Faith信仰

General Information 一般資料

Faith is in general the persuasion of the mind that a certain statement is true (Phil. 1:27; 2 Thess. 2:13).信仰是在一般的遊說,該記住某句話的前半部( phil. 1:27 2帖2時13分) 。 Its primary idea is trust.它的主要思想是信任。 A thing is true, and therefore worthy of trust.一件事情與事實不符,因此值得信任。 It admits of many degrees up to full assurance of faith, in accordance with the evidence on which it rests.它承認許多度高達充分保證信仰的,按照上述證據,它落在。 Faith is the result of teaching (Rom. 10:14-17).信仰是因教學(羅馬書10:14-17 ) 。 Knowledge is an essential element in all faith, and is sometimes spoken of as an equivalent to faith (John 10:38; 1 John 2:3).知識是一個基本要素,在所有信仰,有時口語的,因為相對於信仰(約翰10:38 1約翰2:3 ) 。 Yet the two are distinguished in this respect, that faith includes in it assent, which is an act of the will in addition to the act of the understanding Assent to the truth is of the essence of faith, and the ultimate ground on which our assent to any revealed truth rests is the veracity of God.但兩者之間有區別,在這方面,即信仰包含在它贊同,因為這是法的意志,除該法的理解,贊同以真相是最重要的信仰和終極的地面上,我們贊同任何透露真相在於,是真實性的上帝。

Historical faith is the apprehension of and assent to certain statements which are regarded as mere facts of history.歷史信仰是逮捕,並贊同以某些陳述被視為僅僅是歷史的事實。 Temporary faith is that state of mind which is awakened in men (eg, Felix) by the exhibition of the truth and by the influence of religious sympathy, or by what is sometimes styled the common operation of the Holy Spirit.臨時信念,就是精神狀態,是喚醒男性(例如,費) ,由展覽的真相與受宗教同情,或什麼是有時風格的共同運作,聖靈。 Saving faith is so called because it has eternal life inseparably connected with it.拯救信仰是所謂的,因為它永恆的生命不可分割的聯繫。 It cannot be better defined than in the words of the Assembly's Shorter Catechism: "Faith in Jesus Christ is a saving grace, whereby we receive and rest upon him alone for salvation, as he is offered to us in the gospel."它不能有更好的界定比的話,大會的短問答說: "相信耶穌基督是拯救的恩典,讓我們接受和休息後,他獨自為救贖,因為他是提供給我們的福音" 。 The object of saving faith is the whole revealed Word of God.對象節省信仰是整個顯示上帝的話。

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Faith accepts and believes it as the very truth most sure.真誠地接受,並認為這是非常真相最肯定的。 But the special act of faith which unites to Christ has as its object the person and the work of the Lord Jesus Christ (John 7:38; Acts 16:31).但特別法的信仰團結,以基督為對象的個人和工作的主耶穌基督(約翰7時38分;行為, 16時31分) 。 This is the specific act of faith by which a sinner is justified before God (Rom. 3:22, 25; Gal. 2:16; Phil. 3:9; John 3:16-36; Acts 10:43; 16:31).這是具體的行為,信仰,其中一個罪人,是有道理上帝面前(羅馬書3點22分,第25條;加爾。 2時16分;菲爾。 3時09分;約翰3:16-36 ;行為10:43 ; 16日: 31 ) 。 In this act of faith the believer appropriates and rests on Christ alone as Mediator in all his offices.在這個法令的信念,信奉合適的,並落在基督單獨作為調停人在他的所有辦事處。 This assent to or belief in the truth received upon the divine testimony has always associated with it a deep sense of sin, a distinct view of Christ, a consenting will, and a loving heart, together with a reliance on, a trusting in, or resting in Christ.這贊同或信仰,在真相後,收到了神聖的證詞一向與此相關深刻的意義上的罪過,一個鮮明的觀點基督,同意將,一個充滿愛的心,連同依賴,互相信任,或安息在基督裡。 It is that state of mind in which a poor sinner, conscious of his sin, flees from his guilty self to Christ his Saviour, and rolls over the burden of all his sins on him.正是這種精神狀態,其中一個貧窮的罪人,意識到他的罪過,逃到他承認自我,以他的基督救世主,萬卷以上的負擔他的所有罪過他。 It consists chiefly, not in the assent given to the testimony of God in his Word, but in embracing with fiducial reliance and trust the one and only Saviour whom God reveals.它主要不是在贊同給予的證詞,上帝在他的詞,但在擁抱的Fiducial依賴和信任的唯一的一首救主人神揭示。 This trust and reliance is of the essence of faith.這種信任和依賴是至關重要的信念。

By faith the believer directly and immediately appropriates Christ as his own.所信仰的信徒直接和立即合適耶穌基督為他自己。 Faith in its direct act makes Christ ours.信仰在其直接行為使得基督我們的。 It is not a work which God graciously accepts instead of perfect obedience, but is only the hand by which we take hold of the person and work of our Redeemer as the only ground of our salvation.它不是一個工作,上帝仁慈地接受而不是完美的服從性,但僅僅是一方面,使我們掌握了該人的工作,我們的救贖主,作為唯一的理由,我們的救贖。 Saving faith is a moral act, as it proceeds from a renewed will, and a renewed will is necessary to believing assent to the truth of God (1 Cor. 2:14; 2 Cor. 4:4).拯救誠信是一個道德行為,因為它的收益,從一個新的意願,並重新將要以為贊同向真理的上帝( 1肺心病。 2時14分, 2肺心病。 4時04分) 。 Faith, therefore, has its seat in the moral part of our nature fully as much as in the intellectual.信仰,因此,其所在地在道義上的一部分,我們的性質完全一樣,因為在智力。 The mind must first be enlightened by divine teaching (John 6:44; Acts 13:48; 2 Cor. 4:6; Eph. 1:17, 18) before it can discern the things of the Spirit.頭腦,首先要開明,以神教學(約翰6時44分;行為, 13時48分, 2肺心病。四比六;以弗所書1時17分, 18 ) ,然後才可以辨別事物的精神。

Faith is necessary to our salvation (Mark 16:16), not because there is any merit in it, but simply because it is the sinner's taking the place assigned him by God, his falling in with what God is doing.信仰是必要的,以我們的救贖(標記16:16 ) ,而不是因為有任何好處,而只是因為它是罪人的走位指派他的上帝,他的下降,在與上帝所做的。 The warrant or ground of faith is the divine testimony, not the reasonableness of what God says, but the simple fact that he says it.認股證或地面的信念,是神聖的證詞,而不是合理的是什麼,上帝說,但一個簡單的事實,他說。 Faith rests immediately on, "Thus saith the Lord."真誠地落在馬上就" ,從而仰上主" 。 But in order to this faith the veracity, sincerity, and truth of God must be owned and appreciated, together with his unchangeableness.不過,為了這個信念的真實性,有誠意,而且是真理的上帝,必須擁有和讚賞,連同他unchangeableness 。 God's word encourages and emboldens the sinner personally to transact with Christ as God's gift, to close with him, embrace him, give himself to Christ, and take Christ as his.上帝的話語鼓勵和膽大妄為罪人親自辦理與基督是天主的恩寵,密切與他,擁抱他,讓自己的基督,並以基督為他的。

That word comes with power, for it is the word of God who has revealed himself in his works, and especially in the cross.這個詞來與權力,因為這是上帝的話,他們已發現自己在他的作品中,尤其是在十字架上。 God is to be believed for his word's sake, but also for his name's sake.上帝是可信的,為他所說的話的酒,而且還為他的名字的緣故。 Faith in Christ secures for the believer freedom from condemnation, or justification before God; a participation in the life that is in Christ, the divine life (John 14:19; Rom. 6:4-10; Eph. 4:15,16, etc.); "peace with God" (Rom. 5:1); and sanctification (Acts 26:18; Gal. 5:6; Acts 15:9).在基督裡的信仰保證,為信徒免受譴責,或理由上帝面前,一個參與在學校的生活,就是在基督裡,神聖的生命(約翰14:19 ;光碟。 6:4-10 ;厄。 4:15,16等) ; "和平與上帝" (羅馬書5:1 )和成聖(使徒行26:18 ;加爾。 5時06分;行為, 15時09分) 。 All who thus believe in Christ will certainly be saved (John 6:37, 40; 10:27, 28; Rom. 8:1).所有的人據此認為,在基督裡一定會得救(約翰6時37分,第40條; 10:27 , 28條;光碟。 8:1 ) 。 The faith=the gospel (Acts 6:7; Rom. 1: 5; Gal. 1:23; 1 Tim. 3:9; Jude 3).信仰=福音(使徒6時07分;光碟1 : 5人;加爾。 1:23 ,一添。 3時09分;裘德3 ) 。


Christian Faith基督教信仰

(Editor's Comments) (編者的評論)

To a Christian believer, the articles of this presentation probably will make sense, but a non-believer might have great difficulty comprehending the concept of Christian Faith.一個基督教信仰者,文章的這一介紹,大概會是有意義的,但是一個非信仰者,可能有很大的困難,理解概念的基督教信仰。 For this purpose, we chose to interject an analogy here.為達到此目的,我們選擇了介入此打個比喻。

Imagine that a very nice stranger came to your town, and that he asked you to do something that would be very difficult for you.想像一個很不錯的陌生人來到你的城市,而他要求你做的東西,便很難向你提供。 He asks you to collect ALL the money and assets you have ever accumulated in your life, including car title, house title and all the rest, and to flush it all down a toilet!他讓你去收集所有的錢和資產,你是否曾經累積在你的生活中,包括汽車所有權,房屋所有權和全部休息,並給它沖水全部下廁所! Everything!一切! But why would you even consider doing that?但為什麼你會甚至考慮這樣做呢? Because this nice man says that once you do that, the future will bring enormous financial prosperity to you, beyond your wildest imagination!因為這個好人說,一旦你這樣做的話,將來會帶來巨大的財政繁榮給你,以後你瘋狂的想像力!

(You might note that this analogy resembles all of the huge Lottery programs that many States now operate, but in a more extreme sense.) You certainly want to listen to this nice man, because he keeps talking about unimaginable wealth and prosperity! (您可能注意到,這個比喻極為相似,所有的巨額彩票的節目,許多國家現在經營的,但在一個更極端的意義上) ,你一定想聽聽這個好人,因為他不斷談論難以想像的財富與繁榮! But why can't you just flush "a little" down the toilet?但為什麼你不只是沖水"一小"打倒廁所嗎? He tells you that will not work, and that you would have to flush absolutely everything that you own of material value in order for this to work.他告訴大家,你會不會工作,你將不得不沖水絕對一切,你擁有的物質價值,為了做到這一點的工作。

Can you imagine the dilemma you would be contemplating?你能想像的困境,你會不做嗎? If this nice man can be trusted to be telling the truth, then you are absolutely guaranteed of unimaginable wealth.如果這個好人,可以信任,可說實話,那你就是絕對保證難以想像的財富。 But what if it doesn't work, or if he is lying to you?但是,如果它不工作,或如果他是在向你們說謊? In that case, everything you have ever worked for is gone forever, and you are now destitute.在這種情況下,一切你都工作了,已經一去不復返了,你現在一無所有。 No "shades of gray" are available here, your choice is very simply "black or white", yes or no.沒有"色塊" ,可在這裡,你的選擇是很簡單的"黑或白" ,是或不是。

So, how do you wind up resolving this situation?所以,你怎麼結業解決這種情況呢? You think and think, and you try to figure out this nice man.您的想法和意見覺得,而且你設法弄清楚這個好人。 You have absolutely no evidence whatever that what he says is actually true!你絕對沒有任何證據不管它是什麼,他說,其實是真! But the reward is so attractive that it is very hard to ignore.但獎勵是如此有吸引力,這是很難忽視的問題。 At some point, you will have to decide whether you really, really believe what he is saying or not, without any way to confirm your choice.在某一點上,你將不得不決定是否你真的,真的相信他只是說,或者沒有,如果沒有以任何方式,以確認您的選擇。

You can easily see that many people would choose to consider him a liar or a scoundrel or simply a misinformed nice man, and thereby pass on that opportunity.你可以很容易看到,很多人會選擇認為他說謊,或歹徒或只是一種錯誤的好人,從而通過對這一機會。 However, there would also be some people who would accept the offer, for any of a number of personal reasons.然而,也有些人會接受這項提議,因為任何一個號碼的個人原因。 There are some people who are extremely trusting, and they would agree very quickly.有一些人是非常信任的,他們都會同意,非常快。 There are others who are more cautious or skeptical, and would only agree after studying the man for a while, watching for any errors or inconsistencies, and eventually concluding that they did not see any.還有一些其他人更加謹慎或懷疑,並會只同意研究後,該名男子有一陣子,看任何錯誤或不一致,並最終得出結論說,他們並沒有見到。 There are yet others who might be skeptical people, but who have recently experienced horrendous hardship and have already "lost everything" and so feel that they have little to lose.有,但其他人可能會持懷疑態度的人,但他們最近所經歷的可怕的困境,並已"失去了一切" ,因此覺得他們沒有什麼可以輸的。 After all, if all you have in the world is a nickel, flushing that nickel down a toilet might not be unusually stressful.畢竟,如果你在世界上是一種鎳,沖廁鎳下廁所未必異常壓力。

This analogy is meant to show the main aspects of Faith.這個比喻,是指以示為主要內容的信念。 A person has already established something that is felt to be of (great) value, a personality and a way of living.一個人已經確立了的東西,是認為可以的(大)的價值,人格和生活的方式。 Then along comes Christianity, which expects the person to voluntarily dismiss many of the central thoughts and behaviors which have been built up, and for what?更有人乾脆直接基督教,其中期望的人,以自願解僱許多中央思想和行為,其中也建立起來,並做什麼? For the "absolute promise" of future happiness and prosperity that cannot be imagined!為"絕對承諾" ,今後的幸福和繁榮是不能想像的! And the "program" is such that it cannot be done "part way"; it is presented as an all or nothing choice.和"綱要"正是這樣,它不可能一蹴而就, "一部分" ,這是作為一個全有或全無的選擇。 When each person evaluates this opportunity, the reactions and responses are many and varied.當每個人的評價,以此為契機,反應和應對措施是多方面的。 There are some who are trusting and who immediately accept.也有一些人相信和他們立即接受。 There are others who are very "practical" and who insist on "solid evidence" before agreeing, and since such absolute proof is not available, they are unwilling to make a commitment, and maybe they never will.有些人是很"實際" ,並堅持"確鑿的證據" ,才同意,而且由於這種絕對的證據是不到位的,他們是不願作出承諾,他們可能永遠也不會。 In between, there are countless people who are attracted to the possibility of Everlasting Life and Happiness in Heaven, but who are (rightfully, in the modern world) skeptical of such amazing offers.在這兩者之間,有無數的人吸引到的可能性,永恆的生命和幸福,在天堂,但他們(合法,在現代世界中)持懷疑態度的這種驚人的優惠。 They want to learn everything they can about what is claimed by Christianity and about this "Jesus" around Whom it all depends.他們想了解一切,他們能有什麼聲稱基督教與這個"耶穌"周圍的人都有賴於此。

But no matter how much studying they will do, no one will ever find absolute proof that the claims (which are therefore called beliefs) of Christianity are actually true.但不管有多少研究,他們將如何行動,沒有人會找到絕對的證據表明債權(其中,因此,所謂的信仰)的基督教其實是真的。 So, however an individual arrives at that point, a "leap of Faith" is eventually necessary, if the person is to make the "total commitment" that is necessary.如此,但個人抵在這一點上,一個"飛躍的信念" ,最終是必要的,如果此人是使"共承擔" ,這是必要的。

It is reasonable to think of it this way: the Lord offers each person a sort of "contract".這是合理想,這樣說:上帝給予每個人的一種"契約" 。 On His side, He offers entrance to Heaven and eternal Happiness.就在他身旁,他提供了入口天堂和永恆的幸福。 On the person's side, the contract requirements are relatively simple but absolutely required, that of a total commitment to the Lord God as the One and Only god, and of a consistent belief and behavior from that moment on.對人的方面,合同規定是相對簡單的,但絕對要求,即共承諾向上帝作為唯一的一神,和始終如一的信念和行為,從這一刻起。 This "contract" is referred to as Salvation.這個"合同" ,是被稱為救贖。 The person does NOT receive a written copy of it!該人不接受書面副本! It is entirely on Faith that a person must continue to believe that the Salvation contract is in effect, since the actual proof will not be available until after physical death.這完全是對信仰的,一個人要繼續相信這救恩合同是效果,因為實際證明,將無法使用,直到肉體死亡之後。

The scholarly articles in this presentation tend to imply that Faith is a rather cold and impersonal subject.大量的學術文章,在此陳述往往意味著信念是一個相當寒冷和人性主題。 In order for Christian Faith to develop and exist, we believe that it MUST be extremely personal and even emotional.為了使基督教信仰的發展和存在,我們認為,它必須是非常個人,甚至情緒化。 That being the case, then dictionary definitions or ANY mere words can never fully describe it, and this analogy and these words are meant to try to express that intangible aspect of Faith.既然如此,那麼字典的定義或任何單純的話,可以永遠不能完全描述它,這個比喻和這句話的意思,試圖表達這一無形資產方面的信仰。

An additional point might be made, which represents a sort of hedging around Faith!另外一點可能提出的,它代表著一種對沖左右信念! Blaise Pascal is recognized as one of the greatest minds of history.布萊斯帕斯卡被公認是其中一個最大的頭腦中的歷史。 He proposed some comments that are now referred to as Pascal's wager.他提出了一些意見認為,現在被稱為帕斯卡爾的下注。 It was his (analytical) argument for believing in God.這是他(分析)的說法相信上帝。 He first observed that the beliefs of Christianity are either true or they are not.他首先指出,信仰的基督教不是真還是假,他們是沒有意義的。 If they are true, and one "wagers" that they are true, then Eternal Bliss is gained.如果他們是真的,一個"賭" ,他們是真的話,那麼永恆的極樂世界,是獲益良多。 If those beliefs are wrong or false, and death is final, what has the bettor lost?如果這些信念是錯的或假的,死是最終決定,有什麼投注失去了什麼? On the other hand, if the person wagers against God's existence and turns out to be wrong, the result is Eternal Damnation.在另一方面,如果此人賭對上帝的存在和原來是錯的,其結果是永恆damnation 。 Pascal felt that this argument avoided the need for Faith in deciding to believe in God and Christianity!帕斯卡爾認為,這種說法迴避了需要信仰在決定要相信上帝和基督教!


Faith信仰

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Faith is the noun corresponding to the verb "believe," for which the Hebrew is heemin, the hiphil form of aman, and the Greek (LXX and NT) pisteuo.信仰是名詞相對應的動詞"相信" ,而希伯來語是heemin ,役式的形式,阿曼,和希臘( lxx和NT ) pisteuo 。 The latter is a key word in the NT, being the term regularly used to denote the many sided religious relationship into which the gospel calls men and women, that of trust in God through Christ.後者是一個關鍵的字眼,在新台幣,被一詞經常用來指許多片面的宗教關係帶入其中福音呼籲男人和女人,也就是信靠上帝透過基督。 The complexity of this idea is reflected in the variety of constructions used with the verb (a hoti clause, or accusative and infinitive, expressing truth believed; en and epi with the dative, denoting restful reliance on that to which, or him to whom, credit is given; eis and, occasionally, epi with the accusative, the most common, characteristic, and original NT usage, scarcely present in the LXX and not at all in classical Greek, conveying the thought of a move - ment of trust going out to, and laying hold of, the object of its confidence).的複雜性,這一主張是反映在各種建築用的動詞(一霍蒂條款,或accusative和不定式,表示相信真理; EN和計劃免疫與格組成,代表寧靜的依賴,為這,還是他的人,信用是鑑於; EIS的,偶然計劃免疫與accusative ,最常見的,特點,以及原新台幣使用,目前幾乎在lxx並沒有這回事,在古典希臘語,傳達思想的舉動-m ent信託走出去,並鋪設舉行的,該物體的,其可信度) 。 The Hebrew noun corresponding to aman (emuna, rendered pistis in the LXX), regularly denotes faithfulness in the sense of trustworthiness, and pistis occasionally bears this sense in the NT (Rom. 3:3, of God; Matt. 23:23; Gal. 5:22; Titus 2:10, of man).希伯來名詞對應訊( emuna ,提供了信實的,在lxx ) ,經常是指忠誠,在意義上的可信賴性,和信實的,偶爾熊這個意義上講,在新台幣(羅馬書3點03分,神;馬特。 23時23分;半乳糖。 5時22分;弟兄2時10分,男子) 。

The word emuna normally refers to the faithfulness of God, and only in Hab. 字emuna通常是指以信神的,而且只有在民政事務局。 2:4 is it used to signify man's religious response to God. There, however, the contrast in the context between the temper of the righteous and the proud self sufficiency of the Chaldeans seems to demand for it a broader sense than "faithfulness" alone, the sense, namely, of self renouncing, trustful reliance upon God, the attitude of heart of which faithfulness in life is the natural expression. 2時04分,是它用,以顯示男子的宗教回應上帝的存在 ,但是,相比之下,在上下文之間脾氣的正義和自豪自給自足的迦勒底似乎需求,它更廣泛的意義上,比"信"獨,意識,即自我放棄的,令人信賴的依靠上帝,態度心髒病,其中忠實的生活是自然的表達。 This is certainly the sense in which the apostolic writers quote the text (Rom. 1:17; Gal. 3:11; Heb. 10:38), and the sense which pistis, like pisteuo, regularly carries in the NT, where both words are used virtually as technical terms (John preferring the verb, Paul the noun) to express the complex thought of unqualified acceptance of, and exclusive dependence on, the mediation of the Son as alone securing the mercy of the Father.這當然是常識,其中使徒作家引述文(羅馬書1時17分;加爾。 3時11分;以弗所書10:38 ) ,和責任感,其中信實的,像pisteuo ,經常佩帶在新台幣,而這兩個換句話說,是用幾乎是作為技術術語(約翰寧願動詞,保羅名詞) ,以表達複雜的思想,無條件接受,並獨家依賴,調解的兒子獨自爭取憐憫的父親。

Both normally bear this whole weight of meaning, whether their grammatical object is God, Christ, the gospel, a truth, a promise, or is not expressed at all.雙方通常背負這個整體重量的意義,無論是其語法對象是上帝,基督的福音,一個真相,一個承諾,或者是不表示都沒有。 Both signify commitment as following from conviction, even in contexts where faith is defined in terms of the latter only (eg, compare Heb. 11:1 with the rest of the chapter).兩者表明了承諾作為繼來自信念,即使在內容而定信念,是指按後只(例如,比較以弗所書11時01分,與其餘的一章) 。 The nature of faith, according to the NT, is to live by the truth it receives; faith, resting on God's promise, gives thanks for God's grace by working for God's glory.性質的信仰,跟隨新台幣,是靠真理,它接收; 信念,休息對上帝的承諾,給予感謝上帝的恩典工作,為上帝的榮耀。

Some occasional contractions of this broad idea should be noticed:偶爾有些矛盾的這種廣泛的構思中應注意:

  1. James, alone of NT writers, uses both noun and verb to denote bare intellectual assent to truth (James 2:14 - 26).詹姆斯,僅新台幣作家,同時使用名詞和動詞是指裸露智力贊同真理(詹姆斯2時14 -2 6) 。 But here he is explicitly mimicking the usage of those whom he seeks to correct, Jewish converts, who may well have inherited their notion of faith from contemporary Jewish sources, and there is no reason to suppose that this usage was normal or natural to him (his reference to faith in 5:15, eg, clearly carries a fuller meaning).但在這裡,他明確地模仿用法的人,他的目的是正確的話,猶太教皈依,他們很可能是繼承了他們的觀念,信仰,從當代猶太來源,因此沒有理由認為這種用法是正常的或自然的,以他(指他提到信仰,在下午5時15 ,例如,顯然帶有更充分的意思) 。 In any case the point he makes, namely, that a merely intellectual "faith," such as the demons have, is inadequate, is wholly in line with the rest of the NT.在任何情況下,點他,那就是純粹的知識分子"信仰" ,如惡魔,是不夠的,是完全符合其餘的新台幣。 For example, when James says, "Faith without works is dead" (2:26), he is saying the same as Paul, who says in essence, "Faith without works is not faith at all, but its opposite" (cf. Gal. 5:6; 1 Tim. 5:8).舉例來說,當詹姆斯說, "如果沒有信仰的作品,是死了" ( 2時26分) ,他是說同樣的,作為保羅,他說,實質上, "信念,沒有工程,是不是真誠地在所有,但其相反的" (見半乳糖。 5時06分,一添。 5時08分) 。

  2. Occasionally, by a natural transition, "the faith" denotes the body of truths believed (eg, Jude 3; Rom. 1:5; Gal. 1:23; 1 Tim. 4:1, 6).偶爾,是一個自然的過渡, "誠信"是指身體的真理,相信(例如,裘德3 ;光碟。 1:5 ;加爾。 1:23 ,一添。 4:1 , 6 ) 。 This became standard usage in the second century.這成為標準使用中的第二個世紀。

  3. From Christ himself derives a narrower use of "faith" for an exercise of trust which works miracles (Matt. 17:20 - 21; 1 Cor. 12:9; 13:2), or prompts the workings of miracles (Matt. 9: 28 - 29; 15:28; Acts 14:9). Saving faith is not always accompanied by "miracle - faith," however (1 Cor. 12:9); nor vice versa (cf. Matt. 7:22 - 23). 從耶穌本身源於較窄使用的"信念" ,為行使信任的工程奇蹟 。 ( 17:20 -2 11肺心病。 1 2時0 9分; 1 3時0 2分) ,或提示的運作奇蹟。 (九日: 28 -2 9; 1 5:28;行為, 1 4時0 9分) 。挽救信仰是不會總是伴隨著"的奇蹟-真誠,"但是(1肺心病。1 2時0 9分) ;也不反之亦然(參見馬特。7時2 2分- 23 ) 。

General Conception總體構想

Three points must be noted for the circumscribing of the biblical idea of faith:有三點必須指出,為繞過的聖經中的思想信仰:

Faith in God Involves Right Belief about God對上帝的信仰是涉及權利的信念,對上帝

The word "faith" in ordinary speech covers both credence of propositions ("beliefs") and confidence in persons or things.用"誠信"在平凡的講話涵蓋科利登的命題( "信仰" )和信任的人或事物。 In the latter case some belief about the object trusted is the logical and psychological presupposition of the act of trust itself, for trust in a thing reflects a positive expectation about its behavior, and rational expectation is impossible if the thing's capacities for behavior are wholly unknown. Throughout the Bible trust in God is made to rest on belief of what he has revealed concerning his character and purposes.在後一種情況下,一些關於信仰的對象,是值得信賴的邏輯和心理預設的行為信託本身,信任的事,反映了一個積極的期望,對自己的行為,合理的期待是不可能的,如果這件事的能力,行為,是完全未知整個聖經信賴上帝,是休息,對信仰的是什麼,他透露,關於他的性質和宗旨。 In the NT, where faith in God is defined as trust in Christ, the acknowledgment of Jesus as the expected Messiah and the incarnate Son of God is regarded as basic to it. 在新台幣,而對上帝的信仰是定義為信託在基督裡,承認耶穌為預期彌賽亞和肉身的神的兒子是被視為基本給它。

The writers allow that faith in some form can exist where as yet information about Jesus is incomplete (Acts 19:1ff.), but not where his divine identity and Christhood are consciously denied作家允許信仰某種形式可以存在尚未了解耶穌是不完整的(行為, 19時01分幾段) ,而不是如他的神的身份和christhood都自覺地否認

1 John 2:22 - 23; 2 John 7 - 9); all that is possible then is idolatry (1 John 5:21), the worship of a manmade unreality.約翰一2時22分-2 32的確- 9) ;一切可能,然後是偶像崇拜(1約翰5點2 1分) ,拜一個人為虛幻。 The frequency with which the epistles depict faith as knowing, believing, and obeying "the truth" (Titus 1:1; 2 Thess. 2:13; 1 Pet. 1:22, etc.) show that their authors regarded orthodoxy as faith's fundamental ingredient (cf. Gal. 1:8 - 9).頻率與教會中描繪信念作為知,信,行,並服從"真理" ( 1:1弟兄2帖2時13分,一寵物。 1:22 ,等等)表明,其作者認為,作為正統信仰的基本成分(參見加爾。 1:8 -9 ) 。

Faith Rests on Divine Testimony信仰在於對神的證詞

Beliefs, as such, are convictions held on grounds, not of self evidence, but of testimony. Whether particular beliefs should be treated as known certainties or doubtful opinions will depend on the worth of the testimony on which they are based.信仰的,因為這樣的,是被定罪的召開為理由,而不是自我證據,但證詞是否特定信仰應該被視為已知的確定性或疑問意見,將在很大程度上依賴於價值的證詞對他們的基礎。 The Bible views faith's convictions as certainties and equates them with knowledge (1 John 3:2; 5:18 - 20, etc.), not because they spring from supposedly self authenticating mystical experience, but because they rest on the testimony of a God who "cannot lie" (Titus 1:2) and is therefore utterly trustworthy. The testimony of Christ to heavenly things (John 3:11, 31 - 32), and of the prophets and apostles to Christ (Acts 10:39 - 43), is the testimony of God himself (1 John 5:9ff.); this God - inspired witness is God's own witness (cf. 1 Cor. 2:10 - 13; 1 Thess. 2:13), in such a sense that to receive it is to certify that God is true (John 3:33), and to reject it is to make God a liar (1 John 5:10). 聖經的觀點信仰的信念作為確定性和等同於他們的知識( 1約翰3:2 ; 5時18 -2 0等) ,而不是因為他們從春天理應自我認證神秘經驗,而是因為他們休息的證詞是上帝"不能睜著眼睛說瞎話" (提1:2 ) ,因而是完全可以信賴的隊伍。基督的見證,以天理的事(約翰3點11分, 31 -3 2) ,以及先知和使徒,以基督(使徒1 0時3 9- 43 ) ,是見證著上帝( 1約翰5點09分及以下) , 這上帝-靈感證人是上帝自己的證人(參見一肺心病。 2時1 0- 13 :1帖2時1 3分) ,在這種意義上為了得到它,以證明上帝是真的(約翰3點33分) ,並拒絕接受,它是使上帝的一個騙子( 1約翰17:10 ) 。

Christian faith rests on the recognition of apostolic and biblical testimony as God's own testimony to his Son. 基督徒的信仰,就必須承認使徒和聖經的證詞,因為神的本身就證明他的兒子。

Faith Is a Supernatural Divine Gift信仰是一種超自然的神聖禮物

Sin and Satan have so blinded fallen men (Eph. 4:18; 2 Cor. 4:4) that they cannot discern dominical and apostolic witness to be God's word, nor "see" and comprehend the realities of which it speaks (John 3:3; 1 Cor. 2:14), nor "come" in selfrenouncing trust to Christ (John 6:44, 65), till the Holy Spirit has enlightened them (cf. 2 Cor. 4:6).單仲偕和撒旦有如此利令智昏塌男(以弗所書4時18分, 2肺心病。 4時04分) ,他們不能辨別dominical和使徒的見證被上帝的話語,也沒有"看到"和理解的現實,它講(約翰三日: 3 1肺心病。 2時14分) ,也不是"來" selfrenouncing信任,以基督(約翰6時44分, 65歲) ,一直到聖靈啟迪了他們(參見第2肺心病。 4:6 ) 。 Only the recipients of this divine "teaching," "drawing," and "anointing" come to Christ and abide in him (John 6:44 - 45; 1 John 2:20, 27). God is thus the author of all saving faith Eph.只有領取這個神聖的"教學" , "繪畫" , " anointing "來基督,並遵守在他(約翰6時44 -4 5;約翰一2時2 0分, 2 7) 。上帝,所以作者的所有儲蓄信仰厄。 2:8; Phil. 2時08分;菲爾。 1:29). 1時29分) 。

Biblical Presentation聖經介紹

Throughout Scripture, God's people live by faith; but the idea of faith develops as God's revelation of grace and truth, on which faith rests, enlarges.整個經文,上帝的人活著,是因信,不過,這個想法,信仰的發展,因為神的啟示的恩典與真理,而在於信仰,而擴大。 The OT variously defines faith as resting, trusting, and hoping in the Lord, cleaving to him, waiting for him, making him our shield and tower, taking refuge in him, etc. Psalmists and prophets, speaking in individual and national terms respectively, present faith as unwavering trust in God to save his servants from their foes and fulfill his declared purpose of blessing them.職能治療各種界定信念作為休息,信任,並希望在上帝,劈他,等待他,使我們對他盾牌及塔式,躲藏在他的,等psalmists與先知,在個人和國家的條款,分別目前信念堅定不移的信任,在上帝拯救他的僕人,從他們的敵人和履行其申報的目的,祝福他們。 Isaiah, particularly, denounces reliance on human aid as inconsistent with such trust (Isa. 30:1 - 18, etc.).以賽亞書,尤其是譴責依賴人力的援助,不符合這樣的信任(以賽亞30:1 -1 8等) 。 The NT regards the self despairing hope, world renouncing obedience, and heroic tenacity by which OT believers manifested their faith as a pattern which Christians must reproduce (Rom. 4:11 - 25; Heb. 10:39 - 12:2).新台幣對於自我絕望的希望,世界放棄服從,和英雄的堅韌性,使城市旅遊局信徒體現了他們的信仰,作為一種模式,其中基督教徒必須複製(羅馬書4時11分-2 5條;以弗所書1 0時3 9分- 12 :2)。 Continuity is avowed here, but also novelty; for faith, receiving God's new utterance in the words and deeds of Christ (Heb. 1:1 - 2), has become a knowledge of present salvation.連續性是真有在這裡,但也新意,為信仰,接受神的新的話語,在言行基督(希伯來書1:1 -2 ) ,已成為一個以知識目前的救贖。

Faith, so regarded, says Paul, first "came" with Christ (Gal. 3:23 - 25).信仰,因此認為,保羅說,首先"誕生"與基督( gal. 3時23 -2 5) 。 The Gospels show Christ demanding trust in himself as bearing the messianic salvation. John is fullest on this, emphasizing (1) that faith ("believing on," "coming to," and "receiving" Christ) involves acknowledging Jesus, not merely as a God - sent teacher and miracle worker (this is insufficient, John 2:23 - 24), but as God incarnate (John 20:28), whose atoning death is the sole means of salvation (John 3:14 - 15; 6:51 - 58); (2) that faith in Christ secures present enjoyment of "eternal life" in fellowship with God (John 5:24; 17:3). The epistles echo this, and present faith in various further relationships.福音顯示基督要求信任自己軸承救世主的救贖。 約翰是最充分的關於這點,強調: ( 1 )信仰( "相信對" , "來" , "接受"基督)涉及承認基督耶穌,而不是僅僅作為神-派出教師和奇蹟的工人(這是不夠的,約翰2時2 3- 24 ),但作為上帝的肉身(約翰20時2 8分) ,其a t oning死亡是唯一的手段救贖(約翰3點1 4分- 1 56 : 51 -5 8) ; ( 2 )在基督裡的信仰保證目前享有的"永生"在團契與上帝(約翰5點2 4分; 1 7:3) 。教會迴聲這一點,和現在的信仰在各個進一步的關係。 Paul shows that faith in Christ is the only way to a right relationship with God, which human works cannot gain (see Romans and Galatians); Hebrews and 1 Peter present faith as the dynamic of hope and endurance under persecution.保羅表明,在基督裡的信仰是唯一的出路,以權利與天主的關係,其中人類工程不能獲得(見羅馬和加拉太) ;以色列人和1名彼得目前信念作為動力的希望和耐力下迫害。

History of Discussion歷史上的討論

The church grasped from the first that assent to apostolic testimony is the fundamental element in Christian faith; hence the concern of both sides in the Gnostic controversy to show that their tenets were genuinely apostolic.教會的把握,從第一次核可,以使徒的證詞是最根本的要素,在基督徒的信仰,因此,關注雙方在諾斯替爭議,以證明他們的信條是真正有使徒。

During the patristic period, however, the idea of faith was so narrowed that this assent came to be regarded as the whole of it.在教父的時期,然而,理念,信仰的是如此狹窄,這贊同來到被視為整個資訊科技。 Four factors together caused this: (1) the insistence of the anti Gnostic fathers, particularly Tertullian, that the faithful are those who believe "the faith" as stated in the "rule of faith" (regula fidei), ie, the Creed; (2) the intellectualism of Clement and Origen, to whom pistis (assent on authority) was just an inferior substitute for, and stepping stone to, gnosis (demonstrative knowledge) of spiritual things; (3) the assimilation of biblical morality to Stoic moralism, an ethic not of grateful dependence but of resolute selfreliance; (4) the clothing of the biblical doctrine of communion with God in Neoplatonic dress, which made it appear as a mystical ascent to the supersensible achieved by aspiring love, having no link with the ordinary exercise of faith at all.有4個因素共同造成了這一: ( 1 )堅持戰鬥在反腐敗的諾斯替父親,尤其是戴爾都良,即忠誠,是那些相信"誠信為本"的聲明,在"法治誠信" (規範信) ,即,信仰; ( 2 )知識分子的克萊門特和淵源,向誰信實的(核可,就管理局)只是一個劣質的替代品,並踏腳石,預後(示範性知識)的精神的東西, ( 3 )同化的聖經道德斯多葛道德主義,倫理不是感激的依賴,但堅決自立; (四)服裝的聖經教義與上帝在neoplatonic著裝,這使得它似乎是一個神秘上升到supersensible實現抱負的愛,沒有結合一般意義上的演練的信念都沒有。

Also, since the doctrine of justification was not understood, the soteriological significance of faith was misconceived, and faith (understood as orthodox) was regarded simply as the passport to baptism (remitting all past sins) and to a lifelong probation in the church (giving the baptized opportunity to make themselves worthy of glory by their good works).同時,自學說的理由是不理解, soteriological意義的信仰是錯的,與信仰(理解為東正教) ,被認為是純粹作為護照的洗禮(匯款過去所有的罪過) ,並終身感化在教會(給該洗禮的機會,也使自己無愧于光榮,他們的優秀作品) 。

The scholastics refined this view.該scholastics精製這種看法。 They reproduced the equation of faith with credence, distinguishing between fides informis ("unformed" faith, bare orthodoxy) and fides caritate formata (credence "formed" into a working principle by the supernatural addition to it of the distinct grace of love).他們抄錄了方程的信仰與輕信,區分惹人informis ( "未"信念,裸正統)和惹人caritate formata (輕信" ,形成了"到了一個工作原則,由超自然的,除了它的鮮明的恩典愛) 。 Both sorts of faith, they held, are meritorious works, though the quality of merit attaching to the first is merely congruent (rendering divine reward fit, though not obligatory), and only the second gains condign merit (making divine reward due as a matter of justice).無論各種各樣的信仰,他們舉行,是有功的工程,雖然品質優異依附第一只是全等(渲染神懸賞適合,但並非強制性的) ,而只有第二收益適宜優異(使神聖的懸賞由於作為事司法部) 。 Roman Catholicism still formally identifies faith with credence, and has added a further refinement by distinguishing between "explict" faith (belief which knows its object) and "implicit" faith (uncomprehending assent to whatever it may be that the church holds).羅馬天主教仍然是正式確定了信仰與信任,並已加入了一項進一步細化區分"顯式"的信仰(信仰所知悉,其對象)和"內隱"信仰(根本不贊同什麼,它可能是教會舉行) 。 Only the latter (which is evidently no more than a vote of confidence in the teaching church and may be held with complete ignorance of Christianity) is thought to be required of laymen for salvation. But a mere docile disposition of this sort is poles apart from the biblical concept of saving faith. 只有後者(這顯然是不超過投下信心的一票,在教學中教會和可能被追究完全無知的基督教) ,是被認為有需要的是外行,為救贖,但只是溫順的處置這一排序是南轅北轍聖經中的概念,節省的信仰。

The Reformers restored biblical perspectives by insisting that faith is more than orthodoxy, not fides merely, but fiducia, personal trust and confidence in God's mercy through Christ; that it is not a meritorious work, one facet of human righteousness, but rather an appropriating instrument, an empty hand outstretched to receive the free gift of God's righteousness in Christ; that faith is God - given, and is itself the animating principle from which love and good works spontaneously spring; and that communion with God means, not an exotic rapture of mystical ecstasy, but just faith's everyday commerce with the Savior. Confessional Protestantism has always maintained these positions. In Arminianism there resides a tendency to depict faith as the human work upon which the pardon of sin is suspended, as, in fact, man's contribution to his own salvation. 改革者恢復了聖經的觀點,堅持信仰的是多正統,而不是目的,只是,但fiducia ,個人的信任和信心,在上帝的憐憫,透過基督的 ,這不僅是功勳卓著的工作,一個小面人的正義,而是挪用儀器,一個空洞的手outstretched獲得免費的禮物上帝的公義,在基督信仰是上帝-賦予,而且本身的生動活潑的原則,從其中的愛與善自發彈簧,並認為與上帝的手段,而不是一個外來的破裂神秘的狂喜,而只是信仰的日常商務與救世主。 自白新教始終保持了這些職位。 arminianism有寓於一種傾向描繪信念作為人的工作後,該原諒的罪過是暫停,因為,事實上,人類的貢獻他自己的救贖。 This would be in effect a Protestant revival of the doctrine of human merit.這將是對基督教的復活學說的人是有道理的。

Liberalism radically psychologized faith, reducing it to a sense of contented harmony with the Infinite through Christ (Schleiermacher), or a fixed resolve to follow Christ's teaching (Ritschl), or both together.自由主義從根本上psychologized信念,減少它的感覺知足和諧與無限透過基督(施萊爾馬赫) ,或定額決心追隨基督的教誨(里奇爾) ,或兩者一起。 Liberal influence is reflected in the now widespread supposition that "faith," understood as an optimistic confidence in the friendliness of the universe, divorced from any specific creedal tenets, is a distinctively religious state of mind.自由的影響,已反映在現在人們普遍的假設認為, "信念" ,理解為是一種樂觀的信心,在友善的宇宙中,脫離特定creedal原理,是一個鮮明的宗教的精神狀態。 Neo orthodox and existentialist theologians, reacting against this psychologism, stress the supernatural origin and character of faith.新東正教和存在主義神學家,反應,對這一psychologism ,強調超自然的起源和性質的信仰。 They describe it as an active commitment of mind and will, man's repeated "yes" to the repeated summons to decision issued by God's word in Christ; but the elusiveness of their account of the content of that word makes it hard sometimes to see what the believer is thought to say "yes" to.他們形容這是一個積極的承諾的心態和意志,人的反复"是"一再傳喚,以決定發出的上帝的話語,在基督,但elusiveness其帳戶的內容,這個詞使他很難,有時看到什麼擁護者認為是說"是" 。

Clearly, each theologian's view of the nature and saving significance of faith will depend on the views he holds of the Scriptures, and of God, man, and of their mutual relations. 顯然,每一個神學家的觀點,對危險的性質和節能的意義,信仰的,將取決於意見,他持有的誦經,神,人,以及它們彼此之間的關係。

JI Packer繼封隔器
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
ED Burton, Galatians; BB Warfield in HDB and Biblical and Theological Studies; GH Box in HDCG; JG Machen, What is Faith?海關伯頓,加拉太; BB心跳沃菲爾德在建屋局與聖經和神學研究;生長激素盒hdcg ; jg machen ,什麼是信仰呢? B Citron, New Birth; systematic theologies of C Hodge (III) and L Berkhof (IV, viii); DM Baillie, Faith in God; G CBerkouwer, Faith and Justification; J Hick, Faith and Knowledge; O Becker and O Michel, NIDNTT, II; A Weiser, TDNT, VI; DM Emmet, Philosophy and Faith. b柚子,新的誕生;系統化神學的C Hodge的(三)和L ,伯克霍夫(四,八) ;馬克baillie ,對上帝的信仰;克cberkouwer ,信念和理由; j hick ,信仰和知識; o貝克爾和O米歇爾nidntt ,二; weiser , tdnt ,六;馬克埃米特,哲學和信仰。


Faith信仰

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

I. THE MEANING OF THE WORD一,詞的含義

(Pistis, fides). (信實的,惹人) 。 In the Old Testament, the Hebrew means essentially steadfastness, cf.在舊約,希伯來語手段基本上堅定性,比照。 Exod., xvii, 12, where it is used to describe the strengthening of Moses' hands; hence it comes to mean faithfulness, whether of God towards man (Deuteronomy 32:4) or of man towards God (Ps. cxviii, 30). exod , 17 , 12 ,如果這是用來形容加強摩西手中,因此,它的意思是忠誠,無論是對上帝的人(申命記32:4 )或男子對神(雅歌cxviii , 30 ) 。 As signifying man's attitude towards God it means trustfulness or fiducia.為表揚人的態度對待上帝這意味著trustfulness或fiducia 。 It would, however, be illogical to conclude that the word cannot, and does not, mean belief or faith in the Old Testament for it is clear that we cannot put trust in a person's promises without previously assenting to or believing in that person's claim to such confidence.但是它不符合邏輯的結論,認為這個詞不能,也並不意味著信仰或信念,在舊約聖經,因為這是明確指出,我們不能把信任一個人的承諾,如果沒有以前assenting或聽信了那個人的要求這種信心的。 Hence even if it could be proved that the Hebrew does not in itself contain the notion of belief, it must necessarily presuppose it.因此,即使可以證明,希伯來文本身並不包含概念的信仰,它必須假定它。 But that the word does itself contain the notion of belief is clear from the use of the radical, which in the causative conjugation, or Hiph'il, means "to believe", eg Gen., xv, 6, and Deut., i, 32, in which latter passage the two meanings -- viz.但這個詞本身是否含有概念的信仰是明確的,由使用該激進,在使役共軛,或hiph'il ,意思是"相信" ,如將軍,十五,六,並deut 。 ,我, 32 ,其中後者通過兩種含義-即。 of believing and of trusting -- are combined.相信和信任-結合起來。 That the noun itself often means faith or belief, is clear from Hab., ii, 4, where the context demands it.該名詞本身往往意味著宗教或信仰,是明確的,由民政事務局。第一,二,四,在上下文的要求。 The witness of the Septuagint is decisive; they render the verb by pisteuo, and the noun by pistis; and here again the two factors, faith and trust, are connoted by the same term.證人的septuagint是決定性的,他們提供的動詞由pisteuo ,以及名詞所信實的;這裡再次兩項因素,信仰和信任,是connoted由相同的意思。 But that even in classical Greek pisteuo was used to signify believe, is clear from Euripides (Helene, 710), logois d'emoisi pisteuson tade, and that pistis could mean "belief" is shown by the same dramatist's theon d'ouketi pistis arage (Medea, 414; cf. Hipp., 1007).但是,即使在古典希臘pisteuo被用來象徵認為,這是明確的,從歐裡庇得斯(林蕙, 710 ) , logois -e moisip isteusont ade,並皮斯蒂斯可能意味著, "信仰"問題已經呈現出來,同時戲劇家的t heon- ou keti皮斯蒂斯阿喇果(美狄亞, 414個;比照hipp 。 , 1007 ) 。 In the New Testament the meanings "to believe" and "belief", for pisteon and pistis, come to the fore; in Christ's speech, pistis frequently means "trust", but also "belief" (cf. Matthew 8:10).在新約聖經的含義與"相信" , "信仰" ,為pisteon和信實的,來前列;基督的講話,信實的常見意思是"互信" ,但也"信仰" (參見馬太8:10 ) 。 In Acts it is used objectively of the tenets of the Christians, but is often to be rendered "belief" (cf. xvii, 31; xx, 21; xxvi, 8).在行為,它是用客觀的原則,基督徒,但往往變成"信仰" (參見17月31日; XX條, 21條;二十六, 8 ) 。 In Romans, xiv, 23, it has the meaning of "conscience" -- "all that is not of faith is sin" -- but the Apostle repeatedly uses it in the sense of "belief" (cf. Romans 4 and Galatians 3).在羅馬,第十四條, 23條,它所指的"良心" -"所有這不是信仰的是罪過" -但使徒反复使用,它在意義上的"信仰"(參見羅馬4和加拉太三日) 。 How necessary it is to point this out will be evident to all who are familiar with modern theological literature; thus, when a writer in the "Hibbert Journal", Oct., 1907, says, "From one end of the Scripture to the other, faith is trust and only trust", it is hard to see how he would explain 1 Cor.如何是要指出這一點,將大家有目共睹的人,熟悉現代神學文獻,因此,當一名作家,在" hibbert日報" , 10月, 1907年他說, "從一月底的聖經,以其他,信仰是信任,只有信任" ,這是很難見到他會怎樣解釋一肺心病。 xiii, 13, and Heb., xi, 1. 13 , 13 ,和以弗所書,十一, 1 。 The truth is that many theological writers of the present day are given to very loose thinking, and in nothing is this so evident as in their treatment of faith.事實的真相是,許多神學作家現今給予很寬鬆的思想,並在沒有這樣顯而易見的,因此在其治療的信心。 In the article just referred to we read: "Trust in God is faith, faith is belief, belief may mean creed, but creed is not equivalent to trust in God."在這篇文章剛才提到我們讀到: "信賴上帝的信仰,信仰是信仰,信仰可能意味著信仰,但信仰並不等於信任上帝" 。 A similar vagueness was especially noticeable in the "Do we believe?"類似的模糊性是尤其明顯,在" ,我們相信" ? controversy- one correspondent says- "We unbelievers, if we have lost faith, cling more closely to hope and -- the greatest of these -- charity" ("Do we believe?", p. 180, ed. WL Courtney, 1905).爭議之一通訊員說: "我們不信,如果我們失去了信心,死抱更緊密地希望和-其中最大的-慈善"(下稱"我們相信嗎? " ,第1 8 0頁,教育署。輪候冊州最高法院,1 9 05 ) 。 Non-Catholic writers have repudiated all idea of faith as an intellectual assent, and consequently they fail to realize that faith must necessarily result in a body of dogmatic beliefs.非天主教作家,也推翻了所有的思想信念作為一個知識分子贊同,因此,他們沒有認識到信仰的必然結果,在一個機構的教條式的信念。 "How and by what influence", asks Harnack, "was the living faith transformed into the creed to be believed, the surrender to Christ into a philosophical Christology?" "如何和什麼樣的影響" ,要求的Harnack " ,是生活的信念轉化為信條,以可信的,投降,以基督為一個哲學christology " ? (quoted in Hibbert Journal, loc. cit.). (引述hibbert雜誌,如上) 。

II.二。 FAITH MAY BE CONSIDERED BOTH OBJECTIVELY AND SUBJECTIVELY信仰可被視為既客觀和主觀

Objectively, it stands for the sum of truths revealed by God in Scripture and tradition and which the Church (see FAITH, RULE OF) presents to us in a brief form in her creeds, subjectively, faith stands for the habit or virtue by which we assent to those truths.客觀地說,它主張的總和真理透露,由上帝在聖經和傳統,而且教會(見誠信,法治) ,我們在一份簡短的表格,她的信條,在主觀上,信仰主張的習慣,還是美德,使我們贊同者的真理。 It is with this subjective aspect of faith that we are here primarily concerned.正是基於這種主觀方面的信仰,我們在這裡主要關注。 Before we proceed to analyze the term faith, certain preliminary notions must be made clear.在我們開始之前,分析任期信念,一些初步的概念,必須加以明確。

(a) The twofold order of knowledge. (一)雙重秩序的知識。 -- "The Catholic Church", says the Vatican Council, III, iv, "has always held that there is a twofold order of knowledge, and that these two orders are distinguished from one another not only in their principle but in their object; in one we know by natural reason, in the other by Divine faith; the object of the one is truth attainable by natural reason, the object of the other is mysteries hidden in God, but which we have to believe and which can only be known to us by Divine revelation." -"天主教教會" ,說,梵蒂岡會,三,四, "始終認為,有一種雙重秩序的知識,並認為這兩條命令是有別於彼此不僅在自己的原則,但在他們的對象;在一個大家都知道是由自然原因,在其他神聖的信仰;對象的一個真理,是可以實現的是由自然原因,該物體的,另一個是隱藏的奧秘,在神的,但是我們要相信,而只能被稱為我們的神聖啟示" 。

(b) Now intellectual knowledge may be defined in a general way as the union between the intellect and an intelligible object. (二)現在的智力知識,可以被界定在一個一般的方式為聯盟之間的智慧和可讀的對象。 But a truth is intelligible to us only in so far as it is evident to us, and evidence is of different kinds; hence, according to the varying character of the evidence, we shall have varying kinds of knowledge.但事實是,理解到我們,只有在這樣遠,因為這是世人有目共睹的,我們和證據,是不同類型,因此,根據不同性質的證據,我們將會有不同類型的知識。 Thus a truth may be self-evident -- eg the whole is greater than its part -- in which case we are said to have intuitive knowledge of it; or the truth may not be self-evident, but deducible from premises in which it is contained -- such knowledge is termed reasoned knowledge; or again a truth may be neither self-evident nor deducible from premises in which it is contained, yet the intellect may be obliged to assent to it because It would else have to reject some other universally accepted truth; lastly, the intellect may be induced to assent to a truth for none of the foregoing reasons, but solely because, though not evident in itself, this truth rests on grave authority -- for example, we accept the statement that the sun is 90,000,000 miles distant from the earth because competent, veracious authorities vouch for the fact.因此,一個真理可能是不言自明的-例如整體大於部分-在這種情況下,我們說是有良知的知識;或真理未必是不言而喻的,但是從推的處所,其中載-這種知識是被稱為理性知識;或再一個真理,可既不是不言自明的,也可推的,由房地,其中載,但理智卻可能不得不贊同它,因為這樣做,否則要拒絕其他一些普遍接受的真理;最後,智力可被誘導贊同一個真理,沒有前述理由,但僅僅是因為,雖然並不明顯,本身這個真理,就必須嚴重的權威-例如,我們接受了聲明中說,太陽是90000000英里遠離地球,因為能幹,準確當局擔保的事實。 This last kind of knowledge is termed faith, and is clearly necessary in daily life.最後這方面的知識,是被稱為信仰,顯然是必要的,在日常生活中。 If the authority upon which we base our assent is human and therefore fallible, we have human and fallible faith; if the authority is Divine, we have Divine and infallible faith.如果當局後,我們立足贊同的是人類,因此會犯錯誤,我們有人力和犯錯的信念;若監督,是神聖,我們有神聖的,並不會犯錯誤的信念。 If to this be added the medium by which the Divine authority for certain statements is put before us, viz.如果以這個增補中,其中神的權威,為某些陳述,是擺在我們面前的,即。 the Catholic Church, we have Divine-Catholic Faith (see FAITH, RULE OF).天主教教會,我們有神聖的天主教信仰(見誠信,法治) 。

(c) Again, evidence, whatever its source, may be of various degrees and so cause greater or less firmness of adhesion on the part of the mind which assents to a truth. (三)再次,證據,無論其來源,可能會產生不同程度的,所以造成較大或較堅挺的粘附對一部分頭腦其中assents到一條真理。 Thus arguments or authorities for and against a truth may be either wanting or evenly balanced, in this case the intellect does not give in its adherence to the truth, but remains in a state of doubt or absolute suspension of judgment; or the arguments on one side may predominate; though not to the exclusion of those on the other side; in this case we have not complete adhesion of the intellect to the truth in question but only opinion.因此論據或主管部門支持和反對一個真理:既可以是有意或均衡,在這種情況下,智力並不在其堅持真理,但仍保持在一個國家的疑慮或絕對暫停判斷;或論據之一方可能會佔主導地位,雖然不能排除那些在另一邊,在這種情況下,我們並沒有完全粘連的智力真相問題,但只有民意。 Lastly, the arguments or authorities brought forward may be so convincing that the mind gives its unqualified assent to the statement proposed and has no fear whatever lest it should not be true; this state of mind is termed certitude, and is the perfection of knowledge.最後,論據或主管部門提出了可能是這樣令人信服的頭腦給它無條件贊同以聲明建議,並沒有害怕什麼,否則不應該如此,這精神狀態,是被稱為certitude ,是完美的知識。 Divine faith, then, is that form of knowledge which is derived from Divine authority, and which consequently begets absolute certitude in the mind of the recipient神聖的信仰,那麼,這種形式的知識,這是來自神的權力,並因而產生絕對certitude在他心中的受援國

(d) That such Divine faith is necessary, follows from the fact of Divine revelation. (四) ,這種神聖的信仰是必要的,從以下事實是神聖的啟示。 For revelation means that the Supreme Truth has spoken to man and revealed to him truths which are not in themselves evident to the human mind.為啟示,即最高真理已經談過的男子,並透露了他的真理,這本身不是有目共睹的人的頭腦。 We must, then, either reject revelation altogether, or accept it by faith; that is, we must submit our intellect to truths which we cannot understand, but which come to us on Divine authority.我們一定要,那麼,要么拒絕啟示加起來,或者接受它的信仰,那就是我們必須向我們的智慧,以真理,我們無法理解,但來我們對神的權威。

(e) We shall arrive at a better understanding of the habit or virtue of faith if we have previously analysed an act of faith; and this analysis will be facilitated by examining an act of ocular vision and an act of reasoned knowledge. (五) ,我們會得出一個更好地了解有關的習慣或道德的信仰,如果我們在前面分析的一種信念;這種分析將有助於研究行為的眼球視覺和行為的理性知識。 In ocular vision we distinguish three things: the eye, or visual faculty the coloured object, and the light which serves as the medium between the eye and the object.在眼的視野,我們區分三件事:眼睛,或視覺系的彩色對象,並根據其中充當兩者的中介眼睛和物體。 It is usual to term colour the formal object (objectum formale quod) of vision, since it is that which precisely and alone makes a thing the object of vision, the individual object seen may be termed the material object, eg this apple, that man, etc. Similarly, the light which serves as the medium between the eye and the object is termed the formal reason (objectum formale quo) of our actual vision.這是一般情況來說,膚色正規對象( objectum formale和)的眼光,因為它是這正是獨力承擔,使一件事情的目的,遠見,個人看到的物體可被稱為物質的對象,比如這蘋果,那人等,同樣地,輕充當兩者的中介眼睛和對象,是被稱為正式的理由( objectum formale現狀) ,我們實際的遠見。 In the same way, when we analyze an act of intellectual assent to any given truth, we must distinguish the intellectual faculty which elicits the act the intelligible object towards which the intellect is directed, and the evidence whether intrinsic to that object or extrinsic to it, which moves us to assent to it.在同樣的,當我們進行分析的行為智力贊同任何特定的真相,我們必須區分智力機能誘發行為的理解對象對其中的智慧,是導演,而且證據是否內在該物體或外在給它,它的舉動,我們贊同這樣做。 None of these factors can be omitted, each cooperates in bringing about the act, whether of ocular vision or of intellectual assent.所有這些因素可以略去,每個合作,使該法,無論是眼部視力和智力基礎。

(f) Hence, for an act of faith we shall need a faculty capable of eliciting the act, an object commensurate with that faculty, and evidence -- not intrinsic but extrinsic to that object -- which shall serve as the link between faculty and object. (六) ,因此,為一種信念,我們將需要一個教職,能夠促使該法案,一個對象相稱,與教員和證據-而不是內在的,但外在到那個對象-這應作為聯繫師生員工物體。 We will commence our analysis with the object:-我們將根據我們的分析,與物體: -

III.三。 ANALYSIS OF THE OBJECT OR TERM IN AN ACT OF DIVINE FAITH分析的對象或在任期內的行為,神聖的信仰

(a) For a truth to be the object of an act of Divine faith, it must be itself Divine, and this not merely as coming from God, but as being itself concerned with God. (一)在一個真理被對象的行為,神聖的信仰,它必須自己神聖的,這不僅僅是來自天主的愛,但作為自己的關心與上帝。 Just as in ocular vision the formal object must necessarily be something coloured, so in Divine faith the formal object must be something Divine -- in theological language, the objectum formale quod of Divine faith is the First Truth in Being, Prima Veritas in essendo -- we could not make an act of Divine faith in the existence of India.正如在眼視覺正規對象必定會有某種顏色,所以在神的信仰正式物體一定有神聖-在神學語言, o bjectumf ormale和神聖的信仰是第一真理,在正,從表面上看V eritas公司在e ssendo- -我們不能做的行為,神聖的信仰在存在印度。

(b) Again, the evidence upon which we assent to this Divine truth must also be itself Divine, and there must be as close a relation between that truth and the evidence upon which it comes to us as there is between the coloured object and the light; the former is a necessary condition for the exercise of our visual faculty, the latter is the cause of our actual vision. (二)再次,證據後,我們贊同這一神聖的真理,還必須自己神聖的,必須有緊密的關係之間的真理和證據後,它給我們有關係的彩色對象和光;前者是必要條件,為行使我們的視覺系,而後者是導致我國實際的遠見。 But no one but God can reveal God; in other words, God is His own evidence.但沒有人,但上帝可以揭示上帝;換句話說,上帝是他自己的證據。 Hence, just as the formal object of Divine faith is the First Truth Itself, so the evidence of that First Truth is the First Truth declaring Itself.因此,正如正式反對神聖的信仰是第一真理本身,所以證明了這一真理,首先是第一真理宣稱本身。 To use scholastic language once more, the objectum formale quod, or the motive, or the evidence, of Divine faith is the Prima Veritas in dicendo.用學術語言,再一次, objectum formale和,或動機,或證據,對神的信仰是表面Veritas公司在dicendo 。

(c) There is a controversy whether the same truth can be an object both of faith and of knowledge. (三)有一個爭論是否會有同樣的道理可以是一個物件都信仰和知識。 In other words, can we believe a thing both because we are told it on good authority and because we ourselves perceive it to be true?或者換句話說,我們是否可以認為,一個東西都因為有人告訴我們,這對良好的權威和,因為我們自己的觀感,這是事實嗎? St. Thomas, Scotus, and others hold that once a thing is seen to be true, the adhesion of the mind is in no wise strengthened by the authority of one who states that it is so, but the majority of theologians maintain, with De Lugo, that there may be a knowledge which does not entirely satisfy the mind, and that authority may then find a place, to complete its satisfaction.聖托馬斯, scotus ,有的認為當一件事情被看為真,粘附的心是在沒有明智的加強,由權威的人說,它是這樣的話,但大多數人的神學家維持,與德盧戈的,有可能是一個知識並不完全滿足心靈,這種權力可能會找到一個地方,以完成其滿意度。 -- We may note here the absurd expression Credo quia impossibile, which has provoked many sneers. -我們可以注意到,這裡的荒謬表達信條q uiai mpossibile,已挑起了許多s neers。 It is not an axiom of the Scholastics, as was stated in the "Revue de Metaphysique et de Morale" (March, 1896, p. 169), and as was suggested more than once in the "Do we believe?"它不是一個公理的scholastics ,正如在"雜誌metaphysique等德士氣" ( 3月, 1896年,第169頁) ,並為與會者一次以上,在"我們相信" ? correspondence.公文。 The expression is due to Tertullian, whose exact words are: "Natus est Dei Filius; non pudet, quia pudendum est: et mortuus est Dei Filius; prorsus credibile est, quia ineptum est; et sepultus, resurrexit; certum est, quia impossibile" (De Carne Christi, cap. v).表達,是因為戴爾都良,其確切的話是: " natus預測dei filius ;非pudet , quia pudendum預測:等死的預測dei filius ; prorsus credibile預測, quia ineptum預測;等sepultus , resurrexit ; certum預測, quia impossibile " (德肉聖,章第五節) 。 This treatise dates from Tertullian's Montanist days, when he was carried away by his love of paradox.這一論文的日期從戴爾都良的montanist天,當他登上他的愛的悖論。 At the same time it is clear that the writer only aims at bringing out the wisdom of God manifested in the humiliation of the Cross; he is perhaps paraphrasing St. Paul's words in 1 Corinthians 1:25.在同一時間,可以明顯看出,作者目的只是帶出上帝的智慧的體現,在屈辱的十字架,他也許是意譯聖保祿的話,在哥林多前書25 。

(d) Let us now take some concrete act of faith, eg "I believe in the Most Holy Trinity." (四)現在,讓我們採取了一些具體行為的信念,如: "我相信,在最聖公會聖三一" 。 This mystery is the material or individual object upon which we are now exercising our faith, the formal object is its character as being a Divine truth, and this truth is clearly inevident as far as we are concerned; it in no way appeals to our intellect, on the contrary it rather repels it.這個奧秘,是物質或個別對象後,我們正行使我們的信仰,正式反對的是它的性質,因為作為一個神聖的真理,這個真理是清楚inevident作為我們來說,它絕不上訴,以我們的智慧,相反它,而不是排斥它。 And yet we assent to it by faith, consequently upon evidence which is extrinsic and not intrinsic to the truth we are accepting.然而,我們贊同它的信仰,因此證據後,這是外在和內在不以真理,我們都接受。 But there can be no evidence commensurate with such a mystery save the Divine testimony itself, and this constitutes the motive for our assent to the mystery, and is, in scholastic language, the objectum formale quo of our assent.但不可能有任何證據相稱,如一個謎拯救神聖的證詞本身,而這構成了動機,我們贊同以奧秘,並在學術上的語言, objectum formale現狀,我們的贊同。 If then, we are asked why we believe with Divine faith any Divine truth, the only adequate answer must be because God has revealed it.如果當時,我們問為什麼,我們相信,隨著神信仰任何神的真理,只有通過充分的答案必定是因為上帝已顯示它。

(e) We may point out in this connexion the falsity of the prevalent notion that faith is blind. (五)我們可以指出,在這方面的虛假性流行概念,即信仰是盲目的。 "We believe", says the Vatican Council (III, iii), "that revelation is true, not indeed because the intrinsic truth of the mysteries is clearly seen by the natural light of reason, but because of the authority of God Who reveals them, for He can neither deceive nor be deceived." "我們相信, "說,梵蒂岡會(三,三) , "啟示是事實,而不是因為確實內在真理的奧秘是看得很清楚,由自然光的原因,但由於權威的上帝揭示了他們人,因為他既不能欺騙,也沒有被欺騙了" 。 Thus, to return to the act of faith which we make in the Holy Trinity, we may formulate it in syllogistic fashion thus: Whatever God reveals is true but God has revealed the mystery of the Holy Trinity therefore this mystery is true.因此,要回复到信任的行動,這使我們在聖三一,我們可以制訂,它在三段論時裝因此:無論上帝揭示的是真實的,但上帝揭示了神秘的聖三一,因此這個謎是真實的。 The major premise is indubitable and intrinsically evident to reason; the minor premise is also true because it is declared to us by the infallible Church (cf. FAITH, RULE OF), and also because, as the Vatican Council says, "in addition to the internal assistance of His Holy Spirit, it has pleased God to give us certain external proofs of His revelation, viz. certain Divine facts, especially miracles and prophecies, for since these latter clearly manifest God's omnipotence and infinite knowledge, they afford most certain proofs of His revelation and are suited to the capacity of all."大前提是indubitable和內在的世人有目共睹的理由;未成年人的前提下也是如此,因為它是宣布我們所犯錯誤的教會(參見信仰,法治) ,而且還因為,由於梵蒂岡會說, "除了內部的協助,他的神聖的精神,就已經很高興神給我們一些外在證明他的啟示,即某些神聖的事實,尤其是神蹟,並預言,因為這後者顯然體現上帝的全能和無限的知識,他們負擔不起,最某些證據他的啟示和適合的容量都" 。 Hence St. Thomas says: "A man would not believe unless he saw the things he had to believe, either by the evidence of miracles or of something similar" (II-II:1:4, ad 1).因此,聖托馬斯說: "一個人不會相信,除非他看到的東西,他相信,無論是由證據的奇蹟或類似的" (二-二: 1:4 ,專案1 ) 。 The saint is here speaking of the motives of credibility.聖是在這裡發言的動機的可信性。

IV.四。 MOTIVES OF CREDIBILITY動機的可信性

(a) When we say that a certain statement is incredible we often mean merely that it is extraordinary, but it should be borne in mind that this is a misuse of language, for the credibility or incredibility of a statement has nothing to do with its intrinsic probability or improbability; it depends solely upon the credentials of the authority who makes the statement. (一)當我們說某一個聲明,是令人難以置信的,我們往往意味著只是說,這是不平凡的人,但必須緊記,這是一個誤用的語言,為公信力或incredibility的一份聲明中完全不其內在的概率或improbability ,它完全取決於各國的全權證書的權威作發言。 Thus the credibility of the statement that a secret alliance has been entered into between England and America depends solely upon the authoritative position and the veracity of our informant.因此公信力聲明中表示,一個秘密聯盟已進入英格蘭和美國完全取決於經權威地位和真實性,我們的線人。 If he be a clerk in a government office it is possible that he may have picked up some genuine information, but if our informant be the Prime Minister of England, his statement has the highest degree of credibility because his credentials are of the highest.如果他是一個秘書,在政府辦公,這是有可能的,他可能已獲得一些真正的信息,但是如果我們的線人成為首相的英格蘭,他的發言有高度的信譽,因為他的證書是最高的。 When we speak of the motives of credibility of revealed truth we mean the evidence that the things asserted are revealed truths.當我們談論的動機的可信性揭示真理,我們指的證據表明,東西斷言揭示的真理。 In other words, the credibility of the statements made is correlative with and proportionate to the credentials of the authority who makes them.或者換句話說,可信性所作的發言,是相關性和相稱的證書權威的人,使他們。 Now the credentials of God are indubitable, for the very idea of God involves that of omniscience and of the Supreme Truth.現在該證書是上帝的indubitable ,為極的上帝觀涉及即無所不知,並根據最高人民法院的真相。 Hence, what God says is supremely credible, though not necessarily supremely intelligible for us.因此,真主說,是重千鈞可信的,雖然不一定是千鈞理解我們。 Here, however, the real question is not as to the credentials of God or the credibility of what He says, but as to the credibility of the statement that God has spoken.在這裡,然而,真正的問題不在於以全權證書的上帝或公信力,他說了什麼,而是以公信力的聲明中表示,上帝說了。 In other words who or what is the authority for this statement, and what credentials does this authority show?在其他人的話或什麼是權威,為這句話,有什麼證書,這是否管理局說明什麼問題呢? What are the motives of credibility of the statement that God has revealed this or that?是什麼動機的可信性聲明說,上帝已經發現這個或那個?

(b) These motives of credibility may be briefly stated as follows: in the Old Testament considered not as an inspired book, but merely as a book having historical value, we find detailed the marvellous dealings of God with a particular nation to whom He repeatedly reveals Himself; we read of miracles wrought in their favour and as proofs of the truth of the revelation He makes; we find the most sublime teaching and the repeated announcement of God's desire to save the world from sin and its consequences. (二)這些動機的可信性,可簡述如下:在舊約視為不作為靈感的書,但僅僅是作為一本具有歷史價值,我們發現,詳細介紹了絕妙打交道的上帝與特定民族的人,他多次揭示了自己,我們看奇蹟的緊張得要命,對他們有利,並作為證明的真理的啟示,他讓我們找到最崇高的教學和一再宣布上帝的願望,以拯救世界,從單及其後果。 And more than all we find throughout the pages of this book a series of hints, now obscure, now clear, of some wondrous person who is to come as the world's saviour; we find it asserted at one time that he is man, at others that he is God Himself.以上所有我們發現在整個頁的這本書,一連串的提示,現在模糊不清,現在很清楚,有些驚異的人,來為世界的救世主,我們發現它斷言,在同一時間,他是人,別人他是上帝。 When we turn to the New Testament we find that it records the birth, life, and death of One Who, while clearly man, also claimed to be God, and Who proved the truth of His claim by His whole life, miracles, teachings, and death, and finally by His triumphant resurrection.當我們談一下新約全書,我們發現,它記錄的誕生,貼近生活,其中一人死亡的人,同時明確男子,也自稱為上帝,是誰證明了的真理,他所說的,他的整個生命,創造奇蹟,教誨,和死亡,並最終由他戰無不勝的復活。 We find, moreover, that He founded a Church which should, so He said, continue to the end of time, which should serve as the repository of His teaching, and should be the means of applying to all men the fruits of the redemption He had wrought.我們發現,而且,他創立了一所教堂,這應該,所以他說,繼續去年底的時候,它應作為存放他的教學,並應手段適用於所有男人的果實贖回他曾緊張得要命。 When we come to the subsequent history of this Church we find it speedily spreading everywhere, and this in spite of its humble origin, its unworldly teaching, and the cruel persecution which it meets at the hands of the rulers of this world.當我們來到以後的歷史,這教會我們發現它迅速蔓延,無處不在,而這種情況,儘管它卑微出身,其unworldly教學,並殘酷迫害,它在會見手中的統治者這個世界。 And as the centuries pass we find this Church battling against heresies schisms, and the sins of her own people-nay, of her own rulers -- and yet continuing ever the same, promulgating ever the same doctrine, and putting before men the same mysteries of the life, death and resurrection of the world's Saviour, Who had, so she taught, gone before to prepare a home for those who while on earth should have believed in Him and fought the good fight.作為跨世紀的通行證,我們認為這是教會對抗異端邪說的分裂,並於罪惡的,她自己的人-不,她自己的統治者-但仍和持續以往任何時候都相同,頒布有史以來同一學說,並把以前男人同樣的奧秘對生命,死亡和復活的世界上的救世主,他,所以她教導,經歷了前準備一個家對於那些雖然在地球上應該有,相信在他打過好打。 But if the history of the Church since New-Testament times thus wonderfully confirms the New Testament itself, and if the New Testament so marvellously completes the Old Testament, these books must really contain what they claim to contain, viz.但是,如果教會的歷史,因為新約聖經時代,因此你享受證實了新約聖經本身,而如果新約聖經,所以出色完成了舊約,這兩本書真的要包含什麼,他們宣稱控制,即 Divine revelation.神的啟示。 And more than all, that Person Whose life and death were so minutely foretold in the Old Testament, and Whose story, as told in the New Testament, so perfectly corresponds with its prophetic delineation in the Old Testament, must be what He claimed to be, viz.以上所有的,即人的生命和死亡如此minutely預言在舊約中,其故事,因為說,在新約聖經,所以完全符合它的先知性的劃分,在舊約中,要什麼,他自稱為,即。 the Son of God.上帝的兒子。 His work, therefore, must be Divine.他的工作,因此,必須在神的。 The Church which He founded must also be Divine and the repository and guardian of His teaching.教會他創立還必須神聖和存放,並守護他的教學。 Indeed, we can truly say that for every truth of Christianity which we believe Christ Himself is our testimony, and we believe in Him because the Divinity He claimed rests upon the concurrent testimony of His miracles, His prophecies His personal character, the nature of His doctrine, the marvellous propagation of His teaching in spite of its running counter to flesh and blood, the united testimony of thousands of martyrs, the stories of countless saints who for His sake have led heroic lives, the history of the Church herself since the Crucifixion, and, perhaps more remarkable than any, the history of the papacy from St. Peter to Pius X.事實上,我們可以真正地說,對於每一個真理的基督教,我們相信基督自己是我們的見證,我們相信他,因為神的,他聲稱取決於並發的證詞,他的神蹟,他的預言,他的個人性格,其性質就他的學說,絕妙的繁殖他的教學中的,儘管它是背道而馳的,以血肉,美的證詞成千上萬先烈的故事,無數聖人的人,他為了使英雄的生命,教會的歷史以來,她受難日,而且,也許更了不起的,比任何歷史上的教宗從聖彼得大教堂,以比約十。

(c) These testimonies are unanimous; they all point in one direction, they are of every age, they are clear and simple, and are within the grasp of the humblest intelligence. (三)這些證詞是一致的,它們都指向一個方向,他們的每一個年齡,他們是簡單而明確的,是內部掌握的humblest情報。 And, as the Vatican Council has said, "the Church herself, is, by her marvellous propagation, her wondrous sanctity, her inexhaustible fruitfulness in good works, her Catholic unity, and her enduring stability, a great and perpetual motive of credibility and an irrefragable witness to her Divine commission" (Const. Dei Filius) .此外,由於梵蒂岡會議已表示, "教會自己,是中,她的絕妙的繁殖,她驚異的神聖性,她取之不盡,用之不竭的成果,在好的作品,她的天主教團結,和她的長期穩定,一個偉大而永恆的動機,信譽和一個不可爭辯的見證,她的神委員會" ( const. dei filius ) 。 "The Apostles", says St. Augustine, "saw the Head and believed in the Body; we see the Body let us believe in the Head" [Sermo ccxliii, 8 (al. cxliii), de temp., PL, V 1143]. "使徒"說,聖奧古斯丁, "看到了頭部,並相信在體內,我們看到身體,讓我們相信,在頭" [ sermo ccxliii , 8 ( al. cxliii ) ,德溫度,光致發光,在第1143 ] 。 Every believer will echo the words of Richard of St. Victor, "Lord, if we are in error, by Thine own self we have been deceived- for these things have been confirmed by such signs and wonders in our midst as could only have been done by Thee!"每一個信仰者,將回波的話理查德聖維克托, "主啊,如果我們是錯誤的,由你們自己的自我,我們都被欺騙了-這些東西已被確認,由這樣的跡象,並希望知道,在我們中間,因為只可有被做你的" ! (de Trinitate, 1, cap. ii). (德trinitate , 1 ,章第二節) 。

(d) But much misunderstanding exists regarding the meaning and office of the motives of credibility. (四) ,但還有許多誤解,就存在的意義和辦公室的動機的可信性。 In the first place, they afford us definite and certain knowledge of Divine revelation; but this knowledge precedes faith; it is not the final motive for our assent to the truths of faith- as St. Thomas says, "Faith has the character of a virtue, not because of the things it believes, for faith is of things that appear not, but because it adheres to the testimony of one in whom truth is infallibly found" (De Veritate, xiv, 8); this knowledge of revealed truth which precedes faith can only beget human faith it is not even the cause of Divine faith (cf. Francisco Suárez, be Fide disp. iii, 12), but is rather to be considered a remote disposition to it.擺在首位,他們負擔不起,我們一定和某些知識的神聖啟示,但這種知識的先導信仰,它是不是最後的動機,我們贊同以真理的信仰,作為聖托馬斯說, "信仰具有一美德,而不是因為這個事情,它認為,信仰是對的東西,似乎不是,而是因為它堅持的證詞,其中在誰是真理infallibly發現" (德veritate ,第十四條, 8 ) ;這種知識的揭示的真理先行信仰只會導致人類信仰的,它甚至不是事業是神聖的信仰(參見弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯,成為真正的分散。三, 12 ) ,而是要考慮的一個偏遠的處置它。 We must insist upon this because in the minds of many faith is regarded as a more or less necessary consequence of a careful study of the motives of credibility, a view which the Vatican Council condemns expressly: "If anyone says that the assent of Christian faith is not free, but that it necessarily follows from the arguments which human reason can furnish in its favour; or if anyone says that God's grace is only necessary for that living faith which worketh through charity, let him be anathema" (Sess. IV).我們一定要堅持這個,因為在人的頭腦中的許多信仰視為一種較多或較少的必然後果認真加以研究的動機的可信性,有一種觀點即梵蒂岡安理會譴責明文規定: "如果有人說這核可的基督教信仰是不是免費的,但是它一定是從論點人類理性能夠提供對其有利;或者,如果有人說,上帝的恩典是,不僅要為生活信仰worketh透過慈善團體,讓他被詛咒" ( sess.四) 。 Nor can the motives of credibility make the mysteries of faith clear in themselves, for, as St. Thomas says, "the arguments which induce us to believe, eg miracles, do not prove the faith itself, but only the truthfulness of him who declares it to us, and consequently they do not beget knowledge of faith's mysteries, but only faith" (in Sent., III, xxiv, Q. i, art. 2, sol. 2, ad 4).也不能動機的可信性,使之謎的信仰清楚自己,因為,正如聖托馬斯說, "論點,誘使我們相信,如屢創奇蹟,不證明信仰本身,而僅是真對他的人宣布它給我們,並因此他們不帶來知識信仰的奧秘,但只有信仰" (在發送,三,二十四,問:我的第2條,溶膠。 2 ,專案4 ) 。 On the other hand, we must not minimize the real probative force of the motives of credibility within their true sphere- "Reason declares that from the very outset the Gospel teaching was rendered conspicuous by signs and wonders which gave, as it were, definite proof of a definite truth" (Leo XIII, Æterni Patris).在另一方面,我們絕不能盡量真實力的動機信譽其真實的球"的理由宣布,從一開始福音教學作出了突出的是由標誌和奇蹟了,因為它被明確舉證一個明確的事實" (利奧十三世, æterni patris ) 。

(e) The Church has twice condemned the view that faith ultimately rests on an accumulation of probabilities. (五) ,教會已經兩度譴責認為,信仰,最終有賴於一個積累的可能性較高。 Thus the proposition, "The assent of supernatural faith . . is consistent with merely probable knowledge of revelation" was condemned by Innocent XI in 1679 (cf. Denzinger, Enchiridion, 10th ed., no. 1171); and the Syllabus Lamentabili sane (July, 1907) condemns the proposition (XXV) that "the assent of faith rests ultimately on an accumulation of probabilities."因此,命題" ,贊同對超自然的信仰。是一致的,只是可能的知識的啟示"的一片譴責無辜喜在1679個(參見登青格, enchiridion ,第十版,沒有。 1171 ) ;和教學大綱lamentabili理智( 7月, 1907年)譴責命題( 25 )表示, "贊同的信念,最終就累積概率" 。 But since the great name of Newman has been dragged into the controversy regarding this last proposition, we may point out that, in the Grammar of Assent (chap. x, sect. 2), Newman refers solely to the proof of faith afforded by the motives of credibility, and he rightly concludes that, since these are not demonstrative, this line of proof may be termed "an accumulation of probabilities".不過,既然偉大的名字紐曼已被拖入爭論對於最後這個命題,我們可以指出,在語法贊同(第十章,第2節) ,紐曼是指純粹以證明信仰所提供的動機的可信性,他正確地得出結論認為,由於這些都不是示範,這條線的證明,可稱之為"積累莫可能性" 。 But it would be absurd to say that Newman therefore based the final assent of faith on this accumulation- as a matter of fact he is not here making an analysis of an act of faith, but only of the grounds for faith; the question of authority does not come into his argument (cf. McNabb, Oxford Conferences on Faith, pp. 121-122).但就這樣荒唐的說紐曼為基礎,因此最後核可的信念,這堆積是眾所周知的事,其實他是不是在這裡作出了分析一種信念,但唯一的理由是,為信仰;權力的問題沒有接觸到他的論點(參見邁克納布,牛津會議上的信仰,頁121-122 ) 。

V. ANALYSIS OF THE ACT OF FAITH FROM THE SUBJECTIVE STANDPOINT五,分析該法的信心,從主觀立場

(a) The light of faith. (一)在信仰的光照下。 -- An angel understands truths which are beyond man's comprehension; if then a man were called upon to assent to a truth beyond the ken of the human intellect, but within the grasp of the angelic intellect, he would require for the time being something more than his natural light of reason, he would require what we may call "the angelic light". -天使明白真理是超出人的理解;如果當時一名男子呼籲贊同一個真理超出了肯的人的智力,但在把握其天使般的智慧,他將要求在這段期間更比他的自然光的原因,他將要求什麼,我們可以稱之為的"天使之燈" 。 If, now, the same man were called upon to assent to a truth beyond the grasp of both men and angels, he would clearly need a still higher light, and this light we term "the light of faith" -- a light, because it enables him to assent to those supernatural truths, and the light of faith because it does not so illumine those truths as to make them no longer obscure, for faith must ever be "the substance of things to be hoped for, the evidence of things that appear not" (Hebrews 11:1).如果,現在,同樣的男子,分別籲請贊同一個真理超越把握男人和天使,他明顯地需要一個更高的光,這光我們來說, "在信仰的光照下" -一個輕型的,因為這讓他贊同這些超自然的真理,在信仰的光照下,因為它沒有那麼照亮那些真理,以使它們不再模糊,信念,必須永遠"的實質東西,以希望為,證據的東西這似乎不是" (希伯來書11時01分) 。 Hence St. Thomas (De Veritate, xiv, 9, ad 2) says: "Although the Divinely infused light of faith is more powerful than the natural light of reason, nevertheless in our present state we only imperfectly participate in it; and hence it comes to pass that it does not beget in us real vision of those things which it is meant to teach us; such vision belongs to our eternal home, where we shall perfectly participate in that light, where, in fine, in God's light we shall see light' (Ps. xxxv, 10)."因此,聖托馬斯(德veritate ,第十四條,第9 ,專案2 )說: "雖然神,充滿了信仰的光照下,是更強大的,比自然光的原因,然而,在我們目前的狀態,我們只是不完美的參與;所以說到通過,它不帶來,在我們真正的願景這些東西,它就是要教導我們,這樣的遠景是屬於我們永遠的家,在那裡我們應完全參與,在這種情況下,何地,在精細,在神的光,我們應見光' (雅歌第三十五卷, 10 ) 。 "

(b) The necessity of such light is evident from what has been said, for faith is essentially an act of assent, and just as assent to a series of deductive or inductive reasonings, or to intuition of first principles, would be impossible without the light of reason, so, too assent to a supernatural truth would be inconceivable without a supernatural strengthening of the natural light "Quid est enim fides nisi credere quod non vides?" (二)有必要的,例如輕是顯而易見的,從已經表示,為信仰本質上是一個法的贊同,正如核可了一系列的演繹或歸納reasonings ,或以直覺的第一原則,將不可能無輕的原因,所以,也贊同一個超自然的真理,就不能想像沒有一個超自然加強對自然光"的回報預測單一目的的NiSi credere和非vides " ? (ie what is faith but belief in that which thou seest not?) asks St. Augustine; but he also says: "Faith has its eyes by which it in some sort sees that to be true which it does not yet see- and by which, too, it most surely sees that it does not see what it believes" [Ep. (即什麼是信仰,但信仰,那你見不? )問聖奧古斯丁,但他也說: "信仰有其眼,它在某種認為這是千真萬確的,其中還沒有看到和所這也是它最肯定看到它並不認為它認為"的EP 。 ad Consent., ep.專案同意,歐洲議會。 cxx 8 (al. ccxxii), PL, II, 456]. cxx 8 ( al. ccxxii ) ,特等,二, 456 ] 。

(c) Again, it is evident that this "light of faith" is a supernatural gift and is not the necessary outcome of assent to the motives of credibility. (三) ,可見,這是"信仰的光照下"是一種超自然的禮物,是沒有必要的結果,贊同以動機的可信性。 No amount of study will win it, no intellectual conviction as to the credibility of revealed religion nor even of the claims of the Church to be our infallible guide in matters of faith, will produce this light in a man's mind.任何數量的研究將贏得它,沒有智力的信念,以公信力的啟示宗教,也沒有,甚至索賠的教會成為我們都會犯錯,引導在信仰方面,將產生這種光在人的心靈。 It is the free gift of God.它是自由神的恩賜。 Hence the Vatican Council (III, iii;) teaches that "faith is a supernatural virtue by which we with the inspiration and assistance of God's grace, believe those things to be true which He has revealed".因此,梵蒂岡會(三,三; )教導說, "信仰是一種超自然的美德,使我們具有啟示和幫助上帝的恩典,相信這些事是真實的,他揭示了" 。 The same decree goes on to say that "although the assent of faith is in no sense blind, yet no one can assent to the Gospel teaching in the way necessary for salvation without the illumination of the Holy Spirit, Who bestows on all a sweetness in believing and consenting to the truth".同一法令接著說: "雖然贊同的信念是在任何意義上盲目的,但任何人都不能贊同,以福音的教學方式,有必要救贖,沒有照明的聖靈,誰賦予一個甜度在相信和同意接受真相" 。 Thus, neither as regards the truth believed nor as regards the motives for believing, nor as regards the subjective principle by which we believe -- viz.因此,既不至於真相,相信也不至於動機信,行也不至於主觀的原則,因為我們相信-即。 the infused light -- can faith be considered blind.該注入輕-可以信仰被視為雙目失明。

(d) The place of the will in an act of faith. (四)發生的,將在一種信念。 -- So far we have seen that faith is an act of the intellect assenting to a truth which is beyond its grasp, eg the mystery of the Holy Trinity. -到目前為止,我們已經看到,信仰是一種行為,智力a ssenting到一個真理,是超越了它的把握,如神秘的聖三一。 But to many it will seem almost as futile to ask the intellect to assent to a proposition which is not intrinsically evident as it would be to ask the eye to see a sound.但是,不少國家將它似乎幾乎是徒勞的,要求智力贊同以命題,這是不是在本質上明顯的,因為這將要求眼睛看到一個健全的。 It is clear, however, that the intellect can be moved by the will either to study or not to study a certain truth, though if the truth be a self-evident one -- eg, that the whole is greater than its part -- the will cannot affect the intellect's adhesion to it, it can, however, move it to think of something else, and thus distract it from the contemplation of that particular truth.但是很清楚,即智力可以提出由要么學習或不學習某一個真理,但如果真理是不言自明的-例如,認為整個大於它的部分-意志不能影響智力的粘附力,它可以,不過,其移動到想的東西,否則,因此分心,它從沉思的說,尤其是真理。 If, now, the will moves the intellect to consider some debatable point-eg the Copernican and Ptolemaic theories of the relationship between the sun and the earth -- it is clear that the intellect can only assent to one of these views in proportion as it is convinced that the particular view is true.如果,現在,該會的舉動,智力考慮一些值得商榷點如哥白尼和托勒密的理論之間的關係,在太陽和地球-這清楚顯示,智力只能贊同其中的這些看法的比例,因為它相信特別的看法是正確的。 But neither view has, as far as we can know, more than probable truth, hence of itself the intellect can only give in its partial adherence to one of these views, it must always be precluded from absolute assent by the possibility that the other view may be right.但也有看法,因為據我們所知,有超過可能的真相,因此對自己的智慧只能在其局部堅持一個的這些意見後,它必須始終被排除在絕對贊同由一個可能性,就是另一種觀點可能正確。 The fact that men hold much more tenaciously to one of these than the arguments warrant can only be due to some extrinsic consideration, eg that it is absurd not to hold what the vast majority of men hold.事實上,男人擁有更頑強的一個,比這些論點值得只能是由於一些外在的考慮,例如,它是荒謬的,不舉行什麼廣大官兵舉行。 And here it should be noted that, as St. Thomas says repeatedly, the intellect only assents to a statement for one of two reasons: either because that statement is immediately or mediately evident in itself -- eg a first principle or a conclusion from premises -- or because the will moves it to do so.這裡應當指出的是,正如聖托馬斯說反复,智力只assents的一份聲明稱,為其中的原因有兩個:要么,因為這一聲明是馬上或治療中可見,在本身-例如第一項原則或結論,由房地-或者是因為將舉動,它這樣做。 Extrinsic evidence of course comes into play when intrinsic evidence is wanting, but though it would be absurd, without weighty evidence in its support, to assent to a truth which we do not grasp, yet no amount of such evidence can make us assent, it could only show that the statement in question was credible, our ultimate actual assent could only be due to the intrinsic evidence which the statement itself offered, or, failing that, due to the will.外在證據當然生效時,發揮內在的證據是無用的,但是,雖然它會是荒謬的,如果沒有具份量的證據,在其支持下,贊同以一個真理,我們並不掌握,但任何數量的此類證據可以使我們贊同,它只能看出聲明質疑是可信的,我們的最終實際贊同只能是由於內在的證據,聲明本身所提供的,或者,做不到這一點,是由於意志。 Hence it is that St. Thomas repeatedly defines the act of faith as the assent of the intellect determined by the will (De Veritate, xiv, 1; II-II, Q. ii, a. 1, ad 3; 2, c.; ibid., iv, 1, c., and ad 2).因此,它是聖托馬斯一再界定行為的誠信為贊同的智力取決於意志(德veritate ,第十四條, 1條;二-二,問:二A 1 ,專案3 ; 2 ,長同上,四,一,三,專案2 ) 。 The reason, then, why men cling to certain beliefs more tenaciously than the arguments in their favour would warrant, is to be sought in the will rather than in the intellect.究其原因,那麼,為什麼男人抱守某種信念更頑強,比論據有利於他們的將令,是為了爭取在會而非智力。 Authorities are to be found on both sides, the intrinsic evidence is not convincing, but something is to be gained by assenting to one view rather than the other, and this appeals to the will, which therefore determines the intellect to assent to the view which promises the most.當局必須找到雙方的內在證據,是不能令人信服的事情,而且是我們得到assenting一種看法,而不是其他,這呼籲的意願,因此決定智力贊同該看法,承諾為最多。 Similarly, in Divine faith the credentials of the authority which tells us that God has made certain revelations are strong, but they are always extrinsic to the proposition, "God has revealed this or that", and consequently they cannot compel our assent; they merely show us that this statement is credible.同樣,在神的信仰證書的權威,這告訴我們,上帝已經取得了一定的啟示是堅強的,但他們永遠是外在給命題, "上帝揭示了這樣或那樣的" ,因此,他們不能強迫我們的贊同,他們只是讓我們看到這份聲明是可信的。 When, then, we ask whether we are to give in our free assent to any particular statement or not, we feel that in the first place we cannot do so unless there be strong extrinsic evidence in its favour, for to believe a thing merely because we wished to do so would be absurd.時,那麼,我們會問我們是否要放棄我們的自由贊同任何特定的陳述或沒有,我們都覺得擺在首位,我們不能這樣做,除非有強大的外在證據對其有利的,相信一個東西,只因為我們希望這樣做將是荒謬的。 Secondly, the proposition itself does not compel our assent, since it is not intrinsically evident, but there remains the fact that only on condition of our assent to it shall we have what the human soul naturally yearns for, viz., the possession of God, Who is, as both reason and authority declare, our ultimate end; "He that believeth and is baptized, shall be saved", and "Without faith it is impossible to please God."第二,命題本身並沒有迫使我們贊同,因為它不是在本質上明顯的,但仍是事實,即只有對我國國情的贊同它,我們有什麼人的心靈,自然渴望,即,擁有上帝,誰是,因為兩者的原因和權威宣布,我們的最終結束, "他說,信和受洗的,必得救" , "沒有信仰,是不可能取悅上帝" 。 St. Thomas expresses this by saying: "The disposition of a believer is that of one who accepts another's word for some statement, because it seems fitting or useful to do so. In the same way we believe Divine revelation because the reward of eternal life is promised us for so doing. It is the will which is moved by the prospect of this reward to assent to what is said, even though the intellect is not moved by something which it understands. Hence St. Augustine says (Tract. xxvi in Joannem, 2): Cetera potest homo nolens, credere nonnisi volens' [ie other things a man can do against his will but to believe he must will]" (De Ver., xiv, 1).聖托馬斯表示,這是由他說: "處置信奉的是一個人接受他人的詞作一些聲明,因為它似乎裝修或有用這樣做,在同一方式,我們相信神的啟示,因為懸賞永生是答應我們這樣做,它是一種意願,是所提出的發展前景,這獎賞贊同什麼是說,即使智力不為之所動的東西,理解,所以聖奧古斯丁說( tract.二十六中joannem , 2 ) :等等potest同質nolens , credere nonnisi volens ' [即其他事情一個人可以做違背其意願,但相信他一定要會] " (德版次,第十四條, 1 ) 。

(e) But just as the intellect needed a new and special light in order to assent to the supernatural truths of faith, so also the will needs a special grace from God in order that it may tend to that supernatural good which is eternal life. (五) ,但正如智力需要一個新的和特別的亮燈,以核可,以超自然的真理,信仰的,所以也將需要有一個特別的恩典,從神,以便它可能傾向於超自然的好,這是永恆的生命。 The light of faith, then, illumines the understanding, though the truth still remains obscure, since it is beyond the intellect's grasp; but supernatural grace moves the will, which, having now a supernatural good put before it, moves the intellect to assent to what it does not understand.在信仰的光照下,然後, illumines了解,雖然真相仍然模糊不清,因為它超越了智力的把握,但有神靈的恩典舉動會,其中,現在的神靈,好把面前,動作,智力贊同以有什麼不明白的。 Hence it is that faith is described as "bringing into captivity every understanding unto the obedience of Christ" (2 Corinthians 10:5).因此,它是信仰,是形容為"把每圈養了解祂的順從基督" (哥林多10時05分) 。

VI.六。 DEFINITION OF FAITH定義信仰

The foregoing analyses will enable us to define an act of Divine supernatural faith as "the act of the intellect assenting to a Divine truth owing to the movement of the will, which is itself moved by the grace of God" (St. Thomas, II-II, Q. iv, a. 2).前述分析,使我們能夠確定一個行為是神聖的超自然的信念作為"的行為智力assenting一個神聖真理由於該運動的意志為轉移,這是自己提出的天主的恩典" (聖托馬斯島,二二,問:四,甲2 ) 。 And just as the light of faith is a gift supernaturally bestowed upon the understanding, so also this Divine grace moving the will is, as its name implies, an equally supernatural and an absolutely gratuitous gift.正如在信仰的光照下是一個禮物supernaturally賦予的理解,所以這也是神的恩典移動將是,正如它的名字所暗示,一個同樣有神靈,是絕對無償的禮物。 Neither gift is due to previous study neither of them can be acquired by human efforts, but "Ask and ye shall receive."既不禮物,是因為先前的研究都可以被收購的人的努力,但"問及葉應接受" 。

From all that has been said two most important corollaries follow:從所有已經說的兩個最重要的必然結果如下:

That temptations against faith are natural and inevitable and are in no sense contrary to faith, "since", says St. Thomas, "the assent of the intellect in faith is due to the will, and since the object to which the intellect thus assents is not its own proper object -- for that is actual vision of an intelligible object -- it follows that the intellect's attitude towards that object is not one of tranquillity, on the contrary it thinks and inquires about those things it believes, all the while that it assents to them unhesitatingly; for as far as it itself is concerned the intellect is not satisfied" (De Ver., xiv, 1).這誘惑,對信仰的是一種自然和必然的,並在任何意義上違反誠信" ,因為"說,聖托馬斯, "贊同的心智信仰,是因為有意志,而且由於該物體,其中智力,因此assents是不是自己應有的對象-因為這是實際的遠景是一個理解的對象-這意味著智力的態度,該物體是沒有一個安寧的,與此相反,它認為,並詢問這些東西,它認為,所有的,而它assents他們毫不猶豫;而言,它本身就是關注的智力是不是滿意" (德版次,第十四條, 1 ) 。

(b) It also follows from the above that an act of supernatural faith is meritorious, since it proceeds from the will moved by Divine grace or charity, and thus has all the essential constituents of a meritorious act (cf. II-II, Q. ii, a. 9). (二)是否也跟著從以上行為的超自然信仰是有理由的,因為它是從會提出的神的恩典或慈善組織,因此,所有重要成分有立功表現的行為(參見二-二, q第二節,甲9 ) 。 This enables us to understand St. James's words when he says, "The devils also believe and tremble" (ii, 19) .這使我們認識到聖雅各福群會的話時,他說, "魔鬼也相信聞風喪膽" (二19 ) 。 "It is not willingly that they assent", says St. Thomas, "but they are compelled thereto by the evidence of those signs which prove that what believers assent to is true, though even those proofs do not make the truths of faith so evident as to afford what is termed vision of them" (De Ver., xiv 9, ad 4); nor is their faith Divine, but merely philosophical and natural. "這是不是心甘情願地表示,他們贊同" ,表示聖托馬斯" ,但他們是迫不得已,經證明這些跡象證明什麼信徒贊同的是真的,雖然即使那些證據,不使真理的信念,使自明由於負擔不起什麼是被稱為遠見" (德版次,十四9 ,專案4 ) ,也不是他們的信仰神,而只是哲學和自然的。 Some may fancy the foregoing analyses superfluous, and may think that they savour too much of Scholasticism.有些人可能喜歡用前述分析多餘的,並可能認為他們體味太多的士林哲學。 But if anyone will be at the pains to compare the teaching of the Fathers, of the Scholastics, and of the divines of the Anglican Church in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, with that of the non-Catholic theologians of today, he will find that the Scholastics merely put into shape what the Fathers taught, and that the great English divines owe their solidity and genuine worth to their vast patristic knowledge and their strictly logical training.但如果有人將設在不厭其煩地比較教學的父親,該scholastics ,該divines的聖公會在十七世紀和十八世紀,是由非天主教神學家的今天,他會發現該scholastics僅僅投入什麼形狀的父親教導,並認為大英語divines歸功於其硬度和真正的價值,以自己的廣大教父知識和嚴格的邏輯訓練。

Let anyone who doubts this statement compare Bishop Butler's Analogy of Religion, chaps.讓任何人懷疑這句話比較主教巴特勒的比喻宗教,龜裂。 v, vi, with the paper on "Faith" contributed to Lux Mundi.五,六,與書"信念"有助於力士世界之。 The writer of this latter paper tells us that "faith is an elemental energy of the soul", "a tentative probation", that "its primary note will be trust", and finally that "in response to the demand for definition, it can only reiterate: "Faith is faith.作者的這後一份文件告訴我們說, "信仰是一種元素能量的靈魂" , "暫定感化" ,即"其主要債券將於互信" ,並最後說: "在回應需求定義,它可只重申: "信仰是信仰。 Believing is just believing'". Nowhere is there any analysis of terms, nowhere any distinction between the relative parts played by the intellect and the will; and we feel that those who read the paper must have risen from its perusal with the feeling that they had been wandering through -- we use the writer's own expression -- "a juggling maze of words."以為只是以為' " 。行不通的,是有任何的分析計算,沒有任何區分,相對部分所發揮的智慧和意志,以及我們認為那些閱讀這份文件必須有上升,從審閱與感覺他們已通過遊蕩-我們用作家自己的表達- "一個玩弄迷宮的話" 。

VII.七。 THE: HABIT OF FAITH AND THE LIFE OF FAITH本:習慣,信仰和生命的信仰

(a) We have defined the act of faith as the assent of the intellect to a truth which is beyond its comprehension, but which it accepts under the influence of the will moved by grace and from the analysis we are now in a position to define the virtue of faith as a supernatural habit by which we firmly believe those things to be true which God has revealed. (一)我們已確定了該法的信仰作為核可的智力一條真理,是超越了它的理解,但它接受的影響下,該會提出的寬限期,從分析,我們現在正處於一個位置,以確定美德的信仰作為一個超自然的習慣,使我們堅定地相信,這些事情是真實的真主已經顯露出來。 Now every virtue is the perfection of some faculty, but faith results from the combined action of two faculties, viz., the intellect which elicits the act, and the will which moves the intellect to do so; consequently, the perfection of faith will depend upon the perfection with which each of these faculties performs its allotted task; the intellect must assent unhesitatingly, the will must promptly and readily move it to do so.現在每個德治是完善了一些教師,但信仰的結果,由聯合行動的兩個系,即,智力而誘發的行為和意志,它的舉動,智力這樣做;因此,完善的信念,將取決於經完善與上述各院系履行其分配的任務;智力必須贊同爽爽快快,將要及時和隨時提出它這樣做。

(b) The unhesitating assent of the intellect cannot be due to intellectual conviction of the reasonableness of faith, whether we regard the grounds on which it rests or the actual truths we believe, for "faith is the evidence of things that appear not"; it must, then, be referred to the fact that these truths come to us on Divine infallible testimony. (二)毫不猶豫贊同的智力,不能因智力定罪的合理性信念,我們是否方面的理由,它落在還是實際的真理,我們認為, "誠信是證據的事,似乎並不" ;它必須,那麼,被提到一個事實,即這些真理來,我們對神不會犯錯誤的證詞。 And though faith is so essentially of "the unseen" it may be that the peculiar function of the light of faith, which we have seen to be so necessary, is in some sort to afford us, not indeed vision, but an instinctive appreciation of the truths which are declared to be revealed.雖然信仰是如此本質的"看不見的手" ,可能是特有的功能在信仰的光照下,我們所看到的是如此必要的,是在某種負擔,而不是事實上的遠見,但本能地欣賞道理原本被宣布為表露無遺。 St. Thomas seems to hint at this when he says: "As by other virtuous habits a man sees what accords with those habits, so by the habit of faith a man's mind is inclined to assent to those things which belong to the true faith and not to other things" (II-II:4:4, ad 3).聖托馬斯似乎暗示,在這個時候,他說: "由於其他良性習慣一個人看到什麼是符合這些習慣,所以即使習慣,信仰的一個人的心態是傾向於贊同那些事情屬於真正的信仰和沒有其他東西" (二-二: 4時04分,專案3 ) 。 In every act of faith this unhesitating assent of the intellect is due to the motion of the will as its efficient cause, and the same must be said of the theological virtue of faith when we consider it as a habit or as a moral virtue, for, as St. Thomas insists (I-II, Q. lvi, ), there is no virtue, properly so called, in the intellect except in so far as it is subject to the will.在每一個信任的行動,這毫不猶豫贊同的智能,這是由於該議案的,將作為其高效的事業,同時必須指出的神學美德的信仰,當我們考慮它作為一種習慣或者作為道德情操,為正如聖托馬斯執意(一至二,問: 56 , ) ,是沒有涵養,妥善所謂的,在智力,除非至今,因為它是受意志。 Thus the habitual promptitude of the will in moving the intellect to assent to the truths of faith is not only the efficient cause of the intellect's assent, but is precisely what gives to this assent its virtuous, and consequently meritorious, character.因此慣常promptitude的意志,在動議智力贊同向真理的信仰,不僅是高效率的原因之一。智力的贊同,但也恰恰是賦予這個贊同其善良的,因此功勳,品格高尚。 Lastly, this promptitude of the will can only come from its unswerving tendency to the Supreme Good.最後,這promptitude的意志,只能來自其堅定不移的傾向,向最高法院提出好的。 And at the risk of repetition we must again draw attention to the distinction between faith as a purely intellectual habit, which as such is dry and barren, and faith resident, indeed, in the intellect, but motived by charity or love of God, Who is our beginning, our ultimate end, and our supernatural reward.並有可能重演,我們必須再次提醒注意區分信念作為一個純粹的智力習慣,因為這樣的,是乾旱和貧瘠,與信仰駐地,而事實上,在智力,但motived由慈善團體或上帝的愛,誰是我們的開始,我們的最終目的,我們的超自然的獎賞。 "Every true motion of the will", says St. Augustine, "proceeds from true love" (de Civ. Dei, XIV, ix), and, as he elsewhere beautifully expresses it, "Quid est ergo credere in Eum? Credendo amare, credendo diligere, credendo in Eum ire, et Ejus membris incorporari. Ipsa est ergo fides quam de nobis Deus exigit- et non invenit quod exigat, nisi donaverit quod invenerit." "每一個真實運動的意志" ,說,聖奧古斯丁, "收益從真愛" (德civ 。 dei ,第十四條,第九章) ,而且,正如他在其他地方美麗表示, "交換條件的預測號ETM credere在eum ? credendo阿瑪爾, credendo diligere , credendo在eum愛爾蘭,等ejus membris incorporari 。 ipsa預測號ETM惹人怎麼德的意識deus exigit - ET中的非invenit和exigat ,暫準donaverit和invenerit " 。 (Tract. xxix in Joannem, 6. -- "What, then, is to believe in God? -- It is to love Him by believing, to go to Him by believing, and to be incorporated in His members. This, then, is the faith which God demands of us; and He finds not what He may demand except where He has given what He may find.") This then is what is meant by "living" faith, or as theologians term it, fides formata, viz., "informed" by charity, or love of God. (第29屆tract.在joannem ,六-"那麼,到底是什麼,是相信上帝嗎-它是愛他的信,去給他的信,並納入他的成員,這是當時,是信仰上帝的要求,我們和他認定,沒有什麼他可以要求除非他給什麼,他可能會發現" ) ,這是當時指的是什麼"生活"的信念,或作為神學家來說,惹人formata ,即, "知情" ,由慈善機構,或上帝的愛。 If we regard faith precisely as an assent elicited by the intellect, then this bare faith is the same habit numerically as when the informing principle of charity is added to it, but it has not the true character of a moral virtue and is not a source of merit.如果我們把信仰恰恰是一個贊同引出智力,那麼,這暴露的信仰是相同的習慣,作為數值時,通知原則慈善是增加了,但一直沒有真正性質是道德美德,是不是源功績勳章。 If, then, charity be dead -- if, in other words, a man be in mortal sin and so without the habitual sanctifying grace of God which alone gives to his will that due tendency to God as his supernatural end which is requisite for supernatural and meritorious acts -- it is evident that there is no longer in the will that power by which it can, from supernatural motives, move the intellect to assent to supernatural truths.如果,那麼,慈善死了-如果,換句話說,一名男子在大罪,所以沒有慣常s anctifying天主的恩典,其中僅給他的意願,由於傾向上帝作為他的超自然結束,其中所必需者為超自然和立功行為-這是明顯的是,將不再是將這一權力,它可以從超自然的動機,提出智力贊同超自然的真理。 The intellectual and Divinely infused habit of faith remains, however, and when charity returns this habit acquires anew the character of "living" and meritorious faith.智力和神聖的,充滿了習慣,信仰仍然存在,但是,當慈善回報,這個習慣,重新獲得性質的"住"和有功的信仰。

(c) Again, faith being a virtue, it follows that a man's promptitude in believing will make him love the truths he believes, and he will therefore study them, not indeed in the spirit of doubting inquiry, but in order the better to grasp them as far as human reason will allow. (三)再次,信仰作為一種美德,因此,一個男人的promptitude相信,使他熱愛真理,他認為,他將因此研究它們,而不是事實上,在精神深信不疑調查,但為了更好地把握他們對於人類理性將允許。 Such inquiry will be meritorious and will render his faith more robust, because, at the same time that he is brought face to face with the intellectual difficulties which are involved, he will necessarily exercise his faith and repeatedly "bring his intellect into submission".這種調查將立功,並會令他的信仰更加堅固,因為,在同一時間內,他所帶來的是面對面地與智力困難,其中涉及的,他一定會運用他的信仰和反复說" ,使他的智力就範" 。 Thus St. Augustine says, "What can be the reward of faith, what can its very name mean if you wish to see now what you believe? You ought not to see in order to believe, you ought to believe in order to see; you ought to believe so long as you do not see, lest when you do see you may be put to the blush" (Sermo, xxxviii, 2, PL, V, 236).因此,聖奧古斯丁說: "有什麼可以獎勵的信仰,有什麼可以其名字的意思,如果你想現在就看什麼,你相信嗎?你不應該看到,為了相信,你應該相信,以見;你應該相信,只要你沒有看見,否則當你看到你可能會向緋紅" ( sermo ,三十八, 2 ,特等,五, 236 ) 。 And it is in this sense we must understand his oft-repeated words: "Crede ut intelligas" (Believe that you may understand).這是在這個意義上,我們必須明白,他經常重複的話: " Crede )當intelligas " (相信你可以明白) 。 Thus, commenting on the Septuagint version of Isaias vii 9 which reads: "nisi credideritis non intelligetis", he says: "Proficit ergo noster intellectus ad intelligenda quae credat, et fides proficit ad credenda quae intelligat; et eadem ipsa ut magis magisque intelligantur, in ipso intellectu proficit mens. Sed hoc non fit propriis tanquam naturalibus viribus sed Deo donante atque adjuvante" (Enarr. in Ps. cxviii, Sermo xviii, 3, "Our intellect therefore is of use to understand whatever things it believes, and faith is of use to believe whatever it understands; and in order that these same things may be more and more understood, the thinking faculty [mens] is of use in the intellect. But this is not brought about as by our own natural powers but by the gift and the aid of God." Cf. Sermo xliii, 3, in Is., vii, 9; PL, V, 255).因此,在評論對septuagint版伊薩亞斯羅七,九,其中寫著: "除非credideritis非intelligetis "時,他說: " proficit號ETM noster intellectus專案intelligenda quae credat等惹人proficit專案credenda quae intelligat ;等eadem ipsa當更多magisque intelligantur ,在依intellectu proficit男士。特設的SED不適合propriis tanquam naturalibus viribus的SED迪奧donante atque adjuvante " ( enarr.在PS 。 cxviii , sermo十八, 3 , "我們的智慧,所以是使用要了解什麼東西,它認為,信仰是使用相信無論做什麼理解;並且為了這些相同的事情可能會越來越多的理解,思想系[男] ,是使用在智力,但不是所帶來的,因為我們自己的自然權力,但由禮品和援助的上帝" 。比照sermo四十三, 3 ,在是,七,九;特等,五, 255 ) 。

(d) Further, the habit of faith may be stronger in one person than in another, "whether because of the greater certitude and firmness in the faith which one has more than another, or because of his greater promptitude in assenting, or because of his greater devotion to the truths of faith, or because of his greater confidence" (II-II:5:4). (四)進一步,習慣,信仰,可強在一個人,比在另一個國家, "不管是因為更大certitude和堅定性,在信仰你有多於另一種,或者是因為他的更大promptitude在assenting ,或因他的更大的奉獻給真理的信仰,或因為他有更大的信心" (二-二: 5時04分) 。

(e) We are sometimes asked whether we are really certain of the things we believe, and we rightly answer in the affirmative; but strictly speaking, certitude can be looked at from two standpoints: if we look at its cause, we have in faith the highest form of certitude, for its cause is the Essential Truth; but if we look at the certitude which arises from the extent to which the intellect grasps a truth, then in faith we have not such perfect certitude as we have of demonstrable truths, since the truths believed are beyond the intellect's comprehension (II-II, Q. iv, 8; de Ver., xiv, and i, ad 7). (五)我們有時會問我們是否有真正的某些東西,我們相信,而且我們正確的答案是肯定的,但嚴格來說, certitude可以研究從兩個觀點:如果我們看一下它的原因,我們在信仰最高形式的certitude ,其原因是基本真理,但如果我們看看在certitude其中出自何種程度的理智地把握了一個真理,那麼,在信仰中,我們並沒有這樣的完美certitude我們已經證明的真理,自認為真理是超越智力的理解(二-二問:四,八;德版次,第十四條,而我,專案7 ) 。

VIII.八。 THE GENESIS OF FAITH IN THE INDIVIDUAL SOUL成因的信仰在個體的靈魂

(a) Many receive their faith in their infancy, to others it comes later in life, and its genesis is often misunderstood. (一)許多接受了他們的信仰,在其起步階段,對其他人說到後來,在生活中,其成因往往是誤解了。 Without encroaching upon the article REVELATION, we may describe the genesis of faith in the adult mind somewhat as follows: Man being endowed with reason, reasonable investigation must precede faith; now we can prove by reason the existence of God, the immortality of the soul, and the origin and destiny of man; but from these facts there follows the necessity of religion, and true religion must be the true worship of the true God not according to our ideas, but according to what He Himself has revealed.無侵害這篇文章的啟示,我們可以形容成因信仰在成人心有點如下:男子被賦有理性,合理的調查必須先於信仰,現在,我們可以證明,因上帝存在,靈魂以及起源和命運的人,但是,從這些事實,有如下的必要性,宗教,真正的宗教必須是真正的崇拜的是真上帝,並沒有按照我們的想法,但是據他自己透露的。 But can God reveal Himself to us?但可以揭示上帝親自給我們嗎? And, granting that He can, where is this revelation to be found? ,並給予他可以,如果是這樣的啟示找到嗎? The Bible is said to contain it; does investigation confirm the Bible's claim?聖經說,以遏制這種現象;是否調查證實聖經的說法? We will take but one point: the Old Testament looks forward, as we have already seen, to One Who is to come and Who is God; the New Testament shows us One Who claimed to be the fulfilment of the prophecies and to be God; this claim He confirmed by His life, death, and resurrection by His teaching, miracles, and prophecies.我們將採取但是有一點:舊約期待,因為我們已經看到了,一個人來,誰是上帝;新約聖經告訴我們,一個人自稱為實現這一預言,並得到天主;這種說法,他證實了他的生命,死亡,與復活,由他的教學中,屢創奇蹟,並預言。 He further claimed to have founded a Church which should enshrine His revelation and should be the infallible guide for all who wished to carry out His will and save their souls.他進一步聲稱曾創辦一所教堂,其中應載明他的啟示,應該是成為犯錯指南為所有有意進行他的意志和拯救自己的靈魂。 Which of the numerous existing Churches is His?其中的許多現有的教堂是他的? It must have certain definite characteristics or notes.它必須有一定的明確特徵或紙幣。 It must be One Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic, it must claim infallible teaching power.它必須一個聖地,天主教和使徒的,它必須要求犯錯的教學力量。 None but the Holy, Roman, Catholic, and Apostolic Church can claim these characteristics, and her history is an irrefragable proof of her Divine mission.沒有人,但羅馬教廷,羅馬,天主教和使徒教會可以聲稱這些特點,她的歷史是一個不可爭辯的證據證明她的神聖使命。 If, then, she be the true Church, her teaching must be infallible and must be accepted.如果,那麼,她是真正的教會,她的教學必須犯錯誤,而且必須被接受。

(b) Now what is the state of the inquirer who has come thus far? (二)現在是什麼狀態的詢問了前來迄今? He has proceeded by pure reason, and, if on the grounds stated he makes his submission to the authority of the Catholic Church and believes her doctrines, he has only human, reasonable, fallible, faith.他已開始由純粹理性,而且,如果根據的理由,他使他提交給權威的天主教教會,並認為她的學說,他只是人類,合理,會犯錯誤,信仰。 Later on he may see reason to question the various steps in his line of argument, he may hesitate at some truth taught by the Church, and he may withdraw the assent he has given to her teaching authority.後來他可能會看到原因,對問題的各個步驟,在他的論點,他可以毫不猶豫地在一些真理教由教會,而且他可撤銷核可,他送給她的教學權威。 In other words, he has not Divine faith at all.或者換句話說,他並沒有神的信仰都沒有。 For Divine faith is supernatural both in the principle which elicits the acts and in the objects or truths upon which it falls.為神的信仰是超自然無論在原則上,其中引出的行為,並在物體或真理時,它會跌倒。 The principle which elicits assent to a truth which is beyond the grasp of the human mind must be that same mind illumined by a light superior to the light of reason, viz.原則誘發贊同一個真理,是超越把握人的頭腦必須是同一心照亮輕型優於輕的原因,即。 the light of faith, and since, even with this light of faith, the intellect remains human, and the truth to be believed remains still obscure, the final assent of the intellect must come from the will assisted by Divine grace, as seen above.在信仰的光照下,因為,即使在這種信仰的光照下,仍智力的人,和真相被認為仍模糊不清,最後核可的智力必須來自該會的協助下,以神的恩典,因為看到上面。 But both this Divine light and this Divine grace are pure gifts of God, and are consequently only bestowed at His good pleasure.但無論這神聖的光,這神聖的恩典是純禮品的上帝,並因此只賜予他好高興。 It is here that the heroism of faith comes in; our reason will lead us to the door of faith but there it leaves us; and God asks of us that earnest wish to believe for the sake of the reward -- "I am thy reward exceeding great" -- which will allow us to repress the misgivings of the intellect and say, "I believe, Lord, help Thou my unbelief."正是在這裡,英雄主義的信仰進來,我們的理由,將導致我們的大門,信仰的,但它留給我們和上帝要我們大家殷切希望,相信是為了獎賞-"我是你的獎賞超過偉大的" -這將使我們能夠壓制疑慮的智慧和說, "我相信,主啊,幫助你,我不信" 。 As St. Augustine expresses it, "Ubi defecit ratio, ibi est fidei aedificatio" (Sermo ccxlvii, PL, V, 1157 -- "Where reason fails there faith builds up").正如聖奧古斯丁表示, "育碧defecit比例,揖斐預測信aedificatio " ( sermo ccxlvii ,特等,五, 1157號-" ,而原因未能有信心,打造" ) 。

(c) When this act of submission has been made, the light of faith floods the soul and is even reflected back upon those very motives which had to be so laboriously studied in our search after the truth; and even those preliminary truths which precede all investigation eg the very existence of God, become now the object of our faith. (三)當本法案提交已經發表,在信仰的光照下洪水靈魂和更是反映了回來後,那些非常用心,這需要這麼辛苦研究,在我們的搜尋後,真相;即使是那些初步的真理,而先於一切如調查生死存亡的上帝,成為現在卻違背了我們的信仰。

IX.九。 FAITH IN RELATION TO WORKS信仰有關工程

(a) Faith and no works may be described as the Lutheran view. (一)信仰與無工程可被稱為路德的看法。 "Esto peccator, pecca fortiter sed fortius fide" was the heresiarch's axiom, and the Diet of Worms, in 1527, condemned the doctrine that good works are not necessary for salvation. " esto peccator , pecca fortiter的SED fortius真正的" ,是heresiarch的公理,和飲食習慣的蠕蟲,在1527年,譴責該學說認為,好的作品是沒有必要的救贖。

(b) Works and no faith may be described as the modern view, for the modern world strives to make the worship of humanity take the place of the worship of the Deity (Do we believe? as issued by the Rationalist Press, 1904, ch. x: "Creed and Conduct" and ch. xv: "Rationalism and Morality". Cf. also Christianity and Rationalism on Trial, published by the same press, 1904). (二)工程,並沒有信仰,可說是現代的看法,因為當代世界的努力,使崇拜人類佔據的崇拜神(我們是否相信?出具的理性出版社, 1904年,甲烷第十節: "教義和行為"和CH第十五: "理性與道德" 。比照也是基督教和理性接受審理,公佈由同一出版社, 1904年) 。

(c) Faith shown by works has ever been the doctrine of the Catholic Church and is explicitly taught by St. James, ii, 17: "Faith, if it have not works, is dead." (三)有信仰所表現出的作品卻從未中庸天主教教會,並明確地告訴由聖雅各福群會,二, 17 : "信念,如果沒有工程,是死" 。 The Council of Trent (Sess. VI, canons xix, xx, xxiv, and xxvi) condemned the various aspects of the Lutheran doctrine, and from what has been said above on the necessity of charity for "living" faith, it will be evident that faith does not exclude, but demands, good works, for charity or love of God is not real unless it induces us to keep the Commandments; "He that keepeth his word, in him in very deed the charity of God is perfected" (1 John 2:5).安理會的遄達( sess.六,大砲十九,二十,二十四,二十六)譴責了各方面的路德派教義,並從已表示,對上述的必要性,為慈善機構"活"的信念,這將明顯信仰並不排斥,而是要求,好的作品,為慈善或上帝的愛,是不是真正的,除非它誘使我們繼續誡命, "他說, keepeth他所說的話,他非常契約慈善的上帝是完善" (約翰一2時05分) 。 St. Augustine sums up the whole question by saying "Laudo fructum boni operis, sed in fide agnosco radicem" -- ie "I praise the fruit of good works, but their root I discern in faith" (Enarr. in Ps. xxxi, PL, IV, 259).聖奧古斯丁總結了整個問題,說: " laudo fructum渤泥operis文,而在真正的被認可radicem " -即"我要表揚水果的優秀作品,但他們的根我看到他們在信" ( e narr.在P S。三十一,特等,第四, 259 ) 。

X. LOSS OF FAITH十,信仰失落

From what has been said touching the absolutely supernatural character of the gift of faith, it is easy to understand what is meant by the loss of faith.從已表示,觸及絕對超自然的特色禮品的信念,這是很容易理解的意思是什麼?信仰的丟失。 God's gift is simply withdrawn.上帝的禮物是簡單地撤回。 And this withdrawal must needs be punitive, "Non enim deseret opus suum, si ab opere suo non deseratur" (St. Augustine, Enarr. in Ps. cxlv -- "He will not desert His own work, if He be not deserted by His own work").這撤出必須需要予以懲罰, "非單一deseret他們的工作,思抗體opere鎖非deseratur " (聖奧古斯丁, enarr 。生理鹽水。 cxlv -" ,他不會沙漠自己的工作,如果他不眾叛親離他自己的工作" ) 。 And when the light of faith is withdrawn, there inevitably follows a darkening of the mind regarding even the very motives of credibility which before seemed so convincing.當信仰的光照下被撤回,因此不可避免地沿襲了昏暗的態度,即使是非常用心的公信力,而之前似乎如此令人信服。 This may perhaps explain why those who have had the misfortune to apostatize from the faith are often the most virulent in their attacks upon the grounds of faith; "Vae homini illi", says St. Augustine, "nisi et ipsius fidem Dominus protegat", ie "Woe be to a man unless the Lord safeguard his faith" (Enarr. in Ps. cxx, 2, PL, IV, 1614).這可能解釋為什麼那些曾經不幸apostatize從信仰往往是最惡毒,在他們攻擊的理由,信念" vae homini illi "說,聖奧古斯丁, "暫準等ipsius fidem主protegat "即"豈是一個人,除非上帝維護他的信仰" ( enarr.在PS 。 cxx , 2 ,特等,四, 1614 ) 。

XI.十一。 FAITH IS REASONABLE信仰是合理的

(a) If we are to believe present-day Rationalists and Agnostics, faith, as we define it, is unreasonable. (一)如果我們要相信當代理性和不可知論者,信仰,因為我們定義的話,是不合理的。 An Agnostic declines to accept it because he considers that the things proposed for his acceptance are preposterous, and because he regards the motives assigned for our belief as wholly inadequate.一個不可知的跌幅接受,因為他認為,該建議的東西,為他接受,是荒謬的,因為他把動機指派為我們的信仰完全不夠。 "Present me with a reasonable faith based on reliable evidence, and I will joyfully embrace it. Until that time I have no choice but to remain an Agnostic" (Medicus in the Do we Believe? Controversy, p. 214). "現在我一個合理的信仰基於可靠的證據,我會高興地擁抱它。在這一時刻到來之前,我沒有選擇,但仍然是一個不可知的" (醫生在做,我們相信嗎?爭議,第214頁) 。 Similarly, Francis Newman says: "Paul was satisfied with a kind of evidence for the resurrection of Jesus which fell exceedingly short of the demands of modern logic, it is absurd in us to believe, barely because they believed" (Phases of Faith, p. 186).同樣,弗朗西斯紐曼說: "保羅感到滿意的一種證據,為復活的耶穌屬於極其短暫的要求,現代邏輯,這是荒謬的,在使我們相信,僅僅因為他們相信" (分階段的信念,磷186段) 。 Yet the supernatural truths of faith, however they may transcend our reason, cannot be opposed to it, for truth cannot be opposed to truth, and the same Deity Who bestowed on us the light of reason by which we assent to first principles is Himself the cause of those principles, which are but a reflection of His own Divine truth.然而,超自然的真理的信仰,但是他們可能超越我們的,因此,不能反對的,為真理而不能反對,堅持解放思想,實事求是,同時神人賜予我們根據理由,我們贊同以第一的原則,是自己造成這些原則,這不過是反映了他自己的神聖真理。 When He chooses to manifest to us further truths concerning Himself, the fact that these latter are beyond the grasp of the natural light which He has bestowed upon us will not prove them to be contrary to our reason.當他選擇艙單給我們進一步的真理,有關其本人的,但事實上,這些後者則是超越的把握自然光,他已賦予我們不會證明他們違反了我們的理由。 Even so pronounced a rationalist as Sir Oliver Lodge says: "I maintain that it is hopelessly unscientific to imagine it possible that man is the highest intelligent existence" (Hibbert Journal, July, 1906, p. 727).即使如此宣告理性作為主席先生向奧利弗說: "我認為它是沒有希望的,不科學的想像,它可能是男子,是最高智慧的存在" ( hibbert日報, 7月, 1906年,頁727 ) 。

Agnostics, again, take refuge in the unknowableness of truths beyond reason, but their argument is fallacious, for surely knowledge has its degrees.不可知論者,讓我們再避難,在unknowableness的真理以外的原因,但他們的論據是謬誤的,為一定的知識有其程度的影響。 I may not fully comprehend a truth in all its bearings, but I can know a great deal about it; I may not have demonstrative knowledge of it, but that is no reason why I should reject that knowledge which comes from faith.我可能沒有完全理解一個真理,在其所有軸承,但我可以知道大量的事情;我可能不會有示範性的知識,但是,那是我沒有理由要拒絕這種知識來自信仰。 To listen to many Agnostics one would imagine that appeal to authority as a criterion was unscientific, though perhaps nowhere is authority appealed to so unscientifically as by modern scientists and modern critics.聽很多不可知論人會想像呼籲管理局作為標準,是不科學的,雖然也許是最權威呼籲,使不講科學,因為現代的科學家和現代批評。 But, as St. Augustine says, "If God's providence govern human affairs we must not despair or doubt but that He hath ordained some certain authority, upon which staying ourselves as upon a certain ground or step, we may be lifted up to God" (De utilitate credendi); and it is in the same spirit that he says: "Ego vero Evangelio non crederem, nisi me Catholicae Ecclesiae commoveret auctoritas" (Contra Ep. Fund., V, 6 -- "I would not believe the Gospel if the authority of the Catholic Church did not oblige me to believe").但是,正如聖奧古斯丁說: "如果上帝的眷顧,執政人類事務的,我們絕不能絕望或疑慮,但他祂所受戒某些權力後,即下榻的自己後,在某地或一步,我們可能會取消了向上帝" (德utilitate credendi ) ,它是在本著同樣的精神,他說: "我的Vero evangelio非crederem ,除非我catholicae ecclesiae commoveret權威" (矛盾的EP 。基金,五,六-"我不會相信福音如果當局對天主教會並沒有迫使我相信" ) 。

(b) Naturalism, which is only another name for Materialism, rejects faith because there is no place for it in the naturalistic scheme; yet the condemnation of this false philosophy by St. Paul and by the author of the Book of Wisdom is emphatic (cf. Romans 1:18-23; Wisdom 13:1-19). (二)自然主義,它只是一個名字,為唯物主義,反對信仰,因為沒有地方,因為它在自然主義計劃,但譴責這種虛假的哲學聖保祿和本書的作者的智慧是肯定的(比照羅馬書1:18-23 ;智慧13:1-19 ) 。 Materialists fail to see in nature what the greatest minds have always discovered in it, viz., "ratio cujusdam artis; scilicet divinae, indita rebus, qua ipsae res moventur ad finem determinatum" -- "the manifestation of a Divine plan whereby all things are directed towards their appointed end" (St. Thomas, Lect. xiv, in II Phys.).唯物論者看不到在性質上有什麼最偉大的頭腦,始終發現它,即"比cujusdam藝術家; scilicet divinae , indita rebus ,節瓜ipsae第moventur專案finem determinatum " -" ,體現了神的計劃,讓所有的東西是針對其委託的終結" (聖托馬斯, lect 。十四,在第二體育課) 。 Similarly, the vagaries of Humanism blind men to the fact of man's essentially finite character and hence preclude all idea of faith in the infinite and the supernatural (cf. "Naturalism and Humanism" in Hibbert Journal, Oct., 1907).同樣地,變幻莫測的人文主義盲人男子到一個事實:人的本質上的有限性質,因此排除所有的思想信仰在無限與超自然(參見"自然與人文" hibbert日報, 10月, 1907年) 。

XII.十二。 FAITH IS NECESSARY信仰是必要的

"He that believeth and is baptized", said Christ, "shall be saved, but he that believeth not shall be condemned" (Mark 16:16); and St. Paul sums up this solemn declaration by saying: "Without faith it is impossible to please God" (Hebrews 11:6). "他相信和受洗的" ,說:基督" ,應被保存下來,但他說,信不應當受到譴責" (馬克16:16 ) ;和聖保祿總結了這莊嚴的聲明說: "沒有信仰,它是不可能取悅上帝" (希伯來書11時06分) 。 The absolute necessity of faith is evident from the following considerations: God is our beginning and our end and has supreme dominion over us, we owe Him, consequently, due service which we express by the term religion.絕對有必要的信仰是顯而易見的,從以下幾個方面的考慮:上帝,是我們的開始和結束時,我們已經最高法院統治我們,我們感激他,因此,適當的服務,我們對此表示,由任期宗教。 Now true religion is the true Now true religion is the true worship of the true God.現在,真正的宗教是真正的,現在真正的宗教是真正的崇拜的真神。 But it is not for man to fashion a worship according to his own ideals; none but God can declare to us in what true worship consists, and this declaration constitutes the body of revealed truths, whether natural or supernatural.但它是不是人類以塑造一個禮拜,據他自己的理想,沒有人,但上帝可以申報給我們什麼真正的崇拜構成,並在本宣言構成人體的揭示真理,無論是自然或超自然的。 To these, if we would attain the end for which we came into the world, we are bound to give the assent of faith.這些,我們只要達到目的,我們來到地融入世界,我們必將給予贊同的信念。 It is clear, moreover, that no one can profess indifference in a matter of such vital importance.這是清楚的,況且,沒有人可以自稱冷漠,在短短的這種至關重要的。 During the Reformation period no such indifference was professed by those who quitted the fold; for them it was not a question of faith or unfaith, so much as of the medium by which the true faith was to be known and put into practice.在改造期間,沒有這種冷漠是自稱被那些退出倍,對他們來說,這不是一個信仰問題,或unfaith ,這麼多為的介質,其中真正的信仰是被稱為並付諸實踐。 The attitude of many outside the Church is now one of absolute indifference, faith is regarded as an emotion, as a peculiarly subjective disposition which is regulated by no known psychological laws.的態度,許多外教堂現在是一個絕對的冷漠態度,信仰視為一種情感,作為一個獨有的主觀處置是監管沒有已知的心理規律。 Thus Taine speaks of faith as "une source vive qui s'est formee au plus profond de l'ame, sous la poussee et la chaleur des instincts immanents" -- "a living fountain which has come into existence in the lowest depths of the soul under the impulse and the warmth of the immanent instincts".因此taine講信念作為" une來源vive qui s'est formee凹加profond德l' ame , sous香格里拉poussee等香格里拉chaleur萬本能immanents " -"生活噴泉,其中已生效的存在,在最低深處對靈魂下的衝動和溫暖的內在本能" 。 Indifferentism in all its phases was condemned by Pius IX in the Syllabus Quanta cura: in Prop. XV, "Any man is free to embrace and profess whatever form of religion his reason approves of"; XVI, "Men can find the way of salvation and can attain to eternal salvation in any form of religious worship"; XVII "We can at least have good hopes of the eternal salvation of all those who have never been in the true Church of Christ"; XVIII, "Protestantism is only another form of the same true Christian religion, and men can be as pleasing to God in it as in the Catholic Church." indifferentism各階段的譴責比約九在教學大綱廣cura : prop.第十五, "任何人都有自由擁抱,並自稱對什麼形式的宗教,他的理由是認同" ;十六, "男人可以找到出路的救贖並能達到以永恆的救贖,在任何形式的宗教崇拜" ;十七, "我們至少可以有良好願望的永恆救贖的所有那些從來沒有在真正的基督教會" ;十八, "基督新教,只是另一種形式在同真正的基督徒宗教,官兵可作為取悅上帝,因為它在天主教教會" 。

XIII.十三。 THE OBJECTIVE UNITY AND IMMUTABILITY OF FAITH目的是團結和不可改變的信仰

Christ's prayer for the unity of His Church the highest form of unity conceivable, "that they all may be one as thou, Father, in me, and I in Thee" (John 17:21), has been brought into effect by the unifying force of a bond of a faith such as that which we have analysed.基督的祈禱,為團結,他的教會的最高形式的統一,可以想像" ,即它們都可以是一個作為你的父親,在我,我在你身上" (約翰福音17:21 ) ,已提請生效凝聚力力量,是一個債券的一種信仰,例如我們已經初步分析。 All Christians have been taught to be "careful to keep the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace, one body and one spirit, as you are called in one hope of your calling; one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all" (Ephesians 4:3-6).所有基督徒都被教導要"謹慎地保持團結的精神,在債券的和平,一個機構和一個精神,因為你們是所謂的一個希望你的呼喚,一個主,一個信念,一個洗禮,一個真主和父親的一切" (弗4:3-6 ) 。 The objective unity of the Catholic Church becomes readily intelligible when we reflect upon the nature of the bond of union which faith offers us.客觀統一的天主教教會變得容易理解,當我們反思的性質,以認同感為紐帶的聯盟,其中信仰為我們提供了。 For our faith comes to us from the one unchanging Church, "the pillar and ground of truth", and our assent to it comes as a light in our minds and a motive power in our wills from the one unchanging God Who can neither deceive nor be deceived.我們真誠地給我們留下了一個永遠不變的教會, "支柱和地面的真理" ,而我們的贊同,以它作為一個輕在我們的腦海和動力,在我們的意志,從一個不變的上帝的人,既不能欺騙,也沒有被欺騙了。 Hence, for all who possess it, this faith constitutes an absolute and unchanging bond of union.因此,對於所有的人擁有它,這信仰構成絕對天長地久債券的聯盟。 The teachings of this faith develop, of course, with the needs of the ages, but the faith itself remains unchanged.遺訓這種信仰的發展,當然,隨著需求的千古罪人,但信仰本身保持不變。 Modern views are entirely destructive of such unity of belief because their root principle is the supremacy of the individual judgment.現代的觀點是完全破壞性的這種團結的信念,因為他們的根本原則是至高無上的個人判斷。 Certain writers do indeed endeavour to overcome the resulting conflict of views by upholding the supremacy of universal human reason as a criterion of truth; thus Mr. Campbell writes: "One cannot really begin to appreciate the value of united Christian testimony until one is able to stand apart from it, so to speak, and ask whether it rings true to the reason and moral sense" (The New Theology, p. 178; cf. Cardinal Newman, "Palmer on Faith and Unity" in Essays Critical and Historical, vol. 1, also, Thomas Harper, SJ, Peace Through the Truth, London, 1866, 1st Series.)某些作家確實努力克服由此產生的衝突的看法,既堅持了至高無上的人類普遍的原因,作為一個真理標準問題,因此坎貝爾先生這樣寫道: "一個不能真正開始欣賞價值的美國基督徒的見證,直到一個能站在除了不好,所以才有機會發言,請問是否屬實環向理性和道德感" (新神學, 178頁;比照紅衣主教紐曼, "帕爾默對信仰和團結"在雜文批判與歷史,第一卷1 ,同時,托馬斯哈珀,律政司司長,通過和平的真相,倫敦, 1866年,第一系列) 。

Publication information Written by Hugh T. Pope.出版信息書面由休湯匙教宗。 Transcribed by Gerard Haffner.轉錄由熱拉爾haffner 。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.天主教百科全書,體積訴公佈1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. nihil obstat , 1909年5月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

I. Patristic.一教父。 -- The Fathers in general have never attempted any analysis of faith, and most patristic treatises De fide consist of expositions of the true doctrine to be held. -父親一般從來沒有試圖進行任何分析的信念,最教父論文德的真正構成論述的真正教義,以舉行。 But the reader will have already noticed the precise teaching of ST.但讀者將已經注意到,確切教學聖。 AUGUSTINE on the nature of faith.奧古斯丁就什麼性質的信仰。 Besides the gems of thought which are scattered throughout his works, we may refer to his two treatises De Utilitate Credendi and De Fide Rerum quae non videntur, in PL, VI, VII.除了寶石的思想散見於他的作品中,我們可以參考他的兩個論文德utilitate credendi和德正當rerum quae非videntur ,特等,六,七。

II.二。 Scholastics. scholastics 。 -- The minute analysis of faith was worked out by the theologians of the thirteenth century and onwards they followed mainly the lines laid down by St. Augustine. -分鐘分析信仰的是工作,由神學家的1 3世紀及以後,他們遵循的主要線路訂下的聖奧古斯丁。 ST.聖。 THOMAS, Summa, II-II, QQ.托馬斯,總結,二-二, QQ的。 i-vii; Quaest.一至七; quaest 。 Disp., Q. xiv; HOLCOT, De actibus fidei et intellectus et de libertate Voluntatis (Paris, 1512); SUAREZ De fide, spe, et charitate, in Opera, ed.分散,問:十四; holcot ,德actibus信等intellectus等德libertate voluntatis (巴黎, 1512年) ;蘇亞雷斯德確切的SPE等charitate ,在戲曲,教育署。 VIVES (Paris, 1878), XII; DE LUGO, De virtute fidei divinae (Venice, 1718); JOANNES A S. THOMA, Comment.韋斯(巴黎, 1878年) ,第十二章;德盧戈,德virtute信divinae (威尼斯, 1718 ) ; 。 Joannes 1第托馬,發表評論。 on the Summa especially on the De Fide, in Opera, ed.關於總結,特別是對德的真誠,在戲曲,教育署。 VIVES (Paris, 1886), VII; CAJETAN, De Fide et Operibus (1532), especially his Commentary on the Summa, II-II, QQ i-vii.韋斯(巴黎, 1886年) ,第七章; cajetan ,德正當等operibus (第1532 ) ,尤其是他的評論就總結,二-二, QQ的一至七。

III.三。 Modern Writers.現代作家。 -- The decrees of the Vatican Council, a handy edition by McNabb (London, 1907); cf. -有關法規的梵蒂岡會,一本既版邁克納布(倫敦, 1 907年) ;比照。 also Coll.也coll 。 Lacencis, VIII; PIUS X, Syllabus Lamentabili Sane (1907); id., Encyclical, Pascendi Gregis (1907); ZIGLIARA, Propaedeutica ad Sacram Theologiam (5th ed., Rome, 1906), 1, xvi, xvii; NEWMAN, Grammar of Assent, Essay on Development, and especially The Ventures of Faith in Vol. lacencis ,第八章;比約第十教學大綱lamentabili理智( 1907年) ;身份證,通諭中, pascendi收聽廣播節目和收看( 1907年) ;齊利亞拉, propaedeutica專案sacram theologiam (第五版,羅馬, 1906年) , 1 ,第十六屆,第十七章;紐曼,語法的贊同比賽,徵文比賽,對發展,特別是合資企業的信心,第一卷。 IV of his Sermons, and Peace in Believing and Faith without Demonstration, VI; WEISS, Apologie du Christianisme, Fr.四,他的布道,與和平的信仰和信念,沒有示威,六;魏斯,辯護christianisme ,神父。 tr., V, conf.的TR ,五, conf設置。 iv, La Foi, and VI, conf.四,香格里拉已公佈,以及第六conf設置。 xxi, La Vie de la Foi; BAINVEL, La Foi et l'acte de Foi (Paris, 1898); ULLATHORNE, The Groundwork of the Christian Virtues, ch. 21 ,對生命與德香格里拉已公佈;班韋爾,香格里拉已公佈等l'擬寫德已公佈(巴黎, 1898年) ; ullathorne ,地基基督教美德,你的。 xiv, The Humility of Faith; HEDLEY, The Light of Life (1889),ii; BOWDEN, The Assent of Faith, taken mainly from KLEUTGEN, Theologie der Vorzeit, IV, and serving as an introductory chapter to the tr.十四,謙遜的信仰;赫德利,生命之光( 1889年) ,第二章;鮑登,贊同的信仰,採取的主要是來自kleutgen , theologie明鏡vorzeit ,四,並擔任緒論篇到的TR 。 of HETTINGER, Revealed Religion (1895); MCNABB, Oxford Conferences on Faith (London, 1905); Implicit Faith, in The Month for April, 1869; Reality of the Sin of Unbelief, ibid., October, 1881; The Conceivable Dangers of Unbelief in Dublin Review Jan., 1902; HARENT in VACANT AND MANGENOT, Dictionnaire de th&eaccute;ologie catholique, sv Croyance.對hettinger ,揭示了宗教( 1895年) ;邁克納布,牛津會議上的信仰(倫敦, 1905年) ;隱信念,在本月4月, 1869年;現實的罪,不信者,同上, 10月, 1881年;可以想像的危險不信者在都柏林審查1月, 1902年; harent在空置,以及曼格諾特,詞典次&eaccute; ologie天主教, sv croyance 。

IV.四。 Against Rationalist, Positivist, and Humanist Views.反對理性主義,實證主義,人文主義觀點。 -- NEWMAN, The Introduction of Rationalistic Principles into Revealed Religion, in Tracts for the Times (1835), republished in Essays Historical and Critical as Essay ii; St. Paul on Rationalism in The Month for Oct., 1877; WARD, The Clothes of Religion, a Reply to Popular Positivism (1886); The Agnosticism of Faith in Dublin Review, July, 1903. -紐曼,引入理性原則納入透露,宗教,為大片時代( 1 835年) ,重新在自撰的歷史和批判徵文二;聖保祿理性主義在每月1 0月, 1 877年;病房,衣服宗教,答复流行實證主義( 1886年) ;不可知論的信念在都柏林審查, 7月, 1903 。

V. The motives of faith and its relation to reason and science.五,動機的信仰及其與理性和科學。 -- MANNING, The Grounds of Faith (1852, and often since); Faith and Reason in Dublin Review, July, 1889; AVELING, Faith and Science in Westminster Lectures (London, 1906); GARDEIL, La cr&eaccute;dibilit&eaccute; et l'apolog&eaccute;tique (PARIS, 1908); IDEM in VACANT AND MANGENOT, Dictionnaire de th&eaccute;ologie catholique, sv Cr&eaccute;dibilite. -曼寧的理由,信仰( 1 852年,而且往往自) ;信仰與理性在都柏林審查, 7月, 1 889年; a veling,信仰與科學在西敏寺講座(倫敦, 1 906年) ;加爾代伊,香格里拉鉻& eaccute;d ibilit& eaccute;等升' apolog &eaccute; tique (巴黎, 1908年) ;同上,在空置,以及曼格諾特,詞典次&eaccute; ologie天主教, sv鉻&eaccute; dibilite 。

VI.六。 Non-Catholic writers.非天主教作家。 -- Lux Mundi, i, Faith (1Oth ed. 1890); BALFOUR Foundations of Belief (2nd ed., 1890); COLERIDGE, Essay on Faith (1838), in Aids to Reflection; MALLOCK, Religion as a Credible Doctrine (1903), xii. -力士世界之,我,信仰( 1 oth版1 890) ;鮑爾弗基金會的信念(第二版, 1 890年) ;柯勒律治比賽,徵文比賽,對信仰( 1 838) ,在艾滋病問題進行反思;米歇爾,宗教作為一個可靠的學說( 1 903 ) ,第十二章。 VII.七。 Rationalistic Works.理性主義作品。 -- The Do We Believe correspondence, held in the Daily Telegraph, has been published in the form of selections (1905) under the title, A Record of a Great Correspondence in the Daily Telegraph, with Introduction by COURTNEY. -我們是否相信函授,在每日電訊報,已出版的形式精選( 1 905)的標題下,創下一個偉大的書信往來,每日電訊報,介紹由州最高法院。 Similar selections by the Rationalist Press (1904); SANTAYANA, The Life of Reason (3 vols., London, 1905-6); Faith and Belief in Hibbert Journal, Oct. 1907.類似的選曲,由理性主義新聞( 1904 ) ;塔亞納,生命的理由( 3卷,倫敦, 1905-6 ) ;信念和信仰hibbert日報, 1907年10月。 Cf.比照。 also LODGE, ibid., for Jan., 1908, and July, 1906.還提出,同上,明年1月, 1908年7月和1906年。


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