Episcopal Church聖公會

General Information 一般資料

The Protestant Episcopal church in the United States is a part of the worldwide Anglican Communion.基督教聖公會在美國是一個組成部分,全球聖公會共融。 In the late 1980s the church had about 2,500,000 members in some 7,000 parishes and missions, with about 14,000 clergy.在20世紀80年代末,教會有大約2500000成員在某些7000個教區和使命,與約14000神職人員。 Divided into 4 provinces that include all the states and territories of the United States, it has 106 dioceses and missionary districts.分為4個省,其中包括所有國家和地區的美國,它有106個教區和傳教區。

The history of the Episcopal church began with the English exploration and colonization of North America.歷史上的聖公會開始與英語的探索和殖民北美洲。 Although the New England colonies were established by Puritans opposed to Anglicanism, large numbers of Anglicans settled in the southern colonies, and the Church of England became the established church in the Carolinas, Maryland, and Virginia.雖然新英格蘭殖民地,建立了由清教徒反對anglicanism ,大批教徒定居在該國南部的殖民地,英國教會成為既定的教堂,在州,馬里蘭州和維吉尼亞州。 The American Revolution severed ties between the Church of England and the church in the colonies.美國獨立戰爭斷絕了聯繫,英國教會和教會在殖民地。 Thus in 1789, the Protestant Episcopal church began its separate existence, determined to preserve its Anglican heritage but also committed to such American ideals as the separation of Church and State.因此,在1789年,新教聖公會開始其單獨存在,有決心,以維護其英國國教遺產,但也犯了這種美國理想,作為政教分離的國家。

The character of the Episcopal church was influenced during its early years by the struggle between the Low church party, led by William White, the first bishop of Pennsylvania, and a High church party, led by Samuel Seabury, bishop of Connecticut.性格主教教會的影響,在其最初幾年所爭低教會黨領導的威廉白,第一主教賓夕法尼亞州,以及一支高素質的教堂黨的領導下塞繆爾seabury主教,康涅狄格。 Seeking to resolve the struggle, the Episcopal church established a polity in which a democratic, lay dominated church structure was set in tension with the aristocratic, episcopally dominated government structure.尋求解決鬥爭中,聖公會建立了一個政體,在一個民主,突出主導教會結構是一套在緊張與貴族, episcopally為主的政府結構。 A general convention was established, composed of a house of bishops and a house of clerical and lay deputies, and chartered to meet triennially.一般公約成立後,組成一所房子的主教和一所房子的文員級及業外人士的副手,和特許經營,以滿足每三年改選一次。 Further tension was to exist between this national convention and the local dioceses and missionary districts, which resisted interference by the national body.進一步緊張,是分別存在這個全國代表大會和地方教區和傳教區,其中抵制干擾,由國家機構。 Unity has been maintained by commonly held traditions embodied in a constitution and canon law, the Book of Common Prayer, and the threefold ministry of bishops, priests, and deacons, as well as through a common agreement to coexist.團結一直保持共同持有的傳統體現於憲法和教會法,這本書的共同祈禱,並三倍部主教,司鐸和執事,以及通過一個共同的協議並存。

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The subsequent history of the Episcopal church is largely that of its expansion with the growth of the United States in territory and population, and of revisions of polity, laws, and liturgy.隨後的歷史,以及聖公會主要是它的擴張與成長,美國在領土和人口,以及修改的政體,法律和禮儀中。 The church's missionary commitments led to the founding of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society in 1821.教會的傳教事業的承諾,導致成立了國內和外國傳教士協會於1821年。 Its president was the senior and presiding bishop of the house of bishops.其主席是資深和主教主持的眾院主教。 This marked the beginning of a permanent national executive for the church.這標誌著一個永久性的國家行政部門對於教會。 In 1919 the general convention created the national council, later called the executive council, which absorbed the missionary society and other societies for education and social concerns.在1919年的總公約創造了國民議會,後來所謂的行政會議,其中吸收了傳教士協會和其他社團,為教育和社會的關注。 In 1976 the general convention approved both a revision of the Book of Common Prayer (previously revised in 1892 and 1928) and the admission of women to the ordained ministry.在1976年的總公約批准這兩個修改這本書的共同祈禱(以前的調整是在1892年和1928年) ,以及婦女向受戒部。 These actions provoked widespread contention, causing some church members to leave for other churches or to establish a new church, the Anglican Church of North America.這些行動挑起了廣泛的爭論,導致一些教會成員前往其他教會或建立一個新的教會,聖公會的北美之行。 The consecration of Barbara Harris as the first woman bishop in 1989 provoked the formation of the Episcopal Synod of America, a dissenting group supported by several Episcopal bishops.該consecration的巴巴拉哈里斯作為第一位女性主教在1989年挑起的形成主教主教會議的美國,一個持不同意見的集團支持幾位主教主教。

The Episcopal church has been actively engaged in the Ecumenical Movement, largely through the National Council of Churches and World Council of Churches.聖公會一直積極參與在基督信仰合一運動,主要是通過全國教會理事會和世界基督教協進會。 It has participated in conversations with other churches, chiefly the Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, and Lutheran churches.先後參與了交談與其他教會,主要是長老會,天主教,路德會教堂。

John E Booty約翰e戰利品

Bibliography 參考書目
R Albright, History of the Protestant Episcopal Church (1964); J Booty, The Episcopal Church in Crisis (1988); D Locke, The Episcopal Church (1991); R Pritchard, ed., Readings from the History of the Episcopal Church (1986). r奧爾布賴特,歷史上的新教聖公會( 1964 ) ; j戰利品,聖公會危機( 1988條) , d駱家輝,聖公會( 1991 )與r普里查德,版,讀,從歷史上的聖公會( 1986年) 。


Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America新教聖公會在美利堅合眾國

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

The history of this religious organization divides itself naturally into two portions: the period of its dependence upon the Church of England and that of its separate existence with a hierarchy of its own.歷史上的這個宗教組織劃分本身自然分成兩個部分:期依賴後,英國教會和它的獨立存在,同等級其自己的活力。

I. BEFORE THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION一,前美國革命

The Church of England was planted permanently in Virginia in 1607, at the foundation of the Jamestown Colony.英國教會被永久種植在弗吉尼亞州在1607年,在基金會的詹姆斯敦殖民地。 There had been sporadic attempts before this date -- in 1585 and 1587, under the auspices of Walter Raleigh in the Carolinas, and in 1607, under the auspices of Chief Justice Popham and Sir Ferdinando Gorges in Maine.出現了零星的企圖,在此日期之前-在1 585年和1 587年的主持下,沃爾特羅利在州,並在1 607年的主持下,終審法院首席法官p opham和S ir費迪南多三峽在緬因州。 The attempt to found colonies had failed, and with it, of course, the attempt to plant the English ecclesiastical institutions.企圖使他們找到殖民地失敗了,有了它,當然,嘗試種植英語教會機構。

During the colonial period the Church of England achieved a quasi-establishment in Maryland and Virginia, and to a lesser extent in the other colonies, with the exception of New England, where for many years the few Episcopalians were bitterly persecuted and at best barely tolerated.在殖民統治時期,英國教會,取得了準設立在馬里蘭州和弗吉尼亞州,並在較小的程度上,在其他殖民地,除新英格蘭地區,那裡多年來數episcopalians被迫害的痛苦,並在最佳勉強容忍。 In the Southern states -- notably in Virginia and Maryland, in the latter of which the Church of England has dispossessed the Catholics not only of their political power, but even of religious liberty -- the Church of England, although well provided for from a worldly point of view, was by no means in a strong state, either spiritually or intellectually.在南部各州-尤其是在弗吉尼亞州和馬里蘭州,在後者,其中英國教會已一無所有的天主教徒,不僅是他們的政治權力,但即使是宗教信仰自由-英國教會,儘管善良的規定,從世俗的角度來看,倒也不是一個強大的國家,無論是精神上或智力。 The appointment to parishes was almost wholly in the hands of vestries who refused to induct ministers and so give them a title to the emoluments of their office, but preferred to pay chaplains whom they could dismiss at their pleasure.任命教區幾乎全在政府手中vestries拒絕引導部長們,所以給他們一個稱號,以酬勞他們的辦公室,但寧願支付牧師的人,他們可以罷免他們的快樂。 This naturally resulted in filling the ranks of the ministry with very unworthy candidates, and reduced the clergy to a position of contempt in the eyes of the laity.這自然導致加油站的行列,教育部與非常卑微的候選人,並減少了神職人員地位的蔑視,在眼睛的俗人。

As there were no bishops in America, the churches in the colonies were under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of London, who governed them by means of commissaries; but, although among the commissaries were men of such eminence as Dr. Bray in Maryland, and Dr. Blair, the founder of William and Mary College in Virginia, the lay power was so strong and the class of men willing to undertake the work of the ministry so inferior that very little could be done.由於沒有主教,在美國,教會在菌落管轄下的主教,倫敦,誰治,他們的手段commissaries ;不過,雖然其中commissaries被男人的這種隆起葉文布雷在馬里蘭州,和布萊爾博士,創辦人威廉和瑪麗學院,弗吉尼亞,奠定權力是如此強大和階級的男性願意承擔部的工作,使劣勢,很少可以這樣做。 Even the efforts of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel proved of very little effect in the South, though in Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey it bore much better fruit.即使努力的社會,為傳播福音事實證明收效甚微,在南方,但在賓夕法尼亞州,紐約,新澤西州,它口徑好得多水果。

But, while the Anglican church was sunk in spiritual and intellectual lethargy in the South, and while it had a rather attenuated existence in the Middle states, an event occurred in New England in 1722 which was of the greatest promise for the future of Anglicanism, and which shook Congregationalism in New England to its very foundations.但是,儘管聖公會被擊沉,在精神和智力的沉睡在南方,而它造成了比較大的衰減存在,在中東國家,即一個事件發生在新英格蘭地區,在1722年,這是最大的承諾,為未來的anglicanism ,而搖頭公理,在新英格蘭,其根本基礎。 Timothy Cutler, the rector of Yale College, with six other Congregational ministers, all men of learning and piety, announced to their brethren in the Congregational ministry of Connecticut that they could no longer remain out of visible communion with an Episcopal Church: that some of them doubted of the validity, while others were persuaded of the invalidity, of Presbyterian ordinations.蒂莫西卡勒,校長,耶魯大學,同其他六個堂會的部長,所有官兵的學習和虔誠宣布,他們的弟兄,在堂部康涅狄格州,他們可能不再留出有形的共融與聖公會:部分他們懷疑的有效性,而另一些人的勸說無效,長老ordinations 。 Three of them were subsequently persuaded to remain in the Congregational ministry, the rest becoming Episcopalians, and three of them, Messrs. Cutler, Johnson, and Brown, were ordained to the ministry of the Anglican Church.其中3人後來說服留在堂部,其餘成為episcopalians ,其中3人, Messrs 。卡勒,約翰遜和布朗等人受戒向商務部聖公會。

During the Revolution革命期間

During the period of the Revolution the Church of England in America suffered greatly in the estimation of Americans by its strong attachment to the cause of the British Crown.期間,革命的英國教會在美國遭受了極大的估計,美國人在其強烈依戀事業英女王。 But there were not wanting both clergymen and laymen most eminent in their loyalty to the cause of the colonies and in the patriotic sacrifices which they made to the cause of independence.但也有不想要這兩個基督教廣大教牧人員和普通人最傑出的,在他們的事業的忠誠,殖民地,並在愛國奉獻,他們事業作出了獨立的目的。 Among the clergy two such men were Mr. White, an assistant of Christ Church, Philadelphia, and Mr. Provost, assistant of Trinity Church, New York.其中神職人員兩個這樣的男人White先生,助理基督的教會,費城,和先生provost ,助理的三一教堂,紐約。 The rectors of these churches being Tories, these gentlemen subsequently succeeded them in the pastorate of their respective parishes.該大學校長的這些教會被保守黨,這些嘉賓隨後,他們成功地在牧師各自的教區。

II.二。 AFTER THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION之後,美國革命

The Seabury Faction該seabury派

At the close of the war, Episcopalians, as they were already commonly called, realized that, if they were to play any part in the national life, their church must have a national organization.在結束戰爭, episcopalians ,因為他們已經俗稱,意識到,如果他們扮演任何部分,在國家生活中,他們的教會必須有一個全國性的組織。 the greatest obstacle to this organization was the obtaining of bishops to carry on a national hierarchy.最大的障礙,這個組織是取得主教進行了關於國家層次。 In Connecticut, where those who had gone into the Episcopal Church had not only read themselves into a belief in the necessity of Episcopacy, but had also adopted many other tenets of the Caroline divines, a bishop was considered of absolute necessity, and, accordingly, the clergy of that state elected the Rev. Samuel Seabury and requested him to go abroad and obtain the episcopal character.在康涅狄格州,而那些已經進入聖公會曾不只是讀自己成為一個信仰的必要性之故,而且還採取了許多其它原理加羅林divines ,主教被認為是絕對必需的,並據此,神職人員在該國選出牧師塞繆爾seabury ,並請他到國外去,並取得主教性格。

It was found impossible to obtain the episcopate in England, owing to the fact that the bishops there could not by law consecrate any man who would not take the oath of allegiance, and, although during the War of the Revolution, Seabury had been widely known for his Tory sympathies, it would have been impossible for him to return to America if he had received consecration as a British subject.結果發現,就不可能獲得主教團在英國,由於事實,那就是主教,有可能不是由法律規定任何人,不會採取宣誓效忠,而且,雖然在戰爭期間的革命, seabury已廣為人知他的保守黨的同情,它已經不可能讓他回到美國,如果他收到了consecration作為英國臣民。 Upon the refusal of the English bishops to confer the episcopate, he proceeded to Scotland, where, after prolonged negotiations, the Nonjuring bishops consented to confer the episcopal character upon him.經拒絕了英語主教授予主教,他進而蘇格蘭,那裡,經過漫長的談判之後, nonjuring主教同意授予主教性格後,他的。

These bishops were the remnant of the Episcopal Church which the Stuarts had so ardently desired to set up in Scotland and which had lost the protection of the State, together with all its endowments, by its fidelity to James II.這些主教被殘存的主教教堂斯圖爾特曾如此殷切期望的設立在蘇格蘭,並失去了國家的保護,加上其所有的禀賦,它忠實於詹姆斯二世。 Their religious principles were looked upon by Scottish Presbyterians as scarcely less obnoxious than those of Catholics and politically they were considered quite as dangerous.其宗教原則是看由蘇格蘭presbyterians因為幾乎沒有那麼厭惡那些天主教徒和他們在政治上被認為是相當列為危險。 They were indeed exceedingly High Churchmen, and had made such alterations in the liturgy as brought their doctrine of the Holy Eucharist very near to that of the Catholic Church.當時,的確過高,教會人士,並作出了這樣的改動,在禮儀中,因為其帶來的學說的聖體聖事,非常接近,即天主教會。 They had even been known to use chrism in confirmation, and they were strong believers in the sacerdotal character of the Christian ministry and in the necessity of Apostolic succession and episcopal ordination.他們甚至被稱為使用chrism在確認,而他們強大的信徒在sacerdotal性格的基督教部,並在有必要的使徒繼承和主教。 Dr. Seabury was consecrated by them in 1784, and, being of very similar theological opinions himself, he signed a concordat immediately after his consecration, where by he agreed to do his utmost to introduce the liturgical and doctrinal peculiarities of the Nonjurors into Connecticut.博士seabury是consecrated他們可以追溯到1784年,而且,正非常類似神學自己的意見,他簽署了一項協約後,立即他consecration ,凡他答應盡一切努力引進禮儀及教義特殊性的nonjurors到康涅狄格。 Upon his return to his own state he proceeded to organize and govern his diocese very much as a Catholic bishop would do; he excluded the laity from all deliberations and ecclesiastical councils and, as much as he could, from all control of ecclesiastical affairs.當他回到自己的國家,他著手籌辦和治理他的教區十分一所天主教主教將盡,他排除了俗人從所有審議和教會議會,並作為得多,因為他可以,從各個方面控制的教會事務。

The White and Provost Factions白色provost派系

But if sacerdotalism was triumphant in Connecticut, a very different view was taken in New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.但如果sacerdotalism是凱旋在康涅狄格州,一個非常不同的看法是,在紐約,賓夕法尼亞州和維吉尼亞州。 Dr. White, now rector of Christ Church, and a doctor of divinity, believed that if the Episcopal Church was ever to live and grow in America it must assent to, and adopt as far as possible, the principle of representative government.白博士,現在校長的基督教堂,和一名醫生的神性,認為,如果聖公會是以往任何時候都生活和成長在美國,它必須贊同,並盡量採用,這一原則的代議政制。 He would have been willing to go on without the episcopate until such time as it could have been obtained from England, and in the meantime to ordain candidates to the ministry by means of Presbyterian ordination, with the proviso, however, that upon the obtaining of a bishop these gentlemen were to be conditionally re-ordained.他會一直願意去上,沒有主教,直到這種時候,因為它可能已經獲得了來自英國,並在此期間向阿拉維的候選人內政部手段長老顧,與上述規定,然而,一經取得一名主教,這些君子真的被有條件地重新受戒。 This last suggestion, however, found little favour among Episcopalians, and at last, after considerable difficulty, an Act was passed in Parliament whereby the English bishops were empowered to confer the episcopate upon men who were not subject to the British Crown.這最後一條建議,但發現很少有利於各episcopalians ,最後,經過相當大的困難,某一行為,是議會通過的,而英語主教有權授予主教後,男子,他們沒有受到英國官方的。 Accordingly, Dr. White, being elected Bishop of Pennsylvania, and Dr. Provost, Bishop of New York, proceeded to England and received consecration at the hands of the then Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Moore, on Septuagesima Sunday, 1787;因此,白博士,被選為主教,賓州,及葉文provost主教,紐約,接著英格蘭,並收到consecration在手中,當時的坎特伯雷大主教,博士摩爾,就septuagesima週日, 1787年;

Tenuous Union of the Various Factions脆弱的聯盟的各派

Upon their return to America, although there were now three bishops in the United States there were so many differences between the Connecticut churchmen and those of the Middle and Southern states, especially with regard to the presence of laymen in ecclesiastical councils, that it was not until 1789 that a union was effected.回國後,以美國,雖然有3個,現在主教在美國有那麼多的分歧,康涅狄格教會人士及中東和南部國家,特別是關於向在場的普通人,在教會理事會,它不是直到1789年一個聯盟的影響。 Even after that date, when Dr. Madison was elected by Virginia to be its bishop, he proceeded to England for his consecration because Bishop Provost, of New York, refused to act in conjunction with the Bishop of Connecticut.即使是在該日期後,當博士麥迪遜當選弗吉尼亞州作為自己的主教,他接著對英格蘭,他consecration因為主教provost ,新的紐約,拒絕採取行動,在與主教康涅狄格。 The union, however, was finally cemented in 1792, when Dr. Claggert being elected Bishop of Maryland, and there being three bishops in the country of the Anglican line exclusive of Dr. Seabury, the Bishop of New York withdrew his objections as far as to allow Dr. Seabury to make a fourth.該聯盟,不過,終於凝成的1792年,當博士claggert被選為主教馬里蘭州,並有三名主教,在該國的英國聖公會線獨家博士seabury ,這位主教的紐約撤回了他的反對意見,據讓博士seabury作第四名。 If Dr. Seabury had not been invited to take part in the consecration of Dr. Claggert, a schism between Connecticut an the rest of the country would have been the immediate result.如果博士seabury沒有被邀請參加在consecration博士claggert ,裂之間的康涅狄格州的一個,其餘的國家將被立即的結果。

III.三。 THE THREE PARTIES OF EPISCOPALIANS三黨的episcopalians

Almost from the very beginning of its independent life, the tendencies which have shown themselves in the three parties in the Episcopal Church of the present day were not only evident, but were even embodied in the members of the Episcopate.幾乎從一開始就對自己的獨立生活中,傾向,其中所表現出在這三個政黨在聖公會的現今不僅是顯而易見的,但更體現在大家的主教。

Bishop Provost, of New York, represented the rationalistic temper of the eighteenth century, which has eventuated in what is called the Broad Church Party.主教provost ,新的紐約,代表了理性主義的脾氣,十八世紀,它已eventuated在什麼是所謂的廣大教會黨。

Bishop White represented the Evangelical Party, with its belief in the desirability rather than the necessity of Apostolic succession and its desire to fraternize as nearly as possible with the other progeny of the Reformation.主教白色代表著黨的福音,它的信仰是在可取性,而非必要性的使徒繼承和願望fraternize由於接近盡可能與其他子代的改革。 Bishop Seabury, on the other hand, represented the traditional High Church position, intellectual rather than emotional, and laying more stress upon the outward ecclesiastical organization of the Church than upon emotional religion.主教seabury ,在另一方面,代表了傳統的高教會的立場,智力,而不是情緒化,並更注重後離港教會組織的教會比後,情緒宗教。

High Church Party高教會黨

This school has played a very important part in the history of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States; and, while it was undoubtedly influenced to a large extent by the Oxford Movement, it was existent and energetic long before 1833.這個學校起到了非常重要的一部分,在歷史上的新教聖公會設在美國,而這是毫無疑問的影響,在相當大程度上是由牛津運動,它是存在的,充滿朝氣,只要前1833年。 Indeed, in the twenties Bishop Hobart was already presenting that type of evangelical piety, united with high sacramental ideas, which has been the principal characteristic of the party ever since.的確,在上世紀二十年代主教霍巴特已經呈現這種類型的傳播福音的虔誠,與高聖的想法,這一直是主要特徵的黨至今。

The Oxford Movement, however, was not without its influence, and as early as 1843 the disputes between the extreme High Churchmen and the rest of the Episcopal Church had reached a condition of such acerbity that when the Rev. Arthur Cary, in his examination for orders, avowed the principles of "Tract 90" -- and in spite of that fact was not refused ordination -- the controversy broke out into an open war.牛津運動,不過,這也不是沒有它的影響力,早在1843年之間的紛爭極端高牧師和其餘的聖公會曾達成一項條件的,如acerbity當牧師亞瑟卡里,在他的考試訂單,公開的原則, "道90 " -儘管這一事實並沒有拒絕統籌-爭議爆發成公開的戰爭。 The Bishop of Philadelphia, Dr. Onderdonk, was suspended from his office on a charge of drunkenness, the real reason being his sympathy with High Churchmen; and his dispossession was so unjust that it was declared by the famous legal authority, Horace Binney, to be absolutely illegal.主教76人,博士德東克被停職從他的辦公室一負責人醉酒,真正的原因是他的同情與高牧師和他的佔有權是如此不公正的,它被宣布由著名法律權威,賀拉斯binney ,絕對非法的。 He was not, however, restored to the exercise of his functions for more than ten years.他不是,不過,要恢復行使其職能,為10年以上。 His brother bishop of New York fared even worse.他的弟弟主教紐約的表現更差。 Charges of immorality were preferred against him, and he was suspended from his office for the rest of his life, despite the fact that the vast majority of his fellow-citizens, whether they belonged to his communion or not, firmly believed in his innocence.收費的不道德行為被推薦反對他,他也被中止了他的辦公室,其餘的他的生命,儘管事實上,絕大多數的他的同胞公民,無論他們屬於他的共融與否,堅信自己無罪。 An attempt, however, to suspend a third bishop of High Church views, the father of the late Monsignor Doane, failed after he had been presented four times.嘗試,但暫停三分之一的主教高教會的意見後,父親已故主教的作品,失敗後,他已提交了4次。 Bishop Doane, not only by his unrivalled diplomatic skill, but by the goodness and probity of his life, made an ecclesiastical trial impossible.主教的作品,而不是只由他的其他地方無可比擬的外交技巧,而是由善良和正直的他的一生,做出了教會的審判是不可能的。

In 1852 the Bishop of North Carolina, Dr. Ives, resigned his position in the Episcopal Church and submitted to the Apostolic See, and he was followed into the Catholic Church by a considerable number, both of clergymen and laymen. 1852年主教的北卡羅萊納州,博士艾夫斯辭職,他的立場在聖公會,並提交給使徒有目共睹的,他隨後進入天主教教會,由相當數量的,這兩個基督教廣大教牧人員和外行。 His secession drew out of the Episcopal Church all those of distinctly Roman sympathies, but the High Church Party lived on, grown, and in some degrees prospering, in spite of hostile legislation, while in course of time a pro-Roman party sprang up again.他的分裂國家拔出的主教教堂所有的顯著羅馬的同情,但高級教會黨的生活,成長,在某些程度上欣欣向榮,儘管敵對的立法,而在過程中的時間,一個親羅馬黨擺出來,又。 After the passing of the open-pulpit canon in the General Convention of 1907, some twenty clergymen and a large number of the laity submitted to the Catholic Church.通過後,開放式的講壇佳能在一般公約的1907年,約20個基督教廣大教牧人員和大批俗人提交給天主教會。

Evangelical Party黨的福音

On the other hand, the extreme Evangelical Party, disturbed by the growth of ritualism, and unable to drive out High Churchmen in any large numbers, themselves seceded from the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1873, and formed what is known as the Reformed Episcopal Church.另一方面,關於極端基督教黨,不安的成長禮,並不能趕高牧師在任何大規模的號碼,自己退出新教聖公會在1873年,並形成了什麼是被稱為改革後聖公會。 Unlike many of the Protestant bodies, the Episcopal Church was not permanently disrupted by the Civil War, for with the collapse of the Confederacy the separate organization of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States ceased.不像許多新教團體,聖公會沒有永久受內戰,為與崩潰的邦聯單獨組織的新教聖公會在邦聯國家停止。

Broad Church Party廣泛教會黨

The Broad Church party, however, have remained in the Protestant Episcopal Church, and of late years have seriously affected its attitude towards such subjects as higher criticism and the necessity of episcopal ordination.廣大教會黨,但仍留在新教聖公會,晚幾年,已經嚴重影響了它的態度等不同科目更高的批評和必要的主教。 The most outspoken advocates of this school, who in their conclusions differed little or not at all from the extreme modernists, have not been able seriously to alter the teaching of the Episcopal Church upon such fundamental truths as the Trinity and Incarnation; and in a few cases the High Church Party and the Evangelical, by combining, have been strong enough to exclude them from the Episcopal Church.最敢言的倡導者的這所學校,他們在他們的結論不同,很少或沒有這回事,從極端現代派,也未能認真改變教學的主教教堂後,這樣的基本道理,因為三一和化身,而且在數案件高教會黨和福音事工促進會,通過結合,已經足以排除他們從聖公會。 The party, however, is gaining strength; its clergymen are men of intellect and vigour, and the laity who support the party are in the main people of large means.黨,不過,是獲得力量,它的神職人員都是男性的智慧和魄力,與俗人,他們擁護黨,是在主體人的大手段。 To it the future of Anglicanism belongs more than to any other school of thought within the Anglican body.它的前途anglicanism屬於以上任何其他學校的思路與聖公會機構。

IV.四。 STATISTICS統計

In 1907, the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America possessed a hierarch of 5413 clergy, 438 candidates for orders, and 946,252 communicants. 1907年,新教聖公會的美利堅合眾國擁有教主的5413神職人員, 438個候選命令, 946252者。 These communicants should be multiplied at least three times in order to give an idea of the adherents of the Protestant Episcopal Church.這些communicants應乘以至少3倍,為了讓一個想法的遺民新教聖公會。 It possessed nine colleges and universities and fifteen theological seminaries.它擁有9個高校和15所神學院的神學。

Publication information Written by Sigourney W. Fay.出版信息寫sigourney小fay 。 Transcribed by Bryan R. Johnson.轉錄由布萊恩傳譯約翰遜。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.天主教百科全書,體積十二。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. nihil obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

TIFFANY, Hist.蒂芬尼, 250 。 of the Prot.該質子。 Episc. episc 。 Church in the US of America, in American Church History Series, VII (New York, 1907); McCONNEL, Hist.教會在美國的美洲,在美國教會的歷史系列,第七章(紐約, 1907年) ;麥克考耐,歷史。 of the Am.該分結束。 Ep.的EP 。 Church from the Planting of the Colonies to the End of the Civil War (New York, 1890); WHITE, Memoirs of the Prot.教會從種植的殖民地,到去年底,內戰(紐約, 1890年) ;白紙,在回憶錄中的質子。 Ep.的EP 。 Church in the US (New York, 1880); COLEMAN.教會在美國(紐約, 1880年) ;科爾曼。 The Church in America (New York, 1895).教會在美國(紐約, 1895年) 。


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