God上帝

General Information 一般資料

In Western culture, which for the last 2,000 years has been dominated by the Judeo Christian tradition, the word God generally refers to one supreme holy being, the divine unity of ultimate reality and of ultimate goodness.在西方文化中,這在過去2000年來一直佔主導地位的是猶太教和基督教的傳統文化中,上帝一詞,一般是指一個最高聖地,神聖的統一,最終現實和終極的善。 God, so conceived, is believed to have created the entire universe, to rule over it, and to bring it to its fulfillment.上帝,而構思中,被認為是創造了整個宇宙,統治它,並把它送到它的圓滿。

In the Old Testament, God was called YHWH , pronounced Yahweh by most scholars; the exact pronunciation of the name was lost because it was rarely enunciated.在舊約中,上帝被稱為yhwh ,突出雅威多數學者;準確發音的名稱是失去了,因為它是罕見的闡述。 In its place was read Adonai ("Lord"). The written combination of the tetragrammaton YHWH with the vowels of Adonai was traditionally rendered as Jehovah in English Bibles. Although the meaning of YHWH is disputed, it is frequently translated as "He who is" and probably designates YHWH as creator.在取而代之的是閱讀adonai ( "上帝" ) 。 書面相結合的耶和華yhwh與元音adonai傳統,使作為耶和華在英文聖經,雖然意思yhwh有爭議時,它常常翻譯為"他是誰" ,並可能指定yhwh作為造物主。 In Islam, Allah stands for a similar notion.在伊斯蘭教的真主站在一個類似的概念。

Thus, as a functioning word, God in the first instance refers to the central and sole object of religious commitment - and so to the center of Worship, Prayer, and religious Meditation.因此,作為一個正常運作的一句話,上帝在初審是指中央和唯一的目的,宗教的承諾-等,以該中心的禮拜,祈禱,宗教,打坐。 Secondarily, God has been the object of religious and philosophical reflection, the supreme object of Theology and of most forms of speculative metaphysics.其次,上帝一直是反對宗教和哲學思考,最高人民法院對象的神學和大多數形式的投機性形而上學。

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God is a puzzling and elusive notion, by no means easy to define.上帝是一個令人困惑和難以捉摸的概念,絕非容易界定。 As the supreme being, the creator and ruler of all, God transcends all creaturely limits, distinctions, and characteristics.作為最高福祉,創造者和統治者的一切,上帝是超越一切creaturely界限,區別和特點。 If something is definable only by its distinctions from other things, its limits, and its special characteristics, how is it possible to define the source of all things, which is not limited, distinguished, or peculiar?如果事情是可定義只有其區別其他事物,其極限,其獨特之處,怎麼可能來確定來源的所有東西,這是不有限的,尊敬的,或奇特? God is in neither time nor space; he / she / it transcends all substances and causes; is neither dependent on nor an effect of other things.上帝是在既沒有時間也沒有空間;他/她/它超越一切物質和原因;既不依賴,也不影響到其他事情。 Thus, he cannot be spoken of simply as a being among other beings lest he be conceived as a mere creature and thus not God.因此,不能把他的發言純粹是一個被其他的人,恐怕會被看作是一種純粹的動物,因此沒有神。 For these reasons, the concept of God inevitably tends toward that of the transcendent absolute of much speculative philosophy: impersonal, unrelated, independent, change - less, eternal.基於這些原因,神的觀念,必然傾向,即超越的絕對太大的投機哲學:人性,無關的,獨立的,變動-少,永恆。 In some theologies, the concept moves into even more distant realms of abstraction.在一些神學,這種概念進入更為遙遠境界的抽象。 God can only be described negatively, as the negation of all that is experienced here and now, for example, as nontemporal, nonphysical, and unchanging.上帝只能說是負面的,因為否定了一切,是經歷了現在在這裡,舉例說,由於nontemporal , nonphysical ,天長地久。

In Jewish and Christian belief, however, God is also in some way personal, righteous, or moral, concerned with people and their lives and therefore closely related to and active within the world and the course of history.在猶太教和基督教信仰,不過,上帝也是在某種程度上個人的,正義的,或者道德,關心人,他們的生命,因此有密切的關係,並積極與世界及歷史過程。 The reflective problems in this concept of God, the subject of debates throughout Western history, therefore, have a dual source: God, whatever he may be, is unlike ordinary things that can be described, and the notion of God includes certain dialectical tensions or paradoxes (absolute - relative, impersonal - personal, eternal - temporal, changeless - changing) that defy ordinary powers of speech and of definition.反射問題,在這神的觀念,主題辯論,在整個西方歷史上,因此,具有雙重來源:上帝,不管他可能是有別於一般的東西,可以說,概念的上帝包括某些辯證的緊張局勢或悖論(絕對-相對的,人性-個人,永生-顳葉,固定不變-轉換)表示,藐視普通的權力講話的定義。 In approaching the divine, religiously or philosophically, one first of all encounters mystery and, with that, special forms or rules of speech - a characteristic as old as religion itself.在接近神聖的,宗教或哲學的,其中第一,大家都遇到神秘,就這樣,特殊形式或規則的講話-一個特點,為古老宗教本身。

Variations in the Concept of God變異,在神的觀念

Ideas of god vary widely from religion to religion and from culture to culture.意念神的差別甚大,從宗教到宗教和從文化到文化。

Many Gods許多神

In those cultures that conceive of human life as totally supported and threatened by (and thus subordinate to) strange and uncontrollable natural and social powers, all such powers and forces - in animals, totems, rivers, trees, mountains, kings and queens, tribes, ancestors, holy men and women - participate in and manifest holy power.在這些文化受孕的人的生命完全支持和威脅(因而服從)的陌生和無法控制的自然和社會的權力,所有權力和力量-在動物中,圖騰,河流,樹木,山,國王和皇后區,部落,祖先,神聖的男人和女人-全面參與和表現神聖的權力。 Here the divine is undifferentiated; it is universally present in important objects and persons.在這裡,神聖的,是未分化的,它是普遍,目前在重要的物體和人。

In other ancient cultures that conceive of the person as unique and differentiated from natural and social forces and recognize the role of personal power in politics, these varied natural and cultural forces are personified or symbolized by gods and goddesses who control, work through, and manifest themselves in these powers.在其他古代文化受孕的人,作為獨特的和有區別的,從自然和社會的力量,並認識到角色的個人權力,在政治上,這些不同的自然和文化力量是人格化或其象徵神和女神的人的控制,通過工作,體現了在這些權力。 For example, Ares was the Greek god of thunder and of war; Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty; and Apollo, the god of light and order.舉例來說,頃是希臘的神打雷和戰爭;愛,女神的愛與美;阿波羅,神輕和秩序。 The worship of many gods, known as Polytheism, characterized the religions of most of the ancient world.崇拜許多神,稱為多神教,其特點是宗教大部分的古代世界。 In every case, a deepening sense of unifying order in reality was accompanied by a drive toward a unity of these plural forces, toward Monotheism.在任何情況下,感受到了團結,以便在現實中,伴隨著由驅動走向統一的,這些文字的力量,對一神論。

Impersonal World Order客觀世界秩序

In many advanced civilizations, the divine appears, not as a person, but as order or harmony; it is thus impersonal, universal, and omnipresent.在許多先進的文明,神聖出現,而不是作為一個人,但由於秩序或和諧;因此,它是客觀的,普遍的,無所不在的。 Clear examples of this view are the Tao of Taoism and the notion of the Logos in Stoicism.明顯的例子,這種看法是陶的道教思想與觀念的標識在生活儉樸。 Both are ultimately an impersonal and unifying principle of the world.無論最終是一個客觀的和統一的原則,對世界的看法。 Other forms of this view appear in the hymns to Indra in Hinduism and in the worship of Ahura Mazda, the god of light, in Zoroastrianism.其他形式的這一觀點似乎在聖歌,以因陀羅在印度教在崇拜的阿胡拉,馬自達,神輕,在zoroastrianism 。 In each of these religions, there is a dualistic principle: an impersonal order, harmony, or light represents the divine; but disorder, chaos, or matter represents the rest of reality.對於上述各宗教,有一個二元的原則是:一種非人格的秩序,和諧,或輕代表著神聖的,但無序,混亂,或無論是代表,其餘的現實。 In modern philosophy and theology, the process thought of Alfred North Whitehead also emphasizes the divine as order, against an opposing principle of reality, creativity.在現代哲學和神學,過程中的思想阿爾弗雷德北白石還強調,作為神的命令,對另一種相反的原則,從實際出發,創造性。

Undifferentiated Unity未分化團結

Some religions conceive of the divine as the undifferentiated unity of all, a unity in and beyond all manifestations, powers, and persons.一些宗教受孕的神聖作為無差別的統一,一個統一,並在以後的所有表現形式,權力,和個人。 The ultimate becomes not only the whole of reality as its unity and ground, but it is so far beyond finite reality that it becomes relatively unintelligible and relatively unreal.最終成為不僅是整個現實,它的統一和地面,但它的確是那麼遠遠超出了有限的現實,它成為相對不知所云和相對虛幻的。 In these cases, of course, the divine is thoroughly beyond ordinary speech and even beyond positive analogies, for language deals with the determinate and the finite.在這種情況下,當然是神聖的,是徹底地超越了普通的講話,甚至超出了積極的類比,為語言處理與確定性和有限的。 The clearest expression of this transcendence of all being and all thought is found in Mahayana Buddhism, which describes the ultimate principle in negative assertions and names it a Nothingness, or Voidness.最清晰的表達,這超越一切幸福和都以為是發現了大乘佛教,其中描述的終極原則,在消極的斷言和名稱,它從無到有,或無效。

In this notion of the divine the originating religious categories of power, person, and order are infinitely transcended as characteristics essentially related to finitude and therefore antithetical to the divine.在這種觀念的神聖起源的宗教類的權力,任何人,並命令是無限超越作為特徵基本上與有限性,因此,對立的神明。 Correspondingly, the religious practices of meditation and the religious hope of ultimate release also transcend relations to nature, tribe, society, the course of history, and even all religious praxis and symbols.相應地,宗教習俗的打坐和宗教界的希望最終版本也超越關係的性質,部落,社會,歷史過程中,乃至所有的宗教實踐和符號。 Such religions regard the Western notion of God, with its implication of personal being and its emphasis on the life of the self in this world, as an extremely inappropriate and even insulting way of regarding their own ultimate principle.這種宗教把西方的概念神,其含義是個人的福祉和其著重於生活中的自我,在這個世界上,作為一個極不恰當的,甚至侮辱的方式把自己的終極原則。

Paradoxes of the Biblical Concept弔詭的聖經觀

The paradoxes or dialectical tensions characteristic of the Western understanding of God are derived from the Bible.悖論或辯證緊張的特點,西部的了解,上帝是來自聖經。 In the Old Testament, God transcends all the limited and special forces and powers of the human experience.在舊約中,上帝是超越一切限制和特種部隊和權力的人的經驗。 On the other hand, his central characteristic, or mode of self manifestation, is his concern for and relation to history.在另一方面,他的中心特徵,或模式的自我表現,是他的關心和關係,向歷史負責。 Although he manifests his power in nature, the main arena for divine activity is the sequence of historical events related to the calling, the establishment, and the protection of his chosen people.雖然他表現他的權力性質,但主場館,為神聖的活動是序列的歷史事件涉及到要求,建立,並保護他的子民。 In this activity, moreover, God reveals himself as moral or righteous, the source of the moral law, and is quick to punish those, even his chosen ones, who defy this law.在這個活動中,此外,上帝揭示了自己的道德或正義,從源頭上的道德律,並迅速作出懲處,甚至他的選擇是對那些無視這一規律。 He is, however, also a God of mercy, patience, faithfulness, and Grace.但是,他又是上帝的慈悲,忍耐,誠實,和恩典。 This God of history, Covenant, judgment, and promised redemption is assumed to be, and often clearly affirmed to be, the ruler of all events.這上帝的歷史,公約,判決書,並許諾贖回,假設為,而且往往明確確認,執政者的所有活動。

These aspects of the notion of God reappear, with some modification, in the New Testament.這些方面的觀念的上帝,又何來作一些改動,在新的遺書。 There the one God is also concerned with history, judgment, and redemption, but his central manifestation is Jesus Christ, through whom God's will for mankind is revealed, his judgments are made known, and his power to save is effected.有一個上帝,也關心歷史,判斷和贖回,但他的中央體現的是耶穌基督,並通過上帝的意志,為人類揭示了,他的判斷是眾所周知的,他的權力,以挽救正在實施。 The New Testament writers generally use the word God to designate the God of the Old Testament.新約聖經的作家普遍使用這個詞神來劃定上帝的舊約。 Christ is understood as the fulfillment of the Messianic promise and as the Son, or Logos.基督是理解為履行該救世主的承諾,作為兒子,或徽標。 His relation to God the Father and the Holy Spirit led to the development of the Christian doctrine of the Trinity.他與聖父和聖靈導致發展的基督教教義的三位一體。 Both Jewish and Christian theology therefore display a dialectical tension between God's transcendence over nature and history as creator and ruler, and his personal, moral participation in history for the sake of humankind.無論猶太教和基督教神學,因此表現出的辯證關係緊張上帝的超越性和歷史的創造者和統治者,以及他個人的,有道德的參與在歷史上為人類的生活。

Philosophic Approaches哲學辦法

As the symbolic center of Western Christendom down to the Enlightenment, and as the fundamental concept in its understanding of nature, society, and human existence, God was the object of endless philosophical and theological speculation.作為象徵性的中心,西方基督教回落到啟示,並作為基本概念,在其認識自然,社會和人類生存的,是上帝的對象無休止的哲學和神學的投機活動。 During the long period in which Western culture understood itself and the world largely through the framework of Greco Roman philosophy (c. 200 - 1400), the notion of God was shaped with the help first of Platonic and then of Aristotelian categories.在漫長的時期中,西方文化的理解本身和世界主要是通過框架希臘羅馬哲學(長200 -1 400) ,這一概念的神形與幫助首次柏拉圖,然後亞里士多德的類別。 Because of Greek philosophy's bias toward transcendent, changeless, eternal realms of being, this religious tradition greatly emphasized the absolute nature of God: God was understood as pure act, utterly independent, changeless, nontemporal, and unrelated.由於希臘哲學的偏向超然,不變的,永恆的境界,這種宗教傳統,極大地強調了絕對性的上帝:上帝被理解為純粹的行為,完全獨立的,固定不變, nontemporal ,與無關。 The active, related, personal aspects of God manifested themselves chiefly in piety and through numerous angelic and saintly representatives.積極的,有關的,個人方面的上帝凸現出來,主要是在虔誠,並通過無數天使般和聖潔的代表。

During the Reformation, which emphasized the primacy of Scripture, the personal, purposive, active side of the biblical God again achieved prominence, and the philosophical side receded: God's judgments and his mercy toward humans were considered his central attributes.在改革,其中強調的首要經文,個人,有目的,積極的一面,聖經神再次取得了突出的,與哲學方面減退:上帝的判決和他的憐憫人類被認為是他的中心屬性。 The transcendent and eternal aspect of this personal God was expressed in the eternal mystery and changelessness of his all determining will, especially the electing and providential will, rather than in the mystery and changelessness of the divine being.超越和永恆方面的個人上帝有人表示,在永恆之謎,並changelessness他的所有決定,特別是選舉和天賜會,而不是在神秘與changelessness的神聖。

The subsequent divergence of modern thought from Greco Roman traditions led to the introduction of new philosophical options emphasizing change, process, and relatedness.隨後的分歧,現代思想,從希臘羅馬的傳統,導致採用新的哲學期權強調變化,過程和相關性。 They give expression to a new dynamic and immanent interpretation of God and can be found in systems such as Process Philosophy.他們體現了新的動力和內在的詮釋上帝才能找到系統,如過程哲學。 While recognizing and affirming in some sense God's absoluteness, eternity, and invulnerability, many modern theologians emphasize his participation in the passing of time, active relatedness to events, and consequent changeableness; they argue that such a view is closer to the biblical notion than is the older Greek view.雖然承認和肯定,在一定意義上神的絕對性,永恆,抗毀,許多現代神學家強調,他參加在時間的推移,積極關聯的事件,並作出相應的changeableness ;他們爭辯說,這種看法是接近聖經中的概念比老希的看法。

Knowability of God可知上帝

Throughout history certain returning questions have been answered in different theological and philosophical terms.在整個歷史上的某些回流問題已經回答了在不同的神學和哲學術語。 Perhaps the most debated question has been whether God is to be known by reason, by faith, or by experience.或許是最受爭議的問題已獲得上帝是否是被稱為理由,由信仰,或由經驗。 Each solution has had powerful and persuasive adherents.每個解決方案都已經掌握了強大的和有說服力的附和。 Those who argue that God can be known by reason offer one version or another of the classical proofs of God's existence: the cosmological proof from the existence of the world; the teleological proof from the order of the finite world; the ontological proof from the implications of the very concept of God as a perfect and necessary being; and the moral proof from the implications of moral experience.那些認為上帝可以由已知的原因提供了一個版本,這個或那個經典的證明上帝的存在:宇宙證明,由所存在的世界; teleological證明,從常規的有限世界的本體論證明,從影響這個非常神的觀念,因為一個完美的和必要的情況;與道德證明的影響,道德體驗。 They argue that any theology intellectually respectable enough to speak to modern, intelligent men and women must be grounded in rational philosophy.他們爭辯說,任何神學智力尊敬不夠發言,以現代的,智能男人和女人必須建立在理性的哲學。

Those who believe God can be known only by faith tend to be skeptical of such philosophical proofs and possess a perhaps more transcendent image of God.那些相信上帝可以被稱為只有信仰往往被懷疑這樣的哲學論證,並具備了,或許更超然的形象上帝。 For them, the God of rational theology, proved and tailored by thinking processes, is merely the creature of humanity's own wayward wisdom.對於他們來說,上帝的理性神學,事實證明,並適合由思維過程,只是造物的人類自己的任性的智慧。 God himself must speak to humankind if he is to be known rightly, or even at all, and therefore faith, as a response to divine Revelation, is the only path to a true knowledge of God.天主自己的發言必須以全人類的,如果他是被稱為正確的,甚至在所有的,因此信念,作為回應神的啟示,是唯一的道路,以一個真實的認識神。 Finally, there are those who assert that God can be known neither by reason nor by faith but only by direct experience.最後,有一些人斷言,上帝可以被稱為沒有理由也沒有信仰,但只有通過直接經驗。

Reality of God現實的上帝

The secular climate of today's world has led to a reconsideration of the old issue of the reality of God, which has been denied by many humanistic liberals and by most modern Marxists.世俗的氣氛,今天的世界已經發生,引發了一場复議的老問題,現實的上帝,而被剝奪了許多人性化的自由主義者和最現代的馬克思主義者。 The appearance of the so called death - of - God theologies in the 1960s introduced the issue into the Jewish and the Christian religious traditions themselves where it has been the subject of considerable debate.出現了所謂的死亡-的-上帝神學在2 0世紀60年代引進的問題,到了猶太人和基督教的宗教傳統本身,而一直是激烈辯論的主題。 Although most theologians have not followed the lead of the "God is dead" school, there is little question that today no theology can proceed, either by reason, faith, or experience, without raising and in some measure answering this primary query about the reality of God.雖然大多數神學家還沒有跟上,帶頭的"上帝死了"學校,有一點問題,今天沒有神學可以進行,無論是由理由,信仰,或經驗,如果沒有提高,並在一定程度上回答這個首要的質疑現實上帝的。 Is the notion of God, which correlates so closely with the self understanding of humankind, merely a projection of humanity's self consciousness onto an unresponding cosmos?概念是上帝的,其中關聯如此緊密與自我理解人類的,不僅僅是一個投影人類的自我意識上的一個不佳的宇宙? Many solutions have been proposed to this question, but the answer ultimately rests on faith.許多解決方案已經提出了這個問題,但答案最終落在信仰。

Langdon Gilkey蘭登gilkey

Bibliography 參考書目
PA Angeles, Problem of God: A Short Introduction (1974); J Bowker, The Sense of God (1977) and The Religious Imagination and the Sense of God (1978); JD Collins, God in Modern Philosophy (1959); BJ Cooke, The God of Space and Time (1972); Dewart, Leslie, The Future of Belief (1968); H Dumery, The Problem of God in Philosophy of Religion (1964); AJ Freddoso, ed., The Existence and Nature of God (1984); L Gilkey, Maker of Heaven and Earth (1959); JH Hick, ed., Existence of God (1964); GD Kaufman, God the Problem (1972) and The Theological Imagination (1981); JC Murray, The Problem of God: Yesterday and Today (1964); I Raez, The Unknown God (1970); MS Smith, Early History of God (1990); K Ward, The Concept of God (1975).壩洛杉磯的問題,上帝:一個簡短的介紹( 1974年) ; j bowker ,責任感神( 1977年)和宗教的想像力和責任感的神( 1978年) ;第納爾柯林斯,上帝在現代哲學( 1959年) ; BJ的庫克,上帝的空間和時間( 1972年) ;德瓦特,萊斯利,未來的信念( 1968年) ; h dumery ,問題得到上帝的宗教哲學( 1964 ) ;的AJ freddoso ,海關,存在和性質的上帝( 1984年) ;升gilkey ,製造商天地( 1959 ) ; JH的hick ,海關,上帝存在( 1964 ) ;钆考夫曼,上帝的問題( 1972年)和神學的想像( 1981 ) ;時三十分默里,問題的上帝:昨天和今天( 1964 ) ;我賴斯,未知的神( 1970年) ;史密斯女士,早在歷史上的神( 1990年) ; k病房,神的觀念( 1975年) 。


God上帝

Advanced Information - I 先進的信息-我

(AS and Dutch God; Dan. Gud; Ger. Gott), the name of the Divine Being. (和荷蘭語上帝;丹。 gud ;胃食管反流。 gott ) ,其名稱的神聖。 It is the rendering (1) of the Hebrew 'El, from a word meaning to be strong; (2) of 'Eloah, plural 'Elohim.這是渲染( 1 )的希伯來語'下午,從字義是強大的; ( 2 ) ' eloah ,複數'耶洛因。 The singular form, Eloah, is used only in poetry.奇異的形式, eloah ,只用在詩歌。 The plural form is more commonly used in all parts of the Bible, The Hebrew word Jehovah (qv), the only other word generally employed to denote the Supreme Being, is uniformly rendered in the Authorized Version by "Lord," printed in small capitals.複數形式,是較常用的各部分的聖經,希伯來字耶和華(請參閱) ,只有其他Word普遍受僱於是指具有最高福祉,是均勻,使在授權版的"魔戒" ,印在小省會。 The existence of God is taken for granted in the Bible.上帝存在的,是視為理所當然的,在聖經。 There is nowhere any argument to prove it.有沒有任何論據來證明這一點。 He who disbelieves this truth is spoken of as one devoid of understanding (Ps. 14:1).他的人disbelieves這個真理是口語的,因為一個缺乏了解(詩篇14時01分) 。

The arguments generally adduced by theologians in proof of the being of God are:,論據一般所引證的神學家,在舉證的正神的是: ,

  1. The a priori argument, which is the testimony afforded by reason.該先驗的說法,這是證詞給予的理由。
  2. The a posteriori argument, by which we proceed logically from the facts of experience to causes.在事後的說法,其中,我們合乎邏輯地從事實的經驗的原因。

These arguments are,這些論點,

Conscience and human history testify that "verily there is a God that judgeth in the earth."良心和人類歷史上作證說, "能眾志成城,是有上帝說,裁判在地球上" 。 The attributes of God are set forth in order by Moses in Ex.屬性是上帝的闡述,以便由摩西於異地。 34:6,7. 34:6,7 。 (see also Deut. 6:4; 10:17; Num. 16:22; Ex. 15:11; 33:19; Isa. 44:6; Hab. 3:6; Ps. 102:26; Job 34:12.) They are also systematically classified in Rev. 5:12 and 7:12. (亦見deut 。六四; 10時17分;序號。 16時22分;特惠。 15時11分; 33:19 ;伊薩。 44:6 ;民政事務局。 3時06分;聚苯乙烯。 102:26 ;職位34 : 12日) ,他們也是有系統分類,在牧師5點12分和7時12分。 God's attributes are spoken of by some as absolute, ie, such as belong to his essence as Jehovah, Jah, etc.; and relative, ie, such as are ascribed to him with relation to his creatures.上帝的屬性是口語的一些作為絕對的,即,如屬於他的本質,正如耶和華, jah等;相對的,即,如都歸功於他與他的海洋生物。 Others distinguish them into communicable, ie, those which can be imparted in degree to his creatures: goodness, holiness, wisdom, etc.; and incommunicable, which cannot be so imparted: independence, immutability, immensity, and eternity.別人分辨他們成為常見的,即那些可以傳授的程度,以他的動物:善良,純潔,智慧等; incommunicable ,這是不能使傳授:獨立,不得變通,巨大的,與永恆。 They are by some also divided into natural attributes, eternity, immensity, etc.; and moral, holiness, goodness, etc.他們是由一些具體又分為自然屬性,永恆的,巨大的,等等;道德,純潔,善良等。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Attributes of God屬性的神

Advanced Information - II 先進的信息-二

God is an invisible, personal, and living Spirit, distinguished from all other spirits by several kinds of attributes: metaphysically God is self-existent, eternal, and unchanging; intellectually God is omniscient, faithful, and wise; ethically God is just, merciful, and loving; emotionally God detests evil, is long-suffering, and is compassionate; existentially God is free, authentic, and omnipotent; relationally God is transcendent in being immanent universally in providential activity, and immanent with his people in redemptive activity.上帝是一種無形的,個人化的,生活的精神,而有別於其他所有烈酒數種特質:形而上學的上帝是自我存在的,永恆的,不變的;智力神是無所不知,忠誠,智慧;倫理的上帝是公正,慈悲和愛好;感情上上帝detests邪惡的,是長期的痛苦,是值得同情的; existentially上帝是免費的,真實的,無所不能; relationally上帝是超越性,在被上蒼普遍在天賜活動,而內在與他的人民在救贖的活動。

The essence of anything, simply put, equals its being (substance) plus its attributes.本質什麼,簡單地說,相當於其正(物質) ,再加上它的屬性。 Since Kant's skepticism of knowing anything in itself or in its essence, many philosophers and theologians have limited their general ways of speaking to the phenomena of Jewish or Christian religious experience.自康德的懷疑論的一無所知,在本身或其精神實質,許多哲學家和神學家都有限,他們的一般方法,就以現象的猶太人或基督教的宗教體驗。 Abandoning categories of essence, substance, and attribute, they have thought exclusively in terms of Person-to-person encounters, mighty acts of God, divine functions, or divine processes in history.棄類別的本質,內容和屬性,他們有思想,在專用條款個人對個人的遭遇,浩浩蕩盪的行為,神,神的功能,或神聖的進程中的歷史。 God is indeed active in all these and other ways, but is not silent.上帝的確是活躍在所有這些以及其他方式,但不是沉默。 Inscripturated revelation discloses some truth about God's essence in itself. inscripturated啟示披露了一些真理,對上帝的本質本身。 Conceptual truth reveals not only what God does, but who God is.概念性真理揭示不僅是什麼神,但神是。

Biblical revelation teaches the reality not only of physical entities, but also of spiritual beings: angels, demons, Satan, and the triune God.聖經啟示任教的現實,不僅物理實體,而且也是一種靈:天使,惡魔,撒旦和上帝的三位一體。 The Bible also reveals information concerning attributes or characteristics of both material and spiritual realities.聖經也揭示了信息的屬性或特徵的物質和精神現實。 In speaking of the attributes of an entity, we refer to essential qualtities that belong to or inhere in it.在談到屬性的一個實體,我們稱之為必需qualtities屬於或固有而已。 The being or substance is what stands under and unities the varied and multiple attributes in one unified entity.這項正在或實質是什麼立場下,並統一多樣和多重屬性,在一個統一的實體。 The attributes are essential to distinguish the divine Spirit from all other spirits.屬性是必不可少的,以分清神聖的精神,從所有其他烈酒。 The divine Spirit is necessary to unite all the attributes in one being.神的精神是要團結所有屬性之一。 The attributes of God, then, are essential characteristics of the divine being.屬性的上帝,那麼,本質特徵,神聖的福祉。 Without these qualities God would not be what he is, God.如果沒有這些素質,上帝將不會有什麼他可以說是上帝。

Some have imagined that by defining the essence of God human thinkers confine God to their concepts.一些想像界定的本質上帝人類思想家局限於上帝觀念。 That reasoning, however, confuses words conveying concepts with their referents.這一推理,但是,混淆的話傳達觀念與他們指稱對象。 Does a definition of water limit the power of Niagara Falls?難道一個定義,水,限制權力的尼加拉大瀑布? The word "God" has been used in so many diverse ways that it is incumbent upon a writer or speaker to indicate which of those uses is in mind.字的"神" ,已經被用於在這麼多的不同方式,它是有責任的作家或喇叭,以表明它的這些用途是記。

God Is an Invisible, Personal, Living, and Active Spirit上帝是一種無形的,人身,居住,並主動精神

Jesus explained to the Samaritian woman why she should worship God in spirit and in truth.耶穌解釋了samaritian女子她為什麼要崇拜上帝在精神上和真理。 God is spirit (John 4:24).上帝是精神(約翰4時24分) 。 The noun pneuma occurs first in the sentence for emphasis.名詞pneuma先發生在句中強調。 Although some theologies consider "spirit" an attribute, grammatically in Jesus' statement it is a substantive.雖然有些神學認為, "精神"的屬性,而文法,在耶穌的聲明,這是一個實質性的。 In the pre-Kantian, first century world of the biblical authors, spirits were not dismissed with an a priori, skeptical assumption.在預康德,首先世紀世界的聖經作者,烈酒沒有解僱一個先驗的,持懷疑態度的假設。

As spirit, God is invisible.作為精神,上帝是看不見的。 No one has ever seen God or ever will (1 Tim. 6:16).從來沒有人見過上帝或任何時候都將( 1添。 6:16 ) 。 A spirit does not have flesh and bones (Luke 24:39).精神,沒有肉和骨頭(路加福音24:39 ) 。

As spirit, furthermore, God is personal.作為精神,而且,上帝是個人的。 Although some thinkers use "spirit" to designate impersonal principles or an impersonal absolute, in the biblical context the divine Spirit has personal capacities of intelligence, emotion, and volition.雖然一些思想家使用的"精神" ,以候客觀原則或一種非人格的絕對的,在聖經的背景下神聖的精神,以個人身份參加的智力,情感,意志。 It is important to deny of the personal in God any vestiges of the physical and moral evil associated with fallen human persons.這是很重要的否認個人在上帝的任何殘餘物質和道德上的邪惡與塌人的。

In transcending the physical aspects of human personhood God thus trancends the physical aspects of both maleness and femaleness.在超越體能方面的人力人格神,因此trancends身心兩方面男性和femaleness 。 However, since both male and female are created in God's image, we may think of both as like God in their distinctively nonphysical, personal male and female qualities.不過,由於男女雙方都創造了上帝的形象,我們可能認為這兩個作為想上帝在其鮮明nonphysical ,個人男性和女性特質。 In this context the Bible's use of masculine personal pronouns for God conveys primarily the connotation of God's vital personal qualities and secondarily any distinctive functional responsibilities males may have.在此背景下聖經的使用男性化人稱代詞為上帝傳達的主要內涵上帝的切身個人素質,其次任何獨特功能的責任,男性可能。

Christ's unique emphasis upon God as Father in the Lord's Prayer and elsewhere becomes meaningless if God is not indeed personal.基督的獨特的著重點放在上帝的父親在主禱文和其他地方變得毫無意義,如果上帝是不確實的個人。 Similarly, the great doctrines of mercy, grace, forgiveness, imputation, and justification can only be meaningful if God is genuinely personal.同樣,偉大學說的憐憫,恩典,寬恕歸責和理由只能是有意義的,如果上帝是真正的個人。 God must be able to hear the sinner's cry for salvation, be moved by it, decide and act to recover the lost.上帝要能聽到罪人的吶喊,為救亡,動議,決定和行動,以收回丟失。 In fact, God is superpersonal, tripersonal.事實上,上帝是超人格, tripersonal 。 The classical doctrine of the Trinity coherently synthesizes the Bible's teaching about God.古典主義的三位一體,通盤考慮,綜合聖經的教學關於上帝。 To place the name of God upon a baptismal candidate is to place upon the candidate the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit (Matt. 28:19).把上帝的名義經洗禮候選人,是把當候選人的名字,父親和兒子和聖靈。 ( 28:19 ) 。

The unity of the one divine essence and being emphasized in the NT concept of a personal spirit implies simplicity or indivisibility.團結的一個神的本質和正強調,在新台幣概念的個人精神,就意味著簡單或不可分割性。 Neither the Trinitarian personal distinctions nor the multiple attributes divide the essential unity of the divine being.既不是三位一體的個人區別,也沒有多屬性劃分基本統一的神聖。 And that essential, ontological oneness is not torn apart by the incarnation or even the death of Jesus.以及必要的,本體論的統一性,是不是四分五裂的化身,或什至死亡的耶穌。 Relationally or functionally (but not essentially) Jesus on the cross was separated from the Father who imputed to him the guilt and punishment of our sin. relationally或功能(而不是實質上)耶穌基督在十字架上是脫離父親歸功於他的罪責和懲罰我們的罪過。

In view of the indivisibility of the divine Spirit, how than are the attributes related to the divine being?鑑於不可分割的神聖精神,又如何比是屬性關係到神嗎? The divine attributes are not mere names for human use with no referent in the divine Spirit (nominalism).神聖的屬性,不是單純的名稱,供人類使用,沒有指涉在神聖的精神(唯) 。 Nor are the attributes separate from each other within the divine being so that they could conflict with each other (realism).也不是單獨的屬性,從對方的神正,使他們能互相衝突(寫實主義) 。 The attributes all equally qualify the entirety of the divine being and each other (a modified realism).屬性都同樣有資格對整神聖的福祉和對方(改良寫實) 。 Preserving the divine simplicity or indivisibility, God's love is always holy love, and God's holiness is always loving holiness.維護神聖的簡易性或不可分割性,天主的愛是永遠神聖的愛,和上帝的聖潔是歷來愛好成聖。 Hence it is futile to argue for the superiority of one divine attribute over another.因此,它是徒勞無益的爭論,為的優越性,同一個神屬性的一種標準。 Every attribute is essential; one cannot be more essential than another in a simple, nonextended being.每一個屬性是必不可少的;一不可,也不可更重要,比另一種簡單, nonextended 。

God as spirit, furthermore, is living and active.上帝作為精神,而且,是生活和活躍。 In contrast to the passive ultimates of Greek philosophies the God of the Bible actively creates, sustains, covenants with his people, preserves Israel and the Messiah's line of descent, calls prophet after prophet, send his Son into the world, provides the atoning sacrifice to satisfy his own righteousness, raises Christ from the dead, builds the church, and judges all justly.相反,被動ultimates古希臘哲學的神,聖經,積極創造,維繫著,盟約與他的人,保留了以色列和彌賽亞的路線的後裔,來電後,先知預言家,送他的兒子到世界各地,提供atoning犧牲滿足自己的正義感,引起基督從死裡復活,建造教堂,和法官都公正。 Far from a passive entity like a warm house, the God of the Bible is an active architect, builder, freedom fighter, advocate of the poor and oppressed, just judge, empathetic counselor suffering servant, and triumphant deliverer.到目前為止,從被動的實體,像一個溫暖的家,上帝的聖經是一個積極的建築師,建設者,自由戰士,主張窮人和被壓迫者,公正,法官同情輔導員痛苦的僕人,並得意洋洋投遞。

As an invisible, personal, living spirit, God is no mere passive object of human investigation.作為一種無形的,個人化的,生活的精神,上帝是不會僅僅是被動的對象人力進行調查。 Such writers as Pascal, Kierkegaard, Barth, and Brunner have helpfully reminded Christians that knowing God is like studying soils.這類作家帕斯卡爾,克爾凱郭爾,巴特,和布蘭有裨益提醒基督徒,我知,神是想學習的土壤。 However, these writers go too far in claiming that God is merely a revealing subject in ineffable personal encounters and that no objective, propositional truth can be known of God.但是,這些作家走得太遠聲稱上帝只是揭示課題無法形容的個人遭遇,並沒有客觀的,命題真理,可以被稱為神的國。 Members of a creative artist's family may know him not only with passionate, personal subjectivity, but also objectively through examination of his works, careful reading of his writings, and assessment of his resume.成員的創造性藝術家的家人可能也知道,他不僅與激情的,個人的主體性,但客觀上也通過研究他的作品,他仔細閱讀他的著作,並評估他的恢復。 Similarly God may be known not only in passionate subjective commitment, but also by thought about his creative works (general revelation), his inspired Scripture (part of special revelation), and theological resumes of his nature and activity.同樣上帝或可稱之為不僅在激情的主觀承諾,而且還以為對他的創作作品(一般啟示) ,他的靈感經文(部分特殊啟示) ,與神學恢復他的性質和活動。 Knowledge of God involves both objective, conceptual validity and subjective, personal fellowship.認識上帝既有客觀的,在概念上的有效性和主觀的,個人的獎學金。

We have considered the meaning of asserting that God is spirit: the divine being is one, invisible, personal, and thus capable of thinking, feeling, and willing, a living and active being.我們曾考慮過的意義,聲稱上帝是精神:神聖的,是一個無形的,個人化的,因此有能力的想法,感覺,而且願意,生活和積極的作為。 There are, however, many spirits.然而,存在許多飽滿的精神狀態。 The subsequent discussion of the divine attributes is necessary to distinguish the divine Spirit from other spirit-beings.隨後進行的討論中的神聖屬性,要區分神聖的精神從其他精神。

While considering the meaning of each attribute it is well to be aware of the relation of the attributes to the being of God.同時考慮的意思,每個屬性是善意,他們必須明白的關係屬性,向被上帝的。 In the Scriptures the divine attributes are not above God, beside God, or beneath God; they are predicted of God.在聖經中的神的屬性,是不是凌駕於神,旁邊的上帝,或下方上帝,他們預言的神。 God is holy; God is love.上帝是神聖的;天主是愛。 These characteristics do not simply describe what God does, they define what God is.這些特點,不要簡單地描述什麼神,他們界定什麼是上帝。 To claim that recipients of revelation can know the attributes of God but not the being of God leaves the attributes un-unified and belonging to nothing.聲稱受助人的啟示,可以知道屬性的上帝,但不是被上帝的樹葉屬性聯合國統一和歸屬感落空。 The Scriptures do not endorse worship of an unknown God but make God known.念經不認同崇拜的是一個未知的上帝,但上帝使已知的。 The attributes are inseparable from the being of God, and the divine spirit does not relate or act apart from the essential divine characteristics.屬性是分不開的,從目前的神,神的精神,不涉及或行為,除了從本質神聖的特點。 In knowing the attributes, then, we know God as he has revealed himself to be in himself.在明知該屬性,那麼,我們知道,上帝,因為他發現自己被自己恢復的罷了。

This is not to say that through revelation we can know God fully as God knows himself.這並不是說,通過啟示,我們可以知道,上帝也充分天曉得自己。 But it is to deny that all our knowledge of God is equivocal, something totally other than we understand by scripturally revealed concepts of holy love.但它否認這一切我們所知的,神是曖昧,而其他完全比我們所理解scripturally揭示概念的神聖的愛。 Much of our knowledge of God's attributes is analogical or figurative, where Scripture uses figures of speech.我們的許多知識,上帝的屬性是類比或比喻,那裡的經文用數字講話。 Even then, however, the point illustrated can be stated in nonfigurative language.即使是這樣,不過,這點說明了,可在nonfigurative語言。 So all our understanding of God is not exclusively analogical.所以我們所有的了解,神是不完全的類比。 The revealed, nonfigurative knowledge has at least one point of meaning the same for God's thought and revelationally informed human thought.審計發現, nonfigurative知識已至少有一個點的意義,同時為上帝的思想和revelationally告知人類的思考方式。 Some knowledge of God, then, is called univocal, because when we assert that God is holy love, we assert what the Bible (which originated, not with the will of man, but God) asserts.有些認識上帝的話,那麼,是所謂univocal ,因為當我們說,上帝是神聖的愛,我們斷言什麼聖經(源自,而不是在意志為轉移的,但上帝)的斷言。 We may be far from fully comprehending divine holiness and divine love, but insofar as our assertions about God coherently convey relevant conceptually revealed meanings they are true of God and conform in part to God's understanding.我們可能遠未得到充分地理解了神聖純潔和神聖的愛,但至於我們斷言約上帝有條理地傳達有關概念上的意義,揭示了,他們是真正的上帝,並符合部分,以上帝的理解。

The divine attributes have been differently classified to help in relating and remembering them.神聖的屬性一直有不同的分類,以幫助有關並記住他們。 Each classification has its strengths and weaknesses.每個分類都有其長處和短處。 We may distinguish those attributes that are absolute and immanent (Strong), incommunicable or communicable (Berkhof), metaphysical or moral (Gill), absolute, relative, and moral (Wiley), or personal and consitutional (Chafer).我們可以區分那些屬性是絕對的和內在的(強) , incommunicable或傳播( ,伯克霍夫) ,形而上學或道德(刺) ,是絕對的,相對的,道德(出版社) ,或者個人和憲法(金龜子) 。 Advantages and disadvantages of these groupings can be seen in those respective theologies.優勢與劣勢,這些集團可以看到,在這些各自的神學。 It is perhaps clearer and more meaningful to distinguish God's characteristics metaphysically, intellectually, ethically, emotionally, existentially, and relationally.因此,現在也許是更清晰和有意義的區別上帝的特色形而上學的,在理智上,道德上,情感上, existentially , relationally 。

Metaphysically, God Is Self-existent, Eternal, and Unchanging形而上學的,神是自我存在的,永恆的,天長地久

Other spirits are invisible, personal, one, living, and active.其他精神,是無形的,個人,其中,生活,並積極。 How does the divine spirit differ?如何得知是否神聖精神,有不同? Significant differences appear in several respects, but we first focus upon the metaphysically distinctive characteristics of God.顯著性差異出現在好幾個方面,但我們先集中後形而上學明顯的一個特徵就是上帝。

First, God is self-existent第一,神是自我存在

All other spirits are created and so have a beginning.其他一切精神,是創造的,所以有一個開端。 They owe their existence to another.他們欠自己的存在到另一個地方。 God does not depend upon the world or anyone in it for his existence.上帝不取決於世界或任何人在為他的存在。 The world depends on God for its existence.世界上取決於上帝的存在。 Contrary to those theologians who say we cannot know anything about God in himself, Jesus revealed that God has life in himself (John 5:26).相反,那些神學家的人說,我們可以不知道什麼神自己,耶穌透露,神生活在自己(約翰5點26分) 。 The ground of God's being is not in others, for there is nothing more ultimate than himself.地面上的神的,是不是在其他方面,有沒有什麼更多的最終超過自己。 God is uncaused, the one who always is (Exod. 3:14).上帝是uncaused ,誰始終是( exod. 3時14分) 。 To ask who caused God is to ask a self-contradictory question in terms of Jesus' view of God.請問誰造成的,神是想問一個自我矛盾的問題,無論在耶穌的看法,上帝的。 Another term conveying the concept of God's self-existence is "aseity."另一個詞傳達神的觀念的自我存在,是" aseity " 。 It comes from the Latin a, meaning from, and se, meaning oneself.它來自拉丁語,含義,色,意思是自己的努力。 God is underived, necessary, nondependent existence.上帝是underived ,必要時, nondependent存在。 Understanding that God is noncontingent helps to understand how God is unlimited by anything, or infinite, free, self-determined, and not determined by anything other than himself contrary to his own sovereign purposes.了解上帝非一致性有助於理解神是怎麼的,是不受任何東西,或無限的,自由的,自我決定的,而不是取決於任何事情,除了自己違背了自己的主權的目的。

God is eternal and omnipresent (ubiquitous)上帝是永恆的和無所不在的(無所不在)

God's life is from within himself, not anything that had a beginning in the space-time world.上帝的生命是來自自己,而不是任何一個開端,在空間和時間的世界。 God has no beginning, period of growth, old age, or end.上帝沒有開始,生育期,年老或結束。 The Lord is enthroned as King forever (Ps. 29:10).耶和華是enthroned作為國王永遠(詩篇29:10 ) 。 This God is our God forever and forever (Ps. 48:14).這個神是我們的上帝,永遠,永遠(詩篇48:14 ) 。 Although God is not limited by space or time, or the succession of events in time, he created the world with space and time.雖然上帝不是有限的空間或時間,或繼承事件的時候,他創造了世界同空間和時間。 God sustains the changing realm of succeeding events and is conscious of every movement in history.上帝維繫著不斷變化的領域,成功的事件信息,並且是有意識的每個動作的歷史。 The observable, changing world is not unimportant or unreal (maya in Hinduism) to the omnipresent Lord of all.可見,不斷變化的世界,是不是不重要或不真實的(瑪雅在印度教) ,以鋪天蓋地所有的人的主。 No tribe, nation, city, family, or personal life is valueless, however brief or apparently insignificant.沒有部落,一個民族,一個城市,家庭或個人生活是毫無價值,但簡短或顯然微不足道。 God's eternal nature is not totally other than time or totally removed from everything in time and space.上帝的永恆性是不完全以外的其他時間,或完全撤銷一切時間和空間。 The space-time world is not foreign or unknown to God.空間-時間世界,是不是外來的或未知的上帝。 History is the product of God's eternally wise planning, creative purpose, providential preservation, and common grace.歷史的產物,上帝的大智大覺的規劃,創新的宗旨,天賜保存,並共同恩典。 God fills space and time with his presence, sustains it, and gives it purpose and value.上帝填補了空間和時間與他的存在,維繫著它,並給出了它的目的和價值。 The omnipresent and ubiquitous One is Lord of time and history, not vice versa.鋪天蓋地,無所不在的,一個是上帝了時間和歷史的,而不是相反。 God does not negate time but fulfills it.上帝不否定,但滿足了。 In it his purposes are accomplished.在他的,它的目的是完成了。

In Christianity, then, eternity is not an abstract timelessness, but the eternal is a characteristic of the living God who is present at all times and in all places, creating and sustaining the space-time world and accomplishing his redemptive purposes in the fullness of time.在基督教裡,然後,永恆不是一個抽象的永恆,但永恆的一個特點是活著的上帝的人,是目前在任何時候和任何地方,創造和維持空間-時間的世界,完成他的救贖的目的,在豐滿的時間。

God is unchanging in nature, desire, and purpose上帝是不變的性質,慾望與目的

To say that God is immutable is not to contradict the previous truth that God is living and active.說上帝是一成不變的,是不違背先前的真理就是神,是生活和活躍。 It is to say that all the uses of divine power and vitality are consistent with his attributes such as wisdom, justice, and love.這是說,所有使用的神聖權力和活力,正符合他的屬性,例如智慧,正義和愛。 God's acts are never merely arbitrary, although some may be for reasons wholly within himself rather than conditioned upon human response.神的行為從來都不是純粹任意的,雖然有部分可能的原因完全在自己,而不是取決於人的回應。 Underlying each judgement of the wicked and each pardon of the repentant is his changeless purpose concerning sin and conversion.背後的每一個判斷的惡人和每個赦免的懺悔,是他不變的宗旨有關單和成果轉化。 Unlike the Stoic's concept of divine immutability, God is not indifferent to human activity and need.不同於斯多葛的概念神聖不可改變,上帝不是漠不關心,人類活動和需要。 Rather, we can always count upon God's concern for human righteousness.相反,我們總能指望當上帝的關心人類正義的。

God changelessly answers prayer in accord with his desires and purposes of holy love.上帝changelessly答案祈禱與他的願望和目的的神聖的愛。 Hence, although speaking in terms of human experience God is sometimes said in Scripture to repent, it is in fact the unrepentant who have changed and become repentant or the faithful who have become unfaithful.因此,儘管在談到在人的經驗,上帝是說,有時在經文思悔改,這是事實,死不悔改的人已改變,並成為悔過或忠實的人,已成為不忠誠的表現。

God is the same, though everything else in creation becomes old like a garment (Ps. 102:25-27).上帝是一樣的,雖然一切的創作,成為老想一間製衣(詩篇102:25-27 ) 。 Jesus shared that same unchanging nature (Heb. 1:10-12) and vividly exhibited it consistently throughout his active ministry in a variety of situations.耶穌共用同一不變的性質(希伯來書1:10-12 ) ,並生動地展示了它一貫在他的積極內政部在各種情形。

The immutability of God's character means that God never loses his own integrity or lets others down.不得變通上帝的性格就是上帝從來沒有失去自己的完整性或出租他人。 With God is no variableness or shadow of turning (James 1:17).與上帝沒有variableness或幕後的轉折(詹姆斯1時17分) 。 God's unshakable nature and word provide the strongest ground of faith and bring strong consolation (Heb. 6: 17-18).上帝的不可動搖的性質和Word提供最強地面的信仰和帶來強大的慰藉(希伯來書六: 17-18 ) 。 God is not a man that he should lie (Num. 23:19) or repent (I Sam. 15:29).上帝不是一個男人,他應該謊言( num. 23時19分) ,或悔過, (我心。 15時29分) 。 The counsel of the Lord stands forever (Ps. 33:11).律師工作的主站在永遠(詩篇33:11 ) 。 Though heaven and earth pass away, God's words will not fail (Matt. 5:18; 24:35).雖然天地去世,上帝的話,將不能失敗。 ( 5時18分; 24:35 ) 。

Intellectually, God Is Omniscient, Faithful, and Wise在理智上,神是無所不知,忠誠,智慧

God differs from other spirits not only in being but also in knowledge.上帝不同於其他烈酒不僅在正,而且在知識。 God's intellectual capabilities are unlimited, and God uses them fully and perfectly.上帝的能力是無限的,上帝用他們充分和完美。

God is Omniscient上帝是無所不知

God knows all things (I John 3:20).上帝才知道一切事物(約翰一默3:20 ) 。 Jesus has this attribute of deity also, for Peter says, "Lord, you know all things; you know that I love you" (John 21:17).耶穌有這種屬性的神另外,對於彼得說: "主啊,你知道所有的事情,你知道我愛你" (約翰福音21時17分) 。 God knows all inward thoughts and outward acts of humanity (Ps. 139).天曉得所有外來的思想和行為向外人道(詩篇139 ) 。 Nothing in all creation is hidden from God's sight.沒有在所有的創造物是隱藏妝飾。 Everything is uncovered and laid bare before the one to whom we must give account (Heb. 4:13).萬事查獲戳穿之前,一人,我們必須給帳號(希伯來書4時13分) 。 Isaiah distinguished the Lord of all from idols by the Lord's ability to predict the future (Isa. 44:7-8, 25-28).以賽亞書區分所有的人的主從偶像由主的能力,以預測未來(以賽亞書44:7-8 , 25-28 ) 。 Clearly the Lord's knowledge of the future was communicable in human concepts and words.顯然上帝的知識,將來是常見的,在人的概念和詞句。 In the context Isaiah made predictions concerning Jerusalem, Judah, Cyrus, and the temple.在這個背景下作出以賽亞預言關於耶路撒冷,猶大,居魯士,寺。 These concepts were inspired in the original language and are translatable in the languages of the world.這些觀念,無不感到歡欣鼓舞,在原文和翻譯,在世界的語言。

How can God know the end from the beginning?怎樣才能神不知年底從一開始? In a way greater than illustrated in a person's knowledge of a memorized psalm, Augustine suggested.在某種程度上大於說明一個人的知識,一個背詩篇,奧古斯丁建議。 Before quoting Psalm 23 we have it all in mind.然後引用詩篇23 ,我們都銘記。 Then we quote the first half of it and we know the part that is past and the part that remains to be quoted.當時我們競標上半年,它和我們熟悉的一部分,這是歷史和現實的一部分,這仍然是被引用。 God knows the whole of history at once, simultaneously because not limited by time and succession, but God also knows what part of history is past today and what is future, for time is not unreal or umimportant to God (Confessions XI, 31).天曉得整個歷史上一次,同時,因為不是受限於時間和繼承,但上帝也知道什麼是歷史的一部分,是過去的今天,什麼是前途,時間是不是虛幻或umimportant上帝(自白書喜, 31 ) 。

The belief that God knows everything--past, present, and future, is of little significance, however, if God's knowledge is removed from human knowledge by an infinite, qualitative distinction.相信上帝才知道一切-過去,現在和未來,是沒有多大意義的,但是,如果上帝的知識去掉,人的認識也由一個無限的,質的區別。 The frequent claim that God's knowledge is totally other than ours implies that God's truth may be contradictory of our truth.經常聲稱上帝的知識是完全沒有其他比我們意味著上帝的真理可能是相互矛盾的,我們的真理。 That is, what may be true for us is false for God or what is false for us may be true for God.這就是,什麼可能是事實,我們是假的,為上帝,什麼是假的,我們可以真正為神。 Defenders of this position argue that because God is omniscient, God does not think discursively line upon line, or use distinct concepts connected by the verb "to be" in logical propositions.捍衛這一立場的爭辯說,因為上帝是無所不知,上帝不認為discursively線後,線路,或者使用不同的概念相連,動詞" ,以"邏輯的主張。 This view of divine transcendence provided an effective corrective in the hands of Barth and Bultmann against the continuity modernism alleged between the highest human thought and God's thought.這種看法是神聖的超越性提供了有效的糾正措施在政府手中巴特和布特曼對連續性的現代主義指稱之間最高人類的思維和上帝的思想。 And that influence finds additional support from the Eastern mystics who deny any validity to conceptual thinking in reference to the eternal.並影響認定的額外支持來自東部的神秘主義者,他們否認有任何效力,以概念思維,在參考了永恆。 Relativists from many fields also deny that any human assertions, including the Bible's, are capable of expressing the truth concerning God. relativists從許多領域也否認有任何人的言論,其中包括聖經中的,有能力的表達真相關於上帝。

From a biblical perspective, however, the human mind has been created in the divine image to think God's thoughts after him, or to receive through both general and special revelation truth from God.從聖經的角度來看,然而,人們頭腦裡已經創造了在神聖的形象,以為神的想法後,他,或者得到通過一般及特殊啟示真理來自上帝。 Although the fall has affected the human mind, this has not been eradicated.雖然秋季已經影響到人的頭腦,這並沒有被根除。 The new birth involves the Holy Spirit's renewal of the person in knowledge after the image of the Creator (Col. 3:10).新誕生涉及聖靈的重建該人的知識後,形象造物主(上校下午3點10分) 。 Contextually, the knowledge possible to the regenerate includes the present position and nature of the exalted Christ (Col. 1:15-20) and knowledge of God's will (Col. 1:9).內容中,知識不可能再生,包括現在的位置和性質以及崇高的基督(歌1:15-20 )和知識的上帝的意志(上校1時09分) 。 With this knowledge Christians can avoid being deceived by mere fine-sounding arguments (Col. 2:4).與這種知識的基督徒,可避免被愚弄的僅僅美其名曰論據(歌2:4 ) 。 They are to strengthen the faith they were taught in concepts and words (Col. 2:7).他們是:加強信仰他們學習,在觀念與詞(上校2時07分) 。 And the content of the word of Christ can inform their teaching and worship (Col. 3:16).和內容字基督的,可以通知其教學和崇拜(歌3:16 ) 。

In these and many other ways the Scriptures presuppose an informative revelation from God, verbally inspired and Spirit illumined, to minds created and renewed in the divine image for the reception of this divine truth.在這些和許多其他方式念經假定一個翔實的啟示來自上帝,在口頭上的靈感和精神照亮,以頭腦創造,並再次在神聖的形象,以便接收這個神聖真理。 Insofar as we have grasped the contextual meaning given by the original writers of Scripture, our scripturally based assertions that God is spirit, God is holy, or God is love are true.據我們掌握的背景意義給予原作家的經文,我們scripturally基於斷言說,上帝是精神,上帝是聖潔的,還是天主是愛的都是事實。 They are true for God as he is in himself.他們是真正的上帝,因為他是在自己。 They are true for the faith and life of Christians and churches.它們是真正為信仰和生活的基督信徒和教會。

The propositional truth that the Bible conveys in indicative sentences that affirm, deny, contend, maintain, assume, and infer is fully true for God and for mankind.該命題的真理,聖經中傳達指示的句子,肯定,否定,爭鳴,維持,假設,並推斷是完全屬實,為上帝和人類的禍害。 Of course God's omniscience is not limited to the distinctions between subjects and predicates, logical sequence, exegetical research, or discursive reasoning.當然,上帝的無所不知,是不是僅限於區分科目和謂詞,邏輯順序,訓詁學研究,或散漫的推理。 But God knows the difference between a subject and a predicate, relates to logical sequence as much as to temporal sequence, encourages exegetical research and revelationally based discursive reasoning.但天曉得區別主體與上位,涉及到的邏輯順序一樣,以時間序列,鼓勵訓詁學研究和revelationally基於論述的道理。 Although God's mind is unlimited and knows everything, it is not totally different in every respect from human minds made in his image.雖然上帝的心是無限的,而且知道的一切,這不是完全不同,在每一個方面,從人們的思想中取得了他的形象。 As omniscient then, God's judgments are formed in the awareness of all the relevant data.作為無所不知,然後,上帝的判斷,是形成於意識的所有相關數據。 God knows everything that bears upon the truth concerning any person or event.上帝才知道的一切,熊後,真相有關的任何人或事件。 Our judgements are true insofar as they conform to God's by being coherent or faithful to all the relevant evidence.我們的判斷是真實,只要符合上帝的,由被相干或忠實於所有相關的證據。

God is Faithful and True神是信實的真實

Because God is faithful and true (Rev. 19:11), his judgements (Rev. 19:2) and his words in human language are faithful and true (Rev. 21:5; 22:6).因為上帝是忠實和真實(牧師19時11分) ,他的判決(牧師19時02分)和他的話,在人類的語言是忠實和真實(牧師21時05分; 22時06分) 。 There is no lack of fidelity in God's person, thought, or promise.大家不是沒有富達在上帝的人,思想,或許諾。 God is not hypocritical and inconsistent.上帝不是虛偽和不一致的。

We may hold unsweringly to our hope because he who promised is faithful (Heb. 10:23), He is faithful to forgive our sins (1 John 1:9), sanctify believers until the return of Christ (1 Thess. 5:23-24), strengthen and protect from the evil one (II Thess. 3:3), and not let us be tempted beyond what we can bear (1 Cor. 10:13).我們可以舉行unsweringly對我們的期望,因為在他的人許諾,是忠實(希伯來書10時23分) ,他是忠於人民原諒我們的罪過( 1約翰1時09分) ,聖化的信徒,直到回到基督( 1帖5時23分-24 ) ,加強和保護從邪惡一(二帖3點03分) ,而不是讓我們受到誘惑而不僅僅是我們所能承受的( 1肺心病。 10:13 ) 。 Even if we are faithless, he remains faithful, for he cannot disown himself (II Tim. 2:13).即使我們背信,但他仍然是忠誠,因為他無法不承認自己(二添。 2時13分) 。

Not one word of all the good promises God gave through Moses failed (1 Kings 8:56).沒有一個字的所有良好的諾言了上帝通過摩西失敗( 1國王8時56分) 。 Isaiah praises the name of God, for in perfect faithfulness God did marvelous things planned long ago (Isa. 25:1).以賽亞書讚美真主的名義,在完善信上帝是神乎其神的東西,計劃在不久前(以賽亞書25:1 ) 。 Passages like these convey a basic divine integrity in both life and thought.通道喜歡這些傳達的一個基本完整的神聖無論生活和思想。 No contrast can be drawn between what God is in himself and what God is in relation to those who trust him.無從對比,可以區分什麼是上帝對自己和神是與那些信任他。 God does not contradict his promises in his works or in other teaching by dialectic, paradox, or mere complementarity.上帝不違背他的承諾,在他的作品中,或在其他教學辯證法,矛盾,或僅僅互補性。 God knows everything, and nothing can come up that was not already taken into account before God revealed his purposes.上帝才知道一切,沒有什麼能想出那是不是已經考慮到上帝面前暴露他的目的。

Because God is faithful and consistent, we ought to be faithful and consistent.因為上帝是信實的,一貫的,我們應該互相忠實,和一貫的。 Jesus said, "Simply let your Yes be Yes and your No, No" (Matt. 5:37).耶穌說: "乾脆讓你的肯定是肯定的,你沒有,沒有" 。 ( 5:37 ) 。 Paul exhibited this logical authenticity in his teaching about God.保羅展示了這個合乎邏輯的真實性,在他的教學中關於上帝。 As surely as God is faithful, he said, our message to you is not Yes and No (II Cor. 1:18).肯定的,因為神是信實的,他說,我們的信息傳播給你的是,沒有對與不對(二肺心病。 1:18 ) 。 Those who imagine that talk about God in human language must affirm and deny the same thing at the same time and in the same respect (in dialectic or paradox) have a different view of the relation between the divine mind and the godly person's mind than did Paul.那些想像談論上帝在人類的語言是應該予以肯定和否定同樣的事情在同一時間內,並在同樣的尊重(在辯證或悖論) ,有不同意見的關係,牢記神聖和神聖的人的心靈比保羅。 Because God is faithful, we must be faithful in our message about him.因為上帝是信實的,我們必須忠於我們的訊息,對他的。 Since God cannot deny himself, we ought not to deny ourselves in speaking to God.因為上帝不能否定自己,我們不應該否認自己在談到上帝。

Knowing the connection between personal and conceptual faithfulness in God we know that the idea that faithful persons ought not to contradict themselves did not originate with Aristotle.明知之間的聯繫,個人和概念忠誠上帝,我們知道,這一構想表示忠誠的人不應該違背本身並不源自亞里士多德。 He may have formulated the law of non-contradiction in a way that has been quoted ever since, but the ultimate source of the challenge to human fidelity in person and word is rooted in God himself.他可能已經制定的法律不矛盾的方式已被引用自那以後,而最終的來源,挑戰人類保真的人與文字是植根於上帝。 The universal demand for intellectual honesty reflects in the human heart the ultimate integrity of the Creator's heart.普遍的需求,誠實表現在人的心中,最終完整的造物者的心。

God is not only omniscient and consistent in person and word, but also perfectly wise上帝不僅是無所不知和一貫的,在人與Word ,但也絕對明智

In addition to knowing all the relevant data on any subject, God selects ends with discernment and acts in harmony with his purposes of holy love.除了了解所有相關的數據對任何話題,上帝選擇結束與鑑別力和行為在和諧與他的宗旨神聖的愛。 We may not always be able to see that events in our lives work together for a wise purpose, but we know that God chooses from among all the possible alternatives the best ends and means for achieving them.我們未必能夠看到的事件在我們的生活中的工作,共同努力,建設一個明智的目的,但我們知道,上帝選擇,從一切可能的替代品最好的目的和手段,為實現這些目標。 God not only chooses the right ends but also for the right reasons, the good of his creatures and thus his glory.上帝不僅是選擇正確的目標,而且為正確的理由,好他的動物,因此他的榮耀。

Although we may not fully understand divine wisdom, we have good reason to trust it.雖然我們並不完全明白神的智慧,我們有充足的理由相信它。 After writing on the great gift of the righteousness that comes from God, Paul exclaims, "To the only wise God be glory forever through Jesus Christ! Amen."後,以書面形式於偉大的禮物的正義感來自上帝,保羅exclaims , "唯一明智的上帝的榮耀永遠透過耶穌基督!阿門" 。 (Rom. 16:27). (羅馬書16時27分) 。 He had earlier alluded to the incomprehensible depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God (Rom. 11:33).他較早時曾提到過該難以理解的深度財富的智慧和知識的神(羅馬書11時33分) 。

The interrelation of the attributes is already evident as the divine omniscience is aware not only of what is but also of what ought to be (morally); divine faithfulness and consistency involve moral integrity and no hypocrisy; and wisdom makes decisions for action toward certain ends and means in terms of the highest values.相互關聯的屬性已經很明顯,作為神無所不知知道,不僅是什麼,而且什麼樣的,應予(道義) ;神聖的忠誠和一致性涉及的道德操守,並沒有任何的虛偽和智慧作出決定,採取行動,對某些完和手段來看,最高的價值觀。 It is not so strange then when we read that the fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge (Prov. 1:7).也不是那麼奇怪,那麼當我們讀到敬畏耶和華,是年初的知識( prov. 1時07分) 。

Ethically, God Is Holy, Righteous, and Loving在倫理上,上帝是神聖的,正義的,熱愛

God is distinct from and transcendent to all his creatures, not only metaphysically and epistemologically, but also morally.上帝是有別於與超越,以他的所有動物,而不是只有形而上學和認識論,而且在道義上。 God is morally spotless in character and action, upright, pure, and untainted with evil desires, motives, thought, words, or acts.上帝是不道德的,一塵不染的性質和行動,一身正氣,純潔性和廉潔自持,與邪惡的慾望,動機,思想,言論,或行為。

God is Holy上帝是神聖的

God is holy, and as such is the source and standard of what is right.上帝是神聖的,正因為如此,是從源頭上和標準什麼是正確的。 God is free from all evil, loves all truth and goodness.上帝是不受一切邪惡,所有熱愛真理和善良。 He values purity and detests impurity and inauthenticity.他的價值觀的純潔性和detests雜質和inauthenticity 。 God cannot approve of any evil, has no pleasure in evil (Ps. 5:4), and cannot tolerate evil (Hab. 1:13).上帝不能批准的任何邪惡,不喜悅邪惡(雅歌5時04分) ,並不能姑息邪惡( hab. 1:13 ) 。 God abhors evil and cannot encourage sin in any way (James 1:13-14).神憎惡邪惡和不能鼓勵單以任何方式(詹姆斯1:13-14 ) 。 Christians do not stand in awe of the holy as an abstraction, but of the Holy One (Isa. 40:25).基督徒不主張敬畏的聖地,作為一種抽象的,而是由聖地之一(以賽亞書40:25 ) 。 The Holy One is not merely an object of emotional fascination, but of intellectual hearing and volitional obedience.聖地之一,不僅是一個對象的情感魅力,但智力聽覺和意志的服從。

Holiness is not solely the product of God's will, but a changeless characteristic of his eternal nature.成聖是並非純粹的產物,上帝的意志為轉移,而是一個固定不變的特點,他的永恆性。 The question Plato asked therefore needs to be reworded to apply to the Christian God: "Is the good good because God wills it? Or does God will it because it is good?"問題柏拉圖問,因此需要改寫,以適用於基督教上帝說: "是很好的一件好事,因為上帝的意志,它還是神將,是因為它是好的" ? The question relates not to God's will or to some principle of goodness above God, but to God's essence.這個問題關乎不是上帝的意志,或一些原則的善良以上上帝,但上帝的本質。 The good, the just, the pure, the holy is holy, not by reason of an arbitrary act of the divine will, nor of a principle independent of God, but because it is an outflow of his nature.良好的,公正,純潔,神聖的,是聖潔的,不因一個任意行事的神意,也沒有一個獨立的原則,上帝的,而是因為它是一個流出他的天性。 God always wills in accord with his nature consistenly.上帝總是在遺囑同他的性consistenly 。 He wills the good because he is good.他的遺囑的好,因為他是好的。 And because God is holy, he consistently hates sin and is repulsed by all evil without respect of persons.因為上帝是聖潔的,他始終痛恨單,並擊退了所有的邪惡,不尊重的人的問題。 The Holy Spirit is called holy not only because as a member of the divine Trinity he shares the holiness of the divine nature, but because the Spirit's distinctive function is to produce holy love in God's redeemed people.聖靈就是所謂的神聖的,這不僅是因為作為一個共產黨員的神聖三一他一樣聖潔的神性,而是因為精神的獨特功能,是製作神聖的愛,在上帝的救贖的人。 We are to seek to be morally spotless in character and action, upright, and righteous like the God we worship.我們正設法在道義上一塵不染,在品格和行動,一身正氣,正義如神,我們崇拜。

God is Just or Righteous上帝是公正或正義

God's justice or righteousness is revealed in his moral law expressing his moral nature and in his judgment, granting to all, in matters of merit, exactly what they deserve.上帝的公義正義,是發現在他的道德律,表達他的道德性,並在他的判斷,給予一切,在事情的好處,正是他們所應得的。 His judgment is not arbitrary or capricious, but principled and without respect of persons.他的判斷是不是任意或反复無常,但有原則和不尊重的人的問題。 OT writers frequently protest the injustice experienced by the poor, widows, orphans, strangers, and the godly.酒店作家頻頻抗議不公正經歷了由窮人,寡婦,孤兒,陌生人,和神聖。 God, in contrast, has pity on the poor and needy (Ps. 72:12-14).上帝,相反,有憐憫貧窮及有需要的(詩篇72:12-14 ) 。 He answers, delivers, revives, acquits, and grants them the justice that is their due.他的回答,故意在復甦, acquits ,並補助他們的正義,這是他們應有的。 In righteousness God delivers the needy from injustice and persecution.在正義的上帝,提供有需要的,從不公正和迫害。 Eventually God will create a new heaven and a new earth in which righteousness will dwell (Isa. 65:17).最終上帝會創造一個新的天堂與一顆新的地球,在正義的力量必將糾纏(以賽亞書65:17 ) 。

God's wrath is revealed as sinners suppress his truth and hold it down in unrighteousness (Rom. 1:18-32), both Jews and Gentiles (Rom. 2:1-3:20).上帝的憤怒,是揭示了作為罪人壓制他的真理和持有它放下,在不正(羅馬書1:18-32 ) ,無論是猶太人和外邦人(羅馬書2:1-3:20 ) 。 In the gospel a righteousness from God is revealed, a righteousness that is by faith from first to last (Rom. 1:17; 3:21).在福音一義由上帝顯示,公義,就是因信,從第一到最後(羅馬書1時17分; 3時21分) 。 Believers are justified freely by God's grace that came by Jesus Christ, who provided the sacrifice of atonement (Rom. 3:24).信徒們有理由對自由,由上帝的恩典來到基督耶穌的,他們提供的犧牲贖罪(羅馬書3點24分) 。 Hence like Abraham, those who are fully persuaded that God can do what he has promised (Rom. 4:21) find their faith credited to them for righteousness (Rom. 4:3, 24).因此像亞伯拉罕,對於那些完全相信上帝可以做什麼,他已經答應(羅馬書4時21分)發現了他們的信仰貸記他們為義(羅馬書4:3 , 24 ) 。 God in his justice graciously provides for the just status of believers in Christ.上帝在他的正義寬宏大量規定,為公正地位的信徒在基督裡。 Righteousness in God is not unrelated to mercy, grace, and love.正義的上帝,是不無憐憫,恩典和愛。

In mercy God withholds or modifies deserved judgment, and in grace God freely gives undeserved benefits to whom he chooses.慈悲上帝扣留或修改當之無愧的判斷,而且在上帝的恩典自如地給毫無道理的好處,其中他選擇。 All of these moral characteristics flow from God's great love.所有這些道德特徵流從上帝的大愛。 In contrast to his transcendent self-existence is his gracious self-giving, agape love.相反,以他超越自我的存在,是他的殷勤自我奉獻,愛德愛。 He who lives forever as holy, high, and lofty also lives with him who is contrite and lowly in spirit (Isa. 57:15).他的人的生命永遠是聖潔的,高,而高尚的生活也與他的人是contrite和卑賤,在精神(以賽亞書57:15 ) 。

It is not that God is lacking something in himself (Acts 17:25), but that God desires to give of himself for the well-being of those loved, in spite of the fact that they are unlovely and undeserving.這並不是說上帝是缺乏的東西在自己(的行為, 17時25分) ,但上帝的慾望付出自己,為市民的福祉那些被愛,儘管事實上他們是unlovely和undeserving 。 God not only loves but is in himself love (1 John 4:8).上帝不僅是愛,而是在自己的愛( 1約翰4點08分) 。

His love is like that of a husband toward his wife, a father toward his son, and a mother toward her unweaned baby.他的愛是一樣的,丈夫對妻子,父親對他的兒子和一位母親對她的unweaned嬰兒。 In love God chose Israel (Deut. 7:7) and predestined believeing members of the church to be adopted as sons through Jesus Christ (Eph. 1:4-5).在愛上帝選擇了以色列(申命記7時07分)和命中註定believeing教會的成員予以採納的兒子透過耶穌基督(以弗所書1:4-5 ) 。 God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life (John 3:16).神愛世人,甚至將他給他唯一的一首兒子說,誰信他的不至滅亡,但有永恆的生命(約翰福音3:16 ) 。

Love cares for the aged, the oppressed, the poor, the orphans, and others in need.愛關懷老人,被壓迫,窮人,孤兒,和其他有需要的。 The loving God of the Bible is not unmoved by people with real needs (or impassible).該愛上帝的聖經是不為之所動的人,與實際需要(或impassible ) 。 The God of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Job, Jeremiah, Jesus, Judas, Peter, and Paul suffered, indeed was long-suffering.亞伯拉罕的神,以撒,雅各,工作,耶利米,耶穌,猶大,彼得,保羅和遭受的,事實上是長期的痛苦。 In empathy God enters through imagination into the feelings of his creatures.在移情神進入通過想像到的感情,他的海洋生物。 Beyond that, God incarnate entered through participation into our temptations and sufferings.除此之外,神肉身進入,透過參與到我們的誘惑和痛苦。 As HW Robinson has said, "The only way in which moral evil can enter into the consciousness of the morally good is as suffering."作為硬件羅賓遜說, "唯一的辦法在道德上的邪惡就可進入意識的道德好,是因為痛苦" 。 In all Israel's afflictions God was afflicted (Isa. 63:9).在所有以色列的苦難上帝是折磨(以賽亞書63:9 ) 。 What meaning can there be, Robinson asks, in a love that is not costly to the lover?什麼意思可以有,羅賓遜要求,在愛情這是不昂貴的情人嗎? The God of the Bible is far from apathetic in regard to the vast suffering of people in the world.神,聖經是遠遠精神萎靡對於廣大的人的痛苦,在世界上。 In love God sent his Son to die that ultimately suffering might be done away and righteousness restored throughout the earth as the waters cover the seas.在愛上帝派他的兒子死亡,最終痛苦可能被取消和正義恢復整個地球作為水域涵蓋公海。

Since love involves commitment for the well-being of others, a responsible commitment, a faithful commitment, it is not classed as primarily emotional.因為愛涉及承諾,為造福他人的,作為一個負責任的承諾,忠實的承諾,這是不被列為主要是情緒化。 Love is settled purpose of will involving the whole person in seeking the well-being of others.愛情是定居的目的,將涉及整個人在謀求福祉等。

Emotionally, God Detests Evil, Is Long-suffering, Compassionate在情感上,上帝detests邪惡的,是長期的痛苦,值得同情

AH Strong says God is devoid of passion and caprice.啊強說,上帝是缺乏激情和反复無常。 Indeed God is devoid of caprice, injustice, or emotions out of control.的確,神是空洞的反复無常,不公正,或情緒失控。 We have earlier sought to negate any passions unworthy of God.我們早前試圖否定任何激情辜負上帝。 Strong rightly adds, there is in God no selfish anger.堅強正確地補充說,有上帝,沒有自私的憤怒。 However, God is personal and ethical, and both senses call for healthy emotions or passions.不過,上帝是個人道德的,雙方理智呼籲健康的情緒或情感。 One who delights in justice, righteousness, and holiness for the well-being of his creatures can only be repulsed by the injustice, unrighteousness, and corruption that destroys their bodies, minds, and spirits.一個人的愉悅,在公正,公義,和聖潔,為市民的福祉,他的動物只能擊退由不公,不正和腐敗,破壞了他們的屍體,博大的胸懷,飽滿的精神狀態。 Hence the Bible frequently speaks of God's righteous indignation at evil.因此聖經中經常提到上帝的義憤邪惡。 Righteous indignation is anger aroused, not by being overcome by emotions selfishly but by injustice and all the works of fallen "flesh."義憤是憤怒引起,而不是由被克服情緒自私,而是由非正義和全部工程塌的"肉" 。 God detests evil.上帝detests邪惡。

Jesus and the Scriptures in general speak more often of God's wrath at injustices such as persistent mistreatment of the poor and needy than of love and heaven.耶穌會念經一般多講一些常上帝的憤怒,在不公正,例如持久性虐待的窮人和貧苦的愛情和天堂。 Although the Lord is slow to anger, he will in no way leave the guilty unpunished, but will pour out his fury upon them (Nah. 1:3).雖然主是緩慢的憤怒,他絕不會離開有罪者逍遙法外,而且會傾訴他的憤怒後,他們( nah. 1:3 ) 。 None can withstand his indignation, which is poured out like fire and shatters rocks before him (Nah. 1:6).沒有人能夠經受住他的憤慨,這是傾注了像消防和粉碎的岩石在他面前( nah. 1時06分) 。 Apart from understanding God's wrath against evil, it is impossible to understand the extent of divine love in the incarnation, the extent of Christ's suffering on the cross, the propitiatory nature of his sacrifice, the prophetic Scriptures speaking of the great day of God's wrath, the great tribulation, or the book of Revelation.除了了解上帝的憤怒,反對邪惡,這是無法理解的程度,神愛的化身,其範圍基督在十字架上的痛苦, propitiatory性質的,他的犧牲,先知書經文談到這個偉大的日子,上帝的憤怒,偉大的磨難,還是這本書的啟示。

God is patient and long-suffering.上帝是耐心和長期的痛苦。 Properly jealous for the well-being of the objects of his love, God is angry at injustice done to them but suffers without losing heart.適當的妒忌,為造福的對象,他的愛,上帝是氣憤,不公平行為,以他們,但患有無虧損的心。 Long-suffering with evildoers God, without condoning their sin, graciously provides them with undeserved temporal and spiritual benefits.長期遭受苦難與惡神,沒有寬恕他們的罪過,慷慨地為他們提供毫無道理的時間和精神效益。 God promised the land to Abraham, but the iniquity of the Amorites was not yet full (Gen. 15:16).上帝許諾的土地,以亞伯拉罕的,但不公平的amorites尚未充分(創15:16 ) 。 After over four hundred years of long-suffering restraint God in the fullness of time allowed the armies of Israel to bring just judgment upon the Amorites' wickedness.經過四百年的長期受苦受難的克制,上帝在豐滿的時候,讓兩軍的以色列實現公正判決後, amorites '說著什麼。 Later Israel worshipped the golden calf and deserved divine judgment like other idolators.後來以色列崇拜金犢和當之無愧的神聖判斷像其他idolators 。 But God revealed himself at the second giving of the law as "the Lord, the Lord, a God merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love and faithfulness" (Exod. 34:6).但上帝發現自己在第二次給予該法的"主啊,主啊,是上帝仁慈大方,緩慢的憤怒,並abounding在堅定的愛與忠誠" ( exod. 34:6 ) 。 The Psalmist could write, "But Thou, O Lord, art a God merciful and gracious, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love and faithfulness" (Ps. 86:15).詩人可以寫" ,但是,主啊,藝術是上帝仁慈大方,緩慢的憤怒和abounding在堅定的愛與忠誠" (詩篇86:15 ) 。 However, the day of God's grace has an end.然而,這一天上帝的恩典已結束。 Eventually, without respect of persons, God's just judgment fell upon Israel for its pervasive evils.最終,如果沒有尊重的人,上帝的公正判斷下跌後,以色列為它無孔不入的邪惡。 God's long-suffering is a remarkable virtue, but it does not exclude or contradict God's justice.上帝的長期受苦的是一個了不起的美德,但它並不排斥或矛盾,上帝的公義。

Although theologians in the Thomistic tradition have taught the impassibility of God, the Scriptures do not hesitate to call God compassionate.雖然神學家在thomistic傳統,有教授impassibility的神,誦經不要再猶豫,請上帝富有同情心。 Because of his great love we are not consumed, for his compassions never fail (Lam. 3:22).因為他的大愛,我們都沒有消耗,因為他的compassions從未失敗( lam. 3時22分) 。 Even after Israel's captivity God will again have compassion on her (Mic. 7:19).即使在以色列的圈養上帝將再次有同情她( mic. 7時19分) 。 The God of the Bible is not an apathetic God, but one who deeply cares when the sparrow falls.上帝的聖經,是不是精神萎靡上帝,但一個人深深關懷時,麻雀會跌倒。 Jesus beautifully displayed this divine-human compassion for the hungry (Matt. 15:32), the blind (Matt. 20:34), the sorrowing (Luke 7:13).耶穌精美展示這個神聖的人類同情心救濟饑民。 ( 15:32 ) ,失明。 ( 20時34分) , sorrowing (路加福音7時13分) 。 And Jesus taught the importance of compassion in the account of the good Samaritan (Luke 10:33) and that of the father's concern for his lost son (Luke 15:20).耶穌教導的重要性,同情心,在該帳戶的好撒瑪利亞人(路10:33 ) ,而且對父親的關心,他失去了兒子(路加福音15:20 ) 。

The incarnate Christ felt what humans feel in all respects but did not yield to the temptations involved.肉身的基督感受到什麼人覺得在各方面,但沒有屈服於誘惑。 As God in literal human experience, Jesus wept with those who wept and rejoiced with those who rejoiced.因為上帝在字面上的人的經驗,耶穌哭那些哭泣,並高興地與那些歡欣鼓舞。 He remembered the joyful glory he had with the Father before the foundation of the world (John 17:5, 13).他想起了歡樂的榮耀,他與父親前立黨之本,世界(約翰17時05分, 13 ) 。 The divine-human author of our salvation, however, was made perfect or complete through suffering in this life (Heb. 2:10).神聖的人類作者的我們的拯救,但是,取得了完美的或完全通過苦難在這人生(希伯來書2時10分) 。 Because he himself suffered, he can help those who suffer and are tempted (Heb. 2:18).因為他本人受到損害,他可以幫助那些受苦,是誘惑(希伯來書2時18分) 。 The God revealed in Jesus Christ is no apathetic, uninvolved, impersonal first cause.神顯示在耶穌基督裡,沒有對政治漠不關心,不聞不問,客觀的第一個原因。 The Father who Jesus disclosed is deeply moved by everything that hurts his children.父親耶穌透露,是深受感動的一切,傷害了他的孩子們。

Existentially, God Is Free, Authentic, and Omnipotent. existentially ,上帝是免費的,真實的,無所不能。 The modern concerns for freedom, authenticity, fulfilment should not be limited to mankind.現代關注,對自由,真實性,履行不應僅限於人類。 Biblical writers seem even more concerned that God be understood to be free, authentic, and fulfilled.聖經的作家似乎更關注的是上帝被理解為自由,真實,並完成了。

God is Free上帝是免費

From all eternity God is not conditioned by anything other than himself contrary to his purposes.從所有永恆的,神是不受制於任何事情,除了自己違背了他的目的。 Good things, as we have seen, are purposed with divine pleasure and enduement.好東西,我們已經看到,移作它是與神的喜悅和enduement 。 Evil things are permitted with divine displeasure.邪惡的東西是不允許與神的不悅之情。 But God is self-determined, either way.但神是自我決定的,無論哪種方式。 Self-determination is that concept of freedom which emphasizes that personal thought, feeling, and volition are not determined by external factors but by one's self.自決權是自由的概念,強調個人的思維,感覺和意志是不取決於外部因素,而是由一個人的自我。

God is not free to approve sin, to be unloving, to be unwise, to ignore the hard facts of reality, to be unfaithful to what is or ought to be, to be uncompassionate or unmerciful.上帝不是免費審批單,以unloving ,是不明智的,無視事實的實際出發,將不忠究竟是什麼,或應該是,以uncompassionate或unmerciful 。 God cannot deny himself.上帝不能否定自己。 God is free to be himself, his personal, eternal, living, intellectual, ethical, emotional, volitional self.上帝是免費將自己的,他個人的,永恆的,生活,思想,道德,情感,意志自律。

God is authentic, authentically himself上帝是真實的,真實自己

The God who in Christ so unalterably opposed hyprocrisy is himself no hypocrite.上帝在基督裡,所以堅決反對hyprocrisy是自己沒有偽君子。 We have emphasized his intellectual integrity or faithfulness above.我們已強調他的智力完整或忠貞以上。 Here we emphasize his integrity ethically, emotionally, and existentially.在這裡,我們強調他的誠信的道德上,情感上,和existentially 。 God is self-conscious, knows who he is and what his purposes are (1 Cor. 2:11).上帝是自我意識的,也知道他是誰和他有什麼用途( 1肺心病。 2,11 ) 。 He has a keen sense of identity, meaning, and purpose.他有一個敏銳的認同感,意義和宗旨。

God knows that he is the ultimate being, that there are in reality none to compare with him.上帝才知道他是最終的,有在現實中無以比擬的。 In calling upon people to turn from idols, therefore, God in no way is asking something of us not in accord with reality.在呼籲的人,以從偶像,所以,上帝絕不是要求的東西,我們不符合現實。 In steadfastly opposing idolatry he seeks to protect people from ultimate concerns destined to disillusion and disappoint.在堅定不移地反對偶像崇拜,他的目的是保護人們免受終極關切注定幻滅和失望。 God desires our worship for our sakes, that we not succumb eventually to despair as one after another of our finite gods lets us down.上帝的慾望,我們崇拜的是為了我們好,我們不會屈服,最終絕望,因為一個又一個的,我們有限的神,讓我們失望。

In the next place, God is omnipotent (Mark 14:36; Luke 1:37).在未來的地方,上帝是萬能的(馬克14:36 ;路加1時37分) 。 God is able to do whatever he wills in the way in which he wills it.上帝是能夠為所欲為,他在遺囑的方式,其中他的遺囑。 God does not choose to do anything contrary to his nature of wisdom and holy love.上帝不選擇做任何違背他的本性的智慧和神聖的愛。 God cannot deny himself, and God does not choose to do everything by his own immediate agency without intermediate angelic and human agents.上帝不能否定自己,上帝不選擇盡一切由他自己的切身機構,沒有中間天使和人的代理人。 Although God determines some things to come to pass unconditionally (Isa. 14:24-27), most events in history are planned conditionally, through the obedience of people or their permitted disobedience to divine precepts (II Chr. 7:14; Luke 7:30; Rom. 1:24).雖然上帝決定了一些東西,來通過無條件(以賽亞書14:24-27 ) ,大多數的事件在歷史上是有計劃,有條件通過順從的人或其允許的抗命,以神聖的戒律(二人權委員會。 7時14分;盧克七日: 30 ;光碟。 1:24 ) 。 In any case, God's eternal purposes for history are not frustrated, but fulfilled in the way he chose to accomplish them (Eph. 1:11).在任何情況下,上帝的永恆宗旨,為歷史,是不會受到阻撓,但在實現方式,他選擇了完成這些任務(以弗所書1時11分) 。

God has not only the strength to effect all his purposes in the way in which he purposes them, but also the authority in the entire realm of his kingdom to do what he will.上帝已不僅是實力的影響,他的目的在以何種方式,他的目的,而且還要求當局在整個境界,他的王國做他的意願。 God is not a subject of another's dominion, but is King or Lord of all.上帝是不是受他人支配,但國王或所有的人的主。 By virtue of all his other attributes, his wisdom, justice, and love, for example, God is fit for the ruling of all that he created and sustains.憑藉他的所有其他屬性,他的智慧,正義和仁愛,舉例來說,上帝是適合於執政黨的全部,他創造和維持。 God is a wise, holy, and gracious sovereign.上帝是一個明智的,是聖潔的,並殷勤主權。 As just, the power of God itself cannot punish sinners more than they deserve.剛才,有上帝的力量本身不能懲治罪人超過他們應得的。 To whom much is given, of him much shall be required; to whom little is given, of him little shall be required.人多是給予,他的很多均須;向誰少,給出了他的小均須。 But in the bestowing of undeserved benefits and gifts God is free to dispense them as he pleases (Ps. 135:6).但在賜予的毫無道理的好處和禮品上帝是免費的,以免除他們,因為他我行我素(詩篇135:6 ) 。 Having permitted sin, God is great enough to limit its furious passions and to overrule it for greater good, as at Calvary (Acts 4:24-28).經許可單,真主是偉大的,足以限制其瘋狂熱情和推翻它更大良好,截至calvary (使徒4:24-28 ) 。 God can defeat the nations and demonic hosts that rage against him.上帝能打敗國和惡魔般的主機憤怒反對他。 No one can exist independent of divine sovereignty.任何人都不能獨立存在的神聖主權。 The attempt to go one's own way independent of God is sinful insolence on the part of creatures who in him live and move and have their being.試圖去一個人的以自己的方式獨立的,神是罪孽深重的狂悖對部分動物的人對他的生活和舉措,並把他們的福祉。 Only a fool could say that there is no God, when God sustains the breath the atheist uses to deny divine dominion over him.只有傻瓜,可以說是沒有上帝時,上帝維持呼吸的無神論者用途否認神的統治。

Relationally, God Is Transcendent in Being, Immanent Universally in Providential Activity, and Immanent with His People in Redemptive Activity relationally ,上帝是超越性,在正,上蒼普遍在天賜活動,而內在與他的人民在救贖活動

As transcendent, God is uniquely other than everything in creation.作為超然,上帝是獨一無二以外的一切,創造了這一切。 God's distinctness from the being of the world has been implied in previous discussions of God's attributes metaphysically, intellectually, ethically, emotionally, and existentially.上帝的區別,從目前的世界已經隱含在以前的討論中的上帝的屬性形而上學的,在理智上,道德上,情感上,和existentially 。 God is "hidden" relationally because so great in all these other ways.上帝是"隱性" relationally因為如此之大,在所有這些其他的方式。 God's being is eternal, the world's temporal.上帝的,是永恆的,世界各地的時間。 God's knowledge is total, human knowledge incomplete.上帝的知識是總,人的認識也殘缺不全。 God's character is holy, humanity's character fallen and sinful.上帝的性格是神聖的,人道的性格墜落和有罪的。 God's desires are consistently against evil yet long-suffering and compassionate; human desires fluctuate inconsistently and often intermingle evil with the good.上帝的慾望卻是一貫反對邪惡,但長期的痛苦和富有同情心;人欲波動不一致,並經常互邪惡與好的方向發展。 God's energy is untiring and inexhaustible; the world's energy is subject to depletion through entropy.上帝的能源是不知疲倦和取之不盡,用之不竭的;世界上的能源是受枯竭通過熵。 Hence God is over and above persons in the world in all these respects.因此,神是超越人,在世界上,在所有這些方面。

The incomparable divine transcendence involves a radical dualism between God and the world that ought not be blurred by a resurgent monism and pantheism.無比神聖的超越性,涉及一個激進二元神和世界之間,應該也是無法模糊的一個回潮的一元論與泛神論。 Although made like God and in the divine image, mankind is not (like Christ) begotten of God or an emanation from God of the same divine nature.雖然取得了像上帝和神聖的形象,對人類是不是(像基督)造物主的神或洩漏來自上帝的相同的神性。 The ultimate goal of salvation is not reabsorption into the being of God but unbroken fellowship with God.最終目標的救恩是不能再吸收到目前的上帝,但從未間斷團契與上帝。 The unity Christians seek is not a metaphysical unity with God but a relational unity, a oneness of mind, desire, and will.團結基督徒所尋求的是不是一個形而上的團結與上帝,但在關係團結,同一性的態度,慾望和意志。 To seek to be as God in a biblical perspective is not deeper spirituality but rebellious idolatry or blasphemy.設法得到,因為神在聖經的角度來看,是不是更深的靈性,但叛逆偶像崇拜或褻瀆。 Christians may respect nature as a divine creation but not worship nature as divine.基督徒五月尊重大自然作為一個神聖的創造,而不是崇拜自然神。 Christians may respect the founders of the world's religions but cannot bow to any guru as the divine manifest in human form.基督徒可能尊重的締造者世界宗教的,但不能屈服於任何大師作為神聖體現在人類形式。 Only Jesus Christ is from above; all others are from below (John 8:23).只有耶穌基督是由以上;其他全都是從下面(約翰8時23分) 。 Because God is separate from the world, Christians cannot bow to any earthly power as God, whether that power be economic, political, religious, scientific, educational, or cultural.因為上帝是脫離世界,基督徒不能屈服於任何人間的權力當作上帝,不管這種力量是經濟,政治,宗教,科學,教育,文化等。 The inestimable benefit of bowing to a transcendent Lord of all is that it frees one from every finite, fallen tyranny.不可估量的利益屈從於一個超越所有的人的主,是它釋放一名來自每一個有限的,塌暴政。

A biblical theist not only believes that the one, living God is separate from the world, as against pantheism and panentheism, but also that God is continuously active throughout the world providentially, in contrast to deism.一個聖經者不僅認為,一個,活著的上帝是脫離世界,因為對泛神論和panentheism ,但也相信上帝是不斷地活躍在世界各地的providentially ,形成對比的自然神論。 God is not so exalted that he cannot know, love, or relate to natural law in the world of everyday experience.上帝是不那麼崇高的,他可以不知道,愛,或涉及到自然法,在世界上的日常經驗。 A study of divine providence as taught in Scripture shows that God sustains, guides, and governs all that he created.一項研究是神聖的,因為教經文表明神支撐,指南和管了所有他一手製造的。 The nature psalms reflect upon God's activity in relation to every aspect of the earth, the atmosphere, vegetation, and animal (eg, Ps. 104).性質詩篇反映後,神的活動有關的各個方面,地球,大氣,植被和動物(如聚苯乙烯104 ) 。 God also preserves and governs human history, judging corrupt societies and blessing the just and the unjust with temporal benefits like the sunshine, rain, food and drink.上帝也保留了,執政是人類歷史上來看,腐敗的社會和祝福公正和不公正顳好處,如陽光,雨,食品和飲品。 Through God's universal providential activity the cosmos holds together and his wise purposes of common grace are achieved.透過上帝的普遍天賜活動宇宙擱置起來,他的明智的目的,共同的恩典得以實現。

But God is immanent in the lives of his people who repent of their sin and live by faith to accomplish the goals of his redemptive grace.但上帝是內在的,在其人民的生命懺悔自己的罪過和生活信念,為完成目標,他救贖的恩典。 "For this is what the high and lofty One says, he who lives forever, whose name is holy; I live in a high and holy place, but also with him who is contrite and lowly in spirit, to revive the spirit of the lowly and to revive the heart of the contrite" (Isa. 57:15). "這是什麼高級和高尚的人說,他的生命永遠,他的名字是神聖的,我生活在一個高和神聖的地方,而且也與他的人是contrite和卑賤,在精神,使之重振精神卑微並恢復心臟的contrite " (以賽亞書57:15 ) 。 Just as persons may be present to one another in varying degrees, God may be present to the unjust in one sense and to the just in a richer way.正如人,可現在對另外一個人在不同程度上,上帝,可現在到不公正的,在某種意義來說,並剛剛在一個較富裕的途徑。 A person may simply be present as another rider on a bus, or much more significantly as a godly mother who has prayed daily for you all of your life.一個人可能只是作為當前和另一騎一輛公共汽車,或更為顯著作為一個母親的神聖,他們已經每天祈禱,為你所有你的生活。 God is graciously present in forgiving love with the converted, who by faith have been propitiated, reconciled, and redeemed by Christ's precious blood.上帝是仁慈目前在包容與愛與轉換,他們的信仰已經propitiated ,重新修好,並贖回基督的寶血。 They become his people, he becomes their God.他們成了他的人,他成了他們的神。 God dwells in them as his holy place or temple.上帝整篇都在他們為他的神聖的地方,或廟。 The relational oneness of thoughts, desires, and purposes grows through the years.關聯同一性的思想,慾望和目的的成長經過多年的。 That unity is shared by other members of Christ's body who are gifted to build each other up to become progressively more like the God they worship, not metaphysically, but intellectually, ethically, emotionally, and existentially.團結就是共享其他成員的基督身體的人都是天才,以互相建立,以逐步成為更象神,他們崇拜,而不是形而上學的,但在理智上,道德上,情感上,和existentially 。

Summary摘要

In summary, God is a living, personal Spirit worthy of whole-soul adoration and trust (because of his many perfect attributes), separate from the world, and yet continously active in the world.總之,上帝是一個有生命,個人的精神值得全靈魂崇拜和信任, (因為他的許多完美的屬性) ,分別來自世界各地,然而,不斷活躍於世界各地。

Unlimited by space, God nevertheless created and sustains the cosmos, scientific laws, geographical and political boundaries.無限空間,但上帝創造和維繫著宇宙,科學規律,地理和政治的界限。

Beyond time, God nevertheless actively relates to time, to each human life, home, city, nation, and to human history in general.以後的時間,上帝不過積極關乎時間,以每個人的生命,家庭,城市,我們的民族,以及對人類歷史上的一般問題。

Transcendent to discursive knowledge and conceptual truth, God nevertheless intelligently relates to propositional thought and verbal communication, objective validity, logical consistency, factual reliability, coherence and clarity, as well as subjective authenticity and existential integrity.超然以話語的知識與概念的真理,上帝不過是理智關乎命題思想和語言交際的,客觀的有效性,邏輯一致,事實的可靠性,一致性和清晰度,以及主觀的真實性和存在的完整性。

Unlimited by a body, God is nevertheless providentially related to physical power in nature and society, industrially, agriculturally, socially, and politically.無限是由一個機構,上帝不過providentially與有形的權力,在自然與社會,工業,農業,社會和政治上。 God knows and judges human stewardship in the use of all the earth's energy resources.天曉得和法官的人的指導,在使用的所有地球的能源資源。

God transcends every attempt to achieve justice in the world, but righteously relates to every good endeavor of his creatures personally, economically, socially, academically, religiously, and politically.上帝是超越一切的嘗試,以實現正義,在世界上,但理直氣壯地涉及到每一個很好的奮鬥,他的動物,我個人來說,在經濟,社會,學術,宗教,政治建設。

Although free from unworthy and uncontrolled emotions, God is caringly related to the poor, the unfortunate, the lonely, the sorrowing, the sick, the victims of prejudice, injustice, anxiety, and despair.雖然免費,從卑微的和不受控制的情感,上帝是caringly與窮人,不幸的,孤獨的, sorrowing ,患病者,受害者的偏見,不公平,焦慮和絕望。

Beyond all the apparent meaninglessness and purposelessness of human existence, God personally gives significance to the most insignificant life.超越一切顯然意義和purposelessness人類存在的,神親自賦予的意義,以最微不足道的生活。

GR Lewis遺傳資源劉易斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
H. Bavinck, The Doctrine of God; D. Bloesch, Essentials of Evangelical Theology; JM Boice, The Sovereign God; E. Brunner, The Christian Doctrine of God; JO Buswell, Jr., A Systematic Theology of the Christian Religion; LS Chafer, Systematic Theology; S. Charnock, The Existence and Attributes of God; CFH Henry, God, Revelation and Authority, 4 vols.; J. Lawson, Comprehensive Handbook of Christian Doctrine; GR Lewis, "Categories in Collision?"每小時巴文克,這個學說的上帝;四bloesch ,本色的基督教神學; jm卜易士,主權上帝;體育布蘭,基督教教義的上帝;若buswell前些日子,有系統神學的基督教信仰;最小二乘金龜子的,有系統的神學;第charnock ,存在和屬性的人; cfh亨利,上帝的啟示和權威, 4卷的J.勞森系統的,全面的手冊中的基督教教義遺傳資源劉易斯, "類別中的碰撞" ? in Perspectives on Evangelical Theology, ed.在對福音派神學,教育署。 K. Kantzer and S. Gundry; GR Lewis, Decide for Yourself: A Theological Workbook and Testing Christianity's Truth Claims; JI Packer, Knowing God; WW Stevens, Doctrines of the Christian Religion; AH Strong, Systematic Theology; H. Thielicke, The Evangelical Faith, 2 vols.; OC Thomas, Introduction to Theology; AW Tozer, Knowledge of the Holy; HO Wiley, Christian Theology, I. k. kantzer和嗜岡德里;遺傳資源劉易斯,可自行決定自己:神學作業簿和測試基督教的真理債權;紀封隔器,明知上帝;第一次世界大戰史蒂文斯,教條的基督教信仰;啊強烈的,有系統的神學;每小時thielicke ,福音派信仰, 2卷;胡椒托馬斯介紹神學;胡tozer ,知識的聖地;何出版社,基督教神學,一。


Doctrine of God教義的上帝

Advanced Information - III 先進的信息-三

The most fundamental teaching of the Bible and Christian theology is that God exists and is ultimately in control of the universe.最根本的教學中的聖經和基督教神學是上帝存在,並最終控制了宇宙。 This is the foundation on which all Christian theologizing is built.這是基礎,對所有的基督教神學化的基礎。

The Biblical Concept of God聖經中神的觀念

Existence存在

Questions concerning the reality of God are not discussed in the Scriptures; his existence is everywhere assumed.問題的現實,是上帝沒有討論會念經,他的存在是無處不在假設。 The opening passage which reveals God as Creator and Sovereign of heaven and earth sets the pattern for the remainder of the Bible in which God is viewed as foundational for a view of life and the world.開幕式通道,從而揭示了作為上帝的創造者和享有主權的天地間套模式,為剩餘的聖經中,上帝被認為是基礎為對生命的看法和世界。 The biblical question is therefore not does God exist, but who is God?聖經中的問題,因此,這並非沒有上帝存在,但誰是上帝?

The Scriptures do recognize the existence of a professed atheism.聖經中的確認識存在著一個自稱無神論。 But such atheism is considered primarily a moral rather than an intellectual problem.但這種無神論被認為是主要是一個道德,而不是一個智力問題。 The fool who denies God (Ps. 14:1) does so not from philosophical reasons (which are, in any case, incapable of disproving the absolute except by affirming such), but from the practical supposition that he can live without considering God (Ps. 10:4).傻子,他們否認神(詩篇14時01分) ,這樣做是不是從哲學上的原因(這是在任何情況下,不能否定絕對除申明這樣的) ,但是從實際的假設他能活而不考慮神(聚苯乙烯。 10:4 ) 。 The Scriptures also recognize the possibility of a willful and therfore culpable "suppressing" of the knowledge of God (Rom. 1:18).聖經中也承認,可能會引發恣意和下方應受譴責, "打壓"的知識的神(羅馬書1:18 ) 。

Knowledge of God認識神

According to the Scriptures, God is known only through his self-revelation.據聖經中,上帝是眾所周知的,只有通過他的自我啟示。 Apart from his initiative in disclosing himself God could not be known by man.除了他的倡導下,在公開自己的上帝不能被稱為是由男子。 Human attempts to reason to God by various means, including the so-called proofs of God, while they can provide evidence for the need fo a god, do not yet attain to the knowledge of the true God (cf. I Cor. 1:21 a).人類企圖理由神,以各種手段,包括所謂的證明上帝,而他們能夠提供的證據,需要有一個上帝,還沒有達到以知識的真神(參見林前1 : 21 ) 。 Limited to the realm of creation, whether external nature or human subjective experience, man is incapable of reasoning to a valid knowledge of the transcendent Creator.限於境界的創作,無論是外部性質的或人為的主觀經驗,人是無法推理的一個有效的知識超越造物主。 God alone knows himself and discloses himself to whom he wills by his spirit (I Cor. 2:10-11).只有上帝知道自己和披露自己的人,他的遺囑,由他的精神(我肺心病。 2:10 ) 。 As the subject of his revelation God at the same time makes himself the object of human knowledge so that man can know him truly.由於受他的啟示神在同一時間,使自己的目的,人類的知識,使人類可以了解他的真正。

God has also revealed something of himself in his creation and preservation of the universe (Rom. 1:20), and to the extent that human reason yields a concept of a god it is undoubtedly related to this general or natural revelation.上帝也暴露出一些自己在他的創作和保存的宇宙(羅馬書1:20 ) ,並擴及人類理性收益率的概念,是上帝,這無疑是與此相關的一般或自然流露。 But the entrance of sin and its alienating effect blinds man from truly seeing God through this means (Rom. 1:18; Eph. 4:18).但入口處的罪惡和疏遠,其效果百葉窗男子從真正目睹了上帝通過這一手段(羅馬書1:18 ;以弗所書4時18分) 。 Moreover, the Bible indicates that even prior to the fall man's knowledge of God was derived not solely from the creation surrounding him, but from a direct personal communication with God.此外,聖經表明,即使事先向屬於人的知識的上帝導出不能僅僅從創作周圍他的意思,但由個人直接溝通與上帝。

While God communicates himself to man through a variety of means, including actions and words, human knowledge is fundamentally a conceptual matter and therefore the Word is the primary means of God's revelation.而神傳達自己的人通過各種手段,包括行動和換句話說,人類的知識基本上是一個概念性問題,所以這個詞是首要的是指上帝的啟示。 Even his actions are not left as mute works but are accompanied by the interpretive Word to give their true meaning.連他的行動並沒有離開,因為靜音工程,但伴之以詮釋字,讓他們真正的意思。 The revelation of God climaxed in the person of Jesus Christ, who was not simply the bearer of the revelatory Word of God as were all who spoke God's Word prior to his coming, but the personal divine Word.啟示上帝的高潮,在人的耶穌基督,他們不只是簡單的持票人的啟示上帝的話,因為都是人以神的話語之前,他的到來,但個人神聖的字眼。 In him "all the fullness of deity" dwelt in bodily form (Col. 2:9).在他的" ,所有的豐滿的神"白景富在身體形態(上校2時09分) 。 Thus in his work as Creator and Redeemer and through his words, God makes himself known to man.因此,在他的工作作為創建者和救贖主,並通過他的話,上帝能使自己知道的人。

The revelation of God does not totally exhaust his being and activity.啟示上帝不完全的廢氣,他正在和活動。 He remains the incomprehensible one that man cannot totally fathom, both in his essence and ways (Job 36:26; Isa. 40:13, 28; cf. Deut. 29:29).他依然是難以理解的是一個人不能完全量度,無論是在他的本質和方法(職務36:26 ;伊薩。 40:13 , 28條;比照deut 。 29:28 ) 。 Finitude cannot comprehend infinity, nor can human thought patterns, which are associated with the created environment, completely grasp the transcendent realm of God.有限性,不能領悟無窮,也不可能人類的思考模式,這是與創造的環境中,完全掌握超然境界神。

On the basis of this limitation of human reason modern rationalism has at times argued for the unknowability of God.在此基礎上限制人類理性的現代理性主義過去有時會辯稱,為unknowability的上帝。 Man's knowledge is said to be limited to the world of human experience, thus excluding the knowledge of a transcedent God.人的知識是說,僅限於世界的人的經驗,從而排除了知識的一個transcedent上帝。 Such an equation of the incomprehensibility of God with unknowability is valid only on the premise that man's knowledge of God is derived through human reason.這種方程的incomprehensibility上帝與unknowability僅適用於前提,即人的知識的上帝是源自透過人的理智。 But the incomprehensible God of the Scriptures is the God who reaches out to man with the revelation of himself.但令人費解的神聖經是上帝的人達到了人類與啟示自己。 The knowledge thus derived, although limited according to his good pleasure, is nevertheless a true knowledge of his being and work.有關知識,從而衍生,儘管是有限的,據他好高興,不過是一個真實的了解,他正在與工作。

In giving us a knowledge of himself God gives his Word a finite form compatible with human creatureliness.在給我們一個認識自己的上帝給了他的字一個有限的形式符合人的creatureliness 。 Despite this necessary accommodation to the limitations of human understanding, the revealed knowledge of God is nevertheless an authentic knowledge of God.儘管有此需要住宿的局限性,人與人之間的相互諒解,揭示了知識的上帝卻是一個真實的認識神。 Theories which use the difference between God and man to deny the possibility of a genuine communication of true knowledge do not do justice to at least two biblical facts: (1) the truth that God created man in his own image, which certainly includes a likeness sufficient for communication; (2) the omnipotence of God, which implies that he can make a creature to whom he can truthfully reveal himself if he so wills.理論使用區別人與上帝否認可能會引發真正的溝通真正的知識,不正義,以至少有兩個聖經的事實: ( 1 )一條真理:上帝創造了人,在他自己的形象,這當然包括一個形似充分溝通; ( 2 )全能的上帝,這意味著他可以作出造物的人,他能如實地揭示了自己的話,給他的遺囑。 To be sure, there remains a hiddenness in relation to the total comprehension of God.可以肯定的是,仍有hiddenness關係到總能力的上帝。 But God himself does not remain hidden, for he has given true though partial knowledge of himself through self-revelation understandable to man.但上帝不留隱患,因為他給了真實,雖然部分知識,通過自己的自我啟示可以理解的人。

The nature of our knowledge of God has been the subject of much discussion in Christian theology.性質認識上帝一直受到了很多討論,在基督教神學。 Some have emphasized the negative character of our knowledge, eg, God is infinite, nontemporal, incorporeal.有的強調負面性格就我們所知,例如,上帝是無限的, nontemporal ,無形資產。 Others, notably Aquinas, have advocated an analogical knowledge that is similar to God's knowledge and yet dissimilar because of his infinite greatness.其他人,尤其是阿奎那,都主張一個類比知識就是類似上帝的知識,但不同的是因為他的無限偉大。 Suffice it to say that even the negative (such as infinite) conveys a positive concept of greatness, and, while the position of analogy may be used to acknowledge a distinction in depth and breadth of understanding, there is finally a sense in which man's knowledge of divine things is the same as God's.足以說明問題,甚至否定(例如無限) ,傳達了一個積極的概念偉大,而地位的比喻可能被用來承認有區別,在深度和廣度的了解,現時終於某種意義上說,在這名男子的知識神聖的東西是相同的,因為神的。 For if man does not know God's meaning, he does not know the true meaning.因為如果人不知道上帝的意思,他不知道真正的意義。 Interestingly, the Scriptures view the problem of a true knowledge of God as moral rather than noetic.有趣的是,聖經的觀點的問題,真正的知識上帝的道義,而不是思維。

Definition of God定義上帝

From the biblical viewpoint it is generally agreed that it is impossible to give a strict definition of the idea of God.從聖經的觀點,大家普遍認為,這是不可能給予嚴格定義的上帝觀。 Defining, which means limiting, involves the inclusion of the object within a certain class or known universal and the indication of its distinguishing features from other objects in that same class.界定,這意味著限制,還牽涉列入該物體在某一個階級或已知的普遍性和適應症,其特色鮮明,從其他物體在同一班。 Since the biblical God is unique and incomparable (Isa. 40:25), there is no universal abstract category of the divine.自聖經中,神是獨特和無法比擬的(以賽亞書40:25 ) ,不存在普遍的抽象範疇的神聖。 Studies in comparative religions reveal that "god" is, in fact, conceived in the most different ways.研究比較宗教透露, "神" ,實際上是在構思中的最不同的方法。 Attempts to provide a general definition that encompasses all concepts of the divine, such as Anselm's "that than which nothing greater is conceivable," or "the supreme Being," do not convey much of the specific characteristics of the God of Scripture.試圖提供一個一般的定義,即包含了所有的概念,神聖的,如anselm的" ,這比什麼更大可以想像的是, "或"最高人民法院正在" ,不傳達很多具體特點神的經文。 Instead of a general definition of God, therefore, the Bible presents descriptions of God as he has revealed himself.而不是一個籠統的定義上帝,因此,聖經介紹說明上帝的,因為他暴露了自己。 These are conveyed through express statements as well as through the many names by which God identifies himself.這些都是轉達直通特快報表以及通過很多名字,其中神認同。 Fundamental to the nature of God, according to the biblical description, are the truths that he is personal, spiritual, and holy.根本,以天主的本性,根據聖經中的描述,是真理,他是個人的,精神和神聖的。

God Is Personal上帝是個人

Over against any abstract neutral metaphysical concept, the God of Scripture is first and foremost a personal being.超過對抽象的中立形而上的概念,上帝的經文首先是一個個人的福祉。 He reveals himself by names, especially the great personal name Yahweh (cf. Exod. 3:13-15; 6:3; Isa. 42:8).他透露自己的名字,尤其是偉大的個人的名義雅威(參見exod 。 3:13-15 ;選手;伊薩。 42:8 ) 。 He knows and wills self-consciously in accord with our concept of personality (I Cor. 2:10-11; Eph. 1:11).他知道和遺囑自覺地在與我們的理念的個性(我肺心病。 2:10 ;以弗所書1時11分) 。 The centrality of God's personality is seen in the fact that while he is the Creator and Preserver of all nature, he is encountered in Scripture not primarily as the God of nature, as in pagan religions, but rather as the God of history, controlling and directing the affairs of man.中心地位的神的個性是看到了這一事實,而他是造物主和preserver的所有性質,是他所遇到的經文並非主要是為上帝的性質,因為在異教徒的宗教,而是要作為神的歷史,控制和導演事務的人。 The central place of the covenant by which he links himself in a personal relationship to men is further indication of the scriptural emphasis on the personal nature of God.中央地方的盟約,由他聯繫自己的個人關係,以男子是進一步表明了聖經側重於個人性質的上帝。 Nowhere is the personhood of God more evident than in his biblical description as Father.行不通的,是人格的神更加明顯比在他的聖經描述父親。 Jesus constantly spoke of God as "my Father," "your Father," and "the heavenly Father."耶穌不斷以神的"我的父親" , "你的父親" , "天父" 。 Beyond the unique Trinitarian relationship of the divine Son with the Father, which certainly involves personal traits, the fatherhood of God speaks of him as the source and sustainer of his creatures who personally cares for them (Matt. 5:45; 6: 26-32) and the one to whom man can turn in believing trust.除了獨特的三位一體的關係,神聖的兒子與父親,這當然牽涉到個人特質,做父親的神講的,他作為源和sustainer他的動物親自關心他們。 ( 5時45分, 6 : 26 - 32 )和一個人的男子可以打開,堅信信任。

The personhood of God has been called into question on the basis of our use of the word "person" with respect to human beings.該人格的神,被稱為質疑和討論的基礎上,我們使用了"人" ,尊重人的人。 Human personhood involves limitation that allows relationship with another person or the world.人的人格涉及限制,即允許與他人或世界。 To be a person means to be an individual among individuals.是一個人的手段,是一個單獨的個體間。 All of this cautions us against an erroneous anthropomorphizing of God.所有這一切都告誡我們,對一個錯誤的anthropomorphizing的上帝。 Biblically it is more proper to see the personhood of God as having priority over that of man and therefore to understand human personhood theomorphously, ie, a finite replica of the infinite divine person.聖經是較適當見到人格神作為優先比的男子,並因此理解人的人格theomorphously ,即在一個有限的複製品無限神聖的人。 Despite the final incomprehensibility of God's suprahuman personhood, the Scriptures portray him as a real person who gives himself in reciprocal relationship to us as a genuine Thou.儘管最後incomprehensibility上帝的suprahuman人格,經文描繪出他作為一個真正的人將自己在互惠關係到我們作為一個真正的你。

The biblical concept of the personhood of God refutes all abstract philosophical ideas of God as merely First Cause or Prime Mover as well as all naturalistic and pantheistic concepts.聖經中的概念,在人格神的駁斥所有抽象的哲學理念的上帝看作僅僅是第一個原因或原動機以及一切自然和pantheistic概念。 Modern equations of God with immanent personal relations (eg, love) are also rejected.現代方程的上帝與內在的個人關係(如愛情) ,也遭到拒絕。

God Is Spiritual上帝是精神

The Scriptures preclude the reduction of the personhood of God to a human level by the description of God as spirit (John 4:24).念經排除減少對人格神的一個人的水平所描述的上帝的精神(約翰4時24分) 。 As the word "spirit" has the basic idea of power and activity, the spiritual nature of God refers to the infinite superiority of his nature over all created life.因為"精神"已基本思路的權力和活動中,把精神文明天主的本性是指以無限的優越性,其本質一切創造生活。 The weakness of the forces of this world, including men and beasts which are but flesh, are contrasted to God who is spirit (cf. Isa. 31:3; 40:6-7).薄弱的力量,這個世界上,包括男子和野獸這不過是肉體的對比,以上帝的人是精神(參見伊薩。 31:3 ; 40:6-7 ) 。

As spirit, God is the living God.作為精神,上帝是活著的上帝。 He is the possessor of an infinite life in himself (Ps. 36:9; John 5:26).他是擁有無限的生命在他(詩篇36:9 ;約翰5點26分) 。 Matter is activated by spirit, but God is pure spirit.無論是由精神,但上帝是純粹的精神。 He is fully life.他完全生活。 As such he is the source of all other life (Job 33:4; Ps. 104:30).因此,他的根源在於所有其他生活(求職33:4 ;聚苯乙烯。 104:30 ) 。 The spiritual nature also prohibits any limitations of God derived from a materialistic conception.精神性也禁止任何限制的上帝來自於功利觀。 For this reason images of God are prohibited (Exod. 20:4; Deut. 4:12, 15-18).基於這個原因,圖像的上帝是禁止( exod. 20時04分; deut 。 4點12分, 15-18 ) 。 He cannot be restricted to any particular place or in any sense be brought under man's control as a physical object.他不能局限於任何特定地點或在任何意義上受到人為的控制權作為一種實物。 He is the invisible transcedent living power from whom all derive existence (Acts 17:28).他是無形transcedent住權力,從誰所有衍生的存在(行為, 17時28分) 。

God Is Holy上帝是神聖的

One of the most fundamental features of God's being is expressed by the word "holy."其中一個最根本的特點上帝的,是表達的字"聖戰" 。 He is the incomparable God, "the Holy One" (Isa. 40:25, cf. Hab. 3:3).他是無可比擬的上帝, "神聖的一" (以賽亞書40:25 ,比照民政事務局。 3時03分) 。 The word "holy," which in both Hebrew and Greek has the root meaning of separateness, is used predominantly in Scripture for a separateness from sin.用"神聖" ,在這兩個希伯來語和希臘語有根的意思是分開的,是用來為主經文一分從罪孽。 But this is only a secondary meaning derived from the primary application to God's separateness from all creation, ie, his transcendence.但是,這只是一個次要的意義來自基層的應用,以上帝的分異,從所有的創造物,即他的躍遷。 "He is exalted above all the peoples." "他是崇高的,尤其是所有人民" 。 Therefore, "holy is he" (Ps. 99:2-3).因此, "聖戰是他" (詩篇99:2-3 ) 。 He is "the high and exalted One... whose name is Holy," and he lives "on a high and holy place" (Isa. 57:15).他是"高和崇高的那種… …他的名字是神聖的" ,他的生命"的高度和神聖的地方" (以賽亞書57:15 ) 。 In his holiness God is the transcendent Deity.在他的聖潔上帝是超越性的神像。

The transcendence of God expresses the truth that God in himself is infinitely exalted above all creation.超越神的體現真理就是神,在自己的是無限崇高的上述所有的創造物。 The concept of revelation presupposes a transcendent God who must unveil himself to be known.這個概念啟示預示著一個超越神的人一定要揭開他已經成為眾所周知的。 Transcendence is further seen in God's position as Creator and Sovereign Lord of the universe.超越是進一步看到,在上帝的位置,作為創作者和主權主的宇宙。 As the former he distinguishes himself from all creation (Rom. 1:25), and in his sovereignty he evidences his transcendent supremacy.作為前者,他自己與眾不同,從所有的創造物(羅馬書25 ) ,並在他的主權,他的證據,他的超然優勢。

The transcendence of God is frequently expressed biblically in terms of time and space.超越神是經常表示的聖經,在時間上和空間。 He exists before all creation (Ps. 90:2), and neither the earth nor the highest heavens can contain him (I Kings 8:27).他的存在,擺在了所有創作(詩篇90:2 ) ,二者缺一,地球也不是最高老天爺能夠遏制他(指王8時27分) 。 A certain anthropomorphic sense must be recognized in such expressions lest God's transcendence be conceived in terms of our time and space, as though he lives in a time and space like ours only beyond that of creation.某擬人的意識,必須承認,在這些詞句,以免上帝的超越構想而言,我們的時間和空間,彷彿他就是生活在時間和空間一樣,我們只有超越的創作風格。 On the other hand, it is biblically incorrect to conceive of God in his transcendence as existing in a realm of timeless nowhereness outside of creation.在另一方面,它是聖經不正確設想上帝在他的超越性,因為現有的一個境界永恆nowhereness以外的創作風格。 In a manner that exceeds our finite understanding God exists in his own infinite realm as transcendent Lord over all creaturely time and space.在地超出了我們有限的理解上存在上帝在他自己的無限境界,為超越主所有creaturely的時間和空間。

God's transcendent holiness is biblically balanced with the teaching of his immanence, which signifies that he is wholly present in his being and power in every part and moment of the created universe.上帝的超越性成聖是聖經均衡與教學他的內在性,這意味著他是完全在他的幸福和權力的每一個部門和時刻的創造宇宙。 He is "over all and through all and in all" (Eph. 4:6).他是"所有,並通過所有,並在所有" (以弗所書4:6 ) 。 Not only does everything exist in him (Acts 17:28), but there is no place where his presence is absent (Ps. 139:1-10).不僅所做的一切就是存在於他(指行為17時28分) ,但沒有人的地方,他的存在是缺席(詩篇139:1-10 ) 。 His immanence is seen especially in relation to man.他的內在是見過,尤其是有關的人。 The Holy One who lives in a high and holy place also dwells with the "contrite and lowly of spirit" (Isa. 57:15).聖地之一,他住在一個高和神聖的地方,也是整篇都與" contrite和卑微的精神" (以賽亞書57:15 ) 。 This dual dimension of God is seen clearly in the description "the Holy One of Israel" as well as in the name Yahweh, which describes both his transcendent power and his personal presence with and for his people.這種雙重層面的,神是看不清楚,在描述"聖地之一,以色列"以及在名稱雅威,其中描述了他的超然力量以及他個人的存在,並為他的人民。

The biblical teaching of both God's transcendence and immanence counters the human tendency throughout history to emphasize one or the other.聖經教學雙方的上帝的超越性與內在性櫃檯人的傾向,在整個歷史上,以強調其中一個或另一個。 A one-sided transcendence is seen in the Greek philosophers' concept of the ultimate ground of being as well as the later deists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.一個片面超越,是從希臘哲學家的法制觀念和最終的地面被以及後來deists的十七世紀和十八世紀。 The various forms of pantheism throughout history give evidence of the opposite emphasis on immanence.各種形式的泛神論整個歷史提供證據的對面注重內在。 The attractiveness of these exaggerations to sinful man is in the fact that in both man no longer stands before God in any practical sense as a responsible creature.的吸引力,這些誇張到罪孽深重的人是一個事實,即在這兩個男子不再站在上帝面前,在任何實際意義上作為一個負責任的造物。

The Trinity三位一體

Crucial to the biblical doctrine of God is his Trinitarian nature.關鍵的,以聖經的教義,神是他的三位一體的性質。 Although the term "trinity" is not a biblical word as such, Christian theology has used it to designate the threefold manifestation of the one God as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.雖然"三位一體" ,是不是一個聖經的文字因此,基督教神學已經用它來指定三倍體現一個上帝作為父親,兒子,和聖靈。 The formulated doctrine of the Trinity asserts the truth that God is one in being or essence who exists eternally in three distinct coequal "persons."該學說制定的三位一體斷言,真理就是神,是一個正在或本質的人永遠存在三種截然不同的coequal "的人" 。 While the term "person" in relation to the Trinity does not signify the limited individuality of human persons, it does affirm the I-thou of personal relationship, particularly of love, within the triune Godhead.而"人"一詞,在關係到三一並不意味著有限的,個性的人的,它肯定了你-我的個人關係,尤其是愛情,在三位一體神的源頭。

The doctrine of the Trinity flows from the self-revelation of God in biblical salvation history.中庸三位一體流動,從自我啟示的上帝在聖經救贖的歷史。 As the one God successively reveals himself in his saving action in the Son and the Holy Spirit, each is recognized as God himself in personal manifestation.作為一個上帝先後揭示了自己在他的拯救行動,並在聖子與聖靈,每個被公認是天主自己在個人表現。 It is thus in the fullness of NT revelation that the doctrine of the Trinity is seen most clearly.因此,它是在豐滿新台幣啟示教義的三位一體,是看到最清楚。 God is one (Gal. 3:20; James 2:19), but the Son (John 1:1; 14:9; Col. 2:9) and the Spirit (Acts 5:3-4; I Cor. 3:16) are also fully God.上帝是一個( gal. 3時20分;詹姆斯19:2 ) ,但兒子(約翰1:1 , 14時09分;上校2時09分)和精神(行為5:3-4我肺心病3 。 : 16 ) ,同樣得到了充分的上帝。 Yet they are distinct from the Father and each other.但他們卻有別於父親和對方。 The Father sends the Son and the Spirit, while the Son also sends the Spirit (Gal. 4:4; John 15:26).父親送兒子和精神,而兒子也送精神( gal. 4時04分;約翰15:26 ) 。 This unified equality and yet distinctness is seen in the triadic references to the three persons.這個統一的平等的,但區別是出現在triadic提述3人。 Christian baptism is in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (Matt. 28:19).基督教洗禮,是在父親的姓名,兒子,和聖靈。 ( 28:19 ) 。 Likewise, all three are joined in the Pauline benediction in a different order suggesting the total equality of persons (II Cor. 13:14; cf. Eph. 4:4-6; I Pet. 1:2).同樣,三者缺投身於寶蓮功德在一個不同的命令,暗示完全平等的人(二肺心病。 13時14分;比照以弗所書4:4-6 ,我的寵物。 1:2 ) 。 Although the Trinity finds its clearest evidence in the NT, suggestions of a fullness of plurality are already found in the OT revelation of God.雖然三一認定,其最明顯的證據顯示在新台幣,建議一個豐滿的多元性已經發現,在酒店的啟示上帝。 The plural form of the name of God (Elohim) as well as the use of plural pronouns (Gen. 1:26; 11:7) and verbs (Gen. 11:7; 35:7) point in this direction.複數形式,以真主的名義(耶洛因) ,以及使用複數代詞(創1時26分; 11時07分)和動詞(創11時07分; 35:7 )點,在這個方向去做。 So also do the identity of the angel of the Lord as God (Exod. 3:2-6; Judg. 13:21-22) and the hypostatization of the Word (Ps. 33:6; 107:20) and Spirit (Gen. 1:2; Isa. 63:10).也有身份的主的使者,作為神( exod. 3:2-6 ; judg 。 13:21-22 )和hypostatization的字(詩篇33:6 ; 107:20 )和精神(將軍1:2伊薩。 63:10 ) 。 The Word is not simply communication about God nor is the Spirit divine power.字,不單純是溝通神,也不是精神的神聖權力。 They are rather the acting God himself.他們,而不是代理天主自己。

As the product of the self-revelation of God, the Trinitarian formulation is not intended to exhaust his incomprehensible nature.作為產品的自我啟示的上帝,三位一體的表述是不打算排氣他難以理解的性質。 Objections to the doctrine come from a rationalism that insists on dissolving this mystery into human understanding, ie, by thinking of the oneness and threeness in mathematical terms and human personality.反對人士的學說來自理性主義認為,堅持解散這個奧秘,為人類認識,即由思想的統一性和threeness在數學計算和人的個性。 Attempts have been made to draw analogies of the Trinity from nature and the constitution of man.已經作出提請類比的三位一體,從性質和憲法的男子。 The most notable of these is Augustine's trinity of lover, the object of love, and the love which binds the two together.最顯著的就是奧古斯丁的三位一體的情人,該物體的愛情,以及愛情約束,兩者結合起來。 While this argues strongly for a plurality within God if he is eternally a God of love apart from creation, it along with all other suggestions from the creaturely realm proves finally inadequate to explain the divine being.而這一點證明我們強烈一個多元性與上帝,如果他永遠是上帝的愛,除了創作,它與所有其他的建議,從creaturely境界,終於證明不足以解釋神的福祉。

The doctrine of the Trinity developed out of the church's desire to safeguard the biblical truths of the God who is the transcendent Lord over all history and yet who gives himself in person to act within history.該學說的三位一體開發出了教會的慾望,以維護聖經真理的神誰是超然主超過一切歷史,但誰給自己的人採取行動的歷史。 The natural human tendencies toward either a nonhistorical divine transcendence or the absorption of the divine into the historical process are checked by the orthodox concept of the Trinity.在人類自然傾向無論是nonhistorical神聖超越或吸收的神入歷史過程是由該公司免費檢查正統觀念三位一體。 The first is the ultimate error of the primary distortions of the Trinity.首先是最終的誤差主要扭曲的三位一體。 Subordinationism, which made Christ less than God, and adoptionism, which understood Christ only as a human endowed with God's Spirit for a time, both denied that God truly entered history to confront man in person. subordinationism ,這使得基督不到上帝,並adoptionism ,理解基督只是作為一個人,賦予了與上帝的精神,今後一個時期,無論是否認上帝真正進入歷史,以對抗男子的人。 Modalism or Sabellianism makes the persons of Christ and the Holy Spirit to be only historical roles or modifications of the one God.模態論或sabellianism使得人的基督和聖靈將只具有歷史的角色或修改的一個神。 This error likewise tends to separate man from God; he is encountered not directly as he is in person, but as a role player who remains hidden behind a mask.這個錯誤同樣傾向於單獨男子來自上帝,他是遇到了不直接,因為他是在人,但作為一個角色球員,他們仍然是背後隱藏的面具。

The Trinitarian doctrine is thus central to the salvation kerygma of Scripture, according to which the transcendent God acts personally in history to redeem and share himself with his creatures.三位一體的教義,因此中央到救贖kerygma的經文,其中顯示超然上帝的行為,個人在歷史上贖回並分享自己與他的海洋生物。 Origen rightly drew the conclusion that the believer "will not attain salvation if the Trinity is not complete."淵源正確地得出結論認為,信奉"絕不會達到救贖,如果三一是不全面的" 。

The Doctrine in History該學說在歷史上

The history of Christian thought reveals persistent problems concerning the nature of God and his relation to the world.歷史上的基督教思想揭示了持久性問題的性質,上帝與他的關係到世界各地。 These involve the related issues of transcendence/immanence, personal/nonpersonal perspectives, and the knowability of God.這些牽涉到的相關問題超越/內在性,個人/ nonpersonal觀點,和可知性的上帝。 The earliest Christian theologians, who attempted to interpret the Christian faith in terms of Greek philosophical categories, tended toward an emphasis on the abstract transcendence of God.最早的基督教神學家,使那些試圖解釋基督教信仰而言,希臘哲學範疇,也傾向將著重於抽象超越的上帝。 He was the timeless, changeless Absolute who was the final and adequate cause of the universe.他是永恆的,固定不變的絕對誰是最後的和足夠的事業的宇宙。 Little could be predicted of him, and his attributes were defined primarily in the negative.沒有什麼辦法可以預見的,他和他的屬性界定,主要是否定的。 He was the uncaused (possessing aseity), absolutely simple, infinite, immutable, omnipotent Being, unlimited by time (eternal) and space (omnipresent).他是uncaused (藏aseity ) ,絕對簡單,有無限的,一成不變的,萬能的,是不受時間(永恆)和空間(無所不在) 。

Although Augustine's view was more balanced with a view of the personal immanent, condescending God in the revelation of Christ, this philosophical understanding of God dominated until the Reformation, reaching its climax in Thomas Aquinas and the medieval scholastics.雖然奧古斯丁的看法是,更為均衡,以期對個人內在的,上帝的恩賜在啟示基督的,這哲學理解上帝的主宰,直到改造,達到了高潮,在托馬斯阿奎那與中世紀scholastics 。 Aquinas held that philosophical human reason could attain to the knowledge of the existence of God.阿奎那認為,哲學的人的理智可以達到加強知識的上帝存在。 His stress, however, was on the transcendence of God and how little he could be known.他強調,但是,是對超越的神,以及如何小,他可以被稱為。

With an emphasis on biblical rather than philosophical categories, the Reformers brought more recognition of the immanence of God within human history but maintained a strong emphasis on his transcendence, as evidenced in the definition of the Westminister Confession of Faith.一個側重於聖經,而不是哲學範疇,改革者帶來了更多的承認了內在的神在人類歷史上,但都保持了強勁的重點放在他的超越性,從而顯示其在定義的westminister供認信念。

Reaction to the traditional Protestant and Catholic understanding of God with its stress on the transcendence of God came with the rise of liberal theology in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.反應,以傳統的新教和天主教的理解上帝與應激對超越上帝來到與崛起的自由神學,在十八世紀和十九世紀。 The combination of new philosophies (eg, Kant, Hegel) making the mind of man supreme for true knowledge, scientific advances that seemed to substantiate human abilities, and a new historical perspective that tended to relativize all tradition, including the Scriptures, led to a new understanding of ultimate reality.結合新的哲學(如康德,黑格爾) ,使心中的男子最高為真正的知識,科技進步日新月異,這似乎證實人類的能力,以及一個新的歷史角度出發,傾向於relativize所有傳統,包括誦經,引發了一場新的認識,最終的現實。 Because, as Kant argued, human reason could no longer establish the existence of a transcendent God, God became increasingly identified with the ideals of human experience.因為,正如康德認為,人類理性可以不再設立存在著一個超然上帝,上帝變得越來越確定與理想的人類經驗。 Talk of religious dependency (Schleiermacher) or ethical values (Kant, Ritschl) became talk of God.談宗教屬地(施萊爾馬赫)或倫理價值(康德,里奇爾)成為對話的上帝。 There was an almost exclusive emphasis on the immanence of God, with a tendency to see an essential kinship between the human and divine spirit.有一個幾乎完全著重於內在的神,同一種傾向看到的一個基本親情之間人類與神靈的精神。

World events including two world wars and the rise of totalitarian regimes brought the collapse of old liberalism with its immanentistic understanding of God and the reassertion of divine transcendence.世界的事件,包括兩次世界大戰和崛起的專制政權帶來的崩潰,舊的自由主義與immanentistic了解上帝和重新神聖的躍遷。 Led by Karl Barth, theology sought to return not to the earlier philosophical concepts of God but to the categories of the Judeo-Christian Scriptures.為首的卡爾巴特,神學尋求回報,不向先前哲學概念的上帝,但到類別的猶太教和基督教聖經。 Based upon a radical separation between eternity and time, the transcendence of God was exaggerated to the point that a direct revelation of God in human history was denied.根據一個激進的分離和永恆的時間,超越的上帝是誇張到如此地步,直接啟示的上帝在人類歷史上是無可否認的。 According to this neoorthodox theology God did not speak directly in Scripture.根據這一neoorthodox神學上帝不發言,直接在經文。 As a result of this denial of a direct cognitive communication, with the consequent skepticism of any knowledge of God in himself, the accent on transcendence was gradually lost.由於這種剝奪直接認知的溝通,不斷的懷疑任何知識的神,他本人,口音就超越正在逐步喪失。 The religious experience of man, usually interpreted according to existential philosophy, became increasingly viewed as the key to theological knowledge.宗教經驗的人,通常解釋為根據,以生存哲學,成為越來越被視為關鍵的神學知識。 God was understood primarily as the meaning he holds for the "existential experiences" of man.上帝被理解,主要是因為這意味著他主張,為"生存經驗"的男子。

This movement can be traced from Barth, whose theology maintained a strong divine transcendence, to Bultmann, who, while not denying God's transcendence, nevertheless focused almost entirely on God in the human existential experience, and finally to Tillich, who denied entirely the traditional God "out there" in favor of an immanent God as the "ground" of all being.這一運動可追溯到從巴特的神學都保持了強勁的神聖超越性,以布特曼,世衛組織,而並非否認上帝的超越性,但是重點幾乎完全是上帝在人類生存的經驗,並最終以蒂里希,他們完全否定傳統的神"外面有" ,主張一種內在的神為"地面"的所有福利。 Thus the transcendence of God has been lost in much of contemporary thought which seeks to do theology in the existential philosophical framework.因此,超越上帝已經失去了很多的當代思想,旨在做神學生存論哲學框架。 Divine transcendence is simply equated with the hidden self-transcendence of human existence.神聖的超越性,是簡單地等同於隱性自我超越人類存在的。

Other contemporary theologians seek to reconstruct theology in terms of the modern scientific evolutionary understanding of the universe.其他當代神學家尋求重建神學而言,現代科學進化對宇宙的理解。 Such process theology, based on the philosophy of AN Whitehead, sees the fundamental nature of all reality as process or becoming rather than being or unchanging substance.這種過程神學的基礎上,哲學的一個白石,看到的根本性質,一切從實際過程中,還是成為而非正在或不變的物質。 Although there is an abstract eternal dimension of God which provides the potential for the process, he also is understood to encompass all changing entities in his own life and therefore to be in the process of change himself.雖然是一個抽象的永恆的維度上帝提供了潛力過程中,他也了解,以涵蓋所有實體轉變,在珍惜自己的生命,因此必須在這一過程中轉變自己。 As the universe is dynamic and changing, actualizing its potentialities, so also is God.作為宇宙是動態和不斷變化的, actualizing其潛力,因此也就是神靈。

The wide variety of contemporary formulations of God that tend to define God in ways in which he is no longer the personal Creator and sovereign Lord of human history are the direct result of denying a knowledge of God through his cognitive self-revelation in the Scriptures and the sinful human propensity to autonomy.五花八門的現代劑型的上帝往往以界定上帝的方式,而他已經不再是個人的創造者和享有主權的上帝是人類歷史上是直接的結果,否定知識的上帝通過他的認知自我啟示,在經典和該罪孽深重的人的傾向,以自主權。

RL Saucy聖誕研究部主管

Bibliography 參考書目
K. Barth, Church Dogmatics, II/1 and 2; H. Bavinck, The Doctrine of God; E. Brunner, The Christian Doctrine of God; JS Candlish, The Christian Doctrine of God; W. Eichrodt, Theology of the OT,I; CFH Henry, God, Revelation and Authority, II; C. Hodge, Systematic Theology, I; Kleinknecht, Quell, Stauffer, Kuhn, TDNT, III, 65-123; GL Prestige, God in Patristic Thought; H. Thielicke, The Evangelical Faith, II; O. Weber, Foundations of Dogmatics, I. k.巴特,教會dogmatics ,二/ 1和2 ;每小時巴文克,這個學說的上帝;體育布蘭,基督教教義的上帝; js坎德利甚,基督教教義的上帝;總統艾希羅特,神學的職能治療,一; cfh亨利,上帝,啟示性和權威性,二;丙Hodge的,有系統的神學,我; kleinknecht ,平息,忙著做庫恩, tdnt ,三, 65-123 ; GL的威望,上帝在教父的思想;每小時thielicke ,福音派信仰,二;澳韋伯,基金會的dogmatics ,一。


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Names of God姓名上帝

The Divine Names as Vehicles of Revelation神的名字作為汽車的啟示

Advanced Information - IV 先進的信息-四

Efforts to find the origins and significance of the Hebrew divine names in other ancient Near Eastern cultures have yielded generally disappointing results.努力尋找的起源及意義,希伯萊神的名字在其他古代近東文化,已經取得了普遍令人失望的結果。 One of the major reasons for this is that the ancient Hebrew theology invested these names with a uniqueness that renders investigation outside the narratives of the OT incapable of exploring fully their historical and religious significance.其中一個重要原因,這主要是因為古代希伯來神學投資這些名字與獨特性,使其調查外敘述部分城市旅遊局無能的探索,充分的歷史和宗教意義。

Basic to ancient Hebrew religion is the concept of divine revelation.基本以古代希伯來宗教的概念是神的啟示。 While God is conceived of as revealing his attributes and will in a number of ways in the OT, one of the most theologically significant modes of the divine self-disclosure is the revelation inherent in the names of God.而上帝是構思的,因為暴露了他的屬性,並會在若干方面,在職能治療,其中最顯著的theologically模式的神聖自我揭露的是啟示固有的名字神。

This aspect of divine revelation is established in the words of Exod.這方面的神聖啟示,是在既定的話exod 。 6:3, "I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob, as God Almighty, but by my name the Lord [Yahweh] I did not make myself known to them."選手: "我似乎亞伯拉罕,以撒和雅各,因為真主,但我的名,主[雅威] ,我沒有讓自己知道他們的" 。 According to classical literary criticism, the verse teaches that the name Yahweh was unknown to the patriarchs.根據古典文學批評,詩教這一名稱雅威是未知向patriarchs 。 Thus, an ideological conflict exists between the Priestly author and the earlier Yahwist, who frequently put the name Yahweh on the lips of the patriarchs.因此,意識形態的衝突之間存在的司鐸作者及早前yahwist ,往往把名字雅威對嘴唇的patriarchs 。

However, the words "by my name Yahweh I did not make myself known to them" have a somewhat hollow ring if the name Yahweh is understood only as an appellative.但是,下列文字: "我的名字雅威,我沒有讓自己已知告訴他們"有一個有點靠不住的,虛偽的,如果名稱雅威了解,只是作為一個稱謂。 The reason for this is that Moses asks in Exod.這一現象的原因是,摩西詢問exod 。 3:13, "What is his name?" 3時13分, "什麼是他的名字" ? (mah-semo). (麻將semo ) 。 M. Buber has demonstrated that the syntax of this question does not connote an inquiry as to the name of God but an inquiry into the character revealed by the name.米布伯已經證明,語法,這個問題並不含意調查,以上帝的名義,但調查的性質透露真實姓名。 He says, "Where the word 'what' is associated with the word 'name' the question asked is what finds expression in or lies concealed behind that name" (The Revelation and the Covenant, p. 48).他說, "如果這個字是什麼' ,是與詞'名字'的問題,問的是什麼表現還是謊言背後隱藏著這個名字" (啟示和盟約,第48頁) 。 J. Motyer also concludes, "In every case where ma is used with a personal association it suggests enquiry into sort or quality or character, whereas mi expects an answer instacing individuals, or, as in the case of rhetorical questions, calling attention to some external feature" (The Revelation of the Divine Name, 19). j.莫提爾教授還得出結論, "在每一個案件中,馬,是用一台個人會提示查詢到排序或品質或特性,而宓期待一個答案instacing或個人,如在案件修辭問題,要求注意一些外部特徵" (啟示的神的名字, 19 ) 。

Exod. exod 。 14:4 also supports the view that the name Yahweh embodies aspects of God's character. 14時04分,也支持這一觀點,即名稱雅威方面體現了上帝的性格。 It says, "and the Egyptians will know that I am Yahweh."它說, "埃及人會知道我雅威" 。 It is hardly likely that the intent of this assertion is that they would learn only the name of the Hebrew God.這是絕不可能說的意圖,這種說法,他們會了解,只有名稱的希伯來文的上帝。

In the light of these observations, the use of the concepts of the name of God in the early narratives of the book of Exodus is far broader than simply the name by which the Hebrew God was known.在根據這些意見後,其使用的概念,以上帝的名義,在早期的敘述這本書的出埃及記的是甚廣,遠遠超過單純的名字,其中希伯來上帝是眾所周知的。 It has a strong element of divine self-disclosure within it.它具有強烈的元素神聖的自我披露。

The corpus of divine names compounded with el and a descriptive adjunct also support this concept.胼神聖的名字更加複雜與el和描述附屬物也支持這個概念。 The very fact that the adjunctive element is descriptive is an indication of its value as a source of theological content.非常事實,即輔助元素是描述性,是表明自己的價值作為來源的神學內容。

Typical of this type of name is el rot ("God who sees"; Gen. 16:13) and el olam ("God eternal"; Gen. 21:33).典型的這種類型的名字是下午腐( "上帝的人看見" ;將軍16:13 )和El olam ( "上帝永恆的" ;上將21時33分) 。 These el names sometimes emerge from a specific historical situation that illuminates their significance.這些下午的名字有時出現從一個特定的歷史情況,這說明了它們的意義。

The Meaning of the Divine Names意思神聖的名字

Yahweh, Jehovah (LORD)雅威,耶和華(主)

Efforts to determine the meaning of the tetragrammaton (YHWH) through historical investigation have been rendered difficult by the paucity of informative data relative to the various forms of the name ya in historical sources outside the OT.努力來確定含義的耶和華( yhwh ) ,透過歷史考察已變得困難,缺乏翔實的數據,相對的各種形式的名稱婭在史料以外城市旅遊局。 For this reason the investigation has generally followed philological lines.基於這個原因,該調查已普遍遵循的語言學系。 GR Driver suggested that the form ya was originally an ejaculatory cry, "shouted in moments of excitement or ecstasy," that was "prologued to ya(h)wa(h), ya(h)wa(h)y, or the like."遺傳資源司機建議的形式亞原本是射精管哭的, "叫喊著,在瞬間的興奮或搖頭丸" ,即是" prologued以雅(八)佤族(八) ,雅(八)佤族(八體) Y ,或類似" He suggested further that the name Yahweh arose from the consonance of an extended form of ya with the "imperfect tense of a defective verb."他建議進一步指出姓名雅威是由一致的一個推廣形式的雅與"不完善的緊張,一個有缺陷的動詞" 。 Thus, he saw the origin of the name in a popular etymology and asserted that its original form was forgotten (ZAW 46:24).因此,他親眼看到了地名的由來,在流行語言,並聲稱其原來被遺忘(不遺餘力46:24 ) 。

Mowinckel proposed the theory that the tetragrammaton should be understood as consisting of the ejaculatory element and the third person pronoun hu,' meaning "O He!"莫溫克爾提出的理論,即耶和華應被理解為構成的射精管元素和第三人稱代詞胡'的含義劃" O他" !

Another approach to the problem is to understand the tetragrammaton as a form of paronomasia.另一種解決方法,是要通過認識耶和華是一種形式的paronomasia 。 This view takes account of the broad representation of the name ya in extrabiblical cultures of the second millennium BC The name Yahweh is thus understood as a quadriliteral form, and the relationship of the name of haya ("to be") in Exod.這種觀點考慮對廣泛代表性的名稱婭在extrabiblical文化的第二個千禧年卑詩省的名稱雅威因此理解為一個quadriliteral形式,與關係的名義haya ( "能" )在exod 。 3:14-15 is not intended to be one of etymology but paronomasia. 3:14-15不打算成為一個名詞,但paronomasia 。

The most common view is that the name is a form of a triliteral verb, hwy.最普遍的看法是,名字是一個形式的triliteral動詞,他們的。 It is generally regarded as a 3 p.它被普遍認為是一個3頁 Qal stem imperfect or a 3 p.堡幹不完善或3頁 imperfect verb in a causative stem.完美的發音在一個使役幹。 Another suggestion is that it is a causative participle with ay preformative that should be translated "Sustainer, Maintainer, Establisher."另一項建議是,它是一個使役participle同分preformative認為應譯成" sustainer ,維護者, establisher " 。

With regard to the view that the tetragrammaton is an elongated form of an ejaculatory cry, it may be pointed out that Semitic proper names tend to shorten; they are not normally prolonged.至於認為耶和華是一個細長的形式是射精管哭的,它可能需要指出的是,猶太人的專有名詞,往往縮短,他們一般都不會延長。 The theory that the name is paronomastic is attractive, but when appeal is made to the occurrences of forms of ya or yw in ancient cultures, several problems arise.該理論認為,名字是paronomastic是有吸引力的,不過,當上訴作出的發生形式的雅或中,最古老的文化,並出現若干問題。 It is difficult to explain how the original form could have lengthened into the familiar quadriliteral structure.這是很難解釋如何原來的版本,可以延長到熟悉quadriliteral結構。 Mowinckel's suggestion is attractive, but speculative.莫溫克爾的建議是有吸引力的,但投機性。 It is also difficult to understand how the name Yahweh could have such strong connotations of uniqueness in the OT if it is a form of a divine name that found representation in various cultures in the second millennium BC人們還很難理解如何名義雅威能有如此強大的內涵,氣質,在城市旅遊局,如果這是一種形式的神的名字,發現代表性,在各種文化在第二個千禧年公元前

The derivation of the tetragrammaton from a verbal root is also beset with certain difficulties.推導了耶和華從口頭上的根源,也是面臨一定的困難。 The root hwy on which the tetragrammaton would be based in this view is unattested in West Semitic languages before the time of Moses, and the form of the name is not consonant with the rules that govern the formation of lamed he verbs as we know them.從根本上他們對其中耶和華將設在這個看法是unattested在西閃族語言面前的時候,摩西,方式和名稱,是不符合規則的管轄形成lamed他動詞,因為我們知道他們。

It is evident that the problem is a difficult one.很顯然,這個問題是一個棘手的問題。 It is best to conclude that the use of etymology to determine the theological content of the name Yahweh is tenuous.最好是在得出結論認為,使用語言,以確定神學思想建設的內容,名稱雅威是牽強的。 If one is to understand the theological significance of the divine name, it can be only be determining the theological content with which the name was invested in Hebrew religion.如果一個人要了解神學意義神聖的名字時,它才能夠確定的神學內容與該名稱是投資在希伯萊宗教。

Jah, Yah jah ,閻

This shorter form of Yahweh occurs twice in Exodus (15:2 and 17:15).這較短的形式雅威兩度出現在出埃及記( 15時02分和17:15 ) 。 The former passage is echoed in Isa.前者通過了雄渾的迴響,在伊薩。 12:2 and Ps. 12:2和PS 。 118:14. 118:14 。 It also occurs numerous times in the formula haleluya ("praise yah").它也發生過無數次在F1 haleluya (下稱"贊閻" ) 。 Its use in early and late poetic passages and its formulaic function in the Hallel psalms suggest that this form of Yahweh is a poetic stylistic device.其使用在早期和晚期的詩歌通道及其公式化的功能在hallel詩篇表明,這種形式的雅威是一個詩的文體設備。

The compounding of yah with Yahweh in Isa.複合的閻與雅威在伊薩。 12:2 (yah yhwh) indicates a separate function for the form yah, but at the same time an identification of the form with Yahweh. 12:2 (閻yhwh ) ,顯示一個單獨的函數形式,閻,但在同一時間,一個鑑定的形式與雅威。

Yahweh Seba'ot ("Lord of Hosts")雅威seba'ot ( "耶和華的東道主" )

The translation "He creates the heavenly hosts" has been suggested for this appellative.翻譯" ,他創造了天堂的主人, "曾有人建議,為這一稱謂。 It is based on the assumption that Yahweh functions as a verbal form in a causative stem.這是基於這樣的假設:雅威職能作為一個以口頭方式表述一個使役幹。 This conclusion is rendered difficult by the fact that the formula occurs in the expanded form yhwh elohe sebaot ("Yahweh God of hosts"), which attributes the function of a proper name to Yahweh.這個結論是,使困難的事實,即出現公式,在擴大的形式yhwh elohe sebaot ( "雅威上帝的東道主" ) ,其中屬性的功能,適當的名稱,以雅威。 The word seba'ot means "armies" or "hosts."字seba'ot手段, "兩軍"或"主持人" 。 It is best to understand Yahweh as a proper name in association with the word "armies."這是最好的了解雅威作為一個適當的名義聯同字"兩軍" 。

Elohim耶洛因

The root of Elohim is El (el).根耶洛因是下午(星期六) 。 The form elohim is a plural form commonly understood as a plural of majesty.形式耶洛因是一個複數形式理解為一個多元的陛下。 While the word occurs in Canaanite ('l) and Akkadian (ilu[m]), its etymology is uncertain.而這個詞出現在canaanite ( ' l )和阿卡德文( ilu [米] ) ,其詞源是不確定的。 In the OT the word is always construed in the singular when it denotes the true God.在城市旅遊局二字永遠是詮釋,在奇異時,它指的真神。 In the Pentateuch the name elohim connotes a general concept of God; that is, it portrays God as the transcendent being, the creator of the universe.在pentateuch名稱耶洛因蘊含一個總的概念上帝的,這就是它描繪了上帝超越目前,宇宙的創造者。 It does not connote the more personal and palpable concepts inherent in the name Yahweh.它沒有內涵更為個人和明顯的固有觀念,在名稱雅威。 It can also be used to apply to false gods as well as to judges and kings.它也可以被用來申請假神,以及法官和國王隊。

El下午

El has the same general range of meaning as Elohim.下午有相同的一般範圍的意義,因為耶洛因。 It is apparently the root on which the plural form has been constructed.這顯然是扎下了根,其中複數形式已建成。 It differs in usage from Elohim only in its use in theophoric names and to serve to contrast the human and the divine.它不同於在使用從耶洛因不僅在於其使用theophoric名字,並以對比的人力和神聖。 Sometimes it is combined with yah to become Elyah.有時,它是結合閻成為elyah 。

El Elyon ("God Most High")下午elyon ( "上帝最高級" )

The word 'elyon, an adjective meaning "high," is derived from the root 'lh ("to go up" or "ascend").字' elyon ,一個形容詞,意思是"高" ,是源自於同根生' ,黃體生成素(簡稱"去"或"消業" ) 。 It is used to describe the height of objects (II Kings 15:35; 18:17; Ezek. 41:7) as well as the prominence of persons (Ps. 89:27) and the prominence of Israel as a nation (Deut. 26:19; 28:1).這是用來形容高度的物體(二國王15:35 ; 18時17分; ezek 。 41:7 ) ,以及突出的人(詩篇89:27 )和突出的以色列作為一個國家( deut 。 26:19 ; 28:1 ) 。 When used of God it connotes the concept of "highest."當用於神的,它蘊含的概念, "最高" 。

The name El Elyon occurs only in Gen. 14: 18-22 and Ps.姓名下午elyon只發生在將軍14 : 18-22和PS 。 78:35, although God is known by the shorter title Elyon in a significant number of passages. 78:35 ,雖然上帝是眾所周知的,由短標題elyon在相當多的旅費。

There is a superlative connotation in the word 'elyon.有一個文字的內涵字' elyon 。 In each case in which the adjective occurs it denotes that which is highest or uppermost.在每一個案件中,涉案的形容詞的出現,它意味著這是最高或最上部。 In Deut.在deut 。 26:19 and 28:1 the superlative idea is apparent in the fact that Israel is to be exalted above the nations. 26:19和28:1最高級的想法是明顯的事實,那就是以色列要開天闢地以上。 The use of the word in I Kings 9:8 and II Chr.使用這個詞在王9時08分和第二人權委員會。 7:21 may not seem to reflect a superlative idea, but there is, as CF Keil suggests, an allusion to Deut. 7點21分就顯得不反映文字的想法,但也存在,作為比照的Keil顧名思義,暗指deut 。 26:19 and 28:1, where the superlative idea exists. 26:19和28:1 ,而最高級的想法存在。 The superlative is also evident in the use of the word in Ps.最高級也很明顯,在使用這個詞在PS 。 97:9, where it connotes Yahweh's supremacy over the other gods. 97:9 ,而它蘊含雅威的優勢戰勝了其他眾神。

El Shaddai下午shaddai

The etymology of sadday is obscure.詞源的sadday是模糊不清。 It has been connected with the Akkadian sadu ("mountain") by some.它已與阿卡得sadu ( "山" )是由一些。 Others have suggested a connection with the word "breast," and still others have seen a connection with the verb sadad ("to devastate").有的建議他涉嫌與"乳癌" ,還有人看到他涉嫌與動詞sadad ( "蹂躪" ) 。 The theological significance of the name, if it can be understood fully, must be derived from a study of the various contexts in which the name occurs.神學意義的名稱,如能充分了解,都必須來自於研究各種語境中的名稱出現。

The name Shaddai frequently appears apart from El as a divine title.名稱shaddai經常出現的,除了由El作為一個神聖的稱號。

El-Eloe-Yisrael埃及eloe -選票

This appellation occurs only in Gen. 33:20 as the name of the altar that marked the place of Jacob's encounter with God.這個稱謂只發生在將軍33:20正如其名的祭壇上的標記取代雅各布的與天主相遇。 It denotes the unique significance of El as the God of Jacob.它包含了特殊的意義薩爾瓦多為上帝的雅各。

Adonai adonai

The root 'dn occurs in Ugaritic with the meanings "lord and father."根' DN的發生在烏加里特文與意義的"魔戒之父" 。 If the word originally connoted "father," it is not difficult to understand how the connotation "lord" developed from that.如果這個詞本來connoted "父親" ,由此不難理解為什麼內涵的"魔戒"的發展表示關注。 The basic meaning of the word in the OT is "lord."基本一詞的含義,在城市旅遊局,是"主" 。

Critical to the understanding of the meaning of the word is the suffix ay.關鍵的理解一詞的含義是後綴是。 It is commonly suggested that the ending is the first person possessive suffix on a plural form of 'adon ("my lord").人們普遍認為,該是結束的第一個人佔有後綴上的複數形式' adon ( "我的主" ) 。 This is plausible for the form adonay, but the heightened form adonay, which also appears in the Massoretic text, is more difficult to explain, unless it represents an effort on the part of the Massoretes "to mark the word as sacred by a small external sign."這是可行的,為形式adonay ,但高漲的形式adonay ,同時也出現在massoretic文本中,更難以解釋,除非它代表了一種努力,對部分的massoretes " ,以標誌詞作為神聖的一小外部登錄" 。

Attention has been drawn to the Ugaritic ending -ai, which is used in that language "as a reinforcement of a basic word," However, it is doubtful that this explanation should be applied in all cases.已提請注意該烏加里特文結束愛,這是在用這種語言" ,作為增援的一個基本詞, "不過,這是令人懷疑的這一解釋,應適用於所有情況。 The plural construction of the name is evident when the word occurs in the construct as it does in the appellation "Lord of lords" ('adone ha adonim) in Deut.複數施工的名字是顯而易見的,當這個詞出現在興建,因為它在稱謂的"主之主" ( '阿多內公頃adonim )在deut 。 10:17. 10時17分。 And the translation "my Lord" seems to be required in such vocative addresses as "my Lord Yahweh, what will you give me?"和翻譯"我的主" ,似乎需要在這樣的呼地址, "我的主雅威,請問你給我的" ? (Gen. 15:2; see also Exod. 4:10). (創15時02分,還見exod 。 4:10 ) 。

It appears, then, that it is best to understand the word as a plural of majesty with a first person suffixual ending that was altered by the Massoretes to mark the sacred character of the name.看來,那麼,最好是在了解這個詞作為一個多元的陛下以第一人稱suffixual結束,這是變造的,由massoretes標誌神聖品格的真實姓名。

Other Divine Names其他神的名字

The name Baali occurs only once, in Hos.名稱巴利只發生一次,在居者有其屋。 2:16 (AV; "My Baal," RSV) in a play on words. 2時16分(視聽, "我的巴力" ,呼吸道合胞病毒) ,在文字遊戲。 The word means "my husband," as does isi, the word with which it is paired.這個詞的意思是: "我的丈夫" ,作為是否ISI的,這個詞與它配對。

Ancient of Days is an appellation applied to God in Dan. 古老的天是一個稱謂適用於上帝丹。 7. 7 。 It occurs with other depictions of great age (vs. 9) to create the impression of noble venerability.它發生在與其他描寫的偉大時代(相對於9 ) ,以造成一種印象的崇高venerability 。

Abba is an alternate Aramaic term for "father." 雅伯金曲是一個候補阿拉姆語詞語, "爸爸" 。 It is the word that Jesus used to address God in Mark 14:36.它是一個字耶穌用來處理神標誌11:24 。 Paul pairs the word with the Greek word for "father" in Rom.保羅對這個詞與希臘語意為"父親"的光盤。 8:15 and Gal. 8:15和GAL 。 4:6.四比六。

The 'alep that terminates the form 'abba' functions as both a demonstrative and a vocative particle in Aramaic. ' alep即終止形式'雅伯金曲職能既是一種示範和呼粒子在阿拉姆語。 In the time of Jesus the word connoted both the emphatic concept, "the father," and the more intimate "my father, our father."在時間的耶穌字connoted都強調概念, "父親" ,以及更親密的"我的父親,我們的父親" 。

While the word was the common form of address for children, there is much evidence that in the time of Jesus the practice was not limited only to children.雖然這個詞是常見的形式,為解決兒童,有許多證據表明,在當時是猶太人的做法並不只限於兒童。 The childish character of the word ("daddy") thus receded, and 'abba' acquired the warm, familiar ring which we may feel in such an expression as "dear father."幼稚特徵字( "爸爸" ) ,從而逐漸減退,和'雅伯金曲'後天熱情,熟悉環,我們可能會覺得在這樣的一種表現為"親愛的爸爸" 。

The Theological Significance of the Divine Names神學意義神聖的名字

Yahweh雅威

The parallel structure in Exod.平行結構exod 。 3:14-15 supports the association of the name Yahweh with the concept of being or existence. 3:14-15支持該協會的名稱,雅威理念與正在或存在。 It says, "I AM has sent me to you" (vs. 14; "The LORD has sent me to you" (vs. 15). The name "I AM" is based on the clause "I AM WHO I AM" found in 3:14 which, on the basis of the etymology implied here, suggests that Yahweh is the 3.p. form of the verb 'ehyeh (I am).它說, "我已經派我到你" (而不是14個, "主派我到你們這裡來" (相對於15 ) 。命名為"我" ,是基於對該條條文,即"我就是我"發現,在3時14分,在此基礎上的語言暗示,在此,建議雅威是3.p.形式的動詞' ehyeh (我) 。

The clause 'ehyeh'aser 'ehyeh has been translated in several ways, "I am that I am" (AV), "I am who I am" (RSV, NIV), and "I will be what I will be" (RSV margin).該條款' ehyeh'aser ' ehyeh已被翻譯成幾種方式, "我是我" (影音) , "我就是我" ( RSV的,為證) ,和"我會什麼,我會" (呼吸道合胞病毒保證金) 。 Recently the translation "I am (the) One who is" has been suggested.最近翻譯: "我(的)一個人,是"有人提議。 The latter translation has much in its favor grammatically and fits the context well.後者翻譯有很多對它有利而文法,並符合語境。

The main concern of the context is to demonstrate that a continuity exists in the divine activity from the time of the patriarchs to the events recorded in Exod.主要關注的背景下,是表明某種連續性存在,在神聖的活動,從時間的patriarchs向事件記錄在exod 。 3. 3 。 The Lord is referred to as the God of the fathers (vss. 13, 15, 16).耶和華是被稱為神的父親( vss. 13 , 15 , 16 ) 。 The God who made the gracious promises regarding Abraham's offspring is the God who is and who continues to be.神親自作出殷勤許諾對於亞伯拉罕的子孫,是上帝誰是誰繼續保持。 The affirmation of vs. 17 is but a reaffirmation of the promise made to Abraham.肯定比17 ,只不過是重新確認所作出的承諾,以亞伯拉罕。 The name Yahweh may thus affirm the continuing activity of God on behalf of his people in fealty to his promise.名稱雅威因而可能申明繼續活動的上帝代表他的人民的忠誠,以他的諾言。

Jesus' application of the words "I am" to himself in John 8:58 not only denoted his preexistence but associated him with Yahweh.耶穌的應用的話, "我" ,以自己在約翰8時58分,不僅包含他的preexistence但相關他雅威。 Jesus was the fulfillment of the promise given to Abraham, the fulfillment of which Abraham anticipated (John 8:56).耶穌是履行該承諾給予亞伯拉罕,圓滿其中亞伯拉罕預期(約翰8時56分) 。

In the Pentateuch, Yahweh denotes that aspect of God's character that is personal rather than transcendent.在pentateuch ,雅威是指這方面的上帝的品格,是個人,而不是超越。 It occurs in contexts in which the covenantal and redemptive aspects of God predominate.它發生在語境中,其中covenantal和救贖方面上帝為主。 Cassuto says, "The name YHWH is employed when God is presented to us in His personal character and in direct relationship to people or nature; and 'Elohim, when the Deity is alluded to as a Transcendental Being who exists completely outside and above the physical universe" (The Documentary Hypothesis, p. 31).卡蘇托說, "名字yhwh是受僱當上帝向我們介紹他的個人品格和在直接關係到人民或性質; '耶洛因,當神看,是暗示作為一個先驗的人,存在著完全不在以上物理宇宙" (紀錄片假說,第31頁) 。 This precise distinction does not always obtain outside the Pentateuch, but Yahweh never loses its distinct function as the designation of the God of Israel.這個精確的區分並不總是得到外pentateuch ,但雅威從來沒有失去其獨特的職能,作為指定神的以色列。

The name Yahweh Sabaoth appears for the first time in Israel's history in connection with the cult center at Shiloh (1 Sam. 1:3).名稱雅威sabaoth看來,為第一次在以色列的歷史,他涉嫌與邪教中心希洛( 1薩姆。 1:3 ) 。 It is there that the tent of meeting was set up when the land of Canaan had been subdued by the Israelites (Josh. 18:1).它的存在表示,在帳篷裡的會議上成立的時候,土地的迦南已被制服以色列人( josh. 18:1 ) 。 The name apparently had its origin in the period of the conquest or the postconquest period.名稱顯然有其原產地在這段期間的征服或postconquest時期。 It does not occur in the Pentateuch.它不發生在pentateuch 。

It is possible that the name was attributed to Yahweh as a result of the dramatic appearance to Joshua of an angelic being called the "commander of the host of Yahweh" at the commencement of the conquest (Josh. 5:13-15).這是有可能的名稱是由於雅威由於戲劇性的外觀,以約書亞的一種天使般的被稱為"指揮官所在的雅威" ,在展開征服( josh. 5:13-15 ) 。 The name would thus depict the vast power at Yahweh's disposal in the angelic hosts.姓名,因此,描繪了廣闊的權力雅威的處置,在天使的主持人。

The association of this name with the ark of the covenant in I Sam.該協會的這一名稱與方舟的盟約在I薩姆。 4:4 is significant in that Yahweh is enthroned above the angelic figures known as the cherubim (II Sam. 6:2). 4時04分的意義,就在於雅威是enthroned以上天使數字稱為基路伯(二山姆。 6時02分) 。 Because the name was associated with the ark of the covenant, David addressed the people in that name when the ark was recovered from the Philistines (II Sam. 6:18).因為這個名字與方舟的盟約,大衛講話的人在這名字的時候,方舟,是從philistines (二山姆。 6:18 ) 。 The name is often associated with the military activities of Israel (I Sam. 15:2-3; II Sam. 5:10).該名稱通常是與軍事活動的以色列(我心。 15:2-3 ;二,三。 17:10 ) 。

The almighty power of Yahweh displayed in this name is manifested in the sphere of history (Pss. 46:6-7; 59:5).至高無上的權力,雅威顯示,在這個名字就是體現在球的歷史( pss. 46:6-7 ; 59:5 ) 。 His power may be displayed in the life of the individual (Ps. 69:6) as well as the nation (Ps. 80:7).他的權力,可能會顯示在個人生活(詩篇69:6 ) ,以及作為民族(詩篇80:7 ) 。 Sometimes he is simply referred to as "the Almighty."有時他乾脆稱為"法力無邊"

The military connotation of the name was not lost, even in the eighth century, for Isaiah appeals to that name to depict the hosts of heaven that accompany Yahweh in his intervention in history (Isa. 13:4).軍事內涵的名字是不會喪失,即使是在8世紀,為以賽亞書呼籲這名字描繪主持人天堂伴隨雅威在他的干預,在歷史上(以賽亞書13:4 ) 。

Elohim耶洛因

This is the more general name for God.這是更普遍的名稱為上帝。 In the Pentateuch, when used as a proper name, it most commonly denotes the more transcendental aspects of God's character.在pentateuch ,當其被用作一個適當的名字時,它最常見的是指更先驗方面上帝的性格。 When God is presented in relation to his creation and to the peoples of the earth in the Pentateuch, the name Elohim is the name most often used.當上帝是在關係到他的創作,並以人民的地球在pentateuch ,人名耶洛因是名字最常用。 It is for this reason that Elohim occurs consistently in the creation account of Gen. 1:1-2:42 and in the genealogies of Genesis.正是出於這個原因,耶洛因不斷發生,在建立帳戶的將軍1:1-2:42 ,在族譜的成因。 Where the context takes on a moral tone, as in Gen. 2:4bff., the name Yahweh is used.在上下文,就在道義上的調子,因為在將軍2時04 bff ,名稱雅威使用。

Throughout Genesis and the early chapters of Exodus elohim is used most often as a proper name.整個成因,並儘早章節逃亡耶洛因,是最常用的是一個適當的名稱。 After Exod.經過exod 。 3 the name begins to occur with increasing frequency as an appellative, that is, "the God of," or "your God." 3名字開始出現的次數越來越作為一個稱謂,那就是"財神" ,或是"你的上帝" 。 This function is by far the most frequent mode of reference to God in the book of Deuteronomy.這個功能是目前最常見的模式參考,以上帝在這本書的申命記。 When used in this fashion the name denotes God as the supreme deity of a person or people.使用時,在這個時尚的名字是指上帝作為最高神的一個人或人民。 Thus, in the frequent expression, "Yahweh your God," Yahweh functions as a proper name, while "God" functions as the denominative of deity.因此,在頻繁的表達, "雅威你的上帝, "雅威職能作為一個適當的名稱,而"上帝"的職能為denominative的神。

The appellative elohim connotes all that God is.該稱謂耶洛因蘊含所有上帝。 As God he is sovereign, and that sovereignty extends beyond Israel into the arena of the nations (Deut. 2:30, 33; 3:22; Isa. 52:10).作為上帝,他是一個主權及主權範圍超出以色列進入舞台上的國家(申命記2:30 , 33 ; 3時22分;伊薩。 52:10 ) 。 As God to his people he is loving and merciful (Deut. 1:31; 2:7; 23:5; Isa. 41:10, 13, 17; 49:5; Jer. 3:23).作為上帝,以他的人,他是愛和慈悲(申命記1時31分; 2時07分; 23時05分;伊薩。 41:10你, 13日, 17日; 49:5 ;哲。 3時23分) 。 He establishes standards of obedience (Deut. 4:2; Jer. 11:3) and sovereignly punishes disobedience (Deut. 23:21).他確立了標準的順從(申命記4時02分;哲。 11時03分)和sovereignly處罰抗命(申命記23時21分) 。 As God, there is no one like him (Isa. 44:7; 45:5-21).作為上帝,沒有一個像他一樣(以賽亞書44:7 ; 45:5-21 ) 。

The same connotations obtain in the use of the shorter form el.同樣的內涵,獲得在使用較短的形式下午。 He is the God who sees (el ro i; Gen. 16:13) and he is el the God of Israel (Gen. 33:20).他是上帝的人看到(滾裝;將軍16:13 ) ,他是下午的神,以色列(創33:20 ) 。

As El Elyon, God is described in his exaltation over all things.薩爾瓦多elyon ,上帝是在形容他的提升超過所有的東西。 There are two definitive passages for this name.有兩個明確的通道,為這個名字。 In Ps.在PS 。 83:18 Yahweh is described as "Most High over the earth," and Isa. 83:18雅威說成是"最高級超過地球" ,和ISA 。 14:14 states, "I will ascend above the heights of the clouds, I will make myself like the Most High." 14時14分, "我將繼承皇位以上高峰的雲層,我會在自己最喜歡的高" 。

However, in the majority of cases the attributes of this name are indistinguishable from other usages of El or Elohim.然而,在大多數情況下屬性這個名字是無法區分的其他慣例薩爾瓦多或耶洛因。 He fixed the boundaries of the nations (Deut. 32:8).他固定的邊界的國家(申命記32:8 ) 。 He effects changes in the creation (Ps. 18:13).他的影響變化,在創造(詩篇18:12 ) 。 El Shaddai occurs most frequently in the Book of Job, where it functions as a general name for the deity.下午shaddai發生最頻繁,在這本書的工作,而其作用是作為一個普通的名字,為神。 As El Shaddai, God disciplines (Job 5:17); he is to be feared (Job 6:14); he is just (Job 8:3); he hears prayer (Job 8:5); and he creates (Job 33:4).薩爾瓦多shaddai ,上帝學科(工作5時17分) ,他是為了怕(職務6時14分) ,他是剛剛(求職8點03分) ;他聽到祈禱(求職8時05分)和他創建(求職33:4 ) 。

This name occurs six times in the patriarchal narratives.這個名字出現的6倍,在重男輕女的敘述。 In most of those instances it is associated with the promise given by God to the patriarchs.在大多數的這些事例中,它是與承諾給予上帝給patriarchs 。 Yet the name is often paired with Yahweh in the poetic material, and thus shares the personal warmth of that name.然而,名字是經常搭配雅威在詩意的素材,因此股價個人溫暖的名字。 He is known for his steadfast love (Ps. 21:7) and his protection (Ps. 91:9-10).他知道他堅定的愛(詩篇21時07分)和他的保護(詩篇91:9-10 ) 。

The root of Adonai means "lord" and, in its secular usage, always refers to a superior in the OT.根adonai意思是"上帝" ,並在其世俗的用法,總是指的是一個優越的,在城市旅遊局。 The word retains the sense of "lord" when applied to God.這個詞保留的責任感"主"的時候,適用於神。 The present pointing of the word in the Massoretic text is late; early manuscripts were written without vowel pointing.目前指向這個詞在massoretic文本已晚;早期手稿是寫在沒有元音指向。

In Ps.在PS 。 110:1 the word is pointed in the singular, as it usually is when it applies to humans rather than God. 110:1一詞,是指在奇異,因為它通常是當它適用於人類,而不是上帝。 Yet Jesus used this verse to argue for his deity.然而耶穌用了這首詩辯稱他的神。 The pointing is Massoretic, and no distinction would be made in the consonantal texts.指向是massoretic ,並沒有區分會在consonantal文本。 Since the word denotes a superior, the word must refer to one who is superior to David and who bears the messianic roles of king and priest (vs. 4).自從這個詞是指上級字必須是指一個人,是優於大衛和誰承擔救世主的角色,國王和牧師(而不是4 ) 。

The name Abba connotes the fatherhood of God.名稱雅伯金曲蘊含了父親的上帝。 This is affirmed by the accompanying translation ho pater ("father") which occurs in each usage of the name in the NT (Mark 14:36; Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:6).這是肯定的隨行翻譯何的父親( "父親" ) ,其中發生在每一個使用該名稱在新台幣(馬克14:36 ;光碟。 8:15 ;加爾。 4:6 ) 。

The use of this name as Jesus' mode of address to God in Mark 14:36 is a unique expression of Jesus' relationship to the Father.使用這個名字,因為耶穌'的模式解決,以上帝的標誌11:24是一個獨特的表達耶穌的關係,以父親的。 Jeremias says, "He spoke to God like a child to its father, simply, inwardly, confidently. Jesus' use of abba in addressing God reveals the heart of his relationship with God" (The Prayers of Jesus, p. 62). jeremias說, "他談到上帝就像一個孩子的父親,簡單地說,內心,信心十足。耶穌的使用雅伯金曲在處理上帝揭示的核心,他與天主的關係" (祈禱的耶穌,第62頁) 。

The same relationship is sustained by the believer with God.同一關係,是由信徒與上帝。 It is only because of the believer's relationship with God, established by the Holy Spirit, that he can address God with this name that depicts a relationship of warmth and filial love.這不僅是因為信仰的關係,與神,成立了由聖靈,他才能解決上帝與這個名字描繪關係的溫暖與孝順。

In a sense the relationship designated by this name is the fulfillment of the ancient promise given to Abraham's offspring that the Lord will be their God, and they his people (Exod. 6:7; Lev. 26:12; Jer. 24:7; 30:22).在一定意義上的關係,指定由這個名字是圓滿的古代許諾給亞伯拉罕的子孫說,耶和華將他們的神,他們自己的人民( exod. 6時07分;列弗。 26:12 ;哲。 24:7 ; 30:22 ) 。

TE McComiskey德麥可米斯基
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
WF Albright, From Stone Age to Christianity; W. Eichrodt, Theology of the OT,I, 178ff.; L. Koehler, OT Theology; J. Schneider et al., NIDNTT, II, 66ff.; G. Oehler, Theology of the OT; M. Reisel, The Mysterious Name of YHWH; HH Rowley, The Faith of Israel; H. Schultz, OT Theology, II, 116ff.; T. Vriezen, An Outline of OT Theology; H. Kleinknecht et al., TDNT, III, 65ff. WF號奧爾布賴特,從石器時代到基督教;總統艾希羅特,神學的職能治療,我, 178ff 。 ;屬克勒,城市旅遊局神學的J.施耐德等人, nidntt ,二, 66ff 。 ; g. oehler ,神學職能治療;米reisel ,神秘的名稱yhwh ;個HH rowley ,信仰,以色列;每小時舒爾茨,城市旅遊局神學,二, 116ff 。 ;湯匙vriezen ,概述了城市旅遊局神學;每小時kleinknecht等人, tdnt ,三, 65ff 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Arguments for the Existence of God 論據為上帝存在
Also, see:此外,見:
Jesus 耶穌
Christ 基督
Bible 聖經
Christianity 基督教

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