代社會的應用職能治療;院所2.8.8 ) 。

The highest proof of Scripture derives from the fact that God in person speaks in it, ie, in the secret testimony of the Spirit (Inst. 1.7.4).最高證明經文來自於一個事實,即上帝的人說話,即在秘密證詞中的精神( inst. 1.7.4 ) 。 We feel the testimony of the Spirit engraved like a seal on our hearts with the result that it seals the cleansing and sacrifice of Christ.我們覺得作證的精神,鐫刻著像一個密封在我們的心中,因此,它海豹的清潔和犧牲的基督。 The Holy Spirit is the bond by which Christ unites us to himself (Inst. 3.1.1).聖靈是債券,其中基督我們團結起來,以自己( inst. 3.1.1 ) 。 Although Calvin rejected rational proofs as a basis for authenticating Scripture, interconfessional battles later caused the rigidifying of Reformed thought, and a tradition of scholastic proofs was developed to overcome the subjectivism of Calvin's authentication theory (cf. the Canons of Dort).雖然卡爾文拒絕理性的證據,以此為基礎認證的經文, interconfessional戰役後,造成rigidifying的改革思路,與傳統的學術論證,開發,以克服主觀主義的卡爾文的認證理論(參照大砲的dort ) 。

A seventeenth century reaction to strict Calvinism arose in Holland among the followers of James Arminius. Arminius rejected strict predestination, allowing for man's freedom to reject God's offer of grace. 1 17世紀反應,以嚴格的加爾文出現在荷蘭之間的追隨者詹姆斯arminius 。 arminius拒絕了嚴格的宿命,允許人的自由拒絕接受上帝的給予的寬限期。 The Arminian position was denounced by the Synod of Dort, but had great influence in England.該arminian立場是譴責,也遭到了主教的dort ,但有很大的影響力在英國。 John Wesley grew up in early eighteenth century England within this climate of Arminianism, and through him Methodism was given its distinctive Arminian character. For Wesley, God acts in cooperation with, but not in violation of, free human response in the matter of saving faith.約翰韋斯利成長於18世紀初,英國在這一氣候的arminianism ,並通過他methodism是由於其獨特的arminian性格。韋斯利,上帝的行為,在與它們的合作,但並沒有違反,自由人的反應在這件事的儲蓄信仰。 God does not merely dispense upon man justifying grace, nor does man simply acquire such grace by believing.上帝不只是免除後,男子辯解恩典,也沒有人簡單地獲取這樣的恩典所相信。 There is rather a unified process of God's giving and man's receiving. The Holy Spirit convicts of sin and also bears witness of justification.有,而不是一個統一的過程,上帝的賦予和人的接受。 聖靈定罪的罪惡,也見證了的道理。 Thereafter the Holy Spirit continues to work in man in sanctification, such that the believer feels in his heart the mighty workings of the Spirit of God. God continually "breathes" upon man's soul, and the soul "breathes unto God", a fellowship of spiritual respiration by which the life of God in the soul is sustained. Sanctification, the renewal of man in the image of God, in righteousness and true holiness, is effected by the Spirit through faith. It includes being saved from sin and being perfected in love. Works are necessary to a continuance of faith, and "entire santification," perfection, is the goal of every believer. 此後聖靈繼續工作,在男子成聖,使信徒感覺在他心中浩蕩的工作精神神的,上帝在不斷"呼吸"後,人的靈魂和靈魂的"呼吸祂上帝" ,這是一個和睦團契精神呼吸,其中生活在上帝的靈魂,是持續的。 成聖,重建的男子,在上帝的畫像,為正義和真正的聖潔,是由精神信仰,它包括被保存從罪孽與完善愛。 工程是必要的一個連續性的信念, "全santification , "完善,目標應該是每一個信徒。

The Modern Period現代時期

While seventeenth century radical Puritanism produced the Quakers with their emphasis on subjective experience of the Holy Spirit (the Inner Light of George Fox), such that Scripture is only a secondary source of knowledge for faith and practice (Robert Barclay Apology), eighteenth century Methodism expressed a more balanced approach to the work of the Spirit.同時, 17世紀激進的清教徒製作貴格會與他們側重於主觀經驗的聖靈(內輕喬治福克斯) ,這樣的經文,只是一個次要的知識來源,為信仰和實踐 (羅伯特巴克利道歉) , 18世紀methodism表達了一個更為平衡的態度來工作的精神。 The focus of later Methodism on the work of the Spirit after conversion as an experience of divine grace has found development in the modern Holiness Movement, represented by churches in the Christian Holiness Association.焦點後來methodism關於聯合國工作的有關精神後,轉化為一種經歷神的恩典已發現的發展,在現代社會成聖運動,派教會在基督教聖潔協會。

Another development that can be traced to Methodism's stress on sanctification is the twentieth century reawakening of Pentecostalism. Stemming from earlier emphases upon "second experience," Pentecostalism has placed great importance upon the "baptism of the Holy Spirit," which is seen as the completion of a two-stage process of salvation. Since the inception of this modern movement at the turn of the century, speaking in tongues has been proclaimed as the main sign of Spirit baptism, although other "gifts of the Spirit", notably healing, are also emphasized. 另一項發展可追溯到methodism的應激對成聖是二十世紀復興的五旬節運動。源於先前的側重點後, "第二個經驗, "五旬節運動一直十分重視後, "洗禮聖靈" ,這就是被視為完成一個兩階段的過程中的救贖。 設立以來,這一現代運動在世紀之交,在舌頭已被宣布為主要標誌的精神洗禮,雖然其他的"禮物的精神" ,尤其是癒合的,是也得到了強調。 From its fundamentalist/biblicist beginning the Pentecostal movement has grown into what is loosely called the charismatic movement, which now touches all of Protestantism and has made inroads into Roman Catholicism.從原教旨主義/ biblicist開始五旬節運動,從小到大什麼是鬆散的所謂魅力運動,現在涉及到所有的基督新教,並取得了進軍羅馬天主教。 This movement generally proclaims a distinct experience of "Spirit baptism" and, as a rule, focuses on speaking in tongues as the manifestation of that experience.這個運動通常宣告一個獨特的經驗"的精神洗禮" ,並作為一項規則,側重於在舌頭作為體現這一經驗。

One of the most significant twentieth century developments in understanding the Holy Spirit was made in the teaching of Karl Barth.其中一項最重要的是二十世紀的發展,在認識聖靈是在教學中的卡爾巴特。 Barth was a Reformed theologian who was largely responsible for the introduction of neoorthodoxy, the so-called dialectical or crisis theology.巴特是一個經過改革的神學家的人,主要是負責引進neoorthodoxy ,所謂的辯證或危機神學。 Barth and others broke with classical liberalism in the first decades of the twentieth century, denying liberalism's theology of pious religious selfconsciousness, its man-centeredness (Schleiermacher; Ritschl; Feuerbach).巴特等人,打破古典自由主義在第一個十年中的20世紀,否認自由主義的神學虔誠的宗教自我意識,其人為本(施萊爾馬赫;里奇爾;費爾巴哈) 。 Barth emphasized the "infinite qualitative distinction" between man and God, and prophetically proclaimed God's nein to all of man's attempt at self-righteousness.巴特強調, "無限質的區別" ,人與神,並且預言宣告上帝的nein所有的人的企圖自以為是。 Barth's Letter to the Romans sounded this note of man's "crisis", the acknowledgement that what man knows of God, God has himself revelaed.巴特的信中,以羅馬人敲響了,這說明人的"危機" ,承認有什麼人知道上帝,上帝有自己revelaed 。 Barth developed his idea of God's self-revelation in terms of the doctrine of the Word of God (Church Dogmatics I/1 and I/2).巴特制定了自己的想法上帝的自我啟示而言,中庸上帝的話(教會dogmatics / 1 / 2 ) 。 First and most importantly, Jesus is the incarnate Logos, the Word of God.首先和最重要的是,耶穌是肉身的標識,上帝的話。 The Word of God is subsequently found in the preaching of the gospel, and "among the words of Scripture" (cf. Luther's doctrine of Spirit and Word).上帝的話,是後來發現,在宣揚福音, "其中的話,經文" (參見路德的學說的精神和Word ) 。 The Word of God is God himself in Holy Scripture.上帝的話,是上帝在聖經。 Scripture is holy and the Word of God, because by the Holy Spirit it became and will become to the church a witness to divine revelation.聖經是神聖的上帝的話,因為聖靈成為和將成為該教會的見證神的啟示。 This witness is not identical to the revelation; it is not itself revelation, but the witness to it. Faith in Jesus as the Christ, specifically in Jesus' resurrection, is effected through the work of the Holy Spirit. The subjective "in Spirit" is the counterpart to the objective "in Christ".這位證人是不完全相同的啟示,它本身並不是啟示,但見證。 信仰耶穌是基督,特別是在耶穌的復活,是通過工作的聖靈。主觀"的精神"是對應目標" ,在基督" 。 God's grace is manifested both in the objective revelation of God in Christ and man's subjective appropriation of this revelation through the Spirit.上帝的恩典是體現在客觀的啟示上帝在基督裡與人的主觀撥款這一啟示透過精神。 According to Scripture, God's revelation occurs in our enlightenment by the Holy Spirit to a knowledge of God's Word.根據聖經,上帝的啟示出現在我們的啟示是由聖靈向知識的神的話語。 The outpouring of the Spirit is God's revelation.該流露的精神,是上帝的啟示。 In this reality we are free to be God's children and to know, love, and praise him in his revelation.在這樣的現實,我們都是免費將上帝的兒女和知情權的人,愛護人,並讚美他,在他的啟示。 The Spirit as subjective reality of God's revelation makes possible and real the existence of Christianity in the world.精神和客觀實際的上帝的啟示,使可能的和現實的存在,基督教在世界上。 For, Barth observes, "where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom" (II Cor. 3:17); God in his freedom discloses himself to man and so makes man free for him (Evangelical Theology, pp. 53ff.).為,巴特指出, "凡主的聖靈是,有自由" (二肺心病。 3時17分) ;上帝在他的自由,披露了自己的男子,所以使得Man免費為他(福音派神學,第53ff 。 ) 。

Concluding Observations結論性意見

This sketch shows some of the diversity in the development of Christian thinking about the Holy Spirit. It is ironic that God's eschatological gift to man has so often been a point of contention and division among Christians. 這個示意圖顯示部分的多樣性,在發展基督教思考聖靈具有諷刺意味的是上帝的eschatological禮物給男人,所以常常是一個爭論點及分工當中基督徒。 Since the road ahead appears no less difficult than the way we have come, we would do well to be humbly mindful of God's sovereignty and of our weakness.由於前面的道路似乎並沒有那麼困難,比我們的做法並沒有來, 我們會做的很好必須謙卑地意識到上帝的主權和我們的弱點。

Because God in Christ has initiated the messianic age with its outpouring of the Spirit, man's relationship to God has been forever changed.因為上帝在基督裡已啟動了救世主的時代,其流露的精神和人的關係,上帝已經永遠改變。 No longer can the law be used as a means of exclusion and oppression of the disenfranchised: Jesus has preached the messianic gospel of release to the captive, sight to the blind, and good news to the poor; the new law of life has been written on the hearts of men.再也不能依法被用來作為一種手段,排斥和壓迫的被剝奪權利:耶穌所宣揚的救世主的福音釋放俘虜,觀光,以瞎眼的,好消息向窮人;新法的生活已經寫在對男人的心。 Thus we must abhor any new legalism which uses the Scripture to exclude and oppress, this is to turn the good news of Christ into "the letter that kills."因此,我們必須痛恨任何新的法家利用經文,以排除和壓迫,這是把這個好消息基督成書說, "殺人" 。 We must, rather, recognize the "God-breathed" character of Scripture, and the "Spirit that makes alive."我們要的,而是承認"上帝心中的"人格的經文和"的精神,這使得活著" 。 Only so will the Scripture be profitable. Conversely, the Spirit cannot be claimed as the mark of an elite, as that which distinguishes and divides. The gospel of Jesus Christ includes the message that the Holy Spirit has been poured out on all flesh.只有這樣,將聖經,就能獲利。 反過來說,精神不能聲稱為標誌的一個精英,因為這其中的區別和分歧。福音的耶穌基督包括一個信息,就是聖靈已經傾注了所有的肉。 All abuses of Scripture and the Spirit must hear God's message: "The promise is to those who are near, and to those who are afar off, as many as the Lord our God will call."所有濫用的經文和精神,一定要聽上帝的訊息: "無極是那些靠近,並以那些遠方的小康,有多達耶和華我們的神將拜會" 。

TS Caulley日ts caulley
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
CK Barrett, The Holy Spirit and the Gospel Tradition; FD Bruner, A Theology of the Holy Spirit; JDG Dunn, Baptism in the Holy Spirit and Jesus and the Spirit; M. Green, I Believe in the Holy Spirit; H. Gunkel, The Influence of the Holy Spirit; GS Hendry, The Holy Spirit: Growth of a Biblical Tradition; CFD Moule, The Holy Spirit; PDM Ramsey, Holy Spirit; E. Schweizer, The Holy Spirit; HB Swete, The Holy Spirit in the Ancient Church and The Holy Spirit in the New Testament; H. Watkins-Jones, The Holy Spirit from Arminius to Wesley.對照Barrett表示,從聖靈福音傳統的FD布魯納,神學的聖靈; jdg鄧恩,洗禮,在聖靈與耶穌和精神;米綠色,我相信,在聖靈;每小時gunkel ,影響聖靈;一般事務亨德利,聖靈:增長的一個聖經傳統的CFD moule ,聖靈; PDM的拉姆齊,聖靈;體育schweizer ,聖靈;血紅蛋白swete ,聖靈在古代教會與聖靈在新約聖經;每小時沃特金斯-瓊斯,聖靈從arminius以韋斯利。


Ad'vocate ad'vocate

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Advocate, (Gr. parakletos), one who pleads another's cause, who helps another by defending or comforting him.提倡者, ( gr.冉克勒透絲) ,一人懇求對方的事業,他們幫助另一名由保衛或安慰他。 It is a name given by Christ three times to the Holy Ghost (John 14:16; 15:26; 16:7, where the Greek word is rendered "Comforter," qv).這是一個名稱,由基督的3倍,以聖靈(約翰14時16分; 15:26 ; 16時07分,而希臘字是立下"保惠師" ,請參閱) 。 It is applied to Christ in 1 John 2:1, where the same Greek word is rendered "Advocate," the rendering which it should have in all the places where it occurs.將它應用到基督在約翰一2:1 ,如果同一希臘字,是"無主張, "繪製,它應具備的所有地方出現。 Tertullus "the orator" (Acts 24:1) was a Roman advocate whom the Jews employed to accuse Paul before Felix. tertullus "演說家" (使徒行24:1 ) ,是古羅馬主張,其中猶太人聘請指責保羅之前菲利克斯。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Com'forter com'forter

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Comforter, the designation of the Holy Ghost (John 14:16, 26; 15:26; 16:7; RV marg., "or Advocate, or Helper; Gr. paracletos").撫慰者,指定聖靈(約翰14時16分, 26個; 15:26 ; 16時07分;風疹病毒馬格, "或主張,或幫手;遺傳資源。 paracletos " ) 。 The same Greek word thus rendered is translated "Advocate" in 1 John 2:1 as applicable to Christ.同一希臘字,從而變得譯為"主張"在約翰一2:1適用於基督。 It means properly "one who is summoned to the side of another" to help him in a court of justice by defending him, "one who is summoned to plead a cause."它就是"一人傳喚到一邊的另一個" ,以幫助他在法庭上的正義,捍衛他, "一個人傳喚到申辯的事業" 。 "Advocate" is the proper rendering of the word in every case where it occurs. "鼓吹"是正確的渲染這個詞在每一個案件發生。 It is worthy of notice that although Paul nowhere uses the word paracletos, he yet presents the idea it embodies when he speaks of the "intercession" both of Christ and the Spirit (Rom. 8:27, 34).它是值得的公告說,儘管保羅無處用字paracletos ,他尚未提出構想,它體現著時,他談到"干涉" ,都是基督精神(羅馬書8時27分, 34 ) 。


Spirit, Breath精神,呼氣

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Ruah: "breath; air; strength; wind; breeze; spirit; courage; temper; Spirit." ruah : "呼氣;空氣;實力;風;微風;精神;勇氣;磨煉;精神" 。 This noun has cognates in Ugaritic, Aramaic, and Arabic.這個名詞已cognates在烏加里特文,阿拉姆語和阿拉伯語。 The word occurs about 378 times and in all periods of biblical Hebrew.這個詞出現的約378倍,並在各個時期的聖經希伯來語。

First, this word means "breath," air for breathing, air that is being breathed.首先,這個詞的意思是"呼吸"空氣中呼吸,空氣是被吹了。 This meaning is especially evident in Jer.這意思是特別明顯哲。 14:6: "And the wild asses did stand in the high places, they snuffed up the wind like dragons...." 14時06分: "和野生資產卻站在高地方,他們扼殺了風如出水… … 。 When one's "breath" returns, he is revived: "...When he [Samson] had drunk [the water], his spirit [literally, "breath"] came again, and he revived..."當一個人的"呼吸"的回報,他是復興: " … …當他[黃山]已喝醉[水] ,他的精神[從字面上來看, "呼吸" ]又來了,他復活… … " (Judg. 15:19). ( judg. 15時19分) 。 Astonishment may take away one's "breath": "And when the queen of Sheba had seen all Solomon's wisdom, and the house that he had built, And the meat of his table,... there was no more spirit in her [she was overwhelmed and breathless]" (1 Kings 10:4-5).驚愕可能奪去一個人的"呼吸" : "當女王的謝巴曾見過所有所羅門的智慧,和眾議院表示,他已建成,肉他的表, … …有沒有更多的精神在她的[她壓倒和咋舌] " ( 1國王10:4-5 ) 。 Ruah may also represent speaking, or the breath of one's mouth: "By the word of the Lord were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth" (Ps. 33:6; cf. Exod. 15:8; Job 4:9; 19:17). ruah也可能代表發言,或呼吸一個人的嘴: "天主聖言被老天爺發了言;所有的東道主,他們所呼吸的嘴巴" (詩篇33:6 ;比照exod 15 : 8 ;工作, 4時09分; 19時17分) 。

Second, this word can be used with emphasis on the invisible, intangible, fleeting quality of "air": "O remember that my life is wind: mine eyes shall no more see good" (Job 7:7).第二,這個詞可以用來著重於無形,無形,稍縱即逝質量的"空" : "啊,還記得我的生命是風:礦山眼睛會不會更見良好" (就業7時07分) 。 There may be a suggestion of purposelessness, uselessness, or even vanity (emptiness) when ruah is used with this significance: "And the prophets shall become wind, and the word is not in them ..."有可能是一個建議purposelessness ,無用的,甚至是虛榮(空虛)當ruah用在這個意義上說: "和先知會成為風,字是不是… … " (Jer. 5:13). ( jer. 5時13分) 。 "Windy words" are really "empty words" (Job 16:3), just as "windy knowledge" is "empty knowledge" (Job 15:2; cf. Eccl. 1:14, 17, "meaningless striving"). "風話" ,真的是"空話" (就業16時03分) ,正如"刮風知識" ,是"空洞的知識" (就業15時02分;比照eccl 。 1:14 , 17 , "沒有意義,爭取" ) 。 In Prov.在省。 11:29 ruah means "nothing": "He that troubleth his own house shall inherit the wind...." 11時29 ruah意思是"什麼" ,說: "他說, troubleth還有自己的房子應繼承風… … 。 This nuance is especially prominent in Eccl.這個細微差別尤為突出eccl 。 5:15-16: "And he came forth of his mother's womb, naked shall he return to go as he came, and shall take nothing of his labor, which he may carry away in his hand. And this also is a sore evil, that in all points as he came, so shall he go: and what profit hath he that hath labored for the wind?" 5:15-16 : "和他站出來他的母親的子宮裡,赤身裸體,應他返回去,因為他一來,並應採取什麼他的勞動,他都可以進行遠離他手上,這也是聲音沙啞邪惡,在所有各點,因為他來了,所以他應到:什麼利潤祂所他說,祂所勞動,為風" ?

Third, ruah can mean "wind."第三, ruah可以指"風" 。 In Gen. 3:8 it seems to mean the gentle, refreshing evening breeze so well known in the Near East: "And they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool [literally, "breeze"] of the day...."在將軍3時08分,這似乎意味著輕柔,清爽傍晚的微風,使當地十分有名,在近東說: "他們聽到的聲音,上帝走在花園乘涼[從字面上來看, "微風" ]的一天… … 。 It can mean a strong, constant wind: "... And the Lord brought an east wind upon the land all that day, and all that night ..."它可以指一個強大,恆風說: " … …於是上帝帶來了東風後,土地所有這一天,而所有這天晚上… … " (Exod. 10:13). ( exod. 10:13 ) 。 It can also signify an extremely strong wind: "And the Lord turned a mighty strong west wind ..."它也可以顯示一個非常強風說: "和主把一個威武強大的西風… … " (Exod. 10:19). ( exod. 10時19分) 。 In Jer.在哲。 4:11 the word appears to represent a gale or tornado (cf. Hos. 8:7). 4時11字似乎代表了大風或龍捲風(參見居者有其屋。 8時07分) 。 God is the Creator (Amos 4:13) and sovereign Controller of the winds (Gen. 8:1; Num. 11:31; Jer. 10:13).上帝是造物主(阿莫斯4時13分)和主權控制器的風(創8:1 ;序號。 11時31分;哲。 10:13 ) 。

Fourth, the wind represents direction.第四,風代表著方向。 In Jer.在哲。 49:36 the four winds represent the four ends of the earth, which in turn represent every quarter: "And upon Elam will I bring the four winds [peoples from every quarter of the earth] from the four quarters of heaven, and will scatter them toward all those winds; and there shall be no nation whither the outcasts of Elam shall not come." 49:36該康萊代表四個兩端的地球,而這又代表著每一季: "經elam將我帶來康萊[人民從每一季的地球]從四個季度的天堂,將散射他們對所有那些風;不應有任何民族該向何處去的棄兒elam不得來吧" 。 Akkadian attests the same phrase with the same meaning, and this phrase begins to appear in Hebrew at a time when contact with Akkadian-speaking peoples was frequent.阿卡德文證明了同樣的措辭與相同的含義,這句話開始出現在希伯來語在這個時候,接觸阿卡德文為母語的民族頻繁。

Fifth, ruah frequently represents the element of life in a man, his natural "spirit": "And all flesh died that moved upon the earth,... All in whose nostrils was the breath of life ..."第五, ruah經常代表著生活元素,在一個男子,其自然的"精神" : "及一切肉體死亡感動了經地球, … …一切在其鼻孔呼吸的生命… … " (Gen. 7:21-22). (創7:21-22 ) 。 In these verses the animals have a "spirit" (cf. Ps. 104:29).在這些詩詞中的動物有一個"精神" (參見聚苯乙烯。 104:29 ) 。 On the other hand, in Prov.在另一方面,在省。 16:2 the word appears to mean more than just the element of life; it seems to mean "soul": "All the ways of a man are clean in his own eyes; but the Lord weigheth the spirits [NASB, "motives"]." 16時02分一詞似乎意味著不僅僅是生活元素,它似乎是指"靈魂" : "採取一切辦法,一名男子的是乾淨的,在他自己的眼睛,但主weigheth神[科學院, "動機" ] " 。 Thus, Isaiah can put nepes, "soul," and ruah in synonymous parallelism: "With my soul have I desired thee in the night; yea, with my spirit within me will I seek thee early ..."因此,以賽亞書,可以把nepes , "靈魂" , ruah在同義排比: "我的靈魂,我想要你在那天晚上,記得,我的精神在我,我將尋求你早… … " (26:9). ( 26:9 ) 。 It is the "spirit" of a man that returns to God (Eccl. 12:7).這是"精神"的一個男人,回到上帝(傳道書12時07分) 。

Sixth, ruah is often used of a man's mind-set, disposition, or "temper": "Blessed is the man unto whom the Lord imputeth not inqiuity, and in whose spirit there is no guile" (Ps. 32:2).第六, ruah通常是一個人的思維定勢,處置,或"脾氣" : "幸運的是,該名男子所不欲,其中主imputeth不inqiuity ,並在其精神是沒有桂樂" (詩篇32:2 ) 。 In Ezek.在ezek 。 13:3 the word is used of one's mind or thinking: "Woe unto the foolish prophets, that follow their own spirits, and have seen nothing" (cf. Prov. 29:11). 13點03字,是用一個人的主意或思想: "妄為愚蠢的先知,即按照他們自己的精神狀態,看到了什麼" , (參見省29:11 ) 。 Ruah can represent particular dispositions, as it does in Josh. ruah能夠代表特別處分權,因為它是在說笑。 2:11: "And as soon as we had heard these things, our hearts did melt, neither did there remain any more courage in any man, because of you ..." 2時11分: "當我們聽到這些事情,但我們的心卻融化,也沒有存在任何更多的勇氣,在任何人為的,因為你… … " (cf. Josh. 5:1; Job 15:13). (參見喬什。 5:1 ;工作, 15時13分) 。 Another disposition represented by this word is "temper": "If the spirit [temper] of the ruler rise up against thee, leave not thy place ..."另配置為代表的這個字是"脾氣" : "如果精神[脾氣]的統治者起來反對你,不會離開你的地方… … " (Eccl. 10:4). (傳道書10:4 ) 。 David prayed that God would "restore unto me the joy of thy salvation; and uphold me with thy free Spirit" (Ps. 51:12).大衛祈禱上帝會" ,恢復所不欲,我的快樂你的救恩;堅持我,你用你的自由精神" (詩篇51:12 ) 。 In this verse "joy of salvation" and "free Spirit" are parallel and, therefore, synonymous terms.在這首詩, "喜悅的救贖"與"自由精神" ,是平行的,因此,同義詞。 Therefore, "spirit" refers to one's inner disposition, just as "joy" refers to an inner emotion.因此, "精神" ,是指一個人的內在配置,正如"喜悅" ,是指一種內在的情緒。

Seventh, the Bible often speaks of God's "Spirit," the third person of the Trinity. This is the use of the word in its first biblical occurrence: "And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters" (Gen. 1:2). 第七,聖經常常談到上帝的"精神" ,第三人的三位一體,這是沒有用的字,在它的首聖經的發生: "地球是沒有形式,而且無效;與黑暗是基於面對深部及上帝的精神提出後,面對問路" (創1:2 ) 。 Isa.伊薩。 63:10-11 and Ps. 63:10-11和PS 。 51:12 specifically speak of the "holy or free Spirit." 51:12具體談到"聖地或自由精神" 。

Eighth, the non-material beings (angels) in heaven are sometimes called "spirits": "And there came forth a spirit, and stood before the Lord, and said, I will persuade him" (1 Kings 22:21; cf. 1 Sam. 16:14).第八,非物質的人(天使) ,在天上,有時所謂的"神" : "有站出來一種精神,並站在耶和華面前,並說,我會說服他" ( 1國王22時21分;比照。一日山姆。 16時14分) 。

Ninth, the "spirit" may also be used of that which enables a man to do a particular job or that which represents the essence of a quality of man: "And Joshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom; for Moses had laid his hands upon him ..."第九, "精神" ,也可用於對那些能夠使一個人做某項工作,或代表本質是一個質量的男子說: "與約書亞的兒子尼姑卻充滿了精神,智慧,為摩西已奠定了他的手後,他的… … " (Deut. 34:9). (申命記34:9 ) 。 Elisha asked Elijah for a double portion of his "spirit" (2 Kings 2:9) and received it.艾莉莎問利亞一個雙重的部分,他的"精神" ( 2國王2時09分) ,並獲得它。


Holy Ghost聖靈

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

I. SYNOPSIS OF THE DOGMA一,簡要說明了教條

The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms an integral part of her teaching on the mystery of the Holy Trinity, of which St. Augustine (De Trin., I, iii, 5), speaking with diffidence, says: "In no other subject is the danger of erring so great, or the progress so difficult, or the fruit of a careful study so appreciable".該學說的天主教關於聖靈的一個組成部分,她教學上的奧秘,聖三一,其中聖奧古斯丁(德trin ,一,三,五) ,在談到與diffidence ,說: "在沒有其他議題,是危險的過錯這麼大,或進展如此艱難,或水果一個仔細研究,以便稱道的" 。 The essential points of the dogma may be resumed in the following propositions:要點的教條,可以恢復在以下主張:

The Holy Ghost is the Third Person of the Blessed Trinity.聖靈是第三人的祝福三一。

Though really distinct, as a Person, from the Father and the Son, He is consubstantial with Them; being God like Them, He possesses with Them one and the same Divine Essence or Nature.雖然真正獨特的,作為一個人,從父親和兒子,他是consubstantial同他們被上帝和他們一樣,他擁有跟他們來自同一個神聖的本質或性質。

He proceeds, not by way of generation, but by way of spiration, from the Father and the Son together, as from a single principle.他的收益,而不是透過一代,但透過spiration ,來自父親和兒子一起,從一個單一的原則。

Such is the belief the Catholic faith demands.這是信仰天主教的信仰需求。

II.二。 CHIEF ERRORS行政錯誤

All the theories and all the Christian sects that have contradicted or impugned, in any way, the dogma of the Trinity, have, as a logical consequence, threatened likewise the faith in the Holy Ghost.全部理論和全部基督教教派有自相矛盾或者非難的,以任何方式,教條的三位一體,有,作為一個合乎邏輯的後果,威脅到同樣的信念,在聖靈。 Among these, history mentions the following:這其中,歷史上提到了以下各項:

In the second and third centuries, the dynamic or modalistic Monarchians (certain Ebionites, it is said, Theodotus of Byzantium, Paul of Samosata, Praxeas, Noëtus, Sabellius, and the Patripassians generally) held that the same Divine Person, according to His different operations or manifestations, is in turn called the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; so they recognized a purely nominal Trinity.在第二和第三世紀以來,動態或modalistic monarchians (某些ebionites ,有人說,奧多托斯的拜占庭,保羅的samosata , praxeas , noëtus , sabellius和patripassians普遍)認為,同樣神聖的人,根據他的不同行動或表現形式,又是因為所謂的父親,兒子,以及聖靈,所以他們認識到純粹的象徵性的三位一體。

In the fourth century and later, the Arians and their numerous heretical offspring: Anomans or Eunomians, Semi-Arians, Acacians, etc., while admitting the triple personality, denied the consubstantiality.在第四世紀後, arians他們還有許多異端後代: anomans或eunomians ,半arians , acacians等,同時承認三重人格,否認consubstantiality 。 Arianism had been preceded by the Subordination theory of some ante-Nicene writers, who affirmed a difference and a gradation between the Divine Persons other than those that arise from their relations in point of origin. arianism已先於所從屬理論的一些前廳nicene作家,他們肯定相差一個層次之間的神聖的人,比其他那些產生於它們關係的切入點,原產地。

In the sixteenth century, the Socinians explicitly rejected, in the name of reason, along with all the mysteries of Christianity, the doctrine of Three Persons in One God.在十六世紀, socinians明確拒絕,在名稱的原因,再加上所有的奧秘,基督教教義的3人中唯一的天主。

Mention may also be made of the teachings of Johannes Philoponus (sixth century), Roscellinus, Gilbert de la Porrée, Joachim of Flora (eleventh and twelfth centuries), and, in modern times, Günther, who, by denying or obscuring the doctrine of the numerical unity of the Divine Nature, it reality set up a triple deity.何況還可能作出的遺訓約翰內斯philoponus (六世紀) , roscellinus ,吉爾伯特德香格里拉porrée ,約阿希姆的植物界(第十一屆和第十二屆世紀) ,並在近代以來,吻,他們否認或掩蓋學說數值統一的神聖性質,它實際上成立了一個三重神。

In addition to these systems and these writers, who came in conflict with the true doctrine about the Holy Ghost only indirectly and as a logical result of previous errors, there were others who attacked the truth directly:除了這些系統和這些作家,但他們卻對衝突與真正教義約聖靈只是間接的,並作為合乎邏輯的結果,對以往失誤的,有被其他人攻擊的真相直接:

Towards the middle of the fourth century, Macedonius, Bishop of Constantinople, and, after him a number of Semi-Arians, while apparently admitting the Divinity of the Word, denied that of the Holy Ghost.朝中的第四個世紀, macedonius主教,君士坦丁堡,並在後,他的一些半arians ,雖然表面上承認神的這個詞,無可否認的聖靈。 They placed Him among the spirits, inferior ministers of God, but higher than the angels.他們還在他之間的烈酒,劣質部長上帝的,但高於天使。 They were, under the name of Pneumatomachians, condemned by the Council of Constantinople, in 381 (Mansi, III, col. 560).它們包括:名義下pneumatomachians ,譴責安理會的君士坦丁堡,在381 (曼西,三,中校560 ) 。 Since the days of Photius, the schismatic Greeks maintain that the Holy Ghost, true God like the Father and the Son, proceeds from the former alone.由於天photius , schismatic希臘人認為,聖靈,真實的上帝一樣,父親和兒子,收益來自前單。

III.三。 THE THIRD PERSON OF THE BLESSED TRINITY第三人的祝福三一

This heading implies two truths:這個標題意味著兩個真理:

The Holy Ghost is a Person really distinct as such from the Father and the Son;聖靈是一個人真的截然不同,因為這種來自父親和兒子;

He is God and consubstantial with the Father and the Son.他是上帝和consubstantial與父親和兒子。

The first statement is directly opposed to Monarchianism and to Socinianism; the second to Subordinationism, to the different forms of Arianism, and to Macedonianism in particular.第一項聲明是直接反對monarchianism並socinianism ;第二至subordinationism ,以不同形式的arianism ,並macedonianism特別。 The same arguments drawn from Scripture and Tradition may be used generally to prove either assertion.同樣的觀點來自經文和傳統,可用於一般,以證明不是斷言。 We will, therefore, bring forward the proofs of the two truths together, but first call particular attention to some passages that demonstrate more explicitly the distinction of personality.因此,我們會提出證據的兩個真理在一起,但我想首先請特別注意一些段落表明更明確區分的人格。

A. Scripture答:經文

In the New Testament the word spirit and, perhaps, even the expression spirit of God signify at times the soul or man himself, inasmuch as he is under the influence of God and aspires to things above; more frequently, especially in St. Paul, they signify God acting in man; but they are used, besides, to designate not only a working of God in general, but a Divine Person, Who is neither the Father nor the Son, Who is named together with the Father, or the Son, or with Both, without the context allowing them to be identified.在新約聖經字的精神,也許連表達上帝的精神象徵,在時代的靈魂或人為自己,因為他的影響下,上帝和渴望的東西以上;更加頻繁,特別是在聖保羅,他們象徵上帝行事的人,但它們的使用情況,此外,要指定不只是一個工作的上帝一般,而是一種神聖的人,他既不是父親,也不是兒子,誰是命名連同父親,還是兒子,或兩者,但無背景,讓他們被認出。 A few instances are given here.少數情況是由於這裡。 We read in John, xiv, 16, 17: "And I will ask the Father, and he shall give you another Paraclete, that he may abide with, you for ever. The spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive"; and in John, xv, 26: "But when the Paraclete cometh, whom I will send you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceedeth from the Father, he shall give testimony of me."我們讀到約翰,十四,十六,十七,說: "我會請父親,他必給你的另一paraclete ,他可能會遵守,你永遠真理的聖靈,其中世界不能接受" ;在約翰, 15 , 26 : "但是,當paraclete來臨,我會寄給您來自父親,精神的真理,誰proceedeth來自父親時,他須提供證詞的我" 。 St. Peter addresses his first epistle, i, 1-2, "to the strangers dispersed . . . elect, according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, unto the sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ".聖彼得地址,他的第一書信,我, 1-2 , "給陌生人散去… … 。選出,根據該foreknowledge上帝的父親賜給成聖的精神,服從祂,並灑的鮮血耶穌基督" 。 The Spirit of consolation and of truth is also clearly distinguished in John 16:7, 13-15, from the Son, from Whom He receives all He is to teach the Apostles, and from the Father, who has nothing that the Son also does not possess.精神慰藉和真理的,也是明確的區分,在約翰16時07分, 13日至15日,從兒子,從他獲得一切,他是教導門徒,並從父親,他卻無能為力,兒子也不代表不具備什麼條件。 Both send Him, but He is not separated from Them, for the Father and the Son come with Him when He descends into our souls (John 14:23).既送他,但他並沒有脫離他們,因為父親和兒子跟他的時候,他降入我們的靈魂(約翰14時23分) 。

Many other texts declare quite as clearly that the Holy Ghost is a Person, a Person distinct from the Father and the Son, and yet One God with Them.和其他許多文件申報很清楚地說,聖靈是一個人,一個人有別於父親和兒子,但一個神與他們。 In several places St. Paul speaks of Him as if speaking of God.在幾個地方聖保祿談起他,如果講的上帝。 In Acts 28:25, he says to the Jews: "Well did the Holy Ghost speak to our fathers by Isaias the prophet"; now the prophecy contained in the next two verses is taken from Isaias 6:9-10, where it is put in the mouth of the "King the Lord of hosts".在28:25的行為,他說,向猶太人說: "好,有沒有聖靈發言,我們的父輩所伊薩亞斯羅該先知" ,現在的預言,在未來兩年小詩取之於伊薩亞斯羅6:9-10 ,因為它正在把口的"造王者主的東道主" 。 In other places he uses the words God and Holy Ghost as plainly synonymous.在其他地方,他所用的字眼是上帝聖靈明顯同義詞。 Thus he writes, I Corinthians 3:16: "Know you not, that you are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?"就這樣,他寫道,我哥林多前書3:16說: "知道你沒有錯,你們廟裡的神,即上帝的精神永遠的你" ? and in 6:19: "Or know you not, that your members are the temple of the Holy Ghost, who is in you . . . ?"並在6點19分: "知道你沒有,你的成員是廟的聖靈,究竟是誰在你… … 。 " ? St. Peter asserts the same identity when he thus remonstrates with Ananias (Acts 5:3-4): "Why hath Satan tempted thy heart, that thou shouldst lie to the Holy Ghost . . . ? Thou hast not lied to men, but to God."聖彼得斷言同一身份的時候,因此,他remonstrates與ananias (行為5:3-4 )說: "為什麼祂所撒旦誘惑你的心,那你shouldst騙聖靈… … 。嗎?祢不會說謊,以男性,但向上帝" 。 The sacred writers attribute to the Holy Ghost all the works characteristic of Divine power.神聖的作家屬性,以聖靈全部工程的特點,神力。 It is in His name, as in the name of the Father and of the Son, that baptism is to be given (Matthew 28:19).這是他的名字,因為在父親的姓名和兒子,即洗禮,是獲得(馬太28:19 ) 。 It is by His operation that the greatest of Divine mysteries, the Incarnation of the Word, is accomplished (Matthew 1:18, 20; Luke 1:35).這是他的行動,最神聖的奧秘,化身字,是完成(馬太1:18 ,第20條;路加1時35分) 。 It is also in His name and by His power that sins are forgiven and souls sanctified: "Receive ye the Holy Ghost. Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them" (John 20:22-23); "But you are washed, but you are sanctified, but you are justified in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Spirit of our God" (1 Corinthians 6:11); "The charity of God is poured forth in our hearts, by the Holy Ghost, who is given to us" (Romans 5:5).也正是在他的名字和他的權力,這是有福的原諒和心靈聖潔說: "接受葉聖靈誰的罪過,你會原諒,他們是原諒他們" (約翰福音20:22-23 ) ; " ,但你們是水洗,但你是聖潔的,但你是有道理的名義,我們的主耶穌基督,和精神-我們的上帝" (哥林多前書6時1 1分) , "慈善的上帝是傾注了留在我們心中,聖靈他是給我們" (羅5:5 ) 。 He is essentially the Spirit of truth (John 14:16-17; 15:26), Whose office it is to strengthen faith (Acts 6:5), to bestow wisdom (Acts 6:3), to give testimony of Christ, that is to say, to confirm His teaching inwardly (John 15:26), and to teach the Apostles the full meaning of it (John 14:26; 16:13).他基本上是真理的聖靈(約翰14:16-17 ; 15:26 ) ,其辦公室是為了加強信仰(行為6時05分) ,賜給智慧(使徒行6:3 ) ,讓基督的見證,這就是說,以證實他的教學內心(約翰福音15:26 ) ,並教導門徒的全部意義,它(約翰14時26分; 16:13 ) 。 With these Apostles He will abide for ever (John 14:16).這些門徒,他將恪守永遠(約翰14時16分) 。 Having descended on them at Pentecost, He will guide them in their work (Acts 8:29), for He will inspire the new prophets (Acts 11:28; 13:9), as He inspired the Prophets of the Old Law (Acts 7:51).經後裔對他們在五旬,他將指導他們的工作(使徒8時29分) ,因為他將激發新的先知(使徒行11:28 ; 13時09分) ,因為他激發了先知的舊法(行為7時51分) 。 He is the source of graces and gifts (1 Corinthians 12:3-11); He, in particular, grants the gift of tongues (Acts 2:4; 10:44-47).他的根源在於青睞和禮物( 1哥林多前書12:3-11 ) ,他的,特別是資助的禮物舌頭(使徒2時04分; 10:44-47 ) 。 And as he dwells in our bodies sanctifies them (1 Corinthians 3:16; 6:19),so will and them he raise them again, one day, from the dead (Romans 8:11).當他懷抱著在我們的身體sanctifies他們(哥林多前書3:16 ; 6時19分) ,因此將和他們籌集到他們身上,有一天,從死裡復活(羅馬書8時11分) 。 But he operates especially in the soul, giving it a new life (Romans 8:9 sq.), being the pledge that God has given us that we are his children (Romans 8:14-16; 2 Corinthians 1:22; 5:5; Galatians 4:6).但他操縱的,特別是在靈魂,賦予它新的生命(羅馬書8時09平方) ,作為承諾,上帝給了我們,我們是他的子女(羅馬書8:14-16 2哥林多前書1:22 ; : 5人;加拉太4:6 ) 。 He is the Spirit of God, and at the same time the Spirit of Christ (Romans 8:9); because He is in God, He knows the deepest mysteries of God (1 Corinthians 2:10-11), and He possesses all knowledge.他是上帝的恩典,並在同一時間,基督的靈(羅馬書8時09分) ,因為他是上帝,他知道最深奧秘的神(哥林多前書2:10 ) ,他擁有一切知識。 St. Paul ends his Second Epistle to the Corinthians (13:13) with this formula of benediction, which might be called a blessing of the Trinity: "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the charity of God, and the communication of the Holy Ghost be with you all."聖保祿結束他的第二個書信給哥林多後( 13時13分)與這一公式的功德,這可能是所謂的福的三位一體: "恩典,我們的主耶穌基督,和慈善的上帝,和交流聖靈與你同所有" 。 -- Cf. -比照。 Tixeront, "Hist. des dogmes", Paris, 1905, I, 80, 89, 90,100,101. tixeront , "歷史。 dogmes萬" ,巴黎, 1905年,我80 , 89 , 90100101 。

B. Tradition乙傳統

While corroborating and explaining the testimony of Scripture, Tradition brings more clearly before us the various stages of the evolution of this doctrine.而確證和解釋的證詞經文,傳統帶來更清楚擺在我們面前的不同階段的演化這一學說。 As early as the first century, St. Clement of Rome gives us important teaching about the Holy Ghost.早在第一世紀,聖克萊門特的羅馬給了我們重要的教學約聖靈。 His "Epistle to the Corinthians" not only tells us that the Spirit inspired and guided the holy writers (viii, 1; xlv, 2); that He is the voice of Jesus Christ speaking to us in the Old Testament (xxii, 1 sq.); but it contains further, two very explicit statements about the Trinity.他的"書信向哥林多前書" ,不只是告訴我們,這一精神的鼓舞和指導下神聖的作家(八, 1 ;四十五, 2 ) ;他的聲音耶穌基督來說,我們在舊約( 22 , 1平方) ,但它載有進一步的,兩個非常明確的聲明,對三一。 In c. C組 xlvi, 6 (Funk, "Patres apostolici", 2nd ed., I,158), we read that "we have only one God, one Christ, one only Spirit of grace within us, one same vocation in Christ".四十六, 6 (畏縮, " patres apostolici " ,第二版,我, 158 ) ,我們讀到說, "我們只有一個真主,一個基督,其中只有精神的寬限期內,我們同一個天職,在基督裡" 。 In lviii, 2 (Funk, ibid., 172), the author makes this solemn affirmation; zo gar ho theos, kai zo ho kyrios Iesous Christos kai to pneuma to hagion, he te pistis kai he elpis ton eklekton, oti .在lviii , 2 (方克,同上, 172 ) ,作者使這個莊嚴的誓詞; zo明嘉何theos ,啟zo何kyrios iesous克里斯托開到pneuma以hagion ,何特信實的何凱爾庇斯噸級eklekton , oti 。 . . which we may compare with the formula so frequently met with in the Old Testament: zo kyrios.我們可以比較與公式,所以頻頻會見在舊約: zo kyrios 。 From this it follows that, in Clement's view, kyrios was equally applicable to ho theos (the Father), ho kyrios Iesous Christos, and to pneuma to hagion; and that we have three witnesses of equal authority, whose Trinity, moreover, is the foundation of Christian faith and hope.從這一點如下,在克萊門特的看法, kyrios同樣適用於何theos (父) ,何kyrios iesous克里斯托,並pneuma以hagion ,並認為,我們有三個證人的平等權力,其三位一體的,而且,是基金會的基督教信仰和希望。

The same doctrine is declared, in the second and third centuries, by the lips of the martyrs, and is found in the writings of the Fathers.同樣的學說是宣布,在第二和第三世紀以來,由嘴唇的先烈,並發現在該著作的父親。 St. Polycarp (d. 155), in his torments, thus professed his faith in the Three Adorable Persons ("Martyrium sancti Polycarpi" in Funk op. cit., I, 330): "Lord God Almighty, Father of Thy blessed and well beloved Son, Jesus Christ . . . in everything I praise Thee, I bless Thee, I glorify Thee by the eternal and celestial pontiff Jesus Christ, Thy well beloved Son, by whom, to Thee, with Him and with the Holy Ghost, glory now and for ever!"聖利卡爾普致斐利(四155 ) ,在他的磨折,所以自稱他的信念,在這三個可愛的人(下稱" martyrium sancti polycarpi "洞前引書,我, 330 )說: "上帝萬能的,父親著你的祝福好心愛的兒子,耶穌… … 。事事我讚美你,我祝福你,我讚美你,由永恆和天體教宗耶穌基督,你的好心愛的兒子,誰發現的,以紀念你,同他和聖靈,榮耀,現在和永遠" !

St. Epipodius spoke more distinctly still (Ruinart, "Acta mart.", Verona edition, p. 65): "I confess that Christ is God with the Father and the Holy Ghost, and it is fitting that I should give back my soul to Him Who is my Creator and my Redeemer."聖epipodius以更鮮明地仍在( ruinart , "學報沃爾瑪" ,維羅納版,第65頁)說: "我坦白地說,基督是上帝與父親及聖靈,它是恰當的,我應該給回我的靈魂他的人是我的創造和我的救贖主" 。

Among the apologists, Athenagoras mentions the Holy Ghost along with, and on the same plane as, the Father and the Son.其中辯護士athenagoras提到聖靈一起,並於同一平面,因為,父親和兒子。 "Who would not be astonished", says he (Legat. pro christian., n. 10, in PG, VI, col. 909), "to hear us called atheists, us who confess God the Father, God the Son and the Holy Ghost, and hold them one in power and distinct in order [. . . ten en te henosei dynamin, kai ten en te taxei diairesin]?" " ,他們將不會感到驚訝" ,說他( legat.親基督徒, 12月31日10 ,在編號,六,中校909 ) , "聽到我們所謂的無神論者,我們得承認上帝的,上帝的兒子和聖靈,並責成它們一個在權力和獨特的,以[ … … 。十大恩得henosei動力素,啟十年恩得taxei diairesin ] " ?

Theophilus of Antioch, who sometimes gives to the Holy Ghost, as to the Son, the name of Wisdom (sophia), mentions besides (Ad Autol., lib. I, n. 7, and II, n. 18, in PG, VI, col. 1035, 1081) the three terms theos, logos, sophia and, being the first to apply the characteristic word that was afterwards adopted, says expressly (ibid., II, 15) that they form a trinity (trias).西奧菲勒斯安提,他們有時給人的聖靈,以兒子,名字的智慧(索菲亞) ,提到除了(公元autol ,鋰離子電池,我12月7日和二, 12月18日,在編號,六,中校1035 , 1081 )三個條件theos ,標識,索菲亞,並作為第一個報名的特徵詞是通過事後表示,明文規定(同上,第II , 15歲) ,他們組成一個三位一體(三疊系) 。 Irenæus looks upon the Holy Ghost as eternal (Adv. Hær., V, xii, n. 2, in PG, VII, 1153), existing in God ante omnem constitutionem, and produced by him at the beginning of His ways (ibid., IV, xx, 3). irenæus視聖靈為永恆( adv. hær ,五,十二, 12月31日2 ,在編號,第七,第1153 ) ,現有在上帝前廳omnem constitutionem ,產生了由他在一開始他的方式(同上,四,某, 3 ) 。 Considered with regard to the Father, the Holy Ghost is his wisdom (IV, xx, 3); the Son and He are the "two hands" by which God created man (IV, præf., n. 4; IV, xx, 20; V, vi, 1).審議關於向父親,聖靈是他的智慧(四,某, 3 ) ;兒子和他的是"兩隻手" ,而上帝創造了人(四, præf , 12月31日4 ;四,某,第20條;五,六,一) 。 Considered with regard to the Church, the same Spirit is truth, grace, a pledge of immortality, a principle of union with God; intimately united to the Church, He gives the sacraments their efficacy and virtue (III, xvii, 2, xxiv, 1; IV, xxxiii, 7; V, viii, 1).審議關於教會,以同樣的精神,是真理,雍容,承諾不朽的,這一原則的聯盟與上帝;關係密切,美向教會,他給聖禮,其療效與德治(三,第十七章, 2 , 24條1 ,四,三十三,七;第五,第八, 1 ) 。

St. Hippolytus, though he does not speak at all clearly of the Holy Ghost regarded as a distinct person, supposes him, however, to be God, as well as the Father and the Son (Contra Noët., viii, xii, in PG, X, 816, 820).聖hippolytus ,他雖然不說話時都明確的聖靈視為一個獨特的人,是支撐他,但是,為了上帝,以及父親和兒子(矛盾noët ,第八,第十二,在編號, X ,黑816 , 820 ) 。 Tertullian is one of the writers of this age whose tendency to Subordinationism is most apparent, and that in spite of his being the author of the definitive formula: "Three persons, one substance".戴爾都良就是其中的作家的這個年齡層的傾向subordinationism是最明顯的,並說,儘管他身為作者的確切公式為: "三個人,其中一個物質" 。 And yet his teaching on the Holy Ghost is in every way remarkable.然而,他的教學就聖靈,是在各方面都非常了不起。 He seems to have been the first among the Fathers to affirm His Divinity in a clear and absolutely precise manner.他似乎已被第一個父親肯定他的神性,在一個清晰的,絕對精確的方式。 In his work "Adversus Praxean" lie dwells at length on the greatness of the Paraclete.在他的工作" ,相反praxean "謊言整篇篇幅介紹了偉大的paraclete 。 The Holy Ghost, he says, is God (c. xiii in PL, II, 193); of the substance of the Father (iii, iv in PL, II, 181-2); one and the same God with the Father and the Son (ii in PL, II, 180); proceeding from the Father through the Son (iv, viii in PL, II, 182, 187); teaching all truth (ii in PL, II, 179).聖靈,他說,是上帝(丙十三特等,二, 193 ) ;對該物質的父親(第三,四,在臨時立法會第一,二, 181-2 ) ,是同一個神與父兒子( II型在特等,二, 180 ) ;從父親經過兒子(四,八,在特等,二, 182 , 187 ) ;教學全部真相(二特等,二, 179 ) 。 St. Gregory Thaumaturgus, or at least the Ekthesis tes pisteos, which is commonly attributed to him, and which dates from the period 260-270, gives us this remarkable passage (PG, X, 933 sqq.): "One is God, Father of the living Word, of the subsisting Wisdom. . . . One the Lord, one of one, God of God, invisible of invisible. . .One the Holy Ghost, having His subsistence from God. . . . Perfect Trinity, which in eternity, glory, and power, is neither divided, nor separated. . . . Unchanging and immutable Trinity."聖格雷戈里thaumaturgus ,或至少ekthesis附加費pisteos ,這是歸咎於他,並追溯自期260-270 ,使我們這個傑出的通道公司( PG , X ,黑933 sqq )說: "其中一個是上帝,父親的生活總之,對生存的智慧… … 。一主,其中的一個,上帝上帝的,看不見的無形的… … 。一聖靈,他的生活費由上帝… … 。完美三一,其中在永恆,榮耀,權力多大,既不是分歧,也沒有分離… … 。天長地久和不可改變的三位一體" 。

In 304, the martyr St. Vincent said (Ruinart, op. cit., 325): "I confess the Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the Father most High, one of one; I recognize Him as one God with the Father and the Holy Ghost."在304 ,烈士聖文森說: ( ruinart ,同前,第325條)說: "我得承認主耶穌基督的兒子,父親最高,其中一個,我認得他,作為一個上帝與父親及聖靈" 。

But we must come down towards the year 360 to find the doctrine on the Holy Ghost explained both fully and clearly.但是,我們必須來實現今年360找到學說聖靈解釋說充分,說清楚。 It is St. Athanasius who does so in his "Letters to Serapion" (PG, XXVI, col. 525 sq.).這是聖athanasius誰做,所以在他的"信,謝拉皮翁"公司( PG ,二十六,中校525平方米) 。 He had been informed that certain Christians held that the Third Person of the Blessed Trinity was a creature.他已得知,某些基督徒認為,第三人的祝福三一是一個受造物。 To refute them he questions the Scriptures, and they furnish him with arguments as solid as they are numerous.反駁他們,他的問題會念經,並提供他的論據紮實,因為他們是多方面的。 They tell him, in particular, that the Holy Ghost is united to the Son by relations just like those existing between the Son and the Father; that He is sent by the Son; that He is His mouth-piece and glorifies Him; that, unlike creatures, He has not been made out of nothing, but comes forth from God; that He performs a sanctifying work among men, of which no creature is capable; that in possessing Him we possess God; that the Father created everything by Him; that, in fine, He is immutable, has the attributes of immensity, oneness, and has a right to all the appellations that are used to express the dignity of the Son.他們告訴他,特別指出,聖靈是美國給兒子的關係,就像之間存在的兒子和父親,這是他派來的兒子,即他是他的嘴片,並美化了他,說,不像動物,他並沒有被開出無中生有的,但來了來自上帝,那他履行sanctifying工作,在男子中,其中沒有任何動物,是有能力,即在藏有他我們所擁有的神,即父創造一切由他;說,在精細,他是一成不變的,有屬性的巨大,統一性,並有權利向所有稱謂被用來表達尊嚴的兒子。 Most of these conclusions he supports by means of Scriptural texts, a few from amongst which are given above.大多數的這些結論,他支持透過聖經的文本,有幾個從其中獲得以上。 But the writer lays special stress on what is read in Matthew 28:19.但筆者規定特別強調了對什麼是閱讀馬修28:19 。 "The Lord", he writes (Ad Serap., III, n. 6, in PG, XXVI, 633 sq.), "founded the Faith of the Church on the Trinity, when He said to His Apostles: 'Going therefore, teach ye all nations; baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.' "上帝" ,他寫道(公元小型企業研究資助計劃,三, 12月31日6 ,在編號, 26 , 633平方米) , "創辦的信仰教會對三位一體的,當他說,他的門徒: '去,因此,教葉所有國家;洗禮,他們在父親的姓名,和兒子,以及聖靈。 If the Holy Ghost were a creature, Christ would not have associated Him with the Father; He would have avoided making a heterogeneous Trinity, composed of unlike elements. What did God stand in need of? Did He need to join to Himself a being of different nature? . . . No, the Trinity is not composed of the Creator and the creature."如果聖靈是一個受造物,基督會不會有相關的,與他的父親,他將避免作出異構三位一體,組成不同的分子。什麼叫上帝的立場,有需要的嗎?他需要加入到自己的幸福不同性質的? … … 。不然,因為三一是不是組成的創建者和受造物" 。

A little later, St. Basil, Didymus of Alexandria, St. Epiphanius, St. Gregory of Nazianzus, St. Ambrose, and St. Gregory of Nyssa took up the same thesis ex professo, supporting it for the most part with the same proofs.有點遲,聖羅勒, didymus的亞歷山德里亞,聖epiphanius ,聖格雷戈里的nazianzus ,聖劉漢銓,和聖格雷戈里的nyssa了同樣的論斷,當然professo ,支持它在大多數情況與上年證據。 All these writings had prepared the way for the Council of Constantinople which, in 381, condemned the Pneumatomachians and solemnly proclaimed the true doctrine.所有這些著作,他編寫的方式,為安理會的君士坦丁堡其中,在381人,譴責pneumatomachians ,並鄭重地宣布了真正的教義。 This teaching forms part of the Creed of Constantinople, as it is called, where the symbol refers to the Holy Ghost, "Who is also our Lord and Who gives life; Who proceeds from the Father, Who is adored and glorified together with the Father and the Son; Who spoke by the prophets".這種教學形式,部分的信條君士坦丁堡,因為它是所謂的,而符號是指以聖靈" ,他們也是我們的主,誰給的生命,誰收益,從父親,他是崇拜和歌頌連同父親和兒子發言的,由先知" 。 Was this creed, with these particular words, approved by the council of 381?這個信條,與這些特殊的,換句話說,經理事會核准的381嗎? Formerly that was the common opinion, and even in recent times it has been held by authorities like Hefele, Hergenröther, and Funk; other historians, amongst whom are Harnack and Duchesne, are of the contrary opinion; but all agree in admitting that the creed of which we are speaking was received and approved by the Council of Chalcedon, in 451, and that, at least from that time, it became the official formula of Catholic orthodoxy.以前,這是共同的看法,即使是在近一個時期,它已舉辦了由機關一樣黑弗勒, hergenröther ,方克,其他史學家,其中包括人的Harnack和duchesne ,是相反的意見,但大家都同意,在不得不承認,這信條其中,我們是在談被收到並經理事會核准的chalcedon ,在451 ,並認為,至少從這個時候,它成了官方公式天主教正統。

IV.四。 PROCESSION OF THE HOLY GHOST遊行的聖靈

We need not dwell at length on the precise meaning of the Procession in God.我們不必糾纏在長度上的確切意義遊行上帝。 (See TRINITY.) It will suffice here to remark that by this word we mean the relation of origin that exists between one Divine Person and another, or between one and the two others as its principle of origin. (見三一) ,它足以在這裡表示,由這個字的意思,我們的關係起源之間存在一個神聖的人,另一種之間,或者是一個與其他兩個為原則的原產地。 The Son proceeds from the Father; the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son.兒子從父親;聖靈收益來自父親和兒子。 The latter truth will be specially treated here.後者真相,將特別處理。

A 1

That the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father has always been admitted by all Christians; the truth is expressly stated in John, xv, 26.這聖靈是從父親一直承認所有基督徒;真相是明文規定,在約翰, 15 , 26 。 But the Greeks, after Photius, deny that He proceeds from the Son.但希臘人,經過photius ,否認他是從兒子。 And yet such is manifestly the teaching of Holy Scripture and the Fathers.然而,這種明顯的教學神聖的經文和父親。

(1) In the New Testament ( 1 )在新約聖經

(a) The Holy Ghost is called the Spirit of Christ (Romans 8:9), the Spirit of the Son (Galatians 4:6), the Spirit of Jesus (Acts 16:7). (一)聖靈被稱為基督的靈(羅馬書8時09分) ,精神上來,把兒子(加拉太4:6 ) ,精神耶穌(使徒16時07分) 。 These terms imply a relation of the Spirit to the Son, which can only be a relation of origin.這些條款意味著關係的精神,給兒子,而這只能是一個關係的原籍國。 This conclusion is so much the more indisputable as all admit the similar argument to explain why the Holy Ghost is called the Spirit of the Father.這個結論是這麼多,更不爭的,因為都承認了類似的說法來解釋為什麼聖靈就是所謂的精神之父。 Thus St. Augustine argues (In Joan., tr. xcix, 6, 7 in PL, XXXV, 1888): "You hear the Lord himself declare: 'It is not you that speak, but the Spirit of your Father that speaketh in you'. Likewise you hear the Apostle declare: 'God hath sent the Spirit of His Son into your hearts. Could there then be two spirits, one the spirit of the Father, the other the spirit of the Son? Certainly not. Just as there is only one Father, just as there is only one Lord or one Son, so there is only one Spirit, Who is, consequently, the Spirit of both. . . Why then should you refuse to believe that He proceeds also from the Son, since He is also the Spirit of the Son? If He did not proceed from Him, Jesus, when He appeared to His disciples after His Resurrection, would not have breathed on them, saying: 'Receive ye the Holy Ghost'. What, indeed, does this breathing signify, but that the Spirit proceeds also from Him?"因此,聖奧古斯丁辯稱(鄧務滋女士,的TR 。 xcix , 6 , 7 ,在公共圖書館,第三十五卷, 1888年)說: "你聽到了上帝宣布: '這是不是你講的,但精神的,你的父親說出來,在你' ,同樣你聽到使徒宣布: '上帝差遣的精神,他的兒子到你的心坎上。能夠有那麼兩個精神,一個精神上來,把父親外,其他精神上來,把兒子呢?當然不是,正如是不是只有一個父親,就像只存在一個主或一子,所以只有一個精神,誰是,因此,精神都… … 。那麼,為什麼你不相信他的收益,也從兒子,因為他也是精神上來,把兒子?如果他沒有從他的,耶穌時,他似乎是他的門徒後,他的復活,就不會吹了,對它們說: '接受葉聖靈'是什麼,事實上,這是否意味呼吸,但精神收益也由他" ? St. Athanasius had argued in exactly the same way (De Trinit. et Spir. S., n. 19, in PG, XXVI, 1212), and concluded: "We say that the Son of God is also the source of the Spirit."聖athanasius辯稱一模一樣(德trinit 。等spir 。美國, 12月19日,在編號, 26 , 1212 ) ,並得出結論認為: "我們說,上帝的兒子,也是精神之源"

(b) The Holy Ghost receives from the Son, according to John 16:13-15: "When he, the Spirit of truth, is come he will teach you all truth. For he shall not speak of himself; but what things soever he shall hear, he shall speak; and the things that are to come, he shall shew you. He shall glorify me; because he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it to you. All things whatsoever the Father hath, are mine. Therefore I said, that he shall receive of mine, and shew it to you." (二)聖靈收到來自兒子,根據約翰16:13-15說: "當他的精神,實事求是,是今後他會教你一切的真理。供他不得發言,為自己,但什麼事情soever他當然會聽到,他會說話;事情,是來時,他須shew你,他會讚美我的,因為他應領取的礦井,並應shew它給你的所有東西,無論該父,是排雷。所以我說,那他應得到的礦井,並shew它給你的" 。 Now, one Divine Person can receive from another only by Procession, being related to that other as to a principle.現在,一個神聖的人可以得到另一只遊行時,被相關的其他作為一項原則。 What the Paraclete will receive from the Son is immanent knowledge, which He will afterwards manifest exteriorly.什麼paraclete將獲得由兒子是內在的知識,這對於他將事後艙單exteriorly 。 But this immanent knowledge is the very essence of the Holy Ghost.但這種內在的知識是非常重要的聖靈。 The latter, therefore, has His origin in the Son, the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son.後者,因此,有他的原產地在兒子,聖靈所得的兒子。 "He shall not speak of Himself", says St. Augustine (In Joan., tr. xcix, 4, in PL, XXXV, 1887), "because He is not from Himself, but He shall tell you all He shall have heard. He shall hear from him from whom He proceeds. In His case, to hear is to know, and to know is to be. He derives His knowledge from Him from Whom He derives His essence." "他不得發言的自己" ,說聖奧古斯丁(鄧務滋女士,的TR 。 xcix , 4 ,在公共圖書館,第三十五卷, 1887年) , "因為他不是從自己的,但他會告訴大家,他會聽到他會聆聽他的人,他的收益,在他的情況,聽到的是要知道,而知道的是,被他源於他的知識,由他的人,他是基於他的本質" 。 St. Cyril of Alexandria remarks that the words: "He shall receive of mine" signify "the nature" which the Holy Ghost has from the Son, as the Son has His from the Father (De Trinit., dialog. vi, in PG, LXXV, 1011).聖西里爾的亞歷山德里亞的言論的話: "他應領取的地雷"意味著"人的本質"聖靈已經從兒子,因為兒子,他從父親(德trinit ,對話框。六,在編號, lxxv , 1011 ) 。 Besides, Jesus gives this reason of His assertion: "He shall receive of mine": "All things whatsoever the Father hath, are mine Now, since the Father has with regard to the Holy Ghost the relation we term Active Spiration, the Son has it also; and in the Holy Ghost there exists, consequently, with regard to both, Passive Spiration or Procession.此外,耶穌賦予這個原因,他斷言: "他應領取的地雷"說: "一切事情,無論該父,是煤礦,現在,由於父親有關於聖靈的關係,我們長遠的積極spiration ,兒子已它也和在聖靈存在,因此,對於兩者,被動spiration或遊行。

(2) The same truth has been constantly held by the Fathers ( 2 )有相同的真相一直不斷舉行,由父親

This fact is undisputed as far as the Western Fathers are concerned; but the Greeks deny it in the case of the Easterns.這一事實是無可爭議的,因為到目前為止,隨著西部父親擔心,但希方否認在有關案件的easterns 。 We will cite, therefore, a few witnesses from among the latter.我們將引用,因此,有幾個證人,其中後者。 The testimony of St. Athanasius has been quoted above, to the effect that "the Son is the source of the Spirit", and the statement of Cyril of Alexandria that the Holy Ghost has His "nature" from the Son.證詞聖athanasius已上文所引述的,其大意是: "兒子是精神之源" ,並發表聲明西里爾亞歷山大說,聖靈有他的"自然" ,由兒子。 The latter saint further asserts (Thesaur., assert. xxxiv in PG, LXXV, 585); "When the Holy Ghost comes into our hearts, He makes us like to God, because He proceeds from the Father and the Son"; and again (Epist., xvii, Ad Nestorium, De excommunicatione in PG, LXXVII, 117): "The Holy Ghost is not unconnected with the Son, for He is called the Spirit of Truth, and Christ is the Truth; so He proceeds from Him as well as from God the Father."後者聖進一步斷言( thesaur. ,斷言。第三十四在編號, lxxv , 585 ) ; "當聖靈生效後,我們的心,他將我們想上帝,因為他是從父親和兒子" ,並再次( epist. ,第十七章,專案nestorium ,德excommunicatione在編號, lxxvii , 117 )說: "聖靈不無關係,與兒子,因為他是所謂的精神,堅持解放思想,實事求是,基督是真理,所以他的收益,由他以及來自上帝" 。 St. Basil (De Spirit. S., xviii, in PG, XXXII, 147) wishes us not to depart from the traditional order in mentioning the Three Divine Persons, because "as the Son is to the Father, so is the Spirit to the Son, in accordance with the ancient order of the names in the formula of baptism".聖羅勒(德精神,在美因十八,在編號,三十二, 147 )希望我們不要偏離傳統秩序提三大神聖的人,因為"作為兒子,是父親,所以是精神兒子,按照古代秩序的名字,在F1的洗禮" 。 St. Epiphanius writes (Ancor., viii, in PG, XLIII, 29, 30) that the Paraclete "is not to be considered as unconnected with the Father and the Son, for He is with Them one in substance and divinity", and states that "He is from the Father and the Son"; a little further, he adds (op. cit., xi, in PG, XLIII, 35): "No one knows the Spirit, besides the Father, except the Son, from Whom He proceeds and of Whom He receives."聖epiphanius寫道( ancor. ,第八,在編號,四十三, 29 , 30 )表示, paraclete " ,是不被視為互不相同的父親和兒子,因為他是與他們在一個物質和神性" ,並說: "他是從父親和兒子" ;稍遠,他補充(同前,第十一,在編號,四十三, 35 )說: "沒有人知道的精神,除了父親,除了兒子,從他的收益和他所收到的" 。 Lastly, a council held at Seleucia in 410 proclaims its faith "in the Holy Living Spirit, the Holy Living Paraclete, Who proceeds from the Father and the Son" (Lamy, "Concilium Seleuciæ", Louvain, 1868).最後,安理會舉行的塞琉西亞,在410宣布其信仰"在神聖的生活精神,神聖生活paraclete ,誰收益,從父親和兒子" (拉米, " concilium seleuciæ " ,魯汶, 1868 ) 。

However, when we compare the Latin writers, as a body, with the Eastern writers, we notice a difference in language: while the former almost unanimously affirm that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and from the Son, the latter generally say that He proceeds from the Father through the Son.然而,當我們比較拉丁美洲作家,作為一個機構,與東部作家,我們可以看到不同的語言:前者幾乎是一致肯定地說,聖靈的收益來自父親和兒子,後者通常是說,他收益來自父親經過兒子。 In reality the thought expressed by both Greeks and Latins is one and the same, only the manner of expressing it is slightly different: the Greek formula ek tou patros dia tou ouiou expresses directly the order according to which the Father and the Son are the principle of the Holy Ghost, and implies their equality as principle; the Latin formula expresses directly this equality, and implies the order.在現實中的思想表達了雙方希臘人和拉丁人是同一個,只是方式來表達,這是稍有不同:希臘公式18.3.2000鈄patros直徑鈄ouiou表示直接命令,根據該父親和兒子是原則的聖靈,並暗示他們的平等原則;拉丁語公式表示,直接這種平等,就意味著該命令。 As the Son Himself proceeds from the Father, it is from the Father that He receives, with everything else, the virtue that makes Him the principle of the Holy Ghost.作為兒子,自己的收益來自父親,這是來自父親說,他所收到的一切,憑藉這使得他的原則,聖靈。 Thus, the Father alone is principium absque principio, aitia anarchos prokatarktike, and, comparatively, the Son is an intermediate principle.因此,父親僅是原理absque principio , aitia anarchos prokatarktike ,而且,相對而言,兒子是一個中間的原則。 The distinct use of the two prepositions, ek (from) and dia (through), implies nothing else.鮮明的利用兩個介詞, 18.3.2000 (從)和國防情報局(通過) ,就意味著什麼都沒有了。 In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the Greek theologians Blemmidus, Beccus, Calecas, and Bessarion called attention to this, explaining that the two particles have the same signification, but that from is better suited to the First Person, Who is the source of the others, and through to the Second Person, Who comes from the Father.在第十三和第十四世紀以來,希臘神學家blemmidus , beccus , calecas , bessarion呼籲注意這一點,他們解釋說,兩個粒子具有相同的意義,但是,從更適合第一人,誰是來源之一其他人,並通過給第二人,他們是來自父親。 Long before their time St. Basil had written (De Spir. S., viii, 21, in PG, XXXII, 106): "The expression di ou expresses acknowledgment of the primordial principle [ tes prokatarktikes aitias]"; and St. Chrysostom (Hom. v in Joan., n. 2, in PG, LIX, 56): "If it be said through Him, it is said solely in order that no one may imagine that the Son is not generated": It may be added that the terminology used by the Eastern and Western writers, respectively, to express the idea is far from being invariable.前不久他們的時候,聖羅勒,曾撰寫(德spir 。第,第八條, 21 ,在編號,三十二, 106 )說: "該表達的歐弟表示承認的原始原則[工商業污水附加費prokatarktikes aitias ] " ;和聖金口( hom. V的鄧務滋女士, 12月31日2 ,在編號, lix , 56 )說: "如果說,通過他,有人說,純粹是為了使任何人都不得以為兒子是不會產生的" :可能補充說,所使用的術語是由東方與西方作家,分別表達的想法是遠遠沒有一成不變的。 Just as Cyril, Epiphanius, and other Greeks affirm the Procession ex utroque, so several Latin writers did not consider they were departing from the teaching of their Church in expressing themselves like the Greeks.正如西里爾, epiphanius ,以及其他希臘人肯定遊行前utroque ,使若干拉丁美洲作家並不認為他們偏離了教學的,他們教會表達自己像希臘人。 Thus Tertullian (Contra Prax., iv, in PL, II, 182): "Spiritum non aliunde puto quam a Patre per Filium"; and St. Hilary (De Trinit., lib., XII, n. 57, in PL, X, 472), addressing himself to the Father, protests that he wishes to adore, with Him and the Son "Thy Holy Spirit, Who comes from Thee through thy only Son".因此,戴爾都良(矛盾普拉克斯,四,在臨時立法會第一,二, 182 )說: " spiritum非aliunde puto怎麼一帕特雷每filium "和聖希拉蕊(德trinit ,鋰離子電池,十二, 12月31日57 ,在公共圖書館,十, 472 ) ,對著鏡頭向父親提出抗議,他表示願意崇拜,是和他的兒子: "你的聖靈,他們是來自你穿過你的獨生子" 。 And yet the same writer had said, a little higher (op. cit., lib. II, 29, in PL, X, 69), "that we must confess the Holy Ghost coming from the Father and the Son", a clear proof that the two formulæ were regarded as substantially equivalent.然而,同樣的作家曾表示,高一點(同前,鋰離子電池,第二, 29 ,在特等,第十, 69歲)說, "我們必須承認,聖靈來自父親和兒子" ,這是一個明確的證明這兩個formulæ被視為實質上等同的。

B b

Proceeding both from the Father and the Son, the Holy Ghost, nevertheless, proceeds from Them as from a single principle.程序均來自父親和兒子,聖靈,不過,從他們從一個單一的原則。 This truth is, at the very least insinuated in the passage of John, xvi, 15 (cited above), where Christ establishes a necessary connection between His own sharing in all the Father has and the Procession of the Holy Ghost.這個真理是,至少是在含沙射影地通過約翰,第十六章, 15條(上述) ,在那裡基督建立了必要的聯繫,他分享自己的所有父親和遊行的聖靈。 Hence it follows, indeed, that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the two other Persons, not in so far as They are distinct, but inasmuch as Their Divine perfection is numerically one.因此如下,而事實上,這聖靈是從其他兩個人,而不是在目前為止,因為他們是不同的,但因為他們的神聖完美,是一個數值。 Besides, such is the explicit teaching of ecclesiastical tradition, which is concisely put by St. Augustine (De Trin., lib. V, c. xiv, in PL, XLII, 921): "As the Father and the Son are only one God and, relatively to the creature, only one Creator and one Lord, so, relatively to the Holy Ghost, They are only one principle."此外,這是明確的教學改革教會的傳統,這是言簡意賅地提出聖奧古斯丁(德trin ,鋰離子電池,第五卷,長十四,在特等,四十二, 921 )說: "作為父親和兒子都只有一個上帝與相對向受造物中,只有一個創作者和一個主,所以,相對地,以聖靈,他們都只有一個原則"的共識。 This doctrine was defined in the following words by the Second Ecumenical Council of Lyons [Denzinger, "Enchiridion" (1908), n.這種學說被界定在下列詞語由第二合一理事會里昂[登青格" , enchiridion " ( 1908年) , 12月31日 460]: "We confess that the Holy Ghost proceeds eternally from the Father and the Son, not as from two principles, but as from one principle, not by two spirations, but by one single spiration." 460 ] : "我們坦白地說,聖靈的收益永遠來自父親和兒子,而不是由兩個原則,但作為一個原則,而不是由兩個spirations ,而是由一個單一spiration " 。 The teaching was again laid down by the Council of Florence (ibid., n. 691), and by Eugene IV in his Bull "Cantate Domino" (ibid., n. 703 sq.).教學又訂下的理事會佛羅倫薩(同上, 12月31日691 ) ,由尤金四,在他的牛"的康塔塔多米諾骨牌" (同上, 12 703平方米) 。

C c

It is likewise an article of faith that the Holy Ghost does not proceed, like the Second Person of the Trinity, by way of generation.這是同樣一篇文章的信仰聖靈不著手,如第二人的三位一體,借代。 Not only is the Second Person alone called Son in the Scriptures, not only is He alone said to be begotten, but He is also called the only Son of God; the ancient symbol that bears the name of Saint Athanasius states expressly that "the Holy Ghost comes from the Father and from the Son not made not created, not generated, but proceeding".不僅是第二個單人所謂的兒子在誦經,他不僅是單單說是造物主的,但他又稱,只有上帝的兒子;古老的符號刻有名字的聖athanasius國明確表示, "木棉鬼來自父親和兒子沒有作出不製造,而不是所產生的,但程序" 。 As we are utterly incapable of otherwise fixing the meaning of the mysterious mode affecting this relation of origin, we apply to it the name spiration, the signification of which is principally negative and by way of contrast, in the sense that it affirms a Procession peculiar to the Holy Ghost and exclusive of filiation.由於我們根本無法確定,否則所指的神秘方式影響這種關係的原產地,我們運用它的名字spiration ,意義,主要是消極的方式,相反,在這個意義上講,它肯定了遊行奇特以聖靈和排他性的父子關係。 But though we distinguish absolutely and essentially between generation and spiration, it is a very delicate and difficult task to say what the difference is.但是,我們雖然區分絕對和本質之間的生成和spiration ,這是一個非常微妙和困難的任務,說有什麼不同的是。 St. Thomas (I, Q. xxvii), following St. Augustine (Do Trin., XV, xxvii), finds the explanation and, as it the were, the epitome, of the doctrine in principle that, in God, the Son proceeds through the Intellect and the Holy Ghost through the Will.聖托馬斯(一,問:二十七) ,繼聖奧古斯丁(請勿trin ,十五,第二十七號) ,認定的解釋,而作為它的人,一個縮影,該學說在原則上表示,在上帝的兒子收益是通過智慧和聖靈透過意志。 The Son is, in the language of Scripture, the image of the Invisible God, His Word, His uncreated wisdom.兒子是,在語言的聖經,隊伍形象的無形之神,他所說的話,他uncreated智慧。 God contemplates Himself and knows Himself from all eternity, and, knowing Himself, He forms within Himself a substantial idea of Himself, and this substantial thought is His Word.上帝考慮作出自己,而且知道自己從所有永恆,並在明知他自己,表格,自己是一個龐大的概念本身,而這大量的思想,是他的字。 Now every act of knowledge is accomplished by the production in the intellect of a representation of the object known; from this head, then the process offers a certain analogy with generation, which is the production by a living being of a being partaking of the same nature; and the analogy is only so much the more striking when there is question of this act of Divine knowledge, the eternal term of which is a substantial being, consubstantial within the knowing subject.現在每個行為的知識,是完成了由生產中的智力一個代表該對象已知,從這個負責人,當時的過程中提供了一定的類比代,它是由生產生活作為一個正在partaking的同時性質;比喻只有這麼多了更加突出的時候,有問題,這種行為是神聖的知識,永恆的任期是一個龐大, consubstantial內部明知課題。 As to the Holy Ghost, according to the common doctrine of theologians, He proceeds through the will.至於聖靈,根據我們共同的軍事學說的神學家,他的收益是通過意志。 The Holy Spirit, as His name indicates, is Holy in virtue of His origin, His spiration; He comes therefore from a holy principle; now holiness resides in the will, as wisdom is in the intellect.聖靈,把它作為其名稱所示,是神聖的,在憑藉其出身, spiration ;他來,因此,從一個神聖的原則,現在成聖寓於意志,智慧,是智力。 That is also the reason why He is so often called par excellence, in the writings of the Fathers, Love and Charity.這也是他之所以如此常被稱為出色,在寫作的父親,愛與慈善機構。 The Father and the Son love one another from all eternity, with a perfect ineffable love; the term of this infinite fruitful mutual love is Their Spirit Who is co-eternal and con-substantial with Them.父親和兒子彼此相愛,從所有永恆的,一個完美的無法形容的愛;任期這個無限卓有成效的互愛,是他們的精神,他們是合作的永恆和行騙大幅他們。 Only, the Holy Ghost is not indebted to the manner of His Procession precisely for this perfect resemblance to His principle, in other words for His consubstantiality; for to will or love an object does not formally imply the production of its immanent image in the soul that loves, but rather a tendency, a movement of the will towards the thing loved, to be united to it and enjoy it.只是,聖靈,是不是政府債的方式,他的遊行正是基於這個完美的極為相似,他的原則,換句話說,他consubstantiality ;將向或愛一個對象並不意味著正式生產其固有的形象,在靈魂熱愛,而是一個趨勢,一個運動的意願實現的事,被愛,被美國給它,並享受它。 So, making every allowance for the feebleness of our intellects in knowing, and the unsuitability of our words for expressing the mysteries of the Divine life, if we can grasp how the word generation, freed from all the imperfections of the material order may be applied by analogy to the Procession of the Word, so we may see that the term can in no way befittingly applied to the Procession of the Holy Ghost.因此,使每一個免稅額,為衰弱的知識分子,我們知道,和不適應,對我們所說的話,表達的奧秘神聖生命,如果我們能掌握如何一詞代,擺脫所有的不完善,物質,以便可以適用如此類推,以遊行的字,所以我們可以看到,租期可以在沒有出路befittingly申請遊行的聖靈。

V. FILIOQUE五filioque

Having treated of the part taken by the Son in the Procession of the Holy Ghost, we come next to consider the introduction of the expression Filioque into the Creed of Constantinople.經處理的部分,所採取的兒子,而在遊行隊伍的聖靈,我們到了明年考慮引入表達filioque進入信條君士坦丁堡。 The author of the addition is unknown, but the first trace of it is found in Spain.作者添加的是未知之數,但是第一次微量的,它是發現於西班牙。 The Filioque was successively introduced into the Symbol of the Council of Toledo in 447, then, in pursuance of an order of another synod held in the same place (589), it was inserted in the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed.該filioque先後被引入到象徵安理會托萊多在447 ,然後,根據訂單的另一個主教舉行,在同一地點( 589 ) ,它是插在尼切諾- constantinopolitan信條。 Admitted likewise into the Symbol Quicumque, it began to appear in France in the eighth century.承認同樣納入etc 。象徵,它開始出現在法國,在第八世紀。 It was chanted in 767, in Charlemagne's chapel at Gentilly, where it was heard by ambassadors from Constantine Copronymnus.有人高呼:在767 ,在查理曼的小禮拜堂在此地,在那裡聽取了大使,由君士坦丁copronymnus 。 The Greeks were astonished and protested, explanations were given by the Latins, and many discussions followed.希臘人驚奇和抗議,解釋,都是由拉丁人,並多次討論之後。 The Archbishop of Aquileia, Paulinus, defended the addition at the Council of Friuli, in 796.大主教阿奎萊亞, paulinus ,辯護此外,在安理會的弗留利,在796 。 It was afterwards accepted by a council held at Aachen, in 809.據事後接受安理會舉行亞琛,在809 。 However, as it proved a stumbling-block to the Greeks Pope Leo III disapproved of it; and, though he entirely agreed with the Franks on the question of the doctrine, he advised them to omit the new word.但是,因為它證明了這樣一條絆腳石,以希臘人教宗利奧三不贊成;和,雖然他完全同意與弗蘭克斯關於這個問題的學說,他勸勉他們略去新詞。 He himself caused two large silver tablets, on which the creed with the disputed expression omitted was engraved to be erected in St. Peter's.他本人造成了兩個大銀片,對其中的信條與有爭議的表達省略是鐫刻著被豎立在聖彼得大教堂的。 His advice was unheeded by the Franks; and, as the conduct and schism of Photius seemed to justify the Westerns in paying no more regard to the feelings of the Greeks, the addition of the words was accepted by the Roman Church under Benedict VIII (cf. Funk, "Kirchengeschichte", Paderborn, 1902, p. 243).他的建議是,卻未由弗蘭克斯; ,而作為行為和分裂的photius似乎有理由西方人在付出,沒有更多的關於感情的希臘人,添加的話,是接受羅馬教會根據本篤八(比照。畏縮, " kirchengeschichte " ,帕德博恩, 1902年,第243頁) 。

The Greeks have always blamed the Latins for making the addition.希臘人一直指責拉丁人作除。 They considered that, quite apart from the question of doctrine involved by the expression, the insertion was made in violation of a decree of the Council of Ephesus, forbidding anyone "to produce, write, or compose a confession of faith other than the one defined by the Fathers of Nicæa".他們認為,先不說問題的學說所涉及的表達,插入是在違反了一項法令,該會伸出手,不許任何人" ,以製作,寫,或撰寫招供的信仰以外的一個界定受父親的nicæa " 。 Such a reason will not bear examination.這樣的理由,將不忍心考試。 Supposing the truth of the dogma (established above), it is inadmissible that the Church could or would have deprived herself of the right to mention it in the symbol.假設真理的教條(常設以上) ,這是不能允許的說,教會可能或已經剝奪了自己的權利,更遑論它在象徵意義。 If the opinion be adhered to, and it has strong arguments to support it, which considers that the developments of the Creed in what concerns the Holy Ghost were approved by the Council of Constantinople (381), at once it might be laid down that the bishops at Ephesus (431) certainly did not think of condemning or blaming those of Constantinople.如果民意被遵守,並有強而有力的論據,以支持它,它認為,蓬勃發展的信條,在令人關注的聖靈理事會批准的君士坦丁堡( 381 ) ,一旦它可能訂定說,主教們在以弗所( 431 )肯定沒有想到的譴責或指責那些君士坦丁堡。 But, from the fact that the disputed expression was authorized by the Council of Chalcedon, in 451, we conclude that the prohibition of the Council of Ephesus was never understood, and ought not to be understood, in an absolute sense.但是,從事實有爭議的表達是由安理會授權的chalcedon ,在451 ,我們的結論是禁止安理會的以弗所從來沒有相互理解,不應該被理解,在一個絕對意義。 It may be considered either as a doctrinal, or as a merely disciplinary pronouncement.它可被視為一種是理論,還是作為一個純粹的紀律公判大會。 In the first case it would exclude any addition or modification opposed to, or at variance with, the deposit of Revelation; and such seems to be its historic import, for it was proposed and accepted by the Fathers to oppose a formula tainted with Nestorianism.在第一宗案件,將排除任何增加或修改反對,或有差異,存款的啟示;這種似乎是它的歷史性進口,因為它提出並接受了由父親反對公式沾染景教。 In the second case considered as a disciplinary measure, it can bind only those who are not the depositaries of the supreme power in the Church.在第二種情況下視為一種懲戒措施,它可以只約束那些沒有保存的最高權力在教會。 The latter, as it is their duty to teach the revealed truth and to preserve it from error, possess, by Divine authority, the power and right to draw up and propose to the faithful such confessions of faith as circumstances may demand.後者,因為這是他們的職責,教導透露真相,並維護它的誤差,不擁有,由神聖權力,權力與權利的制訂,並建議教友們此種供述的信念作為的情況下,可能的需求。 This right is as unconfinable as it is inalienable.這種權利是作為unconfinable ,因為這是不可剝奪的。

VI.六。 GIFTS OF THE HOLY GHOST禮品的聖靈

This title and the theory connected with it, like the theory of the fruits of the Holy Ghost and that of the sins against the Holy Ghost, imply what theologians call appropriation.這個標題和理論與它一樣的理論成果,聖靈,並表示,在該得罪聖靈,意味著什麼神學家呼籲撥款。 By this term is meant attributing especially to one Divine Person perfections and exterior works which seem to us more clearly or more immediately to be connected with Him, when we consider His personal characteristics, but which in reality are common to the Three Persons.由這個詞是指歸於尤其是一個神人的完善和外部工程,在我們看來似乎更清楚或更即時與他的,當我們考慮到他的個人特點,但它在現實中是常見的,以該三名人士。 It is in this sense that we attribute to the Father the perfection of omnipotence, with its most striking manifestations, eg the Creation, because He is the principle of the two other Persons; to the Son we attribute wisdom and the works of wisdom, because He proceeds from the Father by the Intellect; to the Holy Ghost we attribute the operations of grace and the sanctification of souls, and in particular spiritual gifts and fruits, because He proceeds from the Father and the Son as Their mutual love and is called in Holy Writ the goodness and the charity of God.正是在這個意義上,我們的屬性,向父親要完善全能,其最突出的表現形式,如:建立,是因為他的原則,其他兩個人,以兒子的屬性,我們的智慧和工程的智慧,因為他是從父親智力;聖靈屬性,我們的業務恩典和成聖的心靈,尤其是精神上的禮品和水果,因為他是從父親和兒子,因為他們相互間愛的,是所謂在聖令狀性善與慈善的上帝。

The gifts of the Holy Ghost are of two kinds: the first are specially intended for the sanctification of the person who receives them; the second, more properly called charismata, are extraordinary favours granted for the help of another, favours, too, which do not sanctify by themselves, and may even be separated from sanctifying grace.這些禮品的聖靈有兩類:第一類是專門用於成聖的人,得到他們的第二,是比較恰當的所謂charismata ,是不平凡的恩惠給予的幫助,恩惠,也確不是聖化自己,甚至可能脫離sanctifying恩典。 Those of the first class are accounted seven in number, as enumerated by Isaias (11:2-3), where the prophet sees and describes them in the Messias.對於第一類是佔了七個號碼,正如所列舉伊薩亞斯( 11:2-3 ) ,而先知認為,並描述他們在messias 。 They are the gifts of wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety (godliness), and fear of the Lord.他們是禮品的智慧,理解,律師,毅力,知識,虔誠(虔誠) ,並敬畏耶和華。

The gift of wisdom, by detaching us from the world, makes us relish and love only the things of heaven.禮品的智慧,是由拆卸把我們從世界,使我們所津津樂道的,愛只是事情的天堂。

The gift of understanding helps us to grasp the truths of religion as far as is necessary.禮品的了解,有助於我們掌握真理的宗教而言是必要的。

The gift of counsel springs from supernatural prudence, and enables us to see and choose correctly what will help most to the glory of God and our own salvation.禮品律師的泉水從超自然慎重起見,讓我們來看看,並選擇正確會怎樣幫助大部分是為了榮耀上帝和我們自己的救贖。

By the gift of fortitude we receive courage to overcome the obstacles and difficulties that arise in the practice of our religious duties.所贈送的毅力,我們收到的勇氣,克服各種障礙和困難,出現在實踐中我們的宗教職責。 The gift of knowledge points out to us the path to follow and the dangers to avoid in order to reach heaven.禮品的知識點出,讓我們知道道路可走和危險,以避免為了達到升天。

The gift of piety, by inspiring us with a tender and filial confidence in God, makes us joyfully embrace all that pertains to His service.禮品的虔誠,啟發我們確立了一個招標和孝道的信心,在上帝的,讓我們快樂地擁抱都涉及到他的服務。

Lastly, the gift of fear fills us with a sovereign respect for God, and makes us dread, above all things, to offend Him.最後,禮品的恐懼,使我們是一個主權尊重神,使我們害怕,上述所有的東西,得罪他。

As to the inner nature of these gifts, theologians consider them to be supernatural and permanent qualities, which make us attentive to the voice of God, which render us susceptible to the workings of actual grace, which make us love the things of God, and, consequently, render us more obedient and docile to the inspirations of the Holy Ghost.至於內在的性質,這些賀禮,神學家認為他們是超自然的和永久的素質,使我們注意的聲音,上帝,這使我們容易的工作實際恩典,使我們熱愛的東西,神, ,因此,使我們更聽話和溫順,以啟示的聖靈。

But how do they differ from the virtues?但如何做,他們從不同的美德? Some writers think they are not really distinct from them, that they are the virtues inasmuch as the latter are free gifts of God, and that they are identified essentially with grace, charity, and the virtues.有些作者認為,他們沒有真正有別於他們,他們是美德,因為後者是免費的禮物,上帝的人,都是確定的,基本上與恩典,慈善,和美德。 That opinion has the particular merit of avoiding a multiplication of the entities infused into the soul.這一觀點有特別的優點,避免了乘法的實體注入靈魂。 Other writers look upon the gifts as perfections of a higher order than the virtues; the latter, they say, dispose us to follow the impulse and guidance of reason; the former are functionally intended to render the will obedient and docile to the inspirations of the Holy Ghost.其他作家的眼光來看待這些禮品作為完善高階比美德;後者,他們說,處置我們必須遵循的衝動和指導的原因;前者是在功能上的意圖,使會聽話和溫順,以啟示的聖靈。 For the former opinion, see Bellevüe, "L'uvre du Saint-Esprit" (Paris, 1902), 99 sq.; and for the latter, see St. Thomas, I-II, Q. lxviii, a.因為前者的意見,見bellevüe , " l' uvre杜聖團隊精神" (巴黎, 1902年) , 99平方米;對於後者,看到聖托馬斯,第一項和第二項,問: lxviii ,甲 1, and Froget, "De l'habitation du Saint-Esprit dans les âmes justes" (Paris, 1900), 378 sq. 1 , froget , "德l'居住的杜聖團隊精神dans就業輔導組âmes justes " (巴黎, 1900 ) , 378平方

The gifts of the second class, or charismata, are known to us partly from St. Paul, and partly from the history of the primitive Church, in the bosom of which God plentifully bestowed them.這些禮品的第二課堂,或charismata ,是眾所周知的,我們部分來自聖保羅的,而部分從歷史的原始教會,在胸,其中豐富的上帝賜予他們。 Of these "manifestations of the Spirit", "all these things [that] one and the same Spirit worketh, dividing to every one according as he will", the Apostle speaks to us, particularly in I Corinthians 12:6-11; I Corinthians 12:28-31; and Romans 12:6-8.這些"表現的精神" , "所有這些事情中[ ]是同一個精神worketh ,除以每一個根據,因為他會" ,使徒保羅說,以我們的,尤其是在哥林多前書12:6-11我哥林多前書12:28-31 ;羅馬書12:6-8 。

In the first of these three passages we find nine charismata mentioned: the gift of speaking with wisdom, the gift of speaking with knowledge, faith, the grace of healing, the gift of miracles, the gift of prophecy, the gift of discerning spirits, the gift of tongues, the gift of interpreting speeches.在第一,這三個通道,我們發現九個charismata提到:禮品的發言與智慧,禮品的發言與知識,信仰,恩典癒合,禮品的神蹟,禮品的預言,禮品的雪亮的精神狀態,禮品的舌頭,禮品的解釋發言。 To this list we must at least add, as being found in the other two passages indicated, the gift of government, the gift of helps, and perhaps what Paul calls distributio and misericordia.這個名單我們至少要補充一點,由於被發現在其他兩個通道表示,禮品的政府,禮品的幫助,也許什麼是保羅呼籲分佈,並任憑。 However, exegetes are not all agreed as to the number of the charismata, or the nature of each one of them; long ago, St. Chrysostom and St. Augustine had pointed out the obscurity of the question.不過, exegetes是不是都同意,至於有多少的charismata ,或性質,逐一對它們進行管理;不久前,聖金口和聖奧古斯丁曾指出,默默無聞的問題。 Adhering to the most probable views on the subject, we may at once classify the charismata and explain the meaning of most of them as follows.堅持以最有可能就此事發表意見,我們可以馬上進行分類charismata和解釋的意思,他們大多如下。 They form four natural groups:他們形成四個自然組:

Two charismata which regard the teaching of Divine things: sermo sapientiæ, sermo scientiæ, the former relating to the exposition of the higher mysteries, the latter to the body of Christian truths.兩個charismata這方面的教學是神聖的東西: sermo sapientiæ , sermo scientiæ ,前者涉及到博覽會的較高的奧秘,後者以身體的基督教真理。

Three charismata that lend support to this teaching: fides, gratia sanitatum, operatio virtutum.三charismata表示支持這項教學:從事特惠sanitatum ,手術virtutum 。 The faith here spoken of is faith in the sense used by Matthew 17:19: that which works wonders; so it is, as it were, a condition and a part of the two gifts mentioned with it.信仰在這裡發言的是誠信原則在意義上使用的馬太17時19分:其中工程奇觀,因此,它是因為它被一個條件和組成部分,兩國禮品提到它。

Four charismata that served to edify, exhort, and encourage the faithful, and to confound the unbelievers: prophetia, discretio spirituum, genera linguarum, interpretatio sermonum.四charismata即送達,以陶冶,告誡,並鼓勵教友們,並混淆信: prophetia , discretio spirituum ,屬linguarum , interpretatio sermonum 。 These four seem to fall logically into two groups; for prophecy, which is essentially inspired pronouncement on different religious subjects, the declaration of the future being only of secondary import, finds its complement and, as it were, its check in the gift of discerning spirits; and what, as a rule, would be the use of glossololia -- the gift of speaking with tongues -- if the gift of interpreting them were wanting?這四個似乎屬於邏輯上分成兩部分;預言,本質上也就是激發了公判大會對不同宗教科目,宣布未來只有二手進口,認定其補充,而作為它,其考核在禮品的水清白酒;什麼,作為一項規則,將使用glossololia -禮品的發言與舌頭-如果禮品的解釋,他們想要嗎?

Lastly there remain the charismata that seem to have as object the administration of temporal affairs, amid works of charity: gubernationes, opitulationes, distributiones.最後,有待於charismata這似乎已為研究對象的行政顳國際事務中的作品慈善: gubernationes , opitulationes , distributiones 。 Judging by the context, these gifts, though conferred and useful for the direction and comfort of one's neighbour, were in no way necessarily found in all ecclesiastical superiors.從目前的背景下,這些禮物,雖然賦予的和有益的方向和舒適性的一個人的鄰居,絕不是必然發現,在所有的教會的上司。

The charismata, being extraordinary favours and not requisite for the sanctification of the individual, were not bestowed indiscriminately on all Christians.該charismata ,不平凡的恩惠,並沒有必要為成聖的個人,並沒有賜予不分青紅皂對所有基督徒。 However, in the Apostolic Age, they were comparatively common, especially in the communities of Jerusalem, Rome, and Corinth.但是,在使徒時代,他們則較為普遍,特別是在社區中的耶路撒冷,羅馬和科林斯。 The reason of this is apparent: in the infant Churches the charismata were extremely useful, and even morally necessary, to strengthen the faith of believers, to confound the infidels, to make them reflect, and to counterbalance the false miracles with which they sometimes prevailed.原因的,這是明顯的:在嬰兒教會了charismata非常有用,甚至在道德上的必要,以加強信仰的信徒,以混淆異教徒,使他們反映,並以抗衡虛假的奇蹟,與他們有時會佔上風。 St. Paul was careful (I Corinthians 12, 13, 14) to restrict authoritatively the use of these charismata within the ends for which they were bestowed, and thus insist upon their subordination to the power of the hierarchy.聖保祿謹慎(哥林多前書12 , 13 , 14 )以限制權威地使用這些charismata內結束,而他們被賜予的,因此堅持要求其從屬地位,以權力的層次。 Cf.比照。 Batiffol, "L'Eglise naissante et le catholicisme" (Paris, 1909), 36. batiffol , " l' eglise naissante等樂catholicisme " (巴黎, 1909年) , 36 。 (See CHARISMATA.) (見charismata ) 。

VII.七。 FRUITS OF THE HOLY GHOST水果的聖靈

Some writers extend this term to all the supernatural virtues, or rather to the acts of all these virtues, inasmuch as they are the results of the mysterious workings of the Holy Ghost in our souls by means of His grace.有些作者延長任期的一切超自然的美德,或者更確切地說,該行為對所有這些美德,因為它們的結果,神秘的運作,聖靈在我們的靈魂的手段,他的恩典。 But, with St. Thomas, I-II, Q. lxx, a.但是,隨著聖托馬斯,第一項和第二項,問: lxx ,甲 2, the word is ordinarily restricted to mean only those supernatural works that are done joyfully and with peace of soul. 2 ,單詞是通常只限於意味著只有那些超自然的工程,是做了,並欣喜地與和平的靈魂。 This is the sense in which most authorities apply the term to the list mentioned by St. Paul (Galatians 5:22-23): "But the fruit of the Spirit is, charity, joy, peace, patience, benignity, goodness, longanimity, mildness, faith, modesty, continency, chastity."這是常識,其中最機關申請一詞在該份名單中所提到的聖保羅(加拉太5:22-23 )說: "但聖靈的果子,就是慈善,喜樂,和平,忍耐,良,善, longanimity ,平和,真誠,謙虛continency ,貞潔" 。 Moreover, there is no doubt that this list of twelve -- three of the twelve are omitted in several Greek and Latin manuscripts -- is not to be taken in a strictly limited sense, but, according to the rules of Scriptural language, as capable of being extended to include all acts of a similar character.此外,這是毫無疑問的,這一名單的十二條-三部1 2頃遺漏在幾個希臘語和拉丁語手稿-是不是應採取的嚴格限制常識,但根據規則,聖經的語言,能以被延伸到包括所有相同的行為特徵。 That is why the Angelic Doctor says: "Every virtuous act which man performs with pleasure is a fruit."這就是為什麼天使醫生說: "每一個善良的行為,而該行為人的表現很高興的是水果" 。 The fruits of the Holy Ghost are not habits, permanent qualities, but acts.果實聖靈並不習慣,永久品質,但行為。 They cannot, therefore, be confounded with the virtues and the gifts, from which they are distinguished as the effect is from its cause, or the stream from its source.他們不能,因此,混淆與美德和禮物,從他們所尊敬的,因為效果是由它的原因,或溪流,從源頭上。 The charity, patience, mildness, etc., of which the Apostle speaks in this passage, are not then the virtues themselves, but rather their acts or operations; for, however perfect the virtues may be, they cannot be considered as the ultimate effects of grace, being themselves intended, inasmuch as they are active principles, to produce something else, ie their acts.慈善,耐心,平和等,其中,使徒保羅說,在這段話,都不會那麼美德本身,而是他們的行為或行動;為,但完美的美德可能,他們可以不被視為最終的影響寬限期,被自己的打算,因為它們是活躍的原則,以生產別的,即他們的行為。 Further, in order that these acts may fully justify their metaphorical name of fruits, they must belong to that class which are performed with ease and pleasure; in other words, the difficulty involved in performing them must disappear in presence of the delight and satisfaction resulting from the good accomplished.此外,為使這些行為,可充分證明自己的隱喻名字的水果,他們必須屬於這一階層,均輕鬆和快樂;換句話說,難以參與表演,他們必須消失,在存在的喜悅和滿足感造成從好成績。

VIII.八。 SINS AGAINST THE HOLY GHOST得罪聖靈

The sin or blasphemy against the Holy Ghost is mentioned in Matthew 12:22-32; Mark 3:22-30; Luke 12:10 (cf. 11:14-23); and Christ everywhere declares that it shall not be pardoned.該單或褻瀆聖靈提到,在馬太12:22-32 ;馬克3:22-30 ;路加福音12:10 (參見11:14-23 ) ,以及基督到處聲明,它將不會獲得赦免。 In what does it consist?在它的內涵是什麼構成的? If we examine all the passages alluded to, there can be little doubt as to the reply.如果我們審查所有通道暗示,就不可能有毫無疑問,以答复。

Let us take, for instance, the account given by St. Matthew which is more complete than that of the other Synoptics.讓我們來的,例如,該帳戶所給予的聖馬太是較完整較其他synoptics 。 There had been brought to Christ "one possessed with a devil, blind and dumb: and he healed him, so that he spoke and saw".有已提請基督"一個擁有一個魔鬼,盲人和啞巴:他撫平他,讓他發言,並看到了" 。 While the crowd is wondering, and asking: "Is not this the Son of David?", the Pharisees, yielding to their wonted jealousy, and shutting their eyes to the light of evidence, say: "This man casteth not out devils but by Beelzebub the prince of the devils."而人群是好奇,問這樣一個問題: "難道這不是兒子大衛? " ,法利賽,是屈從於他們的wonted嫉妒,並關閉他們的眼睛為輕證據的情況下,說: "這名男子casteth並非出於魔鬼,但由beelzebub王子的惡魔" 。 Jesus then proves to them this absurdity, and, consequently, the malice of their explanation; He shows them that it is by "the Spirit of God" that He casts out devils, and then He concludes: "therefore I say to you: Ever sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven men, but the blasphemy of the Spirit shall not be forgiven. And whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but he that shall speak against the Holy Ghost, it shall not he forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in the world to come."耶穌則證明了他們這一謬論,並因此,有惡意的,他們的解釋,他表明,他們認為這是"上帝的恩典" ,他投出的惡魔,然後他最後說: "所以我告訴你:任何時候都單仲偕和褻瀆應被原諒男人,但褻瀆的精神不應被原諒。誰應講一句話對人子,它應被原諒他:但他表示,應在發言反對聖靈,它不得他原諒他,既沒有在這個世界上,也沒有在世界上來吧" 。

So, to sin against the Holy Ghost is to confound Him with the spirit of evil, it is to deny, from pure malice, the Divine character of works manifestly Divine.因此,要單對聖靈是混淆與他的精神邪惡的,它是要否認的,從純粹的惡意,神聖品格的作品顯然是神聖的。 This is the sense in which St. Mark also defines the sin question; for, after reciting the words of the Master: "But he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost shall never have forgiveness", he adds at once: "Because they said: He hath an unclean spirit."這是常識,其中聖馬克還規定了單的問題;之後,背誦的話,師父說: "但是他認為,應當對褻瀆聖靈永遠不得有寬恕" ,他補充說,在一次說: "因為他們說: :祂所一個不潔的精神" 。 With this sin of pure downright malice, Jesus contrasts the sin "against the Son of man", that is the sin committed against Himself as man, the wrong done to His humanity in judging Him by His humble and lowly appearance.這一單純是徹頭徹尾的惡意,耶穌對比單式"的打擊人子" ,這就是罪過,對自己作為人,是做錯誤的,以他的人性在觀其謙虛和卑微的外觀。 This fault, unlike the former, might he excused as the result of man's ignorance and misunderstanding.這個斷層,不像前者,可能他原諒的是由於人類的無知和誤解。

But the Fathers of the Church, commenting on the Gospel texts we are treating of, did not confine themselves to the meaning given above.但是,教會的神父們,在評論福音文本,我們正在治療的,並不局限於自己的含義以上。 Whether it be that they wished to group together all objectively analogous cases, or whether they hesitated and wavered when confronted with this point of doctrine, which St. Augustine declares (Serm. ii de verbis Domini, c. v) one of the most difficult in Scripture, they have proposed different interpretations or explanations.無論是,他們希望集團共同所有,客觀上類似的情況下,還是猶豫動搖的時候,面對這一點的學說,其中聖奧古斯丁宣稱( serm.二德verbis多米尼,長五)最困難的時期之一在經文中,他們提出了不同的解釋或說明。 St. Thomas, whom we may safely follow, gives a very good summary of opinions in II-II, Q. xiv.聖托馬斯,其中我們可以安全地跟進,使一個很好的總結意見,在二-二,問:十四。 He says that blasphemy against the Holy Ghost was and may be explained in three ways.他說,褻瀆聖靈是,可以解釋三種方式。

Sometimes, and in its most literal signification, it has been taken to mean the uttering of an insult against the Divine Spirit, applying the appellation either to the Holy Ghost or to all three Divine persons.有時候,並在其最字面意義,它已採取指使用偽造的一種侮辱,對神的精神,運用稱謂無論對聖靈或所有這三個神聖的人。 This was the sin of the Pharisees, who spoke at first against "the Son of Man", criticizing the works and human ways of Jesus, accusing Him of loving good cheer and wine, of associating with the publicans, and who, later on, with undoubted bad faith, traduced His Divine works, the miracles which He wrought by virtue of His own Divinity.這是罪惡的法利賽,他們以首先對"人子" ,批評工程和人類的途徑耶穌,指責他的愛好好歡呼和葡萄酒,締與publicans ,是誰,後來,與疑義不真誠, traduced了他的神工,屢創奇蹟,他緊張得要命,憑藉他自己的神性。

On the other hand, St. Augustine frequently explains blasphemy against the Holy Ghost to be final impenitence, perseverance till death in mortal sin.在另一方面,聖奧古斯丁頻頻解釋褻瀆聖靈,以最終決定impenitence ,毅力,直至死亡罪。 This impenitence is against the Holy Ghost, in the sense that it frustrates and is absolutely opposed to the remission of sins, and this remission is appropriated to the Holy Ghost, the mutual love of the Father and the Son.這impenitence是對聖靈,在這個意義上講,它的挫折是絕對反對的罪得赦,這是緩解撥聖靈,互愛的父親和兒子。 In this view, Jesus, in Matthew 12 and Mark 3 did not really accuse the Pharisees of blaspheming the Holy Ghost, He only warned them against the danger they were in of doing so.這種觀點認為,耶穌在馬太12日和馬克三日並未真正指責法利的褻瀆聖靈,他只是警告說,他們對危險的,他們在這樣做的。

Finally, several Fathers, and after them, many scholastic theologians, apply the expression to all sins directly opposed to that quality which is, by appropriation, the characteristic quality of the Third Divine Person.最後,有幾個父親,並經過他們,有很多學術上的神學家,申請表達所有的罪孽直接反對這樣的質量,這是中,撥款,質量特性的第三個神聖的人。 Charity and goodness are especially attributed to the Holy Ghost, as power is to the Father and wisdom to the Son.慈善和善良的,尤其是由於聖靈,因為權力,是為父親和智慧給兒子。 Just, then, as they termed sins against the Father those that resulted from frailty, and sins against the Son those that sprang from ignorance, so the sins against the Holy Ghost are those that are committed from downright malice, either by despising or rejecting the inspirations and impulses which, having been stirred in man's soul by the Holy Ghost, would turn him away or deliver him from evil.只是,那麼,他們被稱為捷聯慣導系統對父親那些造成弱者,和罪孽對兒子那些源於無知,因此得罪了聖靈,是那些致力於從徹頭徹尾的惡意,無論是由輕視或拒絕靈感和衝動,其中,經攪拌,在人的靈魂,是由聖靈,把他帶走或送他從邪路上。

It is easy to see how this wide explanation suits all the circumstances of the case where Christ addresses the words to the Pharisees.人們很容易看到,這如何解釋廣泛適合所有案件的情況,如基督地址詞法利。 These sins are commonly reckoned six: despair, presumption, impenitence or a fixed determination not to repent, obstinacy, resisting the known truth, and envy of another's spiritual welfare.這些罪過是普遍估計六:絕望中,推定, impenitence或定額測定不思悔改,一意孤行,抵禦已知的真理,羨慕別人的精神幸福。

The sins against the Holy Ghost are said to be unpardonable, but the meaning of this assertion will vary very much according to which of the three explanations given above is accepted.罪孽對聖靈有說是不可饒恕的,但意思的這一主張會有所十分據其中的三個解釋,以上被採納。 As to final impenitence it is absolute; and this is easily understood, for even God cannot pardon where there is no repentance, and the moment of death is the fatal instant after which no mortal sin is remitted.至於最後impenitence這是絕對的,這是很容易理解的,因為即使上帝不能原諒那裡沒有悔過書,目前死因是致命的瞬間之後,並沒有致命的罪過是匯出。 It was because St. Augustine considered Christ's words to imply absolute unpardonableness that he held the sin against the Holy Ghost to be solely final impenitence.這是因為聖奧古斯丁認為是耶穌的話暗示絕對unpardonableness他舉行單對聖靈以純粹最後impenitence 。 In the other two explanations, according to St. Thomas, the sin against the Holy Ghost is remissable -- not absolutely and always, but inasmuch as (considered in itself) it has not the claims and extenuating circumstance, inclining towards a pardon, that might be alleged in the case of sins of weakness and ignorance.在另外兩種解釋,根據聖托馬斯,單仲偕對聖靈是remissable -不是絕對和永遠的,但因為(考慮本身) ,也沒有索賠的問題,並減輕罪責的情況下,傾向朝赦免,即可能被指控在該案件的罪孽的弱點和無知。 He who, from pure and deliberate malice, refuses to recognize the manifest work of God, or rejects the necessary means of salvation, acts exactly like a sick man who not only refuses all medicine and all food, but who does all in his power to increase his illness, and whose malady becomes incurable, due to his own action.他的人,從純粹的和蓄意的惡意,不承認體現上帝做事,或拒絕接受必要的手段救恩,行為完全像一個病夫,他們不僅拒絕一切醫藥及所有食品,但誰做的一切在他的權力增加他的病,其病成為不治之症,因為他自己的行動。 It is true, that in either case, God could, by a miracle, overcome the evil; He could, by His omnipotent intervention, either nuillify the natural causes of bodily death, or radically change the will of the stubborn sinner; but such intervention is not in accordance with His ordinary providence; and if he allows the secondary causes to act, if He offers the free human will of ordinary but sufficient grace, who shall seek cause of complaint?這是事實,即在這兩種情況下,上帝,是一個奇蹟,戰勝了邪惡,他可以通過他的無所不能的干預,要么nuillify自然原因造成身體死亡了,或者從根本上改變意願的頑固罪人,但這種干預是不是按照他的普通普羅維登斯;如果他允許二手原因,以法,如果他提供了自由人的意志為普通,但有足夠的寬限期,他們應尋求有理由抱怨? In a word, the irremissableness of the sins against the Holy Ghost is exclusively on the part of the sinner, on account of the sinner's act.總的來說, irremissableness的罪孽對聖靈完全是對部分的罪人,就交代了罪人的行為。

Publication information Written by J. Forget.出版信息寫了J.忘記的。 Transcribed by WS French, Jr..轉錄的,由被法國人,小的。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.天主教百科全書,體積七。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. nihil obstat , 1910年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

On the dogma see: ST.對教條見:聖。 THOMAS, Summa Theol., I, Q. xxxvi-xliii; FRANZELIN, De Deo Trino (Rome, 1881); C. PESCH, Pælectiones dogmaticæ, II (Freiburg im Br., 1895) POHLE, Lehrbuch der Dogmatik, I (Paderborn, 1902); TANQUEREY, Synop.托馬斯,總結theol 。來說,我問:三十六-四十三; franzelin ,德迪奧特里諾(羅馬, 1881年) ;丙pesch , pælectiones dogmaticæ ,二(弗賴堡的IM溴, 1895年) pohle , lehrbuch明鏡dogmatik ,我(帕德博恩, 1902 ) ; tanquerey , synop 。 Theol. theol 。 dogm. dogm 。 spec., I, II (Rome, 1907-8).規格,一,二(羅馬, 1907-8 ) 。 Concerning the Scriptural arguments for the dogma: WINSTANLEY, Spirit in the New Testament (Cambridge, 1908); LEMONNYER, Epîtres de S. Paul, I (Paris, 1905).有關聖經的論點為教條:溫,精神,在新約聖經(劍橋, 1908年) ; lemonnyer , epîtres美國德保羅,我(巴黎, 1905年) 。 Concerning tradition: PETAVIUS, De Deo Trino in his Dogmata theologica; SCHWANE, Dogmengeschichte, I (Freiburg im Br., 1892); DE REGNON, Etudes théologiques sur la Sainte Trinité (Paris, 1892); TIXERONT, Hist.關於傳統: petavius ,德迪奧特里諾在他的dogmata theologica ; schwane , dogmengeschichte ,我(弗賴堡的IM溴, 1892年) ;德regnon ,練習曲théologiques sur拉聖trinité (巴黎, 1892年) ; tixeront ,歷史。 Des dogmes, I (Paris, 1905); TURMEL, Hist.萬dogmes ,我(巴黎, 1905年) ; turmel ,歷史。 de la théol.德香格里拉théol 。 positive (Paris, 1904).正面(巴黎, 1904年) 。


Holy Spirit聖靈

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

Biblical View of the Spirit.聖經觀的精神。

The most noticeable difference between sentient beings and dead things, between the living and the dead, is in the breath.最顯著的區別情與死的東西,與活人與死人,是在呼氣。 Whatever lives breathes; whatever is dead does not breathe.無論生命呼吸;不管是死並不喘不過氣來。 Aquila, by strangling some camels and then asking Hadrian to set them on their legs again, proved to the emperor that the world is based on "spirit" (Yer. Ḥag. 41, 77a).雕,由扼殺一些駱駝,然後問哈德良確定他們對自己的腿再次證明皇帝認為,世界是立足於"精神" ( yer. ḥag 。 41 , 77 A條) 。 In most languages breath and spirit are designated by the same term.在大多數語言呼氣和精神均指定由相同的意思。 The life-giving breath can not be of earthly origin, for nothing is found whence it may be taken.生命賦予呼氣不能對俗世的原產地,什麼也沒有發現何時可能採取的措施。 It is derived from the supernatural world, from God.這是來自超自然世界,由上帝。 God blew the breath of life into Adam (Gen. ii. 7).上帝引爆了口氣到亞當(創二7 ) 。 "The Spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life" (Job xxxiii. 4; comp. ib. xxvii. 3). "上帝的精神祂所作出了我,口氣全能祂所給予我的生活" (就業三十三。四日;可比。興業。二十七。 3 ) 。 God "giveth breath unto the people upon it [the earth], and spirit to them that walk therein" (Isa. xlii. 5).神" ,給予呼吸所不欲,人民賦予它的[地球] ,和精神向他們表示,走的地方" (以賽亞四十二5 ) 。 "In whose hand is the soul of every living thing, and the breath of all mankind" (Job xii. 10). "在他們的手是靈魂的每一個有生命的事物,並口氣全人類" (求職十二10 ) 。 Through His spirit all living things are created; and when He withdraws it they perish (ib. xxxiv. 14; Ps. civ. 29, 30).透過他的精神,一切萬物都是在創建時,他退出時,他們就有亡( ib.三十四。 14 ;聚苯乙烯。 civ 。 29 , 30 ) 。 He is therefore the God of the spirits of all flesh (Num. xvi. 22, xxvii. 16).因此,他的神,神的所有肉( num.十六,二十二,二十七, 16 ) 。 The breath of animals also is derived from Him (Gen. vi. 17; Ps. civ. 30 [AV 29]; Eccl. iii. 19-21; Isa. xlii. 5).呼氣的動物,也來自他的(創六, 17人;聚苯乙烯。 civ 30 [視聽29 〕 ; eccl第三節19-21 ;伊薩。四十二5 ) 。 The heavenly' bodies likewise are living beings, who have received their spirit from God (Job xxvi. 13; Ps. xxxiii. 6).天上的屍體同樣是生活的人,曾接受他們的精神,從神(求職二十六, 13歲;聚苯乙烯。三十三。 6 ) 。 God's spirit hovered over the form of lifeless matter, thereby making the Creation possible; and it still causes the most tremendous changes (Gen. i. 2; Isa. xxxii. 15).上帝的精神上空盤旋的形式,沒有生命的事,從而使創作;它還是引起了最巨大的變化, (創一2 ;伊薩。三十二。 15 ) 。

Hence all creatures live only through the spirit given by God.因此所有生物的生命只有通過精神所給予的上帝。 In a more restricted sense, however, the spirit of God is not identical with this life-giving spirit.在較受限制的感覺,不過,上帝的精神是不完全相同的,這賦予生命的精神。 He pours out His own spirit upon all whom He has chosen to execute His will and behests, and this spirit imbues them with higher reason and powers, making them capable of heroic speech and action (Gen. xli. 38; Ex. xxxi. 3; Num. xxiv. 2; Judges iii. 10; II Sam. xxiii. 2).他注入了自己的精神後,所有的人,他選擇了去執行他的意志和遺志,這種精神可使他們具有較高的理由和權力,使他們有能力英雄的言論和行動(創四十一, 38歲;特惠。三十一3 ;序號。二十四。 2 ;法官三, 10歲;二,三。二十三。 2 ) 。 This special spirit of God rests upon man (Isa. xi. 2, xlii. 1); it surrounds him like a garment (Judges vi. 34; II Chron. xxiv. 20); it falls upon him and holds him like a hand (Ezek. xi. 5, xxxvii. 1).本次特別上帝的精神取決於男子(以賽亞十一。 2 ,四十二1 ) ,它是圍繞他像一間製衣(法官六, 34 ;二,慢性。二十四, 20 ) ;它落在他和他擁有像一隻手( ezek.十一。 5 ,三十七。 1 ) 。 It may also be taken away from the chosen one and transferred to some one else (Num. xi. 17).它也可以帶走的,從選擇一個,轉移到一些其他人( num.十一17 ) 。 It may enter into man and speak with his voice (II Sam. xxiii. 2; Ezek. ii. 2; comp. Jer. x. 14).它可能進入男子講他的聲音(二山姆。二十三。 2 ; ezek二。 2 ;可比。張哲。十, 14 ) 。 The prophet sees and hears by means of the spirit (Num. xxiv. 2; I Sam. x. 6; II Sam. xxiii. 2; Isa. xlii. 1; Zech. vii. 12).先知的見聞方式精神( num.二十四。二日,我薩姆。十六;二,三。二十三。 2 ;伊薩。四十二, 1條;撒加利亞七, 12 ) 。 The Messianic passage in Joel ii.救世主通道的Joel二。 28-29, to which special significance was subsequently attached, is characteristic of the view regarding the nature of the spirit: "And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my Spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions: And also upon the servants and upon the handmaids in those days will I pour out my Spirit." 28-29 ,其中特別重要的意義,其後所附的,具有鮮明的看法,對於精神的本質: "它今後將發生之後,我會傾訴我的精神後,所有的果肉;和你的兒子和你的女兒應預言,你的老男人應夢想的夢想,你的年輕男性應看到願景:又當公務員,經handmaids那些日子,我將傾訴我的精神" 。

The Divine Spirit.神聖的精神。

What the Bible calls "Spirit of Yhwh" and "Spirit of Elohim" is called in the Talmud and Midrash "Holy Spirit" ("Ruaḥ ha-Ḳodesh." never "Ruaḥ Ḳedoshah," as Hilgenfeld says, in "Ketzergesch." p. 237).什麼聖經所說的"精神yhwh "和"的精神,耶洛因" ,是在所謂的猶太法典和midrash "聖靈" (下稱" ruaḥ夏ḳodesh "從來" ruaḥ ḳedoshah , "作為hilgenfeld說,在" ketzergesch 。展示" P 237 ) 。 Although the expression "Holy Spirit" occurs in Ps.雖然表達的"聖靈"發生在PS 。 li.李。 11 (LXX. πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον) and in Isa. 11 ( lxx. πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον )和伊薩。 lxiii. lxiii 。 10, 11, it had not yet the definite meaning which was attached to it in rabbinical literature: in the latter it is equivalent to theexpression "Spirit of the Lord," which was avoided on account of the disinclination to the use of the Tetragrammaton (see, for example, Targ. to Isa. xl. 13). 10 , 11 ,它尚未確切含義是重視它在猶太教文學:在後,這是相當於theexpression "主的聖靈" ,這是避免就交代了不願使用該耶和華(例如,見targ 。伊薩。四十, 13 ) 。 It is probably owing to this fact that the Shekinah is often referred to instead of the Holy Spirit.這大概也是由於這個事實,即舍吉拿的是通常被稱為不是聖靈。 It is said of the former, as of the Holy Spirit, that it rests upon a person.有人說,關於前者,因為對聖靈的,它取決於一個人。 The difference between the two in such cases has not yet been determined.兩者的區別在這種情況下,目前還沒有確定。 It is certain that the New Testament has πνεῦμα ἅγιον in those passages, also, where the Hebrew and Aramaic had "Shekinah"; for in Greek there is no equivalent to the latter, unless it be δόξα (="gleam of light"), by which "ziw ha-shekinah" may be rendered.可以肯定的是,新約聖經有πνεῦμα ἅγιον在這些通道,同時,如希伯來語和阿拉米文有"舍吉拿" ,為在希臘有沒有相當於後者的,除非它被δόξα ( = "一線光" ) ,其中" ziw哈舍吉拿" ,可提供的。 Because of the identification of the Holy Spirit with the Shekinah, πνεῦμα ἅγιον is much more frequently mentioned in the New Testament than is "Ruaḥ ha-Ḳodesh" in rabbinical literature.由於對鑑定聖靈同舍吉拿, πνεῦμα ἅγιον更為頻繁提到,在新約聖經比,是" ruaḥ夏ḳodesh " ,在猶太教文獻。

Nature of the Holy Spirit.大自然的聖靈。

Although the Holy Spirit is often named instead of God (eg, in Sifre, Deut. 31 [ed. Friedmann, p. 72]), yet it was conceived as being something distinct.雖然聖靈往往命名不是上帝(例如,在sifre , deut 31 [海關。弗里德曼,第72頁] ) ,但它被視為是被一些區別的。 The Spirit was among the ten things that were created on the first day (Ḥag. 12a, b).精神是其中10個的東西,創造了對第一天( ḥag. 12A及二) 。 Though the nature of the Holy Spirit is really nowhere described, the name indicates that it was conceived as a kind of wind that became manifest through noise and light.雖然大自然的聖靈是真的無處形容,其名稱表明,它被設想為一種風,成為艙單通過噪音和光。 As early as Ezek.早ezek 。 iii.三。 12 it is stated, "the spirit took me up, and I heard behind me a voice of a great rushing," the expression "behind me" characterizing the unusual nature of the noise. 12日,這是說, "精神,我花了,我聽到我身後的聲音很大搶" ,表達"我背後"的特點不同尋常的性質以及噪音。 The Shekinah made a noise before Samson like a bell (Soṭah 9b, below).該舍吉拿作出了噪音黃山之前,像一個鐘( soṭah 9B條,下文) 。 When the Holy Spirit was resting upon him, his hair gave forth a sound like a bell, which could be heard from afar.當聖靈是休息後,他這個人,他的頭髮給了一個聽起來像是一個鐘,可以聽到來自遠方的。 It imbued him with such strength that he could uproot two mountains and rub them together like pebbles, and could cover leagues at one step (ib. 17b; Lev. R. viii. 2).它貫穿他的這種實力,他可以一露頭,兩山擦起來像鵝卵石,可涵蓋聯賽上一步( ib. 17B條;列弗。傳譯八, 2 ) 。 Similarly Acts ii.同樣的行為,二。 2 reads: "And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting" (it must be noted that this happened at Pentecost, ie, the Feast of Revelation). 2條寫著: "突然間就出現了一個完善的從天上作為一個急於威武之風,它填補了所有的房子裡,他們正坐在" (必須指出的是,這件事發生在五旬節,即,盛宴的啟示) 。 Although the accompanying lights are not expressly mentioned, the frequently recurring phrase "he beheld ["heẓiẓ"] in the Holy Spirit" shows that he upon whom the spirit rested saw a light.雖然伴隨燈都沒有明文提到的,經常反复出現的短語" ,他看到了" heẓiẓ " ]在聖靈" ,表明他當人的精神,在於看見一盞燈。 The Holy Spirit gleamed in the court of Shem, of Samuel, and of King Solomon (Gen. R. lxxxv. 12).聖靈gleamed在法庭上的SHEM後,塞繆爾,和所羅門王(創傳譯lxxxv 12段) 。 It "glimmered" in Tamar (Gen. xxxviii. 18), in the sons of Jacob (Gen. xlii. 11), and in Moses (Ex. ii. 12), ie, it settled upon the persons in question (see Gen. R. lxxxv. 9, xci. 7; Lev. R. xxxii. 4, "niẓoẓah" and "heẓiẓ"; comp. also Lev. R. viii. 2, "hitḥil le-gashgesh"). " glimmered "在添馬艦(創三十八, 18 ) ,在兒子雅各布(創四十二11 ) ,並在摩西(如二12 ) ,也就是說,它解決後,人的問題(見根。傳譯lxxxv 9 , xci 7段;列弗。傳譯三十二。 4 , " niẓoẓah "和" heẓiẓ " ;可比,而且列弗。傳譯八。 2 , " hitḥil樂gashgesh " ) 。 From the day that Joseph was sold the Holy Spirit left Jacob, who saw and heard only indistinctly (Gen. R. xci. 6).從創建之日起即約瑟是賣給聖靈左雅各布,他們看到和聽到的只是indistinctly (創傳譯xci 6段) 。

The Holy Spirit, being of heavenly origin, is composed, like everything that comes from heaven, of light and fire.聖靈降臨,幸福天朝出身,是組成一樣,一切都來自於天堂,輕防火。 When it rested upon Phinehas his face burned like a torch (Lev. R. xxi., end).當它休息後,非尼哈他的臉燒傷像一個火炬( lev.傳譯二十一,全文完) When the Temple was destroyed and Israel went into exile, the Holy Spirit returned to heaven; this is indicated in Eccl.當聖殿被毀和以色列走進流亡,聖靈回到了天堂,這是表示在eccl 。 xii.十二。 7: "the spirit shall return unto God" (Eccl. R. xii. 7). 7 : "精神,應歸還所不欲,以神之名" (傳道書傳譯第十二7段) 。 The spirit talks sometimes with a masculine and sometimes with a feminine voice (Eccl. vii. 29 [AV 28]); ie, as the word "ruaḥ" is both masculine and feminine, the Holy Spirit was conceived as being sometimes a man and sometimes a woman.精神談判,有時一個男性化的,有時是一個女性的聲音(傳道書七29 [視聽28 ] ) ,即因為" ruaḥ "既是男性和女性,聖靈被設想為正,有時一男有時一女。

In the Form of a Dove.在形式的鴿派。

The four Gospels agree in saying that when Jesus was baptized the Holy Spirit in the shape of a dove came down from the opening heaven and rested upon him.四個福音同意地說,當耶穌受洗禮聖靈在形成一個鴿派下來,從開放天堂與休息後,他的。 The phraseology of the passages, especially in Luke, shows that this description was not meant symbolically, as Conybeare ("Expositor," iv., ix. 455) assumes, following Alexandrian views (comp. Matt. iii. 16; Mark i. 10; Luke iii. 22; John iv. 33; and Hastings, "Dict. Bible," ii. 406a).用字的段落,尤其是在路加,就會發現這種描述並不意味著象徵意義的是,作為科尼比爾( " expositor , "四,九, 4550 )假設,繼亞歷山大意見( comp.馬特。三, 16歲;馬克一。第10條;路加福音三22 ;約翰四33和黑斯廷斯, "字典。聖經" ,二406a ) 。 This idea of a dove-like form is found in Jewish literature also.這一想法的鴿子樣的形式,是發現在猶太文學也。 The phrase in Cant.這句話在斜面。 ii.二。 12, "the voice of the dove" (AV "turtle"), is translated in the Targum "the voice of the Holy Spirit." 12 , "海峽之聲鴿派" (著名的"海龜" ) ,是翻譯在targum "的聲音,聖靈" 。 The passage in Gen. i.通過在將軍一。 2, "And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters," is interpreted by Ben Zoma (c. 100) to mean, "As a dove that hovers above her brood without touching it" (Ḥag. 15a). 2 , "上帝的精神提出後,面對該水域" ,是詮釋本zoma (長100 )的意思是, "作為一個鴿表示,盤旋在上面,她耿耿於懷而不觸及它" ( ḥag. 15A條) 。 As the corresponding passage in the Palestinian Talmud (Ḥag. 77b, above) mentions the eagle instead of the dove, the latter is perhaps not named here with reference to the Holy Spirit.作為相應的通道在巴勒斯坦猶太法典( ḥag. 77b段) ,提到鷹不是鴿派,而後者也許是沒有點名這裡參考聖靈。 A teacher of the Law heard in a ruin a kind of voice ("bat ḳol") that complained like a dove: "Wo to the children, because of whose sins I have destroyed my house" (Ber. 3a, below).一名教師的法律聽到在廢墟一種聲音(下稱"蝙蝠ḳol " ) ,抱怨就像一個鴿子說: "禾,向孩子們,因為他們的罪孽,我摧毀了我的家" ( ber.第3 A ,下文) 。 Evidently God Himself, or rather the Holy Spirit, is here referred to as cooing like a dove (comp. Abbot, "From Letter to Spirit," pp. 106-135).顯然上帝本身,或者更確切地說,聖靈,是在這裡被稱為cooing像鴿( comp.住持" ,從信中的精神, "頁106-135 ) 。 See Dove.見鴿子。

Dissemination of the Holy Spirit.傳播聖靈。

The Holy Spirit dwells only among a worthy generation, and the frequency of its manifestations is proportionate to the worthiness.聖靈整篇只是其中一個有益的一代人,和頻率,其表現是成正比的,老有所為。 There was no manifestation of it in the time of the Second Temple (Yoma 21b), while there were many during the time of Elijah (Tosef., Soṭah, xii. 5).有沒有體現在它的時候,第二聖殿( yoma 21 ) ,而當時有很多在的時候,以利亞( tosef. , soṭah ,十二5 ) 。 According to Job xxviii.據就業二十八。 25, the Holy Spirit rested upon the Prophets in varying degrees, some prophesying to the extent of one book only, and others filling two books (Lev. R. xv. 2). 25 ,聖靈休息後,是先知,在不同程度上,一些預言,以致於一本書而已,其他加油站的兩本書( lev.傳譯十五。 2 ) 。 Nor did it rest upon them continually, but only for a time.它也沒有休息後,他們不斷,但只針對一段時間。 The stages of development, the highest of which is the Holy Spirit, are as follows: zeal, integrity, purity, holiness, humility, fear of sin, the Holy Spirit.該階段的發展,目前最高的是聖靈,內容如下:熱情,正直,純潔,聖潔,謙卑,恐懼的單仲偕,聖靈。 The Holy Spirit conducts Elijah, who brings the dead to life (Yer. Shab. 3c, above, and parallel passage).聖靈進行利亞,他們帶來了這些死者生命( yer.沙巴。在P3C ,上述情況,並平行通道) 。 The pious act through the Holy Spirit (Tan., Wayeḥi, 14); whoever teaches the Torah in public partakes of the Holy Spirit (Cant. R. i. 9, end; comp. Lev. R. xxxv. 7).在虔誠的行為,通過聖靈( tan. , wayeḥi , 14 ) ;誰教律法在公眾參與大的聖靈( cant.傳譯一9月底;可比。列弗。傳譯三十五7 ) 。 When Phinehas sinned the Holy Spirit departed from him (Lev. R. xxxvii. 4; comp. Gen. R. xix. 6; Pesiḳ. 9a).當非尼哈罪聖靈離開了他( lev.傳譯三十七。四日;可比。將軍傳譯十九。六日; pesiḳ 。 9A條) 。

In Biblical times the Holy Spirit was widely disseminated, resting on those who, according to the Bible, displayed a propitious activity; thus it rested on Eber and, according to Josh.在聖經時代聖靈被廣泛傳播,休息時就那些,根據聖經,展現了吉祥的活動,因此它落在, EBER ,而根據喬什。 ii.二。 16, even on Rahab (Seder 'Olam, 1; Sifre, Deut. 22). 16 ,即使對rahab ( seder ' olam , 1 ; sifre , deut 22段) 。 It was necessary to reiterate frequently that Solomon wrote his three books, Proverbs, Canticles, and Ecclesiastes, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit (Cant. R. i. 6-10), because there was a continual opposition not only to the wise king personally, but also to his writings.這是有必要重申經常說,索羅門寫了他的三本書,諺語, canticles ,傳道書,根據故事的靈感聖靈( cant.傳譯一6-10 ) ,因為那裡是一個不斷反對派不僅明智國王個人,而且也有利於他的著作。 A teacher of the Law says that probably for this reason the Holy Spirit rested upon Solomon in his old age only (ib. i. 10, end).教師法說,也許是這個原因,聖靈休息後,所羅門在自己的晚年生活,只有( ib.一10 ,全文完)

Holy Spirit and Prophecy.聖靈的預言。

The visible results of the activity of the Holy Spirit, according to the Jewish conception, are the books of the Bible, all of which have been composed under its inspiration.有形的結果的活動,聖靈,根據猶太人的觀念,是書籍的聖經,所有這些都被組成,其靈感。 All the Prophets spoke "in the Holy Spirit"; and the most characteristic sign of the presence of the Holy Spirit is the gift of prophecy, in the sense that the person upon whom it rests beholds the past and the future.所有先知以"聖靈" ,以及最具特色的標誌,在場的聖靈是禮品的預言,在某種意義上說,人後,誰落在beholds過去與未來。 With the death of the last three prophets, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, the Holy Spirit ceased to manifest itself in Israel; but the Bat Ḳol was still available.與死亡的最後三個先知,哈該書, zechariah ,瑪拉基書,聖靈不再顯現在以色列,但蝙蝠ḳol仍然可用。 "A bat ḳol announced twice at assemblies of the scribes: 'There is a man who is worthy to have the Holy Spirit rest upon him.' "蝙蝠ḳol宣布,在兩次集會的文士: '有一個人,不愧是有聖靈休息後,他的。 On one of these occasions all eyes turned to Hillel; on the other, to Samuel the Lesser" (Tosef., Soṭah, xiii. 2-4, and parallels).其中的場合,所有的目光轉向hillel ;另一方面,以塞繆爾較輕" ( tosef. , soṭah ,十三2-4 ,並平行線) 。 Although the Holy Spirit was not continually present, and did not rest for any length of time upon any individual, yet there were cases in which it appeared and made knowledge of the past and of the future possible (ib.; also with reference to Akiba, Lev. R. xxi. 8; to Gamaliel II., ib. xxxvii. 3, and Tosef., Pes. i. 27; to Meïr, Lev. R. ix. 9; etc.).雖然聖靈是不是不斷,目前並沒有休息,任何長度的時間後,任何個人,但在一些個案中,它出現,並取得了知識的過去和未來的可能( ib. ;也參照秋葉,列弗。傳譯二十一。八日;加馬二,興業。三十七。 3 , tosef ,狗一, 27日; meïr ,列弗。傳譯九,九等) 。

The Holy Spirit rested not only on the children of Israel who crossed the Red Sea (Tosef., Soṭah, vi. 2), but, toward the end of the time of the Second Temple, occasionally on ordinary mortals; for "if they are not prophets, they are at least the sons of prophets" (Tosef., Pes. iv. 2).聖靈休息,不僅對兒童的以色列那些越過紅海( tosef. , soṭah ,六2 ) ,但對年底的時候,第二聖殿,偶爾對凡人; : "如果他們不是先知,他們目前至少有兒子的先知" ( tosef. ,狗四。 2 ) 。 The Holy Spirit is at times identified with the spirit of prophecy (comp. Seder 'Olam, 1, beginning; Targ. Yer. to Gen. xli. 38, xliii. 14; II Kings ix. 26; Isa. xxxii. 15. xl. 13, xliv. 3; Cant. R. i. 2).聖靈是在確定的時代與精神的預言( comp. seder ' olam , 1 ,一開始; targ 。也門里亞爾。將軍四十一, 38 ,四十三, 14 ;二王九。 26 ;伊薩。三十二。 15 。四十, 13 ,四十四3 ;斜面。傳譯一2 ) 。 Sifre 170 (to Deut. xviii. 18) remarks: "'I will put My words into his mouth,' means 'I put them into his mouth, but I do not speak with him face to face'; know, therefore, that henceforth the Holy Spirit is put into the mouths of the Prophets." sifre 170 ( deut 。十八。 18 )備註: " '我會把我的話把他的嘴, '就是'我把它們納入他的嘴,但我不發言,與他面對面' ;所知,因此,從此聖靈放進嘴巴的先知" 。 The "knowledge of God" is the Holy Spirit (Cant. R. i. 9). "知識的上帝"是聖靈( cant.傳譯一9 ) 。 The division of the country by lot among the several tribes was likewise effected by means of the Holy Spirit (Sifre, Num. 132, p. 49a).該司的國家之間有很多的幾個部落同樣的效果的手段聖靈( sifre ,序號132 ,第49A條) 。 On "inspiration" see Jew.關於"靈感"看到猶太人。 Encyc. encyc 。 iii.三。 147, sv Bible Canon, § 9; especially Meg. 147 , sv聖經佳能, § 9 ;尤其是梅格。 7a; and Inspiration. 7 A款和靈感。 It may simply be noted here that in rabbinical literature single passages are often considered as direct utterances of the Holy Spirit (Sifre, Num. 86; Tosef., Soṭah, ix. 2; Sifre, Deut. 355, p. 148a, six times; Gen. R. lxxviii. 8, lxxxiv. 12; Lev. R. iv. 1 [the expression "and the Holy Spirit cries" occurs five times], xiv. 2, xxvii. 2; Num. R. xv. 21; xvii. 2, end; Deut. R. xi., end).它可能只是在這裡指出,在猶太教文學單一通道,往往被視為直接的言論聖靈( sifre ,序號86 ; tosef , soṭah ,第九至2款; sifre , deut 355頁148a , 6倍;將軍傳譯lxxviii 8 lxxxiv 12條;列弗。傳譯四,一[表達" ,並聖靈的呼聲"發生的5倍, 14 。 2 ,二十七。 2 ;序號。傳譯十五。 21 ;十七。 2 ,結束; deut 。傳譯十一,全文完)

Gentiles and the Holy Spirit.外邦人和聖靈。

The opposite of the Holy Spirit is the unclean spirit ("ruaḥ ṭum'ah"; lit. "spirit of uncleanliness").相反的聖靈是不潔的精神( " ruaḥ ṭum'ah " ;亮著"的精神uncleanliness " ) 。 The Holy Spirit rests on the person who seeks the Shekinah (God), while the unclean spirit rests upon him who seeks uncleanness (Sifre, Deut. 173, and parallel passage).聖靈在於對人搞了舍吉拿(上帝) ,而不潔的精神,取決於他誰搞的腐壞( sifre , deut 173 ,和平行通道) 。 Hence arises the contrast, as in the New Testament between πνεῦμα ἅγιον and πνεῦμα ἀκάθαρτον.因此出現了反差,因為在新約聖經之間πνεῦμα ἅγιον和πνεῦμα ἀκάθαρτον 。 On the basis of II Kings iii.在此基礎上的二王三。 13, the statement is made, probably as a polemic against the founder of Christianity, that the Holy Spirit rests only upon a happy soul (Yer. Suk. 55a, and elsewhere). 13 ,聲明中的話,也許是由於對論戰的創始人,基督教,即聖靈落在後,只有一個愉快的靈魂( yer.淑。第55 A ,和其它地方) 。 Among the pagans Balaam, from being a mere interpreter of dreams, rose to be a magician and then a possessor of the Holy Spirit (Num. R. xx. 7).其中異教徒balaam ,從一個單純的口譯員的夢想,上升到一個魔術師,然後擁有聖靈( num.傳譯二十7 ) 。 But the Holy Spirit did not appear to him except at night, all pagan prophets being in possession of their gift only then (ib. xx. 12).但聖靈沒有出庭,他除了在夜間,所有異教先知暫時擁有自己的禮品才( ib.二十, 12 ) 。 The Balaam section was written in order to show why the Holy Spirit was taken from the heathen-ie, because Balaam desired to destroy a whole people without cause (ib. xx. 1).該balaam節寫,以示為什麼聖靈是從異教徒-即,因為balaam想要毀滅整個人的事業( ib. XX條1款) 。 A very ancient source (Sifre, Deut. 175) explains, on the basis of Deut.一個非常古老的來源( sifre , deut 175 )解釋說,在此基礎上deut 。 xviii.十八。 15, that in the Holy Land the gift of prophecy is not granted to the heathen or in the interest of the heathen, nor is it given outside of Palestine even to Jews. 15 ,即在聖地禮品的預言是不批給異教徒或在利息的異教徒,也不是外界給予巴勒斯坦甚至猶太人。 In the Messianic time, however, the Holy Spirit will, according to Joel ii.在救世主的時候,然而,聖靈,將按照約珥二。 28, 29, be poured out upon all Israel; ie, all the people will be prophets (Num. R. xv., end). 28日, 29日,傾注了所有以色列,即全體人民,將先知( num.傳譯十五,全文完) According to the remarkable statement of Tanna debe Eliyahu, ed.據非凡聲明tanna debe eliyahu ,教育署。 Friedmann, the Holy Spirit will be poured out equally upon Jews and pagans, both men and women, freemen and slaves.弗里德曼,聖靈將傾注平分秋色後,猶太人和異教徒,不論男性或女性,自由人與奴隸。

In the New Testament.在新約聖經。

The doctrine that after the advent of the Messiah the Holy Spirit will be poured out upon all mankind explains the fact that in the New Testament such great importance is assigned to the Holy Spirit.該學說認為,後來臨的彌賽亞聖靈將傾注了所有人類的解釋,事實上,在新約聖經這種非常重要的是分配到聖靈。 The phrase τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον occurs from eighty to ninety times (Swete, in Hastings, "Dict. Bible," ii. 404); while the phrase τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ δεοῦ is comparatively rare, it occurs several times.這句話τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον發生,從80至90倍( swete ,在黑斯廷斯, "字典。聖經" ,二404 ) ,而這句話τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ δεοῦ是比較罕見的,它發生數次。 In Acts i.在行為一。 5, 8 it is said, as in the midrash quoted above, that in the Messianic time the Holy Spirit will be poured out upon every one, and in Acts ii. 5 , 8 ,它是說,作為在midrash上文所引述的,即在救世主的時候,聖靈會澆出後,每個人,並在行為二。 16 et seq. 16頁起。 Peter states that Joel's prophecy regarding the Holy Spirit has been fulfilled.彼得說,約珥的預言就聖靈已經得到實現。 "While Peter yet spake these words, the Holy Ghost fell on all them which heard the word. And they of the circumcision which believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost. For they heard them speak with tongues, and magnify God" (ib. x. 44-46). "的時候,彼得,但spake這些話,是聖靈落在他們都聽到這兩個字,而且他們的包皮環切術,其中認為吃驚的發現,有多達來到與彼得,因為這是對外邦人,也被澆了禮品的聖鬼,因為他們聽到他們說話舌頭,並讚美上帝" ( ib.十44-46 ) 。 Luke also says (Luke xi. 13) that God gives the Holy Spirit to those that ask Him.路克也說, (路加福音十一, 13 )上帝給了聖靈給那些問他。 The phrase "joy of the Holy Ghost" (I Thess. i. 6) also recalls the Midrash sentence quoted above referring to the contrast between the clean and the unclean spirit (Mark iii. 30).這句話, "喜悅的聖靈" (帖前一6 )還回顧midrash句引述上述所指的反差,清潔和不清潔的精神( Mark III的30段) 。 The inspiration of the Biblical writers is acknowledged in the same way as in rabbinical literature (Matt. xxii. 43; Mark xii. 36; II Peter i. 21).故事的靈感,聖經的作者是公認的,在同樣的方式在猶太教文獻。 ( 22 。 43 ;馬克十二。 36 ;二,彼得一21 ) 。 Hence the conception of the Holy Spirit is derived from one and the same source.因此觀,聖靈是來自同一個來源。 But as the New Testament writers look upon the Messiah, who is actually identified with the Holy Spirit, as having arrived, their view assumes a form fundamentally different from that of the Jewish view in certain respects; ie, as regards: (1) the conception and birth of the Messiah through the Holy Spirit (Matt. i. 18 et seq.; Luke i. 35; John iii. 5-8); (2) the speaking in different tongues ("glossolalia"; Acts ii. et passim): (3) the materialistic view of the Holy Spirit, evidenced in the idea that it may be communicated by means of the breath (eg, John xx. 22); and (4) the strongly developed view of the personality of the Holy Spirit (comp., for example, Matt. xii. 32; Acts v. 3; I Cor. iii. 16; Eph. ii. 22; I Peter ii. 5; Gospel to the Hebrews, quoted inHastings, "Dict. Bible," ii. 406, foot, et passim).不過,由於新約全書作家的眼光來看待彌賽亞,是誰確定的,與聖靈,具有到達時,他們認為,假設形成本質上的不同,這對猶太人的看法,在某些方面,即是以下方面: ( 1 )觀和生育的彌賽亞通過聖靈。 (一, 18段及以下各段;盧克一, 35 ;約翰三5-8 ) , ( 2 )口試在不同的舌頭(下稱"說方言" ;行徑二等各處) : ( 3 )唯物主義觀點的聖靈,這體現在思想,它也可以將其手段呼氣(例如,約翰二十22 ) ; ( 4 )大力發展觀的個性特徵聖靈( comp. ,舉例來說,馬特。十二。 32 ;行為訴三日,我肺心病。三, 16歲;以弗所書二22 ,我彼得二,五;福音希伯來人,所引述的inhastings , "字典。聖經" ,二406 ,足部,等各處) 。 In consequence of these fundamental differences many points of the Christian conception of the Holy Spirit have remained obscure, at least to the uninitiated.在後果,這些根本性的分歧很多共同點的基督教觀,聖靈一直沒沒無聞,至少在不了解情況。

In the Apocrypha.在apocrypha 。

It is noteworthy that the Holy Spirit is less frequently referred to in the Apocrypha and by the Hellenistic Jewish writers; and this circumstance leads to the conclusion that the conception of the Holy Spirit was not prominent in the intellectual life of the Jewish people, especially in the Diaspora.值得一提的是聖靈就是少經常提到在apocrypha和希臘化猶太作家;這種情況下導致的結論是,觀聖靈並不突出,在智慧生命的猶太人民,尤其是在散居。 In I Macc.在I排雷。 iv.四。 45, xiv. 45 , 14 。 41 prophecy is referred to as something long since passed. 41預言被稱為東西早就通過。 Wisdom ix.智慧九。 17 refers to the Holy Spirit which God sends down from heaven, whereby His behests are recognized. 17指聖靈上帝派從天降臨,讓他的遺志得到確認。 The discipline of the Holy Spirit preserves from deceit (ib. i. 5; comp. ib. vii. 21-26).紀律的聖靈保留了從欺騙( ib.一5 ;可比。興業。七, 21-26 ) 。 It is said in the Psalms of Solomon, xvii.有人說,在詩篇的索羅門,十七。 42, in reference to the Messiah, the son of David: "he is mighty in the Holy Spirit"; and in Susanna, 45, that "God raised up the Holy Spirit of a youth, whose name was Daniel." 42 ,在參考彌賽亞,兒子大衛說: "他是威武,在聖靈" ;和蘇珊娜, 45 , "上帝提出了聖靈的一個青年,他的名字是丹尼爾" 。 Josephus ("Contra Ap." i. 8) expresses the same view in regard to prophetic inspiration that is found in rabbinical literatur (comp. Jew. Encyc. iii. 147b, sv Bible Canon; Josephus, "Ant." iv. 6, § 5; vi. 8, § 2; also Sifre, Deut. 305; Ber. 31b, above; Gen. R. lxx. 8, lxxv. 5; Lev. R. vi.; Deut. R. vi.-the Holy Spirit defending Israel before God; Eccl. R. vii. 23; Pirḳe R. El. xxxvii., beginning).約瑟夫(下稱"合同鴨" ,一8 ) ,表達了同樣的看法方面的先知啟示,是發現在猶太教文學( comp.猶太人。 encyc三。 147b , sv聖經佳能;約瑟夫, "螞蟻" 。四,六,第5條;六,八, § 2 ,也sifre , deut 305 ;誤碼率。 31 B條,以上;將軍傳譯lxx 8 lxxv 5款;列弗。傳譯六; deut 。傳譯六.-聖靈保衛以色列上帝面前; eccl 。傳譯七, 23歲; pirḳe傳譯下午。三十七。開始) 。 See also Hosanna; Inspiration; Ordination; Tabernacles, Feast of.也見hosanna ;靈感;統籌;節,宴的。

Joseph Jacobs, Ludwig Blau約瑟夫雅各布斯,路德維希blau
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版1901年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
F. Weber, Jüdische Theologie, 2d ed., pp.樓韋伯, jüdische theologie ,第2版,頁。 80 et seq., 190 et seq., and Index, sv Geist, Leipsic, 1897; Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc. 80段及以下各段, 190段及以下各段,和指數, sv geist , leipsic , 1897年;赫爾佐克- Hauck先生,實時encyc 。 3d ed., vi.三維版,六。 444-450 (with full bibliography); Hastings, Dict. 444-450 (配備全部書目) ;黑斯廷斯,字典。 Bible, iii.聖經三。 402-411; Bacher, Ag. 402-411 ; bacher ,銀。 Tan.譚。 passim; idem, Ag.各處;同上,銀。 Pal.帕爾。 Amor.奧馬爾。 passim; EA Abbot, From Letter to Spirit, ch.各處;環境住持,從信中的精神,甲烷。 vii.七。 et passim, London, 1903; E. Sokolowsky, Die Begriffe Geist und Leben bei Paulus, Göttingen, 1903; H. Weinel, Die Wirkungen des Geistes und der Geister (his quotations [pp. 81, 131, 164, 190] from Christian writers are interesting from a Jewish point of view).JLB等各處,倫敦, 1903年;體育索科拉夫斯基,模具begriffe geist und ,生活蓓鮑魯斯,哥廷根, 1903年;每小時魏內爾,模具wirkungen萬geistes und明鏡geister (他的報價[頁81 , 131 , 164 , 190 ] ,由基督教作家很有意思,從猶太人的角度來看) 。 jlb


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