American Holiness Movement美國成聖運動

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Originating in the United States in the 1840s and 50s, this was an endeavor to preserve and propagate John Wesley's teaching on entire sanctification and Christian perfection.原產於美國在19世紀40年代和50年代,這是一個努力維護和宣傳約翰韋斯利對他的教誨對整個成聖和基督教的完美。 Wesley held that the road from sin to salvation is one from willful rebellion against divine and human law to perfect love for God and man.韋斯利認為,從路單救恩是一個從恣意反抗神和人的法律,以完善對上帝的愛和男子。 Following Wesley, Holiness preachers emphasized that the process of salvation involves two crises.以下韋斯利,成聖傳教士強調說,這一進程的救贖涉及兩個危機。

In the first, conversion or justification, one is freed from the sins he has committed.在第一,轉換或理由,其中一個是從過去的罪孽,他已承諾。 In the second, entire sanctification or full salvation, one is liberated from the flaw in his moral nature that causes him to sin.在第二,整個成聖或全部的救贖,一個是解放了,從瑕疵,他的道德性質的原因,他的罪。 Man is capable of this perfection even though he dwells in a corruptible body marked by a thousand defects arising from ignorance, infirmities, and other creaturely limitations.人是有能力這樣完美,即使他整篇都在一個腐朽的身體,標誌著由1000名缺陷所帶來的愚昧,軟弱,以及其他creaturely局限性。 It is a process of loving the Lord God with all one's heart, soul, and mind, and it results in the ability to live without conscious or deliberate sin.它是一個過程的熱愛上帝與所有一個人的心臟,靈魂和頭腦,它會導致有能力活而不自覺或故意罪過。 However, to achieve and then remain in this blessed state requires intense, sustained effort, and one's life must be marked by constant self renunciation, careful observance of the divine ordinances, a humble, steadfast reliance on God's forgiving grace in the atonement, the intention to look for God's glory in all things, and an increasing exercise of the love which itself fulfills the whole law and is the end of the commandments.不過,要達到,然後再留在這個得天獨厚的國家,需要尖銳的,持續的努力,而且一個人的生活必須標明不斷自我放棄,認真遵守神的條例,謙虛,堅定地依靠上帝的恩典包涵在贖罪,其用意尋找上帝的榮耀,在一切事上,並日益行使愛情本身就滿足了整個國際法,是年底的誡命。

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In the midnineteenth century several factors converged that contributed to the renewal of the Holiness emphasis, among them the camp meeting revivals that were a common feature in rural America, the Christian perfectionism of Charles Finney and Asa Mahan (the Oberlin theology), the "Tuesday Meeting" of Phoebe Palmer in New York, the urban revival of 1857 - 58, and protests within the Methodist churches about the decline of discipline which resulted in the Wesleyan Methodist secession in 1843 and Free Methodist withdrawal in 1860.在midnineteenth世紀幾個因素的融合,有助於延長該聖潔的重視程度,其中營會議復甦有一個共同特點,在美國鄉村,基督教完美的查爾斯finney和ASA馬漢(奧伯林神學) , "週二會議的"楠帕爾默在紐約市區的復興1857 -5 8,並抗議內循道衛理教會約下降的紀律,導致在衛斯理循道分裂國家,在1 843年和免費循道撤出在1 860年。 These two became the first denominations formally committed to Holiness.這兩條成為第一個面額的正式承諾,以成聖。 After the Civil War a full fledged Holiness revival broke out within the ranks of Methodism, and in 1867 the National Camp Meeting Association for the Promotion of Holiness was formed.內戰結束後的正式成聖復甦爆發內部的行列methodism ,並在1867年全國營地會議推廣協會成聖形成。 From 1893 it was known as the National Holiness Association (NHA) and in 1971 was renamed the Christian Holiness Association.從1893年它被稱為國家成聖協會(芽莊) ,並於1971年改名為基督教聖潔協會。 Until the 1890s Methodists dominated the movement and channeled its enthusiasm into their churches.直到19世紀90年代的衛理為主的運動,並引導其積極性,他們的教堂。

The increasing number of Holiness evangelists, many of whom were unsanctioned by their superiors, a flourishing independent press, and the growth of nondenominational associations gradually weakened the position of mainline Methodism in the movement.越來越多的聖潔福音,其中不少未經批准,由他們的上司,一個欣欣向榮的獨立的新聞媒體,而且增長的nondenominational協會逐漸減弱的立場主線methodism在運動。 By the 1880s the first independent Holiness denominations had begun to appear, and tensions between Methodism and the Holiness associations escalated.由1880年第一次獨立成聖面額已開始出現,緊張關係methodism和成聖協會升級。 The gap between the two widened as Methodist practice drifted steadily toward a sedate, middleclass American Protestantism, while the Holiness groups insisted they were practicing primitive Wesleyanism and were the true successors of Wesley in America.兩者之間的差距擴大為循道衛理實踐中飄移,穩步邁向鬼迷心竅,中產階級的美國基督新教,而聖潔團體堅稱他們搞原始wesleyanism並真正接班人韋斯利在美國。 The small schismatic bodies gradually coalesced into formal denominations, the largest of which were the Church of God, Anderson, Indiana (1880), Church of the Nazarene (1908), and Pilgrim Holiness Church (1897, merged with the Wesleyan Methodists in 1968 to form the Wesleyan Church).小schismatic機構逐步合併到正式面額的,其中最大的分別是神的教會,安德森,印第安納州( 1880年) ,教會的拿撒勒( 1908年) ,以及朝聖節聖潔會( 1897年,合併與衛斯理衛理,在1968年至形成衛斯理堂) 。

The polity of these bodies was a modified Methodism in that there was generally somewhat more congregational autonomy, and the "second blessing" of entire sanctification was an integral part of their theology.政體這些機構是一個改良methodism在這時候,通常較為堂自治, "第二次祝福"的整個成聖是一個不可分割的一部分,他們的神學。 Most operated with a strict perfectionist code of personal morality and demanded from their adherents plain dress and abstinence from "worldly" pleasures and amusements.最符合嚴格的完美主義碼的個人道德,並要求其追隨者平原著裝和禁慾的,由"世俗化"的樂趣和娛樂。 Also, nearly all of them allowed women to be ordained to the ministry and occupy leadership positions.此外,幾乎所有的這些讓婦女要受戒,以財政部和佔據領導崗位。

The Holiness movement quickly spread beyond the bounds of Methodism.神聖運動迅速蔓延,超出範圍methodism 。 A Mennonite group, the United Missionary Church (formerly Mennonite Brethren in Christ and since a merger in 1969 called the Missionary Church), adopted the doctrine of entire sanctification and Holiness standards of personal conduct.一門諾集團,美宣教士堂(原為門諾弟兄,在基督裡,並自合併,在1969年被稱為傳教士教會) ,通過中庸整個成聖與聖德標準的個人操守。 The Brethren in Christ (founded 1863) was of mixed Pennsylvania German pietist and Mennonite origins, but it also took on Wesleyan perfectionism.兄弟在基督裡( 1863年創立)的混合賓夕法尼亞德語和虔信基督教門諾會的淵源,但它也承擔了衛斯理的完美主義。 Four Quaker yearly meetings that had been influenced by Holiness doctrines came together in 1947 to form the Evangelical Friends Alliance.四貴格會年度會議已受成聖教義走到一起是在1947年組建為福音朋友結盟。 The Salvation Army also has had a firm commitment to Holiness.救世軍,也有一個堅定的承諾,以成聖。 The Christian and Missionary Alliance with its emphasis on Christ as Savior, sanctifier, healer, and coming King has an affinity with the Wesleyan movement, and its two most prominent thinkers, AB Simpson and AW Tozer, are widely read in Holiness circles, but it never accepted the doctrine of the eradication of sin.宣道會,其重點是基督為救主, sanctifier ,治愈者,以及未來國王具有親和力與衛斯理運動,它的兩個最突出的思想家, AB間辛普森和胡tozer ,被廣泛閱讀成聖界,但它從未接受過中庸之道剷除罪惡的。

The growth of the independent churches was related to the decline of the Holiness emphasis within Methodism, and after World War II denominationalism turned the originally evangelistic NHA into a council of Holiness churches.生產總值的增長率相獨立的教會,是關係到下降的成聖重視內部methodism ,第二次世界大戰之後, denominationalism把原本福音芽莊到會的聖潔教堂。 But numerical growth and material prosperity led inexorably to compromise with contemporary culture, and the relaxation of personal discipline was reflected in the wearing of fashionable dress and jewelry and secular entertainments such as participation in athletics and television viewing.但數值增長和物質繁榮導致了無情的妥協與當代文化,以及放寬個人紀律是反映在穿著時髦的服飾和珠寶和世俗的娛樂如參加田徑和看電視。 As a result, several conservative splinter groups seceded from the Holiness denominations and joined together in an interchurch organization in 1947 known as the Interdenominational Holiness Convention.因此,一些保守的分裂集團退出成聖面額,並一起在interchurch組織於1947年命名為interdenominational成聖公約。 This now sees itself as the defender of pristine Wesleyanism.這現在視本身為辯護人的精粹wesleyanism 。

Pentecostalism is an offshoot of the Holiness movement. It teaches that speaking in tongues is the evidence one has received the second blessing. 五旬節運動是一個分支的聖潔運動,它教導我們,在舌頭就是證據之一,曾接受過第二次祝福。 At a Bible school in Topeka, Kansas, founded by a Holiness evangelist the "gift of the Spirit" came to a student in 1901, and the practice of glossolalia quickly spread.在一本聖經學校在托皮卡,堪薩斯,創立一個聖潔傳道者的"禮物的精神" ,來一個學生,在1901年,並實踐說方言迅速蔓延。 The Pentecostal revival made its greatest inroads in areas where Holiness movements were already prospering, and it attracted far more non Methodists than had the earlier forms of perfectionism.五旬節的復興作出自己的最大進展的領域成聖運動已經蓬勃發展,而且吸引了更多的非衛超過了早先形式的完美。 Besides the emphasis on the baptism of the Holy Spirit, Pentecostalism recognized divine healing and demanded highly puritanical standards of personal conduct.除了強調對洗禮的聖靈,五旬節運動公認的神聖癒合,並要求高度根深蒂固的清教徒標準的個人操守。 Like the Holiness groups the Pentecostals were theological conservatives, and they comprised an important addition to the Arminian wing of Protestant conservatism in the period when the fundamentalist movement was gathering steam.像聖德集團五旬節被神學保守派人士,他們組成的一個重要的,除了向arminian翼的基督教保守主義在這段期間,當原教旨主義運動正在迅猛發展。

Some Holiness denominations, most notably the Church of the Nazarene, flatly reject the use of tongues, while others, the largest being the Church of God, Cleveland, TN, and the Pentecostal Holiness Church, teach both glossolalia and entire sanctification.一些成聖面額的,其中最引人注目的教會的拿撒勒,斷然拒絕使用母語,而其他國家,最大的正神的教會,騎士,總氮,以及五旬節聖潔會,同時任教說方言和整個成聖。 Denominationalism soon took hold in Pentecostalism, and before long it had more adherents than its parent in such bodies as the Assemblies of God, the black Church of God in Christ, and the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel. denominationalism很快舉行,在五旬節運動,而且沒多久,它有更多的信徒,比其母公司在這類機構作為集會的神,黑神的教會在基督裡,和國際教會的foursquare福音。

More difficult to characterize is the Keswick movement which originated in Britain in 1875 at a "Convention for the Promotion of Practical Holiness" in the Lake District town of that name.更困難的特點,是敬誠運動起源於英國,於1875年在一個"公約,為促進實際成聖" ,在湖區內城市的名稱。 Speakers at the annual Keswick conferences emphasized the "deeper life" instead of holiness, believing that the tendency to sin is not extinguished but is counteracted by victorious living through the Holy Spirit.發言者在每年敬誠會議強調, "深入生活" ,而不是聖潔,相信這種趨勢,以單不熄滅,但抵消了由戰勝國的生活,通過聖靈。 The predominance of Reformed Anglicans along with like minded Free Church evangelicals in the movement prevented the Wesley - Arminian view of sanctification from establishing a foothold.佔主導地位的改革,教教徒隨著像志同道合的自由教會福音派在運動阻止韋斯利-a rminian鑑於成聖,從建立一個立足之地。

In Germany the Holiness concept was institutionalized in the Gemeinschaftsbewegung (Fellowship Movement) which came into existence under the influence of Keswick and Methodist evangelists from Britain and the United States.在德國的神聖概念制度化,在gemeinschaftsbewegung (金運動) ,其中也開始存在的影響下敬誠和衛理福音來自英國和美國。 Several societies were founded, the most important being the German Evangelization Association (1884), Gnadau Association (1888), and Blankenburg Alliance Conference (1905), which cultivated a deeper holiness among members of the territorial churches.幾個社團的成立,最重要的,德國福傳事業協會( 1884 ) ,格納道協會( 1888 ) ,和blankenburg聯盟大會( 1905年) ,它培育了一個更深的成聖成員之間的領土教堂。

The Holiness movement contributed to a deepening of the spiritual life in a materialistic age, and it was a welcome contrast to the sterile intellectualism and dead orthodoxy that characterized so many churches at the time.神聖運動的貢獻,加深了對精神生活在功利主義的時代,這是一個值得歡迎的對比,以無菌知識分子和死正統特點,使許多教堂在當時的。 However, it has been criticized for suggesting that a "second blessing" can provide some Christians with a higher kind of sanctification than that which flows from one's justifying faith.然而,它被批評為暗示說, "第二次祝福" ,可以提供一些基督徒與較高種成聖比這源於一個人的正當信仰。 PT Forsyth said it is "a fatal mistake to think of holiness as a possession which we have distinct from our faith and conferred upon it.鉑Forsyth說,它是"一個致命的錯誤想法的聖德作為一個擁有我們有別於我們的信仰和賦予它。

That is a Catholic idea, still saturating Protestant pietism." Other objections include the tendency to identify holiness with quietistic self abasement and even loss of personality, an otherwordly asceticism that calls for the rejection of all secular culture as sinful, confining the grace of God to stereotyped forms of religious experience, an overemphasis on feeling, and claiming with overweening confidence the special action of the Holy Spirit in one's life and direct inspiration in the details of thought and action.這是一個天主教的想法,仍然飽和新教pietism " ,其它包括反對的傾向,以確定成聖與quietistic自我自卑,甚至喪失人格, otherwordly禁慾主義,要求拒絕一切世俗文化作為罪孽深重的,僅限於天主的恩典以刻板形式的宗教經驗,過分強調感覺,而且聲稱與overweening信心專項行動的聖靈在一個人的生活和直接的靈感在細節中的思想和行動。

RV Pierard風疹病毒皮耶拉爾
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
CE Jones, A Guide to the Study of the Holiness Movement; DW Dayton, The American Holiness Movement: A Bibliographic Introduction; ME Dieter, The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century; CE Jones, Perfectionist Persuasion: The Holiness Movement and American Methodism; JL Peters, Christian Perfection and American Methodism; TL Smith, Called Unto Holiness; P Scharpff, History of Evangelism; A Clarke, Commentary on the Holy Bible; HO Wiley, An Introduction to Christian Theology; RH Coats, HERE , VI; DW Dayton, NIDCC ; V Synan, The Holiness Pentecostal Movement.行政長官瓊斯,指導,以學習貫徹成聖運動; DW的代頓,美國成聖運動:書目介紹;我迪特爾,成聖復興十九世紀;策瓊斯,完美主義勸導:聖潔運動和美洲methodism ;的JL彼得斯,基督教完善和美國methodism ;鉈史密斯,所謂祂聖潔; p沙爾普夫,史傳道;克拉克,評聖經;何出版社,介紹了基督教神學;銠大衣,在這裡,六; DW的代頓, nidcc ; v賽南,五旬節聖潔運動。


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