Evangelicalism evangelicalism

General Information 一般資料

Evangelicalism is the term applied to a number of related movements within Protestantism. evangelicalism是一詞應用到一些相關的動作與基督新教。 They are bound together by a common emphasis on what they believe to be a personal relationship with Jesus Christ and a commitment to the demands of the New Testament. Evangelicalism is usually associated with a type of preaching that calls on the hearer to confess his or her sin and believe in Christ's forgiveness.他們是聯繫在一起的共同重視,他們認為是一種個人的關係與耶穌基督,並承諾要求的新約聖經。 evangelicalism通常都與一類的說教,要求對聴供認他或她單,並相信在基督的寬恕。

During the late 17th century and throughout the 18th, Pietism was the mainspring of the so - called evangelical revival in Germany.在晚17世紀和整個十八, pietism是主要動力的,所以-所謂的福音復興在德國。 Its counterpart in Great Britain and the United States was Methodism, which contributed to the series of revivals called the Great Awakening that swept 18th century America.對口大不列顛和美國methodism ,這有助於該系列的復甦被稱為大覺醒席捲18世紀的美國。 The common purpose of evangelical movements was to revitalize the churches spiritually.共同目的是福音運動是為了振興教會精神上的。 In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Evangelicals in the Church of England - especially William Wilberforce and other members of the group known as the Clapham Sect - played a leading role in the movement to abolish slavery in the British colonies.在晚18世紀和19世紀之交,福音派,在英國教會-尤其是威廉威爾伯福斯和小組的其他成員則稱之為和C lapham節-中發揮著主導作用,在運動,以廢除奴隸制度在英國殖民地。

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Since about 1950 the term evangelical frequently has been applied in the United States to the inheritors and proponents of Fundamentalism.自1950年中期福音頻繁,已用於在美國向繼承者和倡議者的原教旨主義。

Paul Merritt Bassett保羅梅里巴塞特

Bibliography 參考書目
DG Bloesch, Essentials of Evangelical Theology (1982), and Freedom for Obedience (1987); JD Hunter, Evangelicism: The Comming Generation (1987); K Hylson - Smith, Evangelicals in the Church of England, 1734 - 1984 (1989); G Marsden, ed., Evangelicism and Modern America (1984).危險品bloesch ,本色的福音派神學( 1982 ) ,和自由順從( 1987年) ;第納爾獵人, evangelicism :未來數代( 1987年) ; k hylson -史密斯,福音派,在英國教會, 1 734- 19 84(1 9 89);克馬斯登版, evangelicism和現代美國( 1984年) 。


Evangelicalism evangelicalism

General Information 一般資料

Evangelicalism is a movement in modern Anglo-American Protestantism (and in nations influenced by Britain and North America) that emphasizes personal commitment to Christ and the authority of the Bible. evangelicalism是一種運動,在現代英美新教(在聯合國的影響,北美和英國) ,強調個人的承諾,以基督的權威聖經。 It is represented in most Protestant denominations.這是代表了大多數新教教派。

Evangelicals believe that each individual has a need for spiritual rebirth and personal commitment to Jesus Christ as savior, through faith in his atoning death on the cross (commonly, although not necessarily, through a specific conversion experience).福音派相信,每一個人都需要重生和個人承諾,以耶穌基督為救世主,通過信仰,在他的atoning十字架上的死亡(常見的,雖然不一定是通過一個具體的轉換經驗) 。 They emphasize strict orthodoxy on cardinal doctrines, morals, and especially on the authority of the Bible.他們強調,嚴格正統在大是大非的教義,道德,特別是對權威的聖經。 Many Evangelicals follow a traditional, precritical interpretation of the Bible and insist on its inerrancy (freedom from error in history as well as in faith and morals).許多新教徒遵循傳統, precritical解釋聖經,並堅持其inerrancy (免於誤差在歷史上以及在信仰與道德) 。

The term Evangelicalism has been a source of controversy, and the precise relationship or distinction between Evangelicalism and Fundamentalism has been disputed.任期evangelicalism一直來源的爭議,以及確切關係或區別evangelicalism和原教旨主義一直有爭議。 Liberal Protestants often oppose the use of Evangelical to refer only to the strict traditionalists.自由新教徒常常反對用基督教來僅指嚴格傳統。

In the general sense, evangelical (from the New Testament Greek euangelion,"good news") means simply pertaining to the Gospel.在一般意義上說,福音派(由新約聖經希臘新世紀福音戰士, "好消息" ) ,就是簡單地涉及到福音。 The word identified the early leaders of the Reformation, who emphasized the biblical message and rejected the official interpretation of dogma by the Roman Catholic church.字識別早期領導人的改革,他強調,聖經的信息,並拒絕接受官方的解釋,教條,由羅馬天主教教會。 Thus, Evangelical often simply means Protestant in continental Europe and in the names of churches elsewhere.因此,福音派,往往簡單地理解基督教在歐洲大陸和在名字教會其他地方。 In Germany, it once identified Lutherans in contrast to the Reformed (Calvinist) churches.在德國,它一旦確定lutherans相反,改革後( calvinist )教堂。 Nevertheless, the large union body, the Evangelical Church in Germany, today encompasses most Protestants, whether Lutheran or Calvinist, liberal or conservative.不過,大聯盟的團體,福音派教會在德國,今天涵蓋大部分新教徒,無論是路德還是calvinist ,自由或更保守。 The term has also been applied to the Low Church wing of Anglicanism, which stresses biblical preaching, as opposed to sacramentalism and belief in the authority of church tradition.一詞也被應用到低教會翼anglicanism ,講聖經的說教,因為反對sacramentalism和信仰的權威,教會的傳統。

Antecedents前因

Forebears of 20th-century Evangelicalism include pre-Reformation dissenters such as the French merchant Peter Waldo, early leader of the Waldenses; the 14th-century English theologian John Wycliffe; and John Huss (Jan Hus), leader of the 14th-century Hussites.先人的20世紀evangelicalism包括學前教育改革的持不同政見者如法國商人彼得waldo ,早期領導人對瓦勒度派;十四世紀的英國神學家約翰wycliffe ;約翰胡斯( 1-9溶血尿毒綜合症) ,領導人對14世紀的胡斯之徒。 The 16th-century Reformers, the 17th-century English and American Puritans , and the early Baptists and other Nonconformists were more immediate forerunners of Evangelicalism.十六世紀的改革者, 17世紀的英國和美國的清教徒和早期浸信會和其他nonconformists更即時先輩的evangelicalism 。 Historical landmarks of the movement include the arrival (1666) of Philipp Jakob Spener at a parish in Frankfurt, where he became the leader of Pietism in German Lutheranism, and the 1738 conversion experience of John Wesley, the leader of Methodism within the Church of England.歷史名勝的運動包括的到來( 1666 )的菲利普雅各布spener一堂,在法蘭克福,在那裡他成為領袖pietism在德國路德教,與1738轉換經驗的約翰韋斯利,這位領導人的methodism與英國教會。 Both Pietism and Methodism taught the necessity of personal saving faith rather than routine membership in the national church, and they had a profound impact on personal devotional life, evangelism, church reform, and - in Wesley's case - broad social reform.雙方pietism和methodism教的必要性,個人儲蓄信仰,而不是常規的成員,在國家教會,以及他們進行了深刻的影響,對個人的靈修生活,傳福音,教會改革,而且-在韋斯利的情況下-廣泛的社會改革。 English Evangelicalism reached a high point with Wesley and the lay member of Parliament William Wilberforce.英語evangelicalism達到一個高點,韋斯利和奠定國會議員威廉威爾伯福斯。 Wilberforce and his associates contributed greatly to education for the poor, the founding of the Church Missionary Society (1798) and the British and Foreign Bible Society (1803), the institution of the British ban on slave trading (1807), and the abolition of slavery (1833) in British territories.威爾伯福斯和他的同夥有莫大的貢獻,以教育為窮人服務,成立教會傳道會( 1798 )及英國和外國聖經公會( 1803年) ,該機構對英國禁止奴隸買賣( 1807 ) ,並取消奴隸制( 1833年)在英國領土。

EVANGELICALISM

Wesley's colleague and sometime disputant George Whitefield linked this English Evangelicalism with revivalism in the American colonies.韋斯利的同事和某個disputant喬治Whitefield的聯繫,這英語evangelicalism與復興在美國的殖民地。 The Great Awakening developed about 1725, deepened with the preaching and writing of the Congregational minister Jonathan Edwards, and reached a peak after 1740 with Whitefield's preaching tours.偉大覺醒發達國家約17時25分,加深了與說教和寫作的堂部長喬納森愛德華茲,並達成了山頂後, 1740年同的Whitefield的說教旅行團。 A Second Awakening is often identified in the early 19th-century US, and other revivals followed.第二次覺醒往往是確定的,在早期的19世紀,美國和其他復甦之後。 The Evangelical label began to be applied to interdenominational efforts at outreach and the establishment of foreign missions.福音標籤開始被應用於interdenominational努力外展,並設立外國使團。 Revivalism was typified by camp meetings and the itinerant ministries of such evangelists as Charles G. Finney and Dwight L. Moody.復興,是典型的營地會議,並巡迴各部委的這種傳道士成為查爾斯g. finney和德懷特屬穆迪。 Their outstanding 20th-century successor is Billy Graham, the leading figure in US Evangelicalism since World War II.他們出色的20世紀的繼任者Billy Graham ,領導人物,在美國evangelicalism第二次世界大戰以來。

MODERN Evangelicalism

The emergence of theological Modernism during the 19th century, particularly historical criticism of the Bible, produced a movement of reaction within many denominations.出現神學現代主義在19世紀,特別是史學批評的聖經,產生了運動的反應,許多教派。 From 1910 to 1915 conservative scholars produced a series of booklets entitled The Fundamentals, and in 1920 a conservative northern Baptist journal coined the designation Fundamentalist for the defenders of orthodoxy.從1910年至1915年保守的學者出版了一系列小冊子,名為基本面,而在1920年是一個保守的北方浸信日報杜撰指定為原教旨主義捍衛者的正統。

The term Fundamentalism gradually came to designate only the most uncompromising and militant wing of the movement, however, and more moderate Protestant conservatives began to adopt the older designation of Evangelical. They created the National Association of Evangelicals in the US (1942) and the World Evangelical Fellowship (1951), the latter reviving an international body formed under Britain's Evangelical Alliance (founded 1846). 任期原教旨主義逐漸地候只有最不妥協的戰鬥聯隊的運動,但是,與較溫和的基督教保守派開始採用舊指定的福音,他們創造了全國協會的福音派在美國( 1942年)和世界福音團契( 1951 ) ,後者振興一個國際機構,成立了英國的福音派新教會聯盟( 1846年成立) 。 The constituencies of these bodies are largely outside the World and National Councils of Churches, but large numbers of Evangelicals exist within the mainstream ecumenical denominations.選區的這些機構基本上是外面世界和國家議會間教堂,但大批新教徒存在的主流基督教教派。

The largest US Protestant body, the Southern Baptist Convention, embraces Evangelical tenets; other components of Evangelicalism include Pentecostalists, the Charismatic Renewal (including its Roman Catholic wing), Arminian-Holiness churches, conservative confessionalists such as the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, and numerous black Baptists, as well as independent "faith missions" and interdenominational ministries such as Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship, Campus Crusade for Christ, and World Vision.美國最大的新教團體,即美南浸信會的公約,包括福音信條;其它組件evangelicalism包括pentecostalists ,有魅力的重建(包括羅馬天主教翼) , arminian -聖潔的教堂,保守confessionalists如路德教會-密蘇里州主教,並許多黑人浸信會,以及獨立的"信仰的使命" ,並interdenominational部委如跨不自在基督徒團契,學園傳道會,世界宣明會。 Current Evangelicalism bridges two elements that were, for the most part, antithetical in the 19th century, the doctrinaire conservatives and the revivalists.目前evangelicalism橋樑兩個要素,分別為,在大多數情況下,對立的,在19世紀,教條保守派和revivalists 。

Evangelical educational materials are produced by a number of publishing houses, and such publications as Christianity Today are widely read.福音事工促進會,教材則是由若干家出版單位,而這些出版物作為基督教今天被廣泛閱讀。 Evangelical preachers have long made extensive use of radio broadcasts, and during the 1970s evangelical programs on television proliferated, reaching an audience of more than 20 million.福音派傳教士早已廣泛使用了廣播,並在20世紀70年代福音電視節目激增,達到了觀眾20多萬美元。 According to a recent estimate, there are about 157 million Evangelicals throughout the world, including about 59 million in the United States.根據最近的估計,大約有1.57億福音派在世界各地,其中包括約59萬人在美國。

Richard N. Ostling理查德12 ostling


Evangelicalism evangelicalism

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Evangelicalism is the movement in modern Christianity, transcending denominational and confessional boundaries, that emphasizes conformity to the basic tenets of the faith and a missionary outreach of compassion and urgency. A person who identifies with it is an "evangelical," one who believes and proclaims the gospel of Jesus Christ. The word is derived from the Greek noun euangelion, translated as glad tidings, good or joyful news, or gospel (a derivative of the Middle English godspell, a discourse or story about God), and verb euangelizomai, to announce good tidings of or to proclaim as good news. evangelicalism是不結盟運動在現代基督教,超越宗派和教派界限,強調整合現有的基本原理的信仰和傳教外展的同情心和緊迫感, 一個人認同,它是一個"福音" ,其中一個人相信並宣布福音的耶穌基督。一詞來自希臘語名詞新世紀福音戰士,翻譯為福音,是好是歡樂的消息,或福音(一衍生的中英文godspell ,一種話語或故事神) ,和動詞euangelizomai ,宣布喜訊,或已宣布為一個好消息。 These appear nearly one hundred times in the NT and have passed into modern languages through the Latin equivalent evangelium.這些出現在近100倍,在新台幣,並已通過成現代語言,通過拉丁語相當於evangelium 。

Biblically the gospel is defined in 1 Cor.聖經福音,是指在一肺心病。 15:1 - 4 as the message that Christ died for our sins, was buried, and rose again on the third day in fulfillment of the prophetic Scriptures and thereby provided the way of redemption for sinful humanity. 15:1 -4作為一個信息,就是基督的死,為我們的罪,被安葬,並再次上升,就在第三天,在履行該預言果然會念經,從而提供方式贖回,為罪孽深重的人類。 Three times the NT calls one who preaches the gospel an euangelistes (evangelist). 3倍新台幣來電的人宣揚福音的一個euangelistes (傳道者) 。

Theological Meaning神學意義

Evangelicalism has both a theological and historical meaning. evangelicalism既有神學和歷史意義。 Theologically it begins with a stress on the sovereignty of God, the transcendent, personal, infinite Being who created and rules over heaven and earth. theologically它是從一個應力對主權的神,超然,個人,有無限的,他們正在創造和規則逾天地。 He is a holy God who cannot countenance sin, yet he is one of love and compassion for the sinner.他是一個神聖的上帝的人不贊成單,但他是一個愛心和同情心,為罪人。 He actively identifies with the sufferings of his people, is accessible to them through prayer, and has by his sovereign free will devised a plan whereby his creatures may be redeemed.他積極認同的痛苦,他的人,他們可以進入,通過祈禱,並已由其宗主國的自由意志制訂了一項計劃,讓他的動物,可贖回為止。 Although the plan is predetermined, he allows them to cooperate in the attainment of his objectives and brings their wills into conformity with his will.儘管該計劃是預定的,他讓它們合作,在實現他的目標,並帶來了他們的意志,符合他的意志。

Evangelicals regard Scripture as the divinely inspired record of God's revelation, the infallible, authoritative guide for faith and practice.新教徒方面的經文作為神聖的紀錄,上帝的啟示,不會犯錯誤的,有權威的指導,為信仰和實踐。 Inspiration is not mechanical dictation; rather, the Holy Spirit has guided the various biblical authors in their selection of words and meanings as they wrote about matters in their respective places and times.靈感不是機械式聽寫,而是聖靈引導各種聖經的作者在他們的選擇詞語和意義,因為他們寫的事情在各自的地點和時間。 Thus the words and imagery are culturally conditioned, but God has nonetheless conveyed his eternal, unconditional Word through them.因此字與意象文化上的條件,但是上帝,但轉達了他永恆的,無條件的字並通過他們。 The Scriptures are inerrant in all that they affirm and serve as the adequate, normative, and wholly reliable expression of God's will and purpose.聖經是inerrant在所有他們肯定,並作為充足的,規範性的,而且完全可靠的表達上帝的意志和目的。 But the heavenly teaching of the Bible is not self evident, and the guidance and illumination of the Holy Spirit is required to bring out the divine meaning embedded in the text and to apply it to our lives.但天朝教學的聖經是不言自明了,並指導和照明的聖靈必須帶出了神聖的意義,根植於文本,並運用到我們的生活。

Denying the Enlightenment doctrine of man's innate goodness, evangelicals believe in the total depravity of man.否定啟蒙主義的人的本性善良,福音派相信,在整體沉淪的人。 All the goodness that exists in human nature is tainted by sin, and no dimension of life is free from its effects.所有善良的存在,在人的本性是污點單,並沒有任何層面的生活是不受其影響。 Man was originally created perfect; but through the fall sin entered the race, making man corrupt at the very core of his being, and this spiritual infection has been passed on from generation to generation.男子原本是創造十全十美的,不過,到秋季單進入競賽,使男子腐敗在很核心的他的長遠福祉,這根精神感染已經通過,就一代一代傳下去。 Sin is not an inherent weakness or ignorance but positive rebellion against God's law.單是不是一種固有的弱點或無知,而是積極反抗真主的法律。 It is moral and spiritual blindness and bondage to powers beyond one's control.這是道德和精神的盲目性和束縛的權力超越了一個人的控制。 The root of sin is unbelief, and its manifestations are pride, lust for power, sensuousness, selfishness, fear, and disdain for spiritual things.根單是不信者,其表現是感到驕傲,是權力欲, sensuousness ,自私,恐懼,和蔑視精神的東西。 The propensity to sin is within man from birth, its power cannot be broken by human effort, and the ultimate result is complete and permanent separation from the presence of God.該傾向以單是男子,從出生起,它的實力是不容破壞的人的努力,而且最終的結果是完全和永久的分離,由在場的上帝。

God himself provided the way out of the human dilemma by allowing his only Son, Jesus Christ, to assume the penalty and experience death on man's behalf.上帝本身提供了出路的人的困境,讓他唯一的兒子,耶穌基督,承擔罰款和經驗,對死亡的人的代表。 Christ made atonement for sin on Calvary's cross by shedding his blood, thereby redeeming man from the power of spiritual death by dying in his place.基督作了贖罪單就calvary的十字架,換掉他的血液,從而挽救人,從權力的精神死刑死於他的位置。 Christ's substitutionary or vicarious atonement was a ransom for mankind's sins, a defeat of the powers of darkness, and a satisfaction for sin because it met the demand of God's justice.基督的替代或替代贖罪是贖金,為人類的罪孽,戰敗的權力黑暗,滿意度為罪惡,因為它滿足了需求,上帝的公義。 Then when Christ arose from the grave, he triumphed over death and hell, thus demonstrating the supremacy of divine power in a sin cursed world and laying the foundation for the eventual redemption of all creation from sin's corrupting influence.那麼當基督出現嚴重的,他戰勝了死亡和地獄,展現了至高無上的神聖權力,在一種罪過詛咒的世界,並奠定了良好的基礎,為最終贖回所有的創造物,從單的敗壞風氣的影響力。 To affirm the atonement, Christians are called upon to bear witness by following their Lord in a life of demanding discipleship and bearing the burdens, sufferings, and needs of others.申明贖罪,基督徒呼籲見證,由下列主,在生活中,要求門徒承擔相應的負擔,痛苦,和他人的需要。

Evangelicals believe that salvation is an act of unmerited divine grace received through faith in Christ, not through any kind of penance or good works.福音派相信,救恩是一個行為unmerited神聖的恩典透過在基督裡的信仰,而不是通過任何形式的懺悔或好的作品。 One's sins are pardoned, and one is regenerated (reborn), justified before God, and adopted into the family of God.一個人的罪過是赦免,一人則是再生(新生) ,正當上帝面前,並通過加入國際大家庭的上帝。 The guilt of sin is removed immediately, while the inward process of renewing and cleansing (sanctification) takes place as one leads the Christian life.他有罪,罪的,是立即拆除,而外來的過程中更新和清洗(成聖)的地方,作為一個領導基督徒的生活。 By grace believers are saved, kept, and empowered to live a life of service.由恩典的信徒都會被保存下來,保存,並有權過上的生活服務。

Heralding the Word of God is an important feature of evangelicalism.預示著上帝的話,是一個重要的一個特點evangelicalism 。 The vehicle of God's Spirit is the biblical proclamation of the gospel which brings people to faith.車神的精神是聖經宣布福音,使人們的信仰。 The written word is the basis for the preached word, and holy living is part of the process of witness, since life and word are inseparable elements of the evangelical message.文字是基礎,為宣揚的一句話,和神聖的生活,是整個過程的一部分證人的,因為生命和Word是不可分割的組成部分的福音訊息。 Holiness involves not withdrawal from the world and detaching oneself from evil but rather boldly confronting evil and overcoming its effects both personally and socially.成聖涉及不會退出世界和拆卸自己從邪惡的,而是勇敢地面對邪惡,並克服其影響個人和社會。 In this fashion the church brings the lost to a knowledge of Christ, teaches the way of discipleship, and engages in meeting human needs.在此時裝教會帶來損失的,以知識的基督,教導的方式門徒,並從事滿足人的需要。 Social service thus becomes both the evidence of one's faith and a preparation for the proclamation of the gospel.社會服務,從而成為雙方證據的一個人的信念和準備宣布福音。 The preevangelism of works of mercy may be just as important as preaching itself in bringing people into the kingdom of God.該preevangelism工程的慈悲,可一樣重要說教本身帶來的人進入神的國度。

Finally, evangelicals look for the visible, personal return of Jesus Christ to set up his kingdom of righteousness, a new heaven and earth, one that will never end.最後,福音派尋找有形,個人歸還耶穌基督成立他的王國義,一個新的天地,是一個永遠不會結束。 This is the blessed hope for which all Christians long.這是有福了,希望為所有基督信徒長。 It will consummate the judgment upon the world and the salvation of the faithful.這將制約判決後,世界和救贖的信徒。

It should be stressed that these are special emphases of evangelicals and that they share many beliefs with other orthodox Christians.應當強調的是,這些都是特殊的側重點新教徒和他們有許多共同的信仰與其他東正教基督徒。 Among them are the Trinity; Christ's incarnation, virgin birth, and bodily resurrection; the reality of miracles and the supernatural realm; the church as the body of Christ; the sacraments as effectual signs or means of grace; immortality of the soul; and the final resurrection.它們之中有三一;基督的化身,維爾京出生時,身體復活;現實的奇蹟和超自然的境界;教會作為基督的身體;聖禮作為顯效標誌或手段的寬限期;靈魂和最後復活。 But evangelicalism is more than orthodox assent to dogma or a reactionary return to past ways.但evangelicalism較正統的核可,以教條或反動回到過去的方式。 It is the affirmation of the central beliefs of historic Christianity.這是肯定的,中央的信仰基督教的歷史。

Historical Meaning歷史意義

Although evangelicalism is customarily seen as a contemporary phenomenon, the evangelical spirit has manifested itself throughout church history.雖然evangelicalism習慣上被看作是一個當代現象,但福音的精神,體現了自身在整個教會的歷史。 The commitment, discipline, and missionary zeal that distinguish evangelicalism were features of the apostolic church, the fathers, early monasticism, the medieval reform movements (Cluniac, Cistercian, Franciscan, and Dominican), preachers like Bernard of Clairvaux and Peter Waldo, the Brethren of the Common Life, and the Reformation precursors Wycliffe, Hus, and Savonarola.承諾,紀律教育和傳教熱情區分evangelicalism分別為特點的使徒教會,父親,早日修道生活,中世紀改革運動(克呂尼改革,修道院中,方濟,多米尼加) ,傳教士一樣,伯納德的克萊爾沃和彼得waldo ,兄弟的共同生活中,與改革前體wycliffe ,溶血尿毒綜合症,並savonarola 。 At the Reformation the name "evangelical" was given to the Lutherans who sought to redirect Christianity to the gospel and renew the church on the basis of God's authoritative Word.在改革命名為"福音" ,是考慮到lutherans試圖把基督教福音,並重新教會在此基礎上的上帝的權威詞。 With the onset of Lutheran orthodoxy and the domination of many churches by civil rulers, unfortunately much of the spiritual vitality evaporated.隨著發病的路德派的正統和統治的許多教堂,由民間統治者,可惜大部份的精神活力化為泡影。 Soon the word came to be applied collectively to both Lutheran and Reformed communions in Germany.不久這個詞後來被應用於集體都路德和改革communions在德國。 Congregations belonging to the Prussian Union Church (founded 1817) utilized it as well, and in contemporary Germany evangelical (evangelisch) is synonymous with Protestant.畢業典禮屬於普魯士佑寧堂( 1817年成立) ,利用它為好,在當代德國福音( evangelisch ) ,就是新教。

A recovery of the spiritual vigor of the Reformation resulted from three movements in the late seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries, German pietism, Methodism, and the Great Awakening.回收的精神活力的改革所造成的三個樂章中後期第十七和第十八世紀以來,德國pietism , methodism ,偉大的覺醒。 Actually these were rooted in Puritanism with its strong emphasis on biblical authority, divine sovereignty, human responsibility, and personal piety and discipline.事實上,這些植根於清教與高度重視,對聖經的權威,神的主權,人的責任,以及個人的虔誠和紀律。 The pietism of Spener, Francke, and Zinzendorf stressed Bible study, preaching, personal conversion and sanctification, missionary outreach, and social action.該pietism的spener , francke ,辛生鐸夫強調,聖經研究,傳道,個人轉換和成聖後,其傳教外聯,與社會行動。 It directly influenced developments in Britain and America and laid the foundations for the later revival in Germany.它直接影響了發展,在英國和美國,並奠定了基礎,為以後的復甦在德國。

To be sure, the Enlightenment had a chilling effect on spiritual movements, but this was countered by the Methodist revival of John and Charles Wesley and George Whitefield in Britain and the Great Awakening in America prior to the Revolution.可以肯定的是,啟蒙了寒蟬效應對精神運動,但遭到反擊,由循道衛理復興約翰和查爾斯韋斯利和喬治Whitefield的,在英國和大覺醒,在美國事先向革命。 The new fervor spread within the Anglican Church at the end of the century where the "Evangelical" party of John Newton, William Wilberforce and his Clapham sect, and numerous others fought social ills at home and abroad and founded Bible and missionary societies.新的熱潮蔓延聖公會在本世紀結束時,即"福音"黨的約翰牛頓,威廉威爾伯福斯和他和Clapham節,以及許多其他人爭取社會弊病,在國內外成立了聖經和傳教事業的社會。 Similar developments occurred in the Scottish church under Thomas Chalmers and the Haldane brothers, while the Baptists, Congregationalists, and Methodists all created foreign mission agencies.類似的發展,發生在蘇格蘭教會根據托馬斯查和haldane兄弟,而浸信會,稱為"公理派" ,和衛理都創造了外國使團機構。 In Germany, where the old pietism had waned, a new wave of evangelical enthusiasm spread across the land, the Erweckung, which cross fertilized with British movements, while a parallel development occurred in France and Holland, the Reveil.在德國,在那裡老pietism已減弱,新一波的福音熱情蔓延神州大地, erweckung ,其中交叉受精與英國運動,而一個平行的發展發生在法國和荷蘭, reveil 。

The nineteenth century was clearly the evangelical age. 19世紀顯然是福音年齡。 The Anglican party, represented by such distinguished personalities as Lord Shaftesbury and William E Gladstone, occupied a central position in public life, while Nonconformist groups like the Baptists with their silver tongued orator Charles H Spurgeon and the Christian (Plymouth) Brethren reached many with the gospel.聖公會黨所代表的這種傑出的人物,作為主地鐵和威廉e格拉德斯通,佔據中心地位,在公共生活中,而nonconformist團體如浸信會與銀舌演說家查爾斯h司布真和基督教(普利茅斯)兄弟達成了許多與福音。 Other instances of British evangelical vitality included the YMCA founded by George Williams, the Salvation Army of Catherine and William Booth, the social ministries of George Mueller and Thomas Barnardo, the China Inland Mission of J Hudson Taylor, and the Keswick movement.其他的英國福音活力列入青年會創辦的喬治威廉斯,救世軍的凱瑟琳和威廉攤位外,社會各部委的喬治米勒和托馬斯barnardo ,中國內陸的使命律政司哈德遜泰勒,以及敬誠運動。 In Germany were the Gemeinschaft (fellowship) movement, the charitable endeavors of JH Wichern, and the spiritual preaching of the Blumhardts, while in Holland the Calvinist theologian and political leader Abraham Kuyper had a major impact.在德國人的生命共同體(金)運動,慈善事業的JH的維歇恩和精神文明說教的blumhardts ,而在荷蘭的calvinist神學家和政治領袖亞伯拉罕kuyper產生了重大影響。

In America revivalism was the hallmark of evangelical religion.在美國復興,是標誌性的福音派宗教。 The urban efforts of Charles Finney and DL Moody as well as rural and frontier movements among the Baptists, Methodists, Disciples of Christ, and Presbyterians and the growth of holiness perfectionism all helped to transform the nation's religious landscape.市區的努力查爾斯finney和DL穆迪以及農村和邊疆的變動之中浸信會,衛理,弟子的基督,並presbyterians ,而且增長的聖德完美主義都有助於把國家的宗教景觀。 Evangelicalism reached to the grass roots of white America, while the black community, in both slavery and freedom, was sustained and held together by its churches, which expressed a deep, personal evangelical faith. evangelicalism達成到基層的美國白人,而黑人社區中,無論是奴役和自由,維持,並一起舉行,由它的教堂,它表達了深刻的,個人的福音派信仰。 Evangelicalism shaped the nation's values and civil religion and provided the vision of America as God's chosen people. evangelicalism塑造了民族的價值觀和民間宗教,並提供視覺美國作為上帝的子民。 Political leaders publicly expressed evangelical convictions and suppressed non Protestant and "foreign" elements who did not share in the national consensus.政治領袖公開表示福音的信念和打壓非基督教的"洋"分子不同意,在全國的共識。 Not only unbelief but also social evil would be purged, and revivalism provided the reforming vision to create a righteous republic.不僅不信,而且也要注重社會邪惡,將整肅,以及復興提供了改革的視野,以營造一個正義的共和國。 The antislavery and temperance campaigns, innumerable urban social service agencies, and even the nascent women's movements were facets of this.該antislavery和禁酒運動,無數的城市社會服務機構,甚至新生的婦女運動的人的層面。

The Protestant nations of the North Atlantic region shared in the great foreign missionary advance that carried the gospel to every corner of the earth, and before long the evangelical revivals that had repeatedly swept the Western world began to occur in Africa, Asia, and Latin America as well.新教國家的北大西洋地區分享在大外國傳教士事先進行了福音,以地球每個角落,而且沒多久福音復甦表示,曾多次席捲西方世界開始發生在非洲,亞洲,和拉丁美洲以及。 The Evangelical Alliance was formed in London in 1846 to unite Christians (but not churches or denominations as such) in promoting religious liberty, missions, and other common interests.福音派聯盟在倫敦成立於1846年,以團結基督徒(但不包括教會或面額等) ,在促進宗教信仰自由,任務,內容和其他共同利益。 National alliances were formed in Germany, the United States, and many other countries.國家聯盟成立於德國,美國和其他許多國家。 In 1951 the international organization was replaced by the new World Evangelical Fellowship.在1951年該國際組織所取代,新的世界福音團契。

The Twentieth Century二十世紀

In the early twentieth century, however, evangelicalism went into a temporary eclipse.在20世紀初,不過, evangelicalism走進一個臨時月食。 A decorous worldliness characterized by a stress on material prosperity, loyalty to the nation state, and a rugged individualism inspired by social Darwinism virtually severed the taproot of social concern. 1 decorous世俗性的特點是強調對物質繁榮,忠於民族和國家,一個堅固的個人主義的靈感來自社會達爾文主義,幾乎切斷taproot社會關注的。 Orthodox Christians seemed unable to cope with the flood of new ideas, German higher criticism, Darwinian evolution, Freudian psychology, Marxist socialism, Nietzschean nihilism, and the naturalism of the new science, all of which undermined confidence in the infallibility of the Bible and the existence of the supernatural.東正教基督徒似乎無法應付洪水的新思路,德語更高的批評,達爾文進化,弗洛伊德心理學,馬克思主義,社會主義,尼采的虛無主義和自然主義的新的科學,所有這些都損害了信心,在infallibility的聖經和存在超自然的。

The bloodbath of World War I shattered the optimistic, postmillennial vision of ushering in the kingdom of God as soon as the hold of social evil was broken at home and the Great Commission of carrying the gospel to all parts of the globe was fulfilled.流血的世界一戰,粉碎了樂觀的, postmillennial遠景迎來了神的國度,盡快掌握社會邪惡被打破在家和偉大委員會進行了福音到世界所有終得完成。 Emerging from the struggle against theological liberalism and the social gospel in Britain and North America was a narrow fundamentalism that internalized the Christian message and withdrew from involvement in the world.擺脫鬥爭神學自由主義和社會福音在北美和英國,是一種狹隘的原教旨主義內部基督教信息,並退出了參與世界。 In addition, communism in the Soviet Union, nazism in Germany, and secularism throughout the world contributed to declining church attendance and interest in Christianity in general.此外,共產主義在蘇聯,納粹主義在德國,和政教分離整個世界作出貢獻的下降,參加聚會和興趣,基督教在一般。

After World War II things turned around dramatically.二戰結束後,事情扭轉急劇變化。 Foreign missionary endeavors, Bible institutes and colleges, works among university students, and radio and literature ministries blossomed, while the evangelistic campaigns of the youthful Billy Graham had a global impact.外籍宣教事業,聖經研究機構和高校,其中工程大學的學生,以及無線電和文學部委開花,而福音運動的青春Billy Graham時產生了全球性的影響。 A party of "conservative evangelicals" emerged in Britain and Evangelikaler in Germany, and their strength was reflected in such developments as the National Evangelical Anglican Congress and the German based Conference of Confessing Fellowships.一方的"保守福音派" ,出現在英國和evangelikaler在德國,他們的實力是體現在這些發展為全國基督教聖公會代表大會和德國研究機構會議的供認獎學金。 In the United States the foundation of the National Association of Evangelicals (1942), Fuller Theological Seminary (1947), and Christianity Today (1956) were significant expressions of the "new evangelicalism," a term coined by Harold J Ockenga in 1947.在美國的立黨之本,全國協會的新教徒( 1942 ) ,更充分地神學院( 1947年) ,基督教今天( 1956年)均顯著意向書, "新evangelicalism , "一任創造哈羅德j奧肯加於1947年。

The new or "neo" evangelicalism took issue with the older fundamentalism.新的或"新保守主義" evangelicalism了問題,與老原教旨主義。 Ockenga argued that it had a wrong attitude (a suspicion of all who did not hold every doctrine and practice that fundamentalists did), a wrong strategy (a separatism that aimed at a totally pure church on the local and denominational levels), and wrong results (it had not turned the tide of liberalism anywhere nor had it penetrated with its theology into the social problems of the day).奧肯加爭辯說,它有一個錯誤的態度(懷疑一切,他們沒有舉行每理論和實踐證明,原教旨主義沒有) ,一個錯誤的策略(一分裂主義,目的是找到一種完全純堂,對本地和教會水平) ,以及錯誤的結果(但並沒有扭轉了自由主義的任何地方也沒有侵入其神學成為社會問題的當天) 。 Edward J Carnell maintained further that fundamentalism was orthodoxy gone cultic because its convictions were not linked with the historic creeds of the church and it was more of a mentality than a movement.愛德華j carnell保持進一步指出,原教旨主義的正統了邪教,因為它被法庭定罪的個案並沒有聯繫在一起的歷史教義的教會和它更多的是一種精神狀態比一場運動。 Carl FH Henry insisted that fundamentalists did not present Christianity as an overarching world view but concentrated instead on only part of the message.卡爾跳頻亨利堅持認為,原教旨主義沒有出席基督教作為一個首要的世界觀,但集中而是只有部分的訊息。 They were too otherworldly, anti intellectual, and unwilling to bring their faith to bear upon culture and social life.它們太otherworldly ,反智慧,並不願意把他們的信仰,以承擔後,文化和社會生活等。

Although the new evangelicalism was open to ecumenical contacts, rejected excessive legalism and moralism, and revealed serious interest in the social dimension of the gospel, many of its spokespersons remained tied to the political and economic status quo.雖然新evangelicalism開放合一接觸後,拒絕過度法家和道德主義,揭示了嚴重的利益,在社會層面的福音,它的很多代言人仍然是綁在政治和經濟現狀。 Groups of more "radical" Christians within mainstream evangelicalism, eg, the Chicago Declaration of 1973, the Sojourners Community, and the British Shaftesbury Project, began calling attention to needs in this area.群體更多的"激進派"的基督徒主流evangelicalism ,例如,芝加哥宣言1973年, sojourners社會的貢獻,以及英國地鐵工程,就開始呼籲注意這方面的需要。 As more attention was given to defining an evangelical, it became clear that the numbers were far greater than had been believed.隨著越來越多的注意的是,以確定一個福音,它成為數目,顯然被遠遠大於一直相信。 But the variations among the groups, Mennonites, Holiness, Charismatics, Christian Brethren, Southern Baptists, black churches, separatist - fundamentalists, "nondenominational" bodies, and evangelical blocs within the traditional denominations, were enormous and probably unbridgeable.但各國之間的差異的群體,門諾教派,聖德, charismatics ,基督教弟兄們,美南浸信會,黑人教堂,分裂主義-原教旨主義" , n ondenominational"組織的成員,以及福音派陣營內部的傳統面額的,是十分巨大,可能是不可逾越的。

Nevertheless, evangelical ecumenism has proceeded apace.然而,福音派基督信仰合一已經開始加速發展。 The Billy Graham organization has been a major catalyst, especially in calling the World Congress on Evangelism (Berlin, 1966) and the International Congress on World Evangelization (Lausanne, 1974).該比利格雷厄姆組織已經成為一個重要的催化劑,特別是在呼喚世界大會上宣講福音(柏林, 1966年)和國際大會對世界的福傳工作(洛桑, 1974年) 。 The subsequent consultations sponsored by the Lausanne committee together with the activities of the World Evangelical Fellowship and the regional organizations formed by evangelicals in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Europe have done much to foster closer relations and cooperative efforts in evangelism, relief work, and theological development.隨後的協商會議由洛桑委員會一起活動的世界福音團契及區域組織形成的新教徒在非洲,亞洲,拉丁美洲和歐洲都做了大量工作,以促進更密切的關係和合作努力,在傳道,救災工作,與神學的發展。 With the indigenization of mission society operations, the multinational character of relief and evangelistic organizations, and the sending of missionaries by people in Third World countries themselves, evangelicalism has now come of age and is truly a global phenomenon.與本土化的社會使命和行動中,多國性質的救濟和福音組織,並派遣傳教士的人在第三世界國家本身, evangelicalism現在已到了對年齡和確實是一個全球性的現象。

RV Pierard風疹病毒皮耶拉爾
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
BL Ramm, The Evangelical Heritage; DF Wells and JD Woodbridge, The Evangelicals; DG Bloesch, Essentials of Evangelical Theology, and The Evangelical Renaissance; KS Kantzer, eds., Evangelical Roots; KS Kantzer and SN Gundry, eds., Perspectives on Evangelical Theology; M Erickson, New Evangelical Theology; BL Shelley, Evangelicalism in America; JD Woodbridge, MA Noll, NO Hatch, The Gospel in America; WG McLoughlin, ed., The American Evangelicals; DW Dayton, Discovering an Evangelical Heritage; TL Smith, Revivalism and Social Reform; DO Moberg, The Great Reversal: Evangelism and Social Concern; GM Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture; DE Harrell, Varieties of Southern Evangelicalism; JBA Kessler, A Study of the Evangelical Alliance in Great Britain; RO Ferm, Cooperative Evangelism; JRW Stott, Fundamentalism and Evangelism; RH Nash, The New Evangelicalism; CFH Henry, Evangelicals in Search of Identity, The Uneasy Conscience of Modern Fundamentalism, A Plea for Evangelical Demonstration, and Evangelicals at the Brink of Crisis;基本法» [ ,福音遺產;測向井和JD伍德布里奇,新教徒;品bloesch ,本色的基督教神學,福音派復興;棨森kantzer合編,福音根;棨森kantzer和SN岡德里合編,對福音神學;米埃里克森,新福音派神學;基本法雪萊, evangelicalism在美國;第納爾伍,馬精靈,沒有孵化,福音在美國;小組mcloughlin ,版,在美國福音派; DW的代頓,發現是一個福音遺產;鉈史密斯,復興和社會改革;做莫葛博士,偉大的逆轉:傳道和社會的關注,通用汽車馬斯登認為,原教旨主義和美國文化;德哈勒爾,品種南部evangelicalism ;向Jba凱斯勒,研究福音派聯盟在大不列顛;滾裝ferm ,合作傳道; jrw斯托特,原教旨主義和傳道;銠納什,新evangelicalism ; cfh亨利,福音派,在搜索的身份,良心不安的現代原教旨主義,呼籲福音示威,以及新教徒在瀕臨危機邊緣;

RV Pierard, The Unequal Yoke: Evangelical Christianity and Political Conservatism; R Quebedeaux, The Young Evangelicals; R Webber and D Bloesch, eds., The Orthodox Evangelicals; RE Webber, Common Roots: A Call to Evangelical Maturity; RG Clouse, RD Linder, and RV Pierard, eds., The Cross and the Flag; SE Wirt, The Social Conscience of the Evangelical; RJ Sider, ed., The Chicago Declaration; CE Armerding, ed., Evangelicals and Liberation; MA Inch, The Evangelical Challenge; RK Johnston, Evangelicals at an Impasse: Biblical Authority in Practice; J Johnston, Will Evangelicalism Survive Its Own Popularity?風疹病毒皮耶拉爾,不平等的枷鎖:福音派基督教與政治保守主義與r quebedeaux ,這位年輕的新教徒與r韋伯和D bloesch合編,東正教新教徒;重新韋伯,共同的根源:打電話給福音成熟的RG clouse ,路linder及RV皮耶拉爾合編,十字架上的國旗;硒wirt ,社會良知的福音;的RJ sider ,版,芝加哥宣言;策armerding ,版,新教徒和人民解放;馬英寸,福音派挑戰;在RK約翰斯頓,新教徒處於僵局:聖經的權威,在實踐中; j莊士敦,將evangelicalism生存自己的人氣? J Barr, Fundamentalism; R P Lightner, Neoevangelicalism Today; JC King, The Evangelicals; JI Packer, ed., Anglican Evangelicals Face the Future; JD Douglas, ed., Let the Earth Hear His Voice: International Congress on World Evangelization; CR Padilla, ed., The New Face of Evangelicalism; DE Hoke, ed., Evangelicals Face the Future. j巴爾,原教旨主義與r p lightner , neoevangelicalism今天;時三十分國王,新教徒;紀封隔器,編輯,英國聖公會福音派,面對未來;第納爾道格拉斯版,讓大地聽到他的聲音:國際大會,世界的福傳工作;鉻帕迪拉,版,以嶄新面貌evangelicalism ;德hoke ,版,福音派,面對未來。


Evangelist傳道者

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Evangelist, lit., "a messenger of good" (eu, "well," angelos, "a messenger"), denotes a "preacher of the gospel," Acts 21:8; Eph.傳道,亮著, "信使良好" (歐盟, "很好" angelos , "信使" ) ,是指一個"傳道者的福音, "行為21時08分;厄。 4:11, which makes clear the distinctiveness of the function in the churches; 2 Tim. 4時11分,這說明了獨特的功能,在教堂2添。 4:5. 4時05分。 Cf.比照。 euangelizo, "to proclaim glad tidings," and euangelion, "good news, gospel." euangelizo " ,以宣告福音, "新世紀福音戰士"的好消息,福音" 。 Missionaries are "evangelists," as being essentially preachers of the gospel.傳教士是"傳道士" ,被認為基本上是宣揚福音。


Also, see:此外,見:
Fundamentalism 原教旨

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