Dualism二元

General Information 一般資料

Dualism is any theory or system of thought that recognizes two and only two independent and mutually irreducible principles or substances, which are sometimes complementary and sometimes in conflict. Dualisms are distinguished from Monisms, which admit only one element or kind of element, and from Pluralisms, which admit more than two elements or kinds of elements. The polarities of a dualism are distinguished from the thesis and antithesis of a Dialectic, in that the former are stable and mutually exclusive and the latter are dynamic, always tending toward synthesis.二元論是任何理論或系統的理論認為承認兩種,只有兩個獨立的,相互不可原則或物質,它有時是互補的,有時衝突。 dualisms有別於monisms ,它承認只有一個元素或種元素,並從pluralisms ,其中承認兩個以上的要素或種元素。極性的一個二元論是有別於論文和對立面的辯證的,因為前者是一個穩定的和互相排斥的,後者是動態的,總是趨向合成。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
Dualisms are of two basic kinds, metaphysical and epistemological. Metaphysical dualisms admit two substances, such as world and God, or two principles, such as good and evil, as a means of explaining the nature of reality. Descartes argued a metaphysical dualism between mind - thinking substance - and body - extended substance. dualisms有兩個基本類型,形而上學和認識論。 形而上dualisms承認這兩種物質,如世界及上帝,或兩項基本原則,如善良與邪惡,以作為一種手段,解釋大自然的現實。笛卡兒辯稱形而上的二元論之間的心-思想的物質-與體-延長物質。 He held that all elements of reality are ultimately one or the other of these two heterogeneous substances.他認為,各要素的現實最終是一個或另一個,這兩個異構物質。 Epistemological dualisms use two substances or principles, such as consciousness and phenomena or subject and object, to analyze the knowing process.認識論dualisms使用這兩種物質或原則,如意識與現象或主體與客體,分析了解的過程。 In general, an epistemological dualist distinguishes that which is immediately present to the perceiving mind from the retrospective determination of the real object known.一般來說,二元認識論的區別是,立即向感知離心離德的追溯測定實物眾所周知的。

Plato's being and becoming, Aristotle's form and matter, Kant's noumena and phenomena, yin and yang in Chinese philosophy and the traditional issues of God and man, space and time, and nature and nurture are among other famous dualisms.柏拉圖的幸福和成為亞里士多德的形式和物質的,康德的本體與現象,陰陽,在中國哲學和傳統問題的人與上帝,空間和時間,性質和培養是其他著名dualisms 。

Donald Gotterbarn唐納德gotterbarn

Bibliography 參考書目
AO Lovejoy, The Revolt Against Dualism (1930).敖勒福喬,反抗二元論( 1930年) 。


Dualism二元

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Dualism is a theory in interpretation which explains a given situation or domain in terms of two opposing factors or principles.二元論是一個理論在解釋這解釋了某種特定的情況或域而言,兩種對立因素或原則。 In general, dualisms are twofold classifications which admit of no intermediate degrees.一般來說, dualisms有兩個分類,其中承認的,沒有中間程度的影響。 There are three major types: metaphysical, epistemological or epistemic, and ethical or ethicoreligious.主要有三種類型:一種形而上學,認識論或認知,倫理或ethicoreligious 。

Metaphysical dualism asserts that the facts of the universe are best explained in terms of mutually irreducible elements.形而上的二元論聲稱事實的宇宙,是最好的解釋,無論在相互束縛元素。 These are often considered to be mind and matter, or as by Descartes, thought and extension.這些往往被認為是心與物,或由笛卡兒,思路和可擴展性。 Mind is usually conceived as conscious experience, matter as occupying space and being in motion.記通常設想為自覺的經驗,無論作為佔領空間,並在議案。 They are thus two qualitatively different orders of reality.因此,他們兩個本質上不同的命令的現實。

Epistemological dualism is an analysis of the knowing situation which holds that the idea or object of judgment is radically other than the real object.認識論二元論是一個分析研究,了解情況,認為自己的想法或對象的判斷是,從根本上以外的其他實物。 The "object" of knowledge is held to be known only through the mediation of "ideas." "物體"的知識,目的是向被稱為只有通過調解的"想法" 。 This type of thinking raises the important question of the manner in which knowledge can bridge the gap between the idea of an object and the object itself.這種類型的思想,提出了重要的問題,以何種方式在知識,可以縮短貧富差距的想法一個物體與物體本身。

Ethical or ethicoreligious dualism asserts that there are two mutually hostile forces or beings in the world, the one being the source of all good, the other the source of all evil. The most clear cut type of ethicoreligious dualism is that of the ancient Iranian religion, usually associated with the name of Zoroaster, in which Ahura Mazda and Ahriman represent the projection into cosmology, respectively, of the forces of good and evil. 道德或ethicoreligious二元斷言,有兩個互相敵對勢力,還是在世界上,其中之一是從源頭上的一切好外,其他萬惡之源。最明確的類型ethicoreligious二元論,是對古代伊朗宗教,通常與名義zoroaster ,其中阿胡拉馬自達和ahriman代表投射到宇宙學,分別佔該部隊的善良與邪惡。 The universe becomes the battleground for these opposing beings, identified respectively with light and darkness.宇宙變成戰場,為這些反對的人,身份分別與光明與黑暗。 More moderate forms of dualism pervade most religions, expressed, for example, by the distinction between sacred and profane, or by the analysis of reality in terms of yang and yin in Chinese thought.較溫和形式的二元論隨處可見大多數宗教都表示,舉例來說,由區分神聖和褻瀆,或由分析現實而言,楊,尹在中國的思想。

Christian theology generally accepts a modified moral dualism, recognizing God as supremely good and Satan as a deteriorated creature bent everywhere upon the intrusion of evil. This, however, is not dualism in the sense of its usual definition, since Christian theology does not consider Satan to be ultimate or original, and sees him ultimately excluded from the universe. 基督教神學普遍接受改良道德二元論,認識上帝作為千鈞好撒旦作為一個壞頭動物執意要處處當入侵的邪惡。不過,這並不是二元論在意義上的一貫定義,因為基督教神學並不認為撒旦可最終還是原來的,並認為他最終被排除在宇宙中去。

HB Kuhn血紅蛋白庫恩
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
D Runes, Dictionary of Philosophy. d runes ,字典的哲學。


Dualism二元

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

(From Latin duo, two). (來自拉丁語鐸,兩名) 。

Like most other philosophical terms, has been employed in different meanings by different schools.像其他大部分的哲學術語,已受聘於不同的含義是由不同的學校。

First, the name has been used to denote the religious or theological system which would explain the universe as the outcome of two eternally opposed and coexisting principles, conceived as good and evil, light and darkness, or some other form of conflicting powers.第一,名稱已被用來指宗教或神學體系,其中將解釋宇宙的結果,兩個永遠反對和共存的原則,設想為善良與邪惡,光明與黑暗,或其他某種形式的相互矛盾的權力。 We find this theory widely prevalent in the East, and especially in Persia, for several centuries before the Christian Era.我們發現這一理論廣為流行,在東方,尤其是在波斯,幾百年前基督時代。 The Zend-Avesta, ascribed to Zoroaster, who probably lived in the sixth century BC and is supposed to be the founder or reformer of the Medo-Persian religion, explains the world as the outcome of the struggle between Ormuzd and Ahriman.在Zend - avesta ,歸功於zoroaster ,他們大概住在公元前六世紀,並應該是創始人或改革者的medo -波斯宗教,解釋世界的結果之間的鬥爭ormuzd和ahriman 。 Ormuzd is infinite light, supreme wisdom, and the author of all good; Ahriman is the principle of darkness and of all evil. ormuzd是無窮輕,最高的智慧,與作者的所有好的; ahriman的原則,是黑暗的一切邪惡。 In the third century after Christ, Manes, for a time a convert to Christianity, developed a form of Gnosticism, subsequently styled Manichaeism, in which he sought to fuse some of the elements of the Christian religion with the dualistic creed of Zoroastrianism (see MANICHAEISM and ZOROASTER).在三世紀後,基督教會, Manes認為,今後一個時期皈依基督教,開發一種形式的靈知,隨後風格的摩尼教,他在其中尋求保險絲的一些組成部分,基督教與二元信條zoroastrianism (見摩尼教和zoroaster ) 。 Christian philosophy, expounded with minor differences by theologians and philosophers from St. Augustine downwards, holds generally that physical evil is the result of the necessary limitations of finite created beings, and that moral evil, which alone is evil in the true sense, is a consequence of the creation of beings possessed of free wills and is tolerated by God.基督教哲學,闡述了同小異,由神學家和哲學家,從聖奧古斯丁向下,持有普遍認為身體是邪惡的結果,必要的限制,有限的創造人,而且道德上的邪惡,這僅是邪惡在真正的意義上來說,是一個後果創造的人具有自由意志和容忍,都是神安排的。 Both physical and moral evil are to be conceived as some form of privation or defect of being, not as positive entity.身體和道德上的邪惡,是被視為某種形式的窮困或缺陷,而不是正面的實體。 Their existence is thus not irreconcilable with the doctrine of theistic monism.它們的存在,因此不是不可調和與中庸有神論的一元論。

Second, the term dualism is employed in opposition to monism, to signify the ordinary view that the existing universe contains two radically distinct kinds of being or substance -- matter and spirit, body and mind.第二,任期二元論是受僱於反對一元論,以顯示一般認為,現行的宇宙包含兩個根本性鮮明種正在或物質-物質和精神,身體和心靈。 This is the most frequent use of the name in modern philosophy, where it is commonly contrasted with monism.這是最經常使用的名字,在現代哲學的,因為它正在普遍形成對照的一元論。 But it should not be forgotten that dualism in this sense is quite reconcilable with a monistic origin of all things.但不應該忘記的是二元論在這個意義上,是相當調和的一個monistic原產地的所有東西。 The theistic doctrine of creation gives a monistic account of the universe in this sense.該有神論學說的創立提供了monistic帳戶的宇宙,從這個意義上講。 Dualism is thus opposed to both materialism and idealism.二元論,因而反對這兩個唯物論與唯心論。 Idealism, however, of the Berkeleyan type, which maintains the existence of a multitude of distinct substantial minds, may along with dualism, be described as pluralism.唯心論,然而,在berkeleyan類型,保持存在眾多的獨特大幅頭腦,可隨著二元論,被形容為多元化。

Historically, in Greek philosophy as early as 500 BC we find the Eleatic School with Parmenides as their chief, teaching a universal unity of being, thus exhibiting a certain affinity with modern German monism.從歷史上看,在希臘哲學早在西元前500年,我們找到eleatic學校與巴門尼德為自己的行政,教學的一個普遍的統一,從而呈現一定的親和力與現代德語一元論。 Being alone exists.被單獨存在。 It is absolutely one, eternal, and unchangeable.這是絕對的,永恆的,一成不變的。 There is no real becoming or beginning of being.有沒有真正成為或開始的。 Seeming changes and plurality of beings are mere appearances.似乎有變化性和多元性的人,只是外表。 To this unity of being, Plato opposed an original duality--God and unproduced matter, existing side by side from all eternity.以這種團結精神的,柏拉圖反對原始偶-上帝和u nproduced此事,現有並排從所有永恆。 This matter, however, was conceived as indeterminate, chaotic, fluctuating, and governed by a blind necessity, in contrast with mind which acts according to plan.這件事,不過,被視為不定,混亂,起伏不定,以及由一個盲人的必要性,而相比之下,牢記哪些行為按計劃進行。 The order and arrangement are due to God.該命令和安排,是因為上帝。 Evil and disorder in the world have their source in the resistance of matter which God has not altogether vanquished.邪惡和無序的,在世界上有其源中的阻力問題,上帝並沒有完全被征服。 Here we seem to have a trace of the Oriental speculation.在這裡,我們似乎有一個微量的,東方的投機活動。 Again there is another dualism in man.這又是另一種二元論,在男子。 The rational soul is a spiritual substance distinct from the body within which it dwells, somewhat as the charioteer in the chariot.理性的靈魂,是一個精神實質有別於機構,它整篇,有點作為charioteer在一輛戰車上。 Aristotle is dualistic on sundry important topics.亞里士多德是二元論雜項重要的課題。 The contrast between the fundamental conceptions of matter and form--a potential and an actualizing principle--runs through all branches of his system.對比基本概念的問題,並表-有潛力的一個a ctualizing原則-貫穿於各分公司的H I S系統。 Necessarily coeternal with God, Who is pure actuality, there has existed the passive principle of matter, which in this sense, however, is mere potentiality.一定coeternal與神,誰是純粹的現狀,有存在的消極原則的問題,在這個意義上,但僅僅是潛力。 But further, along with God Who is the Prime Mover, there must also have existed from all eternity the World moved by God.但進一步的,隨著神誰是原動機,還必須有存在的,從所有永恆的世界提出的上帝。 In his treatment of cognition Aristotle adopts the ordinary common-sense view of the existence of individual objects distinct from our perceptions and ideas of them.在他治療的認知亞里士多德採用普通常見的常識性的看法存在著個別物體有別於我們的看法和想法。 Man is an individual substantial being resulting from the coalescence of the two principles--form (the soul) and matter.人都不是一個單獨的大幅正在導致從凝聚著兩個原則-形式(靈魂)及此事。

Christianity rejected all forms of a dual origin of the world which erected matter, or evil, or any other principle into a second eternal being coexistent with God, and it taught the monistic origin of the universe from one, infinite, self-existing spiritual Being who freely created all things.基督教拒絕一切形式的雙重世界的本源,其中豎立的事,或邪惡,或任何其他的原則,成為第二個永恆的福祉共存與上帝,它教會了monistic宇宙的起源,從一,有無限的,自我存在的精神正那些自由創造了一切的東西。 The unfamiliar conception of free creation, however, met with considerable opposition in the schools of philosophy and was abandoned by several of the earlier heresies.生疏的概念,自由創作的,但是,遇到了相當大的反對,在學校的哲學和被遺棄的幾個較早的異端邪說。 The neo-Platonists sought to lessen the difficulty by emanastic forms of pantheism, and also by inserting intermediate beings between God and the world.新保守主義platonists設法減輕難度,由emanastic形式的泛神論,同時由插入中間的人在神和世界之間。 But the former method implied a materialistic conception of God, while the latter only postponed the difficulty.但前者方法隱含著功利觀的上帝,而後者則只能推遲了難度。 From the thirteenth century, through the influence of Albertus Magnus and still more of St. Thomas Aquinas, the philosophy of Aristotle, though subjected to some important modifications, became the accredited philosophy of the Church.從13世紀,通過的影響: Albertus馬格納斯還有更多的聖托馬斯阿奎那,哲學,亞里士多德,雖然遭受了一些重要修改,成為認可的哲學教會。 The dualistic hypothesis of an eternal world existing side by side with God was of course rejected.二元假說的一個永恆的世界共存與上帝的當然拒絕。 But the conception of spiritual beings as opposed to matter received fuller definition and development.但觀的精神,以此作為反對此事得到更詳盡的定義和發展。 The distinction between the human soul and the body which it animates was made clearer and their separability emphasized; but the ultra-dualism of Plato was avoided by insisting on the intimate union of soul and body to constitute one substantial being under the conception of form and matter.區分人的靈魂和身體的,它以動畫的,是明確了其強調的可分離性,但超二元論的柏拉圖是可以避免的,執意親密聯盟的靈魂與身體構成一個龐大正理念下的形式和此事。

The problem of dualism, however, was lifted into quite a new position in modern philosophy by Descartes.問題的二元對立,但是,解除到了不少新的職位,在現代哲學由笛卡兒。 Indeed, since his time it has been a topic of central interest in philosophical speculation.事實上,自他的時候,它一直是話題的中心利益,在哲學上的投機活動。 His handling of two distinct questions, the one epistemological, the other metaphysical, brought this about.他的處理,兩個截然不同的問題,其中一個認識論外,其他形而上的,但也帶來這一點。 The mind stands in a cognitional relation to the external world, and in a causal relation to the changes within the body.心主張在一個認知關係到外部世界,並在一類因果關係的變化,內部機構。 What is the precise nature of each of these relations?什麼是確切性質每一個這些關係? According to Descartes the soul is res cogitans.據笛卡兒靈魂,是第cogitans 。 Its essence is thought.其實質是思想。 It is simple and unextended.它是簡單和未擴展。 It has nothing in common with the body, but is connected with it in a single point, the pineal gland in the centre of the brain.它沒有任何共同之處,與組織,但與其有聯繫,它在一個單一的點,松果腺在該中心的大腦。 In contrast with this, the essence of matter lies in extension.相比之下,與這一點,本質上的問題在於延長。 So the two forms of being are utterly disparate.因此,這兩種形式的福祉,是完全不相干的。 Consequently the union between them is of an accidental or extrinsic character.因此該聯盟它們之間是一種偶然或外在性格。 Descartes thus approximates to the Platonic conception of charioteer and chariot.因此,笛卡爾接近柏拉圖式的構想charioteer和馬車。 Soul and body are really two merely allied beings.靈魂和身體是可以分開兩個只是盟軍。 How then do they interact?又哪來的,他們的互動? Real reciprocal influence or causal interaction seems impossible between two such disparate things.實時交互影響或因果互動,似乎是不可能的兩個互不相幹這種事情。 Geulincx and other disciples of Descartes were driven to invent the hypothesis of occasionalism and Divine assistance, according to which it is God Himself who effects the appropriate change in either body or mind on the occasion of the corresponding change in the other.赫林克斯和其他弟子笛卡爾,被驅趕的發明假說occasionalism和神聖的援助,根據它就是天主自己的人的影響,適當的改變,無論是身體或態度之際,相應的變化,在其他。 For this system of miraculous interferences Leibniz substituted the theory of pre-established harmony according to which God has coupled pairs of bodies and souls which are destined to run in parallel series of changes like two clocks started together.這個系統的奇蹟般的干擾萊布尼茨取代的理論,預先確定的和諧,根據該上帝再加上對身體和靈魂,這是注定要並行運行一系列變化,就像兩個時鐘開始在一起。 The same insoluble difficulty of psycho-physical parallelism remains on the hands of those psychologists and philosophers at the present day who reject the doctrine of the soul as a real being capable of acting on the body which it informs.同時溶性困難的心理-物理排比仍然掌握在那些心理學家和哲學家,在現今社會,他們拒絕教條的靈魂,是一個真正能夠作用於人體,它通知。 The ultra-dualism of Descartes was immediately followed on the Continent by the pantheistic monism of Spinoza, which identified mind and matter in one infinite substance of which they are merely "modes."超二元笛卡爾緊接著就大陸所pantheistic一元論斯賓諾莎,其中列出了心與物,在一個無限大的物質,其中,目前僅止於"模式" 。

The cognitional question Descartes solves by a theory of knowledge according to which the mind immediately perceives only its own ideas or modifications.這個認知問題,笛卡爾解決了一個知識論根據該意見立即想起感覺只有自己的主張或修改。 The belief in an external world corresponding to these ideas is of the nature of an inference, and the guaranteeing of this inference or the construction of a reliable bridge from the subjective world of thought to the objective world of material being, was thenceforth the main problem of modern philosophy.相信,在外部世界所對應的這些想法是何種性質的一個推論,並保障這一推斷或建造一個可靠的橋樑,從主觀世界的思想對客觀世界的物質,被此後的主要問題現代哲學。 Locke similarly taught that the mind immediately apprehends only its own ideas, but he assumed a real external world which corresponds to these ideas, at least as regards the primary qualities of matter.駱家輝同樣告訴我們,該會立即想起逮捕只是自己的想法,但是他就任一個真正的外部世界,這相當於這些想法,至少至於小學素質的事。 Berkeley, accepting Locke's assumption that the mind immediately cognizes only its own ideas, raised the question: What grounds have we for believing in the existence of a material world corresponding to those ideas?伯克利分校,接受洛克的假設,即會立即想起cognizes只有自己的主張,提出了一個問題:以什麼理由,我們相信,在存在著一個物質世界對應的這些想法嗎? He concludes that there are none.他的結論是,沒有人反對。 The external cause of these ideas is God Who awakens them in our minds by regular laws.外部原因,這些主張是上帝的人,警醒他們在我們的腦海中,由普通法律。 The dualistic opposition between mind and matter is thus got rid of by denying an independent material world.二元對立,心與物,因此被整肅,否認一個獨立的物質世界。 But Berkeley still postulates multitude of real substantial minds distinct from each other and apparently from God.但柏克萊仍假設千頭萬緒,確實有實質的頭腦有別於對方,顯然是來自上帝。 We have thus idealistic pluralism.我們就此理想化多元化。 Hume carried Berkeley's scepticism a step farther and denied the existence of permanent spiritual substances, or minds, for grounds similar to those on which Berkeley rejected material substances.休姆進行伯克利分校的懷疑論的一個步驟,越走越否認存在永久的精神物質,或頭腦,為理由類似,以對其中伯克利分校拒絕物質的物質。 All we know to exist are ideas of greater or less vividness.我們都知道存在,是思想大或更少形象化。 Kant repudiates this more extreme scepticism and adopts, at least in the second edition of his chief work, a form of dualism based on the distinction of phenomena and noumena.康德否定這更極端懷疑的態度和所採取的,至少在第二版他的主要工作是一種形式的二元對立的基礎上,區分現象和本體。 The mind immediately perceives only its own representations.該會立即想起感覺只有自己的陳述。 These are modified by innate mental forms.這些都是修飾的先天心理形式。 They present to us only phenomena.他們向我們提出的唯一的現象。 But the noumena, the things-in-themselves, the external causes of these phenomenal representations, are beyond our power of cognition.但本體,事物在自己,是外部原因,這些驚人的交涉,超出了我們的權力認知。 Fichte rejected things-in-themselves outside the mind, and reduced the Kantian dualism to idealistic monism.費希特拒絕的東西在自己以外的思想,並減少了康德的二元論,以理想主義的一元論。 The strongest and most consistent defenders of dualism in modern philosophy have been the Scotch School, including Reid, Stuart, and Hamilton.最強大和最一致的捍衛者的二元論,在近代哲學一直是蘇格蘭的學校,包括里德,斯圖爾特和漢密爾頓。 Among English writers in more recent times Martineau, McCosh, Mivart, and Case have carried on the same tradition on similar lines.其中英語作家在近期martineau , mccosh ,米瓦特,案件已進行了相同的傳統,就同樣的意思。

The problem of dualism, as its history suggests, involves two main questions:問題的二元論,因為它的歷史表明,涉及兩個主要問題:

Does there exist a material world outside of our minds and independent of our thought?是否存在的物質世界之外的頭腦和獨立的思考嗎?

Supposing such a world to exist, how does the mind attain to the cognition of it?假設這樣一個世界存在的話,如何得知是否介意,以達到認識的?

The former question belongs to epistemology, material logic, or general philosophy; the latter to psychology.前一問題屬於認識論,材料邏輯,或一般的哲學,後者以心理學。 It is true that dualism is ultimately rejected by the materialist who reduces conscious states to functions, or "aspects" of the brain; but objections from this standpoint will be more suitably dealt with under materialism and monism.這是事實二元論,最終否決了唯物主義的人,降低意識到國家職能,或"方面"的大腦,但反對從這個觀點出發,將較適合處理下唯物論和一元論。 The idealist theory since Berkeley, in all its forms, maintains that the mind can only know its own states or representations, and that what we suppose to be an independent, material world is, in the last analysis, only a series of ideas and sensations plus belief in the possibility of other sensations.唯心主義的理論,因為伯克利分校,在其所有形式,主張心能只知道自己的國家或交涉,並表示,我們假設成為一個獨立的,物質世界的是,在最後的分析中,只有一連串的想法和感覺加上信仰的可能性,其他的感覺。 Our conviction of the objective reality of a vivid consistent dream is analogous to our conviction of the validity of our waking experience.我們的信念,對客觀現實的一個生動一致的夢想,就是類似於我們的信念的有效性,我們醒來的經驗。 Dualism affirms, in opposition to all forms of idealism, the independent, extramental reality of the material world.二元申明,反對一切形式的唯心主義,獨立, extramental現實的物質世界。 Among its chief arguments are the following:其行政論點有以下幾方面:

Our belief in the existence of other minds is an inference from their bodies.我們的信仰是在存在其他一些頭腦,是一種推理,從他們的屍體。 Consequently the denial of an external material world involves the rejection of all evidence for the existence of other minds, and lands the idealist in the position of "Solipsism".因此否定外部物質世界,涉及到拒絕一切證據存在其他一些頭腦,地政唯心主義中的位置" solipsism " 。

Physical science assumes the existence of a material world, existing when unperceived, possessing various properties, and exerting various powers according to definite constant laws.物理科學假設存在著一個物質世界,現行的時候, unperceived ,就必須具備各種性能,並施加各種權力按照一定的恆定規律。 Thus astronomy describes the movements of heavenly bodies moving in space of three dimensions, attracting each other with forces inversely proportioned to the square of the distance.因此天文學描述變動的天體運動,在太空的三個層面,吸引對方勢力成反比相稱,廣場上的距離。 It postulates the movement and action of such bodies when they are invisible as well as when they are visible through long periods of time and over vast areas of space.它假設的運動和行動的這類機構時,他們是無形的,以及當他們都是看得見,通過很長的時間,超過了大面積的空間。 From these assumptions it deduces future positions and foretells eclipses and transits many years ahead.從這些假設推導未來的立場,並預示著消失和過境許多歲月。 Observations carried out by subsequent generations verify the predictions.觀測所進行的後代驗證預言。 Were there not an extramental world whose parts exist and act in a space and time truly mirrored by our cognitions and ideas, such a result would be impossible.有沒有一個extramental世界的部分存在和行為在一個空間和時間,真正反映了我們的認識和想法,這樣的結果是不可能的。 The branches of science dealing with sound, light, heat, and electricity are equally irreconcilable with idealism.各分行的科學處理與聲,光,熱,電力等也同樣不可調和的唯心論。 The teachings of physiology and psycho-physics become peculiarly absurd in the idealist theory.遺訓的生理和心理物理學成為獨有的荒謬唯心主義的理論。 What, for instance, is meant by saying that memory is dependent on modifications in the nervous substance of the brain, if all the material world, including the brain, is but a collection of mental states?什麼,舉例來說,是意味著說,記憶是依賴於修改,在神經物質的大腦,如果所有的物質世界,包括大腦,只不過是一個收集的心理狀態呢? Psychology similarly assumes the extramental reality of the human body in its account of the growth of the senses and the development of perception.心理學同樣假設extramental現實的人的身體,在其交代的成長感官和發展的看法。 Were the idealist hypothesis true its language would be meaningless.被唯心主義的假說屬實,其語言將毫無意義。 All branches of science thus presuppose and confirm the dualistic view of common sense.各分公司的科學是假定,並確認二元鑑於普通常識。

Granted, then, the truth of dualism, the psychological question emerges: How does the mind come to know the material world?理所當然的,那麼,真理的二元論,心理問題出現:如何得知是否介意來認識物質世界? Broadly speaking there are two answers.大致來說,有兩個答案。 According to one the mind immediately perceives only its own representations or ideas and from these it infers external material objects as the cause of these ideas.據一位頭腦立刻感覺到只有自己的陳述或想法,並從這些推斷,它的外部物質物體產生這些想法。 According to the other, in some of its acts it immediately perceives extended objects or part of the material world.據另一方面,在它的一些行為,它立刻感覺到延長物體或部分的物質世界。 As Hamilton says: "What we directly apprehend is the Non-ego, not some modification of the Ego".正如漢密爾頓說: "這有什麼,我們直接逮捕的,是不自我,而不是一些改裝的自我" 。 The theory which maintains an immediate perception of the non-ego he calls natural dualism or natural realism.該理論還保持著一個切身感受非自我-他稱之為自然的二元論或自然寫實。 The other, which holds a mediate cognition of the non-ego, as the inferred cause of a representation immediately apprehended, he terms hypothetical dualism or hypothetical realism.另外,將他所持有的調解認知的非自我,為推斷事業的一份意見書,立即逮捕,他的條件假設二元或假設的現實性。 The doctrine of immediate or presentative perception is that adopted by the great body of Scholastic philosophers and is embodied in the dictum that the idea, concept, or mental act of apprehension is non id quod percipitur sed medium quo res percipitur -- not that which is perceived but the medium by which the object itself is perceived.該學說的即時或presentative印象,就是通過大機構的學術哲學家和體現在這句格言的想法,概念或心理行為的顧慮,就是非身份證和percipitur的SED中等現狀第percipitur -不認為這是知覺,但中等其中物體本身就是知覺。 This seems to be the only account of the nature of knowledge that does not lead logically to idealism; and the history of the subject confirms this view.這似乎是唯一的戶口性質的知識,這並不導致邏輯上,以唯心論和歷史主題證實了這一觀點。 But affirmation of the mind's capacity for immediate perception of the non-ego and insistence on the distinction between id quod and id quo percipitur, do not dispose of the whole difficulty.但肯定的態度的能力,為即時的觀感非自我,並堅持區別身份證和身份證及現狀percipitur ,不處置的整個困難。 Modern psychology has become genetic.現代心理學已成為遺傳。 Its interest centres in tracing the growth and development of cognition from the simplest and most elementary sensations of infancy.其利息中心追查增長和發展的認知能力,從最簡單和最初級的感覺萌芽狀態。 Analysis of the perceptive processes of a later age, eg apprehension of size, shape, solidity, distance, and other qualities of remote objects, proves that operations seemingly instantaneous and immediate may involve the activity of memory, imagination, judgment, reasoning, and subconscious contributions from the past experience of other senses.分析感知過程中,稍後年齡,例如逮捕的大小,形狀,硬度,距離等諸多方面的素質遠程對象,證明行動看似瞬間,並即時可能涉及的活動記憶,想像,判斷,推理,並潛意識捐款,從過去的經驗,其他感官。 There is thus much that is indirect and inferential in nearly all the percipient acts of mature life.因此,有許多是間接推斷,在幾乎所有percipient行為的成熟生活。 This should be frankly admitted by the defender of natural dualism, and the chief psychological problem for him at the present day is to sift and discriminate what is immediate and direct from what is mediate or representative in the admittedly complex cognitional operations of normal adult life.這應該坦率地承認,由後衛自然二元對立,而行政心理問題,他在現今社會,是篩選和歧視是什麼即時直接從什麼是調解或其代表在誠然複雜的認知運作正常的成人生活。

Publication information Written by Michael Maher.出版信息該書由Michael馬希爾。 Transcribed by Robert H. Sarkissian.轉錄羅伯特每小時薩爾基相。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.天主教百科全書,體積訴公佈1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. nihil obstat , 1909年5月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

IN FAVOUR OF NATURAL DUALISM:--RICKABY, First Principles of Knowledge (New York and London, 1901); CASE, Physical Realism (New York and London, 1881); UEBERWEG, Logic, tr.贊成自然的兩重性: -r ickaby,第一性原理的知識(紐約和倫敦, 1 901年) ;案件,物理寫實(紐約和倫敦, 1 881年) ; u eberweg,邏輯的T R。 (London, 1871); HAMILTON, Metaphysics (Edinburgh and London, 1877); McCOSH, Exam. (倫敦, 1871年) ;漢密爾頓,形而上學(愛丁堡和倫敦, 1877年) ; mccosh ,考試。 of Mill (New York, 1875); MARTINEAU, A Study of Religion (Oxford, 1888): MIVART, Nature and Thought (London, 1882); MAHER, Psychology (New York and London, 1908); FARGES, L'Objectivit de la Perception (Paris, 1891).磨機(紐約, 1875年) ; martineau ,研究宗教(牛津, 1888年) :米瓦特,性質與思考(倫敦, 1882年) ;馬希爾,心理學(紐約和倫敦, 1908年) ; farges法國objectivit德香格里拉觀感(巴黎, 1891年) 。

AGAINST NATURAL DUALISM:--BERKELEY, Principles of Human Knowledge, ed.對自然的二元論: -伯克利分校和人權原則的知識,教育署。 FRASER (Oxford, 1871): ed.弗雷澤(牛津, 1871年) :教育署。 KRAUTH (Philadelphia, 1874); MILL, An Exam. krauth (費城, 1874年) ;軋機,是一個考試。 of Sir W. Hamilton (London, 1865); BRADLEY, Appearance and Reality (New York and London, 1899).爵士小哈密爾頓(倫敦, 1865年) ;布拉德利,外觀與現實(紐約和倫敦, 1899年) 。


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在