Determinism宿命論

General Information 一般資料

Determinism is the theory that all human action is caused entirely by preceding events, and not by the exercise of the Will. In philosophy, the theory is based on the metaphysical principle that an uncaused event is impossible. 宿命論是理論是,每個人的行動,完全是由前一事件,而不是由行使意志,在哲學,理論,是基於形而上的原則,即一個uncaused活動是不可能的。 The success of scientists in discovering causes of certain behavior and in some cases effecting its control tends to support this principle.成功的科學家發現起因某種行為,在某些情況下影響其控制傾向支持這一原則。

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Disagreement exists about the proper formulation of determinism - a central issue in philosophy that never ceases to be controversial. Physical determinism, which has its origin in the Atomism of Democritus and Lucretius, is the theory that human interaction can be reduced to relationships between biological, chemical, or physical entities; this formulation is fundamental to modern Sociobiology and neuropsychology.分歧的存在,如何恰當制定宿命論-一個中心問題,在哲學從未停止引起爭議。物理宿命論,它有它的原產地在原子論的德謨克利特和l ucretius,是理論,人類互動可以減少之間的關係生物,化學或物理實體;這個提法是根本,以現代社會生物學和神經心理學。 The historical determinism of Karl Marx, on the other hand, is transpersonal and primarily economic. 歷史決定論的馬克思,在另一方面,是超個人和主要經濟。 In contrast to these two formulations, psychological determinism - the philosophical basis of psychoanalysis - is the theory that the purposes, needs, and desires of individuals are central to an explanation of human behavior.相反,這兩個提法, 心理宿命論 -哲學基礎的心理-是理論的目的,需要和願望的個人分別是中,以解釋的人類行為。 The recent behavioral determinism of BF Skinner is a modification of this view, in that Skinner reduces all internal psychological states to publicly observable behavior.最近行為宿命論的高爐斯金納是一個改裝的這一觀點,在這斯金納降低所有內部心理狀態,以公開瞄行為。 His stimulus - response account also uses modern statistical and probabilistic analyses of causation.他的刺激-反應帳戶還使用現代統計和概率分析的因果關係。

Jean Paul Sartre and other contemporary philosophers have argued that determinism is controverted by introspection, which reveals actions to be the result of our own choices and not necessitated by previous events or external factors.薩特和其他當代哲學家爭辯說,宿命論是controverted通過反思,從而揭示了應採取的行動的結果,我們自己的選擇,並沒有必要以前的事件或外部因素造成的。 Determinists respond that such experiences of freedom are illusions and that introspection is an unreliable and unscientific method for understanding human behavior. determinists回應時表示,這種經驗的自由,是幻想和反思,是一個不可靠,不科學的方法,為了解人類行為。

This view has been modified within the scientific community, however, with the enunciation of the Uncertainty Principle by the physicist Werner Heisenberg.這一觀點已經被修改了科學界內部,但是,隨著闡述的不確定性原理,由物理學家維爾納海森堡。 Ramifications of his work in quantum mechanics led Heisenberg to assert that the scientist, as much a participant as an observer, interferes with the neutrality and very nature of the object in question.影響他的工作,在量子力學中海森堡為首的斷言科學家,因為許多參與者作為觀察員,干擾了中立性和非常自然的物體問題。 His work also questions whether it is possible to determine an objective framework through which one can distinguish cause from effect, and whether one can know an objective effect if one is always a part of its cause.他的工作還質疑,它是否有可能確定一個客觀的框架,通過它人們可以區分事業的影響,以及是否可以知客觀效果,如果始終是其部分原因。

Determinism is sometimes confused with Predestination and Fatalism, but as such it asserts neither that human affairs have been prearranged by a being outside the causal order nor that a person has an unavoidable fate. 宿命論是有時混淆宿命和宿命論的,但因為如此,所以它斷言,既不是人的事務已預先安排,由外面的因果秩序,又沒有一個人是不可迴避的命運。

Jesse G Kalin傑西克卡林

Bibliography 參考書目
B Berofsky, Determinism (1971), and Freedom from Necessity (1988); G Dworkin, Determinism, Free Will and Moral Responsibility (1970); RL Franklin, Freewill and Determinism: A Study of Rival Conceptions of Man (1968); W Heisenberg, Physics and Philosophy (1962); S Hook, ed., Determinism and Freedom (1969); JR Lucas, Freedom of the Will (1970); AI Melden, Free Action (1961); J Monod, Chance and Necessity (1972); BF Skinner, Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971); E Squires, The Mystery of the Quantum World (1986); GH Von Wright, Causality and Determinism (1974). b berofsky ,宿命論( 1971 ) ,和免受必要性( 1988年)的100德沃金,決定論,自由意志和道德責任( 1970年) ;研究部主管富蘭克林,任意和宿命論:研究對手的觀念,人( 1968年) ;瓦特海森堡,物理和哲學( 1962 ) ; s鉤,版,宿命論和自由( 1969年) ;兩人盧卡斯,自由的意志( 1970年) ;艾melden ,自由行動( 1961年) ; j monod ,偶然與必然( 1972 ) ;高爐斯金納超越自由和尊嚴( 1971年) ;電子鄉紳,神秘的量子世界( 1986年) ;生長激素馮賴特,因果關係和決定論( 1974 ) 。


Will (philosophy) (Free Will)將(哲學) (自由意志)

General Information 一般資料

In philosophical discussion, will is usually paired with reason as one of two complementary activities of the mind. 在哲學討論中,將通常是搭配的原因之一,兩互補性活動的頭腦。 The will is considered the faculty of choice and decision, whereas the reason is that of deliberation and argument. Thus a rational act would be an exercise of the will performed after due deliberation. 該會被認為是該系的選擇和決定,而原因就是審議和論據,因此,一個理性的行為將是一個行使意志的表現後,由於審議。

The will has figured prominently in the thought of many philosophers, among them the 19th century thinkers Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche.該會已佔有突出地位,在思想的許多哲學家,其中有19世紀的思想家阿瑟叔本華和弗里德里希威廉尼采。 Historically, debate has centered on the issue of the will's freedom, a question of prime importance for the analysis of human action and moral responsibility.從歷史上看, 辯論的核心問題,意志的自由,一個問題,最重要的,用於分析人的行動和道義上的責任。

Philosophers have often thought that persons are responsible only for those actions that they have the option either to do or not to do or to will or not to will.哲學家往往以為人只負責對這些行為的,他們有選擇,要么做,不應該怎樣做,或會或不會。 If all acts, including acts of will, are predetermined, then this option does not appear to exist.如果一切行為,包括行為的,是既定的,那麼,這個方案似乎並不存在。

In the philosophy of mind, the question is whether reasons in the mind are identical with or reducible to events in the brain and, if so, whether physical events determine choices, decisions, and acts.在心靈哲學,問題在於是否原因在他心中是相同或還原事件在大腦中,如果有的話,不論是身體活動確定的選擇,決定,以及行為。 A wide variety of answers has been proposed, including ones derived from Freudian psychoanalysis and the various forms of behaviorism.各種各樣的答案,我們已建議,包括來自弗洛伊德精神分析學和各種形式的行為。 Some philosophers in the analytic tradition have argued that Determinism is a matter of causes and decisions a matter of reasons and that the two are mutually exclusive.一些哲學家在解析傳統爭辯說,宿命論,是一個原因和決定的事,原因並認為兩者是並行不悖的。 The issue remains controversial.這一問題仍然引起爭議。

GS Davis人戴維斯

Bibliography 參考書目
DM Armstrong, A Materialist Theory of the Mind (1968); WK Frankena, Ethics (1973); A Kenny, Action, Emotion, and Will (1963); K Lehrer, ed., Freedom and Determinism (1976); G Ryle, The Concept of Mind (1949); R Taylor, Action and Purpose (1966).馬克阿姆斯特朗,一個唯物主義者心理理論( 1968 ) ;週frankena ,倫理學( 1973 ) ;肯尼,動作,情感,意志( 1963年) ; k教師,編輯,自由與決定論( 1976年)的100 ryle ,概念記( 1949 )與r泰勒,行動和目的( 1966 ) 。


Brief Definitions簡短的定義

General Information 一般資料

determinism 宿命論
The view that every event has a cause and that everything in the universe is absolutely dependent on and governed by causal laws.認為每一個事件都有原因,並認為宇宙萬物是絕對依賴,並受到因果規律。 Since determinists believe that all events, including human actions, are predetermined, determinism is typically thought to be incompatible with free will.自determinists相信,所有的活動,包括人的行動,是預定的,決定論,是典型的被認為不符合自由意志。
fatalism 宿命論
The belief that "what will be will be," since all past, present, and future events have already been predetermined by God or another all-powerful force.堅信"會產生什麼樣的,將" ,因為所有的過去,現在和未來事件已經預定了上帝或另一種全方位的強大力量。 In religion, this view may be called predestination; it holds that whether our souls go to Heaven or Hell is determined before we are born and is independent of our good deeds.在宗教,這種看法可能是所謂的宿命,它認為,無論我們的靈魂去天堂還是下地獄的決心面前,我們都是土生土長的,是獨立於我們的好人好事。
free will 自由意志
The theory that human beings have freedom of choice or self-determination; that is, that given a situation, a person could have done other than what he did.該理論認為,人有選擇的自由,或自我的決心,那就是,鑑於情況下,一個人可以做得比其他他的所作所為。 Philosophers have argued that free will is incompatible with determinism.哲學家認為,自由意志,是不符合宿命論。 See also indeterminism.也見indeterminism 。
indeterminism indeterminism
The view that there are events that do not have any cause; many proponents of free will believe that acts of choice are capable of not being determined by any physiological or psychological cause.認為有事件,也沒有任何理由;不少倡議者的自由意志,相信行為的選擇,有能力不取決於任何生理或心理的原因。


Freedom, Free Will, and Determinism自由,自由意志與決定論

Advanced Information 先進的信息

There are three basic positions concerning man's choices: determinism, indeterminism, and self determinism. Determinism is the belief that all of man's actions are the result of antecedent factors or causes.有三個基本立場:關於人的選擇: 宿命論, indeterminism ,自我決定論。宿命論是相信所有的人的行動,是由於前期因素或原因。 Naturalistic determinists, such as Thomas Hobbes and BF Skinner, argue that man's behavior can be fully explained in terms of natural causes. Theistic determinists, such as Martin Luther and Jonathan Edwards, trace man's actions back to God's controlling hand. The opposite position to determinism is indeterminism.自然determinists ,如托馬斯霍布斯和BF斯金納則表示,人的行為可以充分解釋條款的自然原因。 有神論determinists ,如馬丁路德和喬納森愛德華茲,追溯人類的行動,回到上帝的控制之手。相反的立場,以宿命論是indeterminism 。 On this view there are no causes for man's actions, antecedent or otherwise.按照這種觀點是沒有原因,因為人的行動,前期還是在其他方面。 The final position is self determinism, or free will.最後立場是自我決定論,或自由意志。 This is the belief that man determines his own behavior freely, and that no causal antecedents can sufficiently account for his actions. 這是信仰,人決定了他自己的言行自由,但並沒有因果前因足以佔他的行動。

Determinism宿命論

The belief that man's actions are the result of antecedent causes has been formulated naturalistically and theistically.相信那人的行動,是由於前期原因已經制定naturalistically和theistically 。 The naturalistic view sees human beings as part of the machinery of the universe.自然主義的觀點認為,以人為本的一部分機械的宇宙。 In such a world every event is caused by preceding events, which in turn were caused by still earlier events, ad infinitum.在這樣一個世界中每一個活動是造成前款活動,而後者又是造成仍然較早的事件,廣告多不勝數。 Since man is part of this causal chain, his actions are also determined by antecedent causes.既然人是這項工作的一部分因果鏈,他的行動還取決於前期的原因。 Some of these causes are the environment and man's genetic make - up.部分這些原因,是環境與人的基因構成-到了。 These are so determinative of what man does that no one could rightly say that a given human action could have been performed otherwise than it in fact was performed.這些都是如此決定性的是什麼人這樣做,沒有人可以正確地說,一個考慮到人的行動可能已演出以外,它其實是表演。 Thus, according to determinism, Bob's sitting on the brown chair rather than the blue sofa is not a free choice but is fully determined by previous factors.因此,根據宿命論,鮑勃的會議上,布朗主持,而不是藍色的沙發,是不是自由選擇,而是完全有決心,由以往的因素。

A contemporary example of naturalistic determinism is BF Skinner, the author of Beyond Freedom and Dignity and About Behaviorism.一個當代的例子,自然主義宿命論是高爐斯金納,作者超越自由和尊嚴,並約行為。 Skinner believes that all human behavior is completely controlled by genetic and environmental factors.斯金納認為,所有人類行為是完全控制,由遺傳因素和環境因素。 These factors do not rule out the fact that human beings make choices; however, they do rule out the possibility that human choices are free.這些因素不排除一個事實,即人類作出選擇,但他們排除這種可能性,人有選擇的自由。 For Skinner, all human choices are determined by antecedent physical causes.為斯金納,所有人類的選擇是取決於前因身體原因。 Hence, man is viewed as an instrumental cause of his behavior.因此,男子是被看作一種樂器導致他的行為。 He is like a knife in the hands of a butcher or a hammer in the grip of a carpenter; he does not originate action but is the instrument through which some other agent performs the action.他就像一把刀在手,一個屠夫或錘子在抓地力的一個木匠,他並不源於行動,但該儀器通過一些其他代理人進行訴訟。

A philosophical argument often given for determinism can be stated as follows.哲學上的說法,往往給予定論,可以說明如下。 All human behavior is either completely uncaused, selfcaused, or caused by something external.所有人類的行為是既沒有完全uncaused , selfcaused ,或造成一些外部因素。 Now human behavior cannot be uncaused, for nothing can happen without a cause, nothing cannot cause something.現在人類行為不能uncaused ,什麼事情也沒有發生的一個原因,沒有什麼不能使一些事。 Human behavior cannot be self - caused either, for each act would have to exist prior to itself to cause itself, which is impossible.人的行為不能自我-要么造成的,為每一行為都存在事先向自己的事業本身,這是不可能的。 Thus the only alternative is that all human behavior must be completely caused by something external.因此唯一的辦法,就是所有人類行為要完全所造成的一些外部因素。 Naturalistic determinists maintain that such things as heredity and environment are the external causes, whereas theistic determinists believe that God is the external cause of all human behavior.自然determinists保持這種事情,因為遺傳和環境是外因,而有神論determinists相信上帝是外在原因,所有人類行為。

There are several problems with this argument.有幾個問題,這種論點。 First, the argument misinterprets self determinism as teaching that human acts cause themselves.首先,這樣的論點曲解自我決定論作為教學人類行為造成自己。 Self determinists, for example, do not believe that the plays in a football game cause themselves.自我determinists ,舉例來說,不相信該扮演一個足球遊戲事業本身。 Rather they maintain that the players execute the plays in a football game.而他們認為,球員們執行起的一場足球比賽。 Indeed it is the players that choose to play the game.事實上,它是播放器的選擇玩遊戲。 Thus the cause of a football game being played is to be found within the players of the game.因此,事業的一個足球遊戲正在扮演的是找到玩家的遊戲。 Self determinists would not deny that outside factors, such as heredity, environment, or God, had any influence.自我determinists不會否認,外界因素,如遺傳,環境,或上帝,有任何影響。 However, they would maintain that any one of the people involved in the game could have decided not to play if they had chosen to do so.不過,他們會認為,任何一個人在比賽中可能已決定不參加,如果他們選擇這樣做。

Second, the argument for determinisim is self defeating.第二,論據determinisim是自我挫敗。 A determinist must contend that both he and the nondeterminist are determined to believe what they believe.一決定論必須爭辯說,他和nondeterminist決心要相信什麼,他們相信的。 Yet the determinist attempts to convince the nondeterminist that determinism is true and thus ought to be believed.然而,決定論,試圖說服nondeterminist說宿命論是事實,因此應以相信。 However, on the basis of pure determinism "ought" has no meaning.然而,在此基礎上的純決定論"應該" ,沒有意義。 For "ought" means "could have and should have done otherwise."為"應該"是指"可以而且應該做,否則" 。 But this is impossible according to determinism.但是,這是不可能的,根據宿命論。 A way around this objection is for the determinist to argue that he was determined to say that one ought to accept his view.怎麼繞過這一反對的是為決定論爭辯說,他決心,也就是說,一個應該接受他的看法。 However, his opponent can respond by saying that he was determined to accept a contrary view.不過,他的對手可以回應說,他決心接受一個相反的觀點。 Thus determinism cannot eliminate an opposing position.因此決定論並不能消除另一種相反的立場。 This allows the possibility for a free will position.這使得有可能為自由意志的立場。

Third, and finally, if naturalistic determinism were true, it would be self defeating, false, or be no view at all.第三個,也是最後,如果自然主義決定論屬實的話,這將是戰勝自我,虛假的,或者沒有這個觀點。 For in order to determine whether determinism was true there would need to be a rational basis for thought, otherwise no one could know what was true or false.對,以確定是否決定論是真實的存在,必須在合理的基礎上的思考,否則,沒有人能夠知道什麼是真的還是假的。 But naturalistic determinists believe that all thought is the product of nonrational causes, such as the environment, thus making all thought nonrational.但自然determinists相信,所有的思想是產品的非理性的原因,如環境,使所有的非理性思維。 On this basis no one could ever know if determinism were true or not.在此基礎上,沒有人能夠知道,如果決定論是真實與否。 And if one argued that determinism was true, then the position would be self defeating, for a truth claim is being made to the effect that no truth claims can be made.如果有人認為宿命論是真的話,那麼,則會造成自我挫敗,為真理聲稱正在取得重大的影響,這不符合事實聲稱可以了。 Now if determinism is false, then it can be rationally rejected and other positions considered.現在,如果決定論是錯誤的,那麼,可以理性地拒絕和其他職位的考慮。 But if it is neither true or false, then it is no view at all, since no claim to truth is being made.但如果它不是真的還是假的,那就不會有鑑於在所有的,因為不能要求真理是正在取得進展。 In either case, naturalistic determinism could not reasonably be held to be true.在這兩種情況下,自然主義決定論無法合理地認為是正確的。

Another form of determinism is theistic determinism.另一種形式的宿命論,是有神論宿命論。 This is the view that all events, including man's behavior, are caused (determined) by God.這是認為,所有的活動,包括人的行為,是造成(待定) ,由上帝。 One of the more famous advocates of this view was the Puritan theologian Jonathan Edwards.其中一個比較著名的主張這一觀點的是清教徒神學家喬納森愛德華茲。 He maintained that the concept of free will or self determinism contradicted the sovereignty of God.他認為,觀念的自由意志或自我決定論,違背主權的上帝。 If God is truly in control of all things, then no one could act contrary to his will, which is what self determinism must hold.如果上帝是真正在控制一切事物,那麼誰也不能違背他的意願,而這正是自我宿命論必須持有。 Hence, for God to be sovereign he must cause every event, be it human or otherwise.因此,上帝是主權他必須引起每一個事件,無論是人力還是在其他方面。

Edwards also argued that self determinism is self contradictory.愛德華茲也辯稱,自我決定論是自我矛盾的。 For if man's will were in equilibrium or indifferent to any given event or decision, then his will would never act.如果以人的意志為在平衡或坐視任何特定事件或決定的,那麼,他將永遠不會採取行動。 Just as a scale cannot tip itself unless an outside force upsets the balance, so man's will could never act unless God moved it.正如一位規模不能完全秘訣本身除非外力打破平衡,所以人的意志絕不可法,除非上帝動議。 Thus to speak of human acts as self caused would be like speaking of nothing causing something.因此,發言的人的行為所造成的自我,將像在談到造成什麼東西。 But since every event must have a cause, self determinism, which denies this, must be self contradictory.但由於每一個事件必須有一個原因,自我決定論,否認這一點,必須自我矛盾的。

During Edwards's own day some thinkers objected to his view on the grounds that it ran contrary to the biblical evidence which supported human freedom (eg, Prov. 1:29 - 31; Heb. 11:24 - 26).愛德華茲在自己的一天一些思想家提出反對談了自己的看法,理由是它違反了聖經中的證據,支持人的自由(如省1時29分-3 1條;以弗所書1 1:24- 26 )。 Edwards responded in his Freedom of the Will that human freedom is not the power to do what one decides but rather what one desires.愛德華茲回應,在他的自由意志,即人的自由是沒有權力做一個決定,而是一個人的慾望。 The cause of man's desires is God, and man always acts in accordance with them.事業的人的慾望是上帝,而人的行為總是按照他們。 Thus freedom is not uncaused, which is nonsensical, but caused by God.因此,新聞自由是不uncaused ,這是睜眼說瞎話,但所造成的上帝。

Like naturalistic determinism, theistic determinism may be objected to on several grounds.喜歡自然主義決定論,有神論宿命論可能反對的幾個理由。 First, to view freedom as that which one desires is inadequate.首先,要查看自由,因為這其中的一個願望是不夠的。 People do not always do what they desire; no one desires to carry out the garbage or clean a dirty oven.人們並不總是做他們的願望,任何人的慾望來進行垃圾或清潔骯髒的烘箱。 Further, people often desire to do what they do not decide to do, such as taking revenge on someone for wronging them.此外,人們常常渴望,使他們可以決定不這樣做,如採取報復有人為wronging他們。

Second, according to self determinism, Edwards's position evidences a misunderstanding of free will.第二,要按照自我決定論,愛德華茲的立場鐵證如山一種誤解,我們的自由意志。 The acts of free human beings are not uncaused but self caused.該行為的自由人是不是uncaused而是自我造成的。 To say they are self caused is not to say that they arise out of nothing or exist prior to themselves.說他們是自我造成的,這不是說他們出現了從無到有,或存在事先對自己負責。 Such would be an uncaused or self caused being, which is nonsensical.例如將是一個uncaused或自我造成的,這是睜眼說瞎話。 However, self determinism maintains that man's exercise of his freedom is self caused becoming, which is not contradictory.然而,自我決定論認為,人類的行使他的自由是自我造成的成為,這是不矛盾的。 In other words, persons exist and can freely cause their own actions (not their own being).或者換句話說,人的存在,而且可以自由地引起他們自己的行動(而不是他們自己的作為) 。

Third, Edwards's argument suffers from a faulty view of man.第三,愛德華茲的說法患有站在一個錯誤的觀點的人。 Human beings are not like a machine (scale) which cannot be moved until some outside force tips it in one direction or another.人是不是像一台機器(規模) ,不能動議,直至一些外力的提示,它在一個方向或另一個。 Rather, man is a person created in the image of God as a personal living soul (Gen. 1:26 - 27; 2:7), and he retains this image even after the fall (Gen. 9:6; 1 Cor. 11:7).相反,男子是一個人創造的形象,上帝看成是個人的活的靈魂(創1時26 -2 7; 2時0 7分) ,他保留了這一形象,即使在秋天(創9時0 6分, 1肺心病。 11時07分) 。 This image includes the ability to make choices and act upon them.這種形象包括有能力做出選擇,並付諸行動。 Hence, since man is personal, it is at best inadequate to illustrate his behavior by impersonal, mechanical models, such as a scale.因此,在男子個人,它是最好的不足,說明自己的行為,按客觀,機械模型,如規模。

And fourth, Edwards is mistaken when he argues that human freedom is contrary to God's sovereignty.第四,愛德華茲,是錯誤的時候,他認為人的自由是違背上帝的主權。 God sovereignly gave man his freedom by creating him a free creature, and God sovereignly continues to allow man to exercise his freedom by sustaining him moment by moment in existence (Col. 1:17).上帝sovereignly了男子自由,由他創造一個自由的造化,上帝sovereignly繼續容許男子行使他的自由所承受他的時候時刻存在(上校1時17分) 。 Thus the sovereignty of God is not thwarted by human freedom but glorified through human freedom.因此,主權的上帝不是阻礙人的自由,但歌頌通過人的自由。 For God gave man free will, he sustains man so he can act freely, and he brings about all his purposes without violating man's free will.對於上帝給予了人的自由意志,他的立身之男子,這樣他就可以自由行動,他帶來了他的所有用途,在不違反人的自由意志。 As the Westminister Confession puts it, "Although in relation to the foreknowledge and decree of God, the first cause, all things come to pass immutably and infallibly, yet by the same providence he ordereth them to fall out, according to the nature of second causes, either necessarily, freely, or contingently" (V, ii).作為westminister認罪的說法, "雖然關係到foreknowledge法令和上帝的,第一個原因,一切事物來通過一成不變和infallibly ,但由同一普羅維登斯他ordereth他們落下,根據性質二原因,無論是必然的,暢所欲言,或contingently " (五,二) 。

Indeterminism indeterminism

This view contends that human behavior is totally uncaused.這種觀點認為,人類行為是完全uncaused 。 There are no antecedent or simultaneous causes of man's actions.有沒有先行或同時造成人的行動。 Hence, all of man's acts are uncaused; hence, any given human act could have been otherwise.因此,所有的人的行為是uncaused ;因此,如果任何考慮到人的行為可能已經否則。 Some indeterminists extend their view beyond human affairs to the entire universe.一些indeterminists延長,他們認為以後的人類事務向整個宇宙。 In support of the indeterminacy of all events Heisenberg's principle of uncertainty is often invoked.在支持的不確定性的所有事件海森堡的原則,不確定性是經常引用。 This principle states that it is impossible to predict where a subatomic particle is and how fast it is moving at any given moment.這個原則說,它是無法預測凡subatomic粒子是怎樣的速度,它正朝著在任何特定的時刻。 Thus, it is argued, since subatomic events are inherently unpredictable, how much more so are complex human acts.因此,有人認為,既然subatomic事件,在本質上是無法預測的,更何況是這麼複雜的人類行為。 From this they conclude that human and nonhuman events are uncaused.從這個,他們的結論是,人與非人事件uncaused 。 Two noted exponents of indeterminism are William James and Charles Peirce.兩位指出,指數的indeterminism是威廉詹姆斯和查爾斯皮爾士。

There are at least three problems with this view.至少還有三個問題,這個看法。 First, Heisenberg's principle does not deal with causality but with predictability.第一,海森堡的原則,不涉及因果關係,但與可預測性。 Heisenberg maintained that the movement of subatomic particles was unpredictable and unmeasurable; he did not maintain that their movement was uncaused.海森堡保持著這項運動的subatomic粒子是難以預測和不可測;他不認為自己的運動uncaused 。 Thus this principle cannot be used to support indeterminism.因此,這個原則不能被用來支持indeterminism 。 Second, indeterminism unreasonably denies the principle of causality, namely, that every event has a cause.第二, indeterminism不合理否認原則的因果關係,即,每一個事件的一個原因。 Simply because one does not know what the cause is, is not proof that an event is not caused.僅僅因為一個不知道是什麼原因,是沒有證據證明某項活動並沒有造成。 Such lack of knowledge only reflects our ignorance.這種缺乏知識不僅反映了我們的無知。 Third, indeterminism strips man of any responsible behavior.第三, indeterminism帶的人,任何一個負責任的行為。 If human behavior is uncaused, then no one could be praised or blamed for anything he did.如果人類行為是uncaused ,那麼沒有人可以被稱讚或指責的事情來做。 All human acts would be nonrational and nonmoral, thus no act could ever be a reasonable or responsible one.所有人類的行為,將非理性和nonmoral ,因此任何行為都不能認為這是合理或負責任的。

Indeterminism is unacceptable for a Christian. indeterminism是不能接受的是一個基督教。 For if indeterminism is true, then either the existence of God or any causal connection between God and the universe would have to be denied.如果indeterminism是真的話,那麼無論是上帝存在的或任何因果關係之間的上帝和宇宙都須加以否認。 But clearly a Christian could not hold this, for the Christian position is that God created the world and he providentially sustains it and intervenes in its affairs (Matt. 6:25 - 32; Col. 1:15 - 16).但顯然是一個基督徒不能舉辦這期,對於基督徒的立場是,上帝創造了世界,他providentially維繫著它干預其內政。 ( 6點25分-3 2;上校1 :15- 16 )。

Self determinism自我決定論

On this view a person's acts are caused by himself.對這一觀點的人的行為所造成的自己。 Self determinists accept the fact that such factors as heredity and environment often influence one's behavior.自我determinists接受一個事實,就是這些因素,遺傳和環境,往往影響一個人的行為。 However, they deny that such factors are the determining causes of one's behavior.不過,他們否認這些因素是決定性的原因,一個人的行為。 Inanimate objects do not change without an outside cause, but personal subjects are able to direct their own actions.無生命的物體不改變,沒有一個外部的原因,但個人的科目可以直接到自己的行動中。 As previously noted, self determinists reject the notions that events are uncaused or that they cause themselves.如前所述,自determinists拒絕概念事件uncaused或他們自己的事業。 Rather, they believe that human actions can be caused by human beings.相反,他們認為人的行動能引起人的人。 Two prominent advocates of this view are Thomas Aquinas and CS Lewis.兩個突出的提倡這種觀點的托馬斯阿奎那和CS劉易斯。

Many object to self determinism on the grounds that if everything needs a cause, then so do the acts of the will.許多反對自我宿命論意見,理由是,如果一切需要的事業,那麼這樣的行為意志。 Thus it is often asked, What caused the will to act?因此,人們常常問,是什麼原因採取行動的意願? The self determinist can respond to this question by pointing out that it is not the will of a person that makes a decision but the person acting by means of his will.自我決定論才能回應這個問題,指出,這是不是會一個人說,作出決定,但該人代理的方式他的意志。 And since the person is the first cause of his acts, it is meaningless to ask what the cause of the first cause is.而且由於該人是第一個原因他的行為,這是沒有意義的,請問原因,第一個原因是。 Just as no outside force caused God to create the world, so no outside force causes people to choose certain actions.正如沒有外力造成的上帝創造了世界,讓任何外力,使人們選擇某些行動。 For man is created in God's image, which includes the possession of free will.因為人是創造了上帝的形象,其中包括藏有自由意志。

Another objection often raised against self determinism is that biblical predestination and foreknowledge seem to be incompatible with human freedom.另一種反對意見,往往提出對自我決定論是聖經的宿命和foreknowledge似乎不符合人的自由。 However, the Bible does clearly teach that even fallen man has freedom of choice (eg, Matt. 23:37; John 7:17; Rom. 7:18; 1 Cor. 9:17; 1 Pet. 5:2; Philem. 14).然而,聖經是否清楚教導甚至下降男子已選擇的自由(例如,馬特。 23時37分;約翰7時17分;光碟。 7時18分, 1肺心病。 9時17分,一寵物。 5時02分; philem 14段) 。 Further, the Bible teaches that God predestines in accordance with his foreknowledge (1 Pet. 1:2).此外,聖經教導我們,神predestines按照他的foreknowledge ( 1寵物。 1:2 ) 。 Predestination is not based on God's foreknowledge (which would make God dependent upon man's choices) nor is it independent of God's foreknowledge (since all of God's acts are unified and coordinate).宿命,是不是基於上帝的foreknowledge (這將使神取決於人的選擇) ,也不是獨立於上帝的foreknowledge (因為所有的神的行為是統一的和協調) 。 Rather, God knowingly determines and determinately knows those who will accept his grace as well as those who will reject him.相反,上帝在明知確定並determinately知道那些人會接受他的恩典以及那些會拒絕他。

A further argument for free will is that God's commandments carry a divine "ought" for man, implying that man can and should respond positively to his commands.另一論點自由意志是上帝的誡命,進行一項神聖的"應該"就人類總體而言,這意味著男子可以,而且應該積極響應他的命令。 The responsibility to obey God's commands entails the ability to respond to them, by God's enabling grace.責任聽從上帝的命令,需要的反應能力,對他們來說,都是神的恩典有利。 Furthermore, if man is not free, but all his acts are determined by God, then God is directly responsible for evil, a conclusion that is clearly contradicted by Scripture (Hab. 1:13; James 1:13 - 17).此外,如果人沒有自由,但他的所有行為都取決於上帝,然後上帝又是直接負責的邪惡,一個結論,這顯然是矛盾的經文( hab. 1:13 ;詹姆斯1:13 -1 7) 。

Therefore, it seems that some form of self determinism is the most compatible with the biblical view of God's sovereignty and man's responsibility.因此,它似乎是某種形式的自我決定論,是最符合聖經的看法上帝的主權和人的責任。

NL Geisler荷geisler
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
Augustine, The Free Choice of the Will and On Grace and Free Will; B Holbach, The System of Nature; W James, "The Dilemma of Determinism," in Pragmatism; M Luther, The Bondage of the Will; R Taylor, Metaphysics; A Farrer, The Freedom of the Will.奧古斯丁,自由選擇的意志和對恩典和自由意志, B期霍爾巴赫,該系統的性質;瓦特詹姆斯, "兩難的決定, "在實用主義;米路德,桎梏的意志與r泰勒,形而上學; 1 farrer ,自由的意志。


Determinism宿命論

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

Determinism is a name employed by writers, especially since J. Stuart Mill, to denote the philosophical theory which holds -- in opposition to the doctrine of free will -- that all man's volitions are invariably determined by pre-existing circumstances.宿命論是一個名稱聘請作家,尤其是因為j.斯圖爾特軋機,是指哲學理論的掌握-在反對以教條的自由意志-這一切人為的v o litions往往取決於事先存在的情況下。 It may take diverse forms, some cruder, some more refined.它可採取形式多樣的,有的cruder ,有些更精緻。

Biological and materialistic Determinism maintains that each of our voluntary acts finds its sufficient and complete cause in the physiological conditions of the organism.生物和物質決定論認為,我們每一個自願的行為,認定其有足夠的和完整的事業,在生理條件的有機體。 Psychological Determinism ascribes efficiency to the psychical antecedents.心理宿命論賦予效率,以心理前因。 In this view each volition or act of choice is determined by the character of the agent plus the motives acting on him at the time.在這種觀點看來,每個意志或行為選擇,是由性格的代理人,再加上動機代理他的時候。 Advocates of this theory, since Mill, usually object to the names, Necessarianism and Fatalism, on the ground that these words seem to imply some form of external compulsion, whilst they affirm only the fact of invariable sequence or uniform causal connectedness between motives and volition.倡導這一理論的,因為磨,通常是反對他們的姓名, necessarianism和宿命論的,其理由是這些話似乎在暗示某種形式的外部強迫的,雖然他們申明,只有事實的恆定序列或制服因果之間連通的動機和意願。 Opposed to this view is the doctrine of Indeterminism, or what perhaps may more accurately be called Anti-determinism, which denies that man is thus invariably determined in all his acts of choice.反對這種觀點是中庸indeterminism ,或用什麼或許可以更準確地被稱為反宿命論,它否認人是因此往往取決於他在所有的行為選擇。 This doctrine has been stigmatized by some of its opponents as the theory of "causeless volition", or "motiveless choice"; and the name Indeterminism, is possibly not the best selection to meet the imputation.這一學說受到了指責,由它的一些對手,因為"理論causeless意志" ,或" motiveless選擇" ,以及姓名indeterminism ,很可能不是最好的選擇,以滿足歸責。 The objection is, however, not justified.反對的,但是,沒有道理的。 The Anti-determinists, while denying that the act of choice is always merely the resultant of the assemblage of motives playing on the mind, teach positively that the Ego, or Self, is the cause of our volitions; and they describe it as a "free" or "self-determining" cause.反determinists ,雖然否認該法的選擇是永遠只是由此產生的組合動機玩心,教導正面自我,或自我,是導致我國volitions ;它們形容為"免費"或"自定"的事業。 The presence of some reason or motive, they ordinarily hold, is a necessary condition for every act of free choice, but they insist that the Ego can decide between motives.在場的一些原因或動機,他們通常持有,是一個必要條件,每一個行為的自由選擇的權利,但他們堅持認為,我能決定的動機。 Choice is not, they maintain, uniformly determined by the pleasantest or the worthiest motive or collection of motives.選擇是沒有,他們堅稱,一律由pleasantest或最有價值的動機,或收集的動機。 Nor is it the inevitable consequent of the strongest motive, except in that tautological sense in which the word strongest simply signifies that motive which as a matter of fact prevails.它也不是不可避免的後果的強烈動機,除了說同義反复的常識,其中最強烈的字眼,根本標誌著動機是眾所周知的事,其實普遍存在。 Determinism and the denial of free will seem to be a logical consequence of all monistic hypotheses.宿命論和剝奪個人自由意志似乎是一個合乎邏輯的後果,所有monistic假說。 They are obviously involved in all materialistic theories.他們顯然是在所涉及的所有物質的理論。 For Materialism of every type necessarily holds that every incident in the history of the universe is the inevitable outcome of the mechanical and physical movements and changes which have gone before.對於唯物論的每一種必然認為,每一個事件,在歷史上的宇宙,是必然的結果,力學和物理運動和變化,其中經歷了前。 But Determinism seems to be an equally necessary consequence of monistic Idealism.但宿命論似乎是一個同樣必然後果monistic唯心主義。 Indeed the main argument against monistic and pantheistic systems will always be the fact of free will.事實上,主要論點是對monistic和pantheistic系統將永遠是事實,我們的自由意志。 Self-determination implies separateness of individuality and independence in each free agent, and thus entails a pluralistic conception of the universe.自決權意味著是分開的個性和獨立性,在每一個自由球員,因此需要一個多元化的概念,宇宙中去。 (See DUALISM; MONISM.) In spite of the assertions of Determinists, no true logical distinction can be made between their view and that of Fatalism. (見二元;一元) ,儘管斷言determinists ,就沒有真正的邏輯上有區別,他們認為,這對宿命論的思想。 In both systems each of my volitions is as inexorably fated, or pre-determined, in the past conditions of the universe as the movements of the planets or the tides.在這兩個系統我每次volitions是無情的命運,或預先確定的,在過去條件的宇宙,作為運動的行星或潮汐。 The opponents of Determinism usually insist on two lines of argument, the one based on the consciousness of freedom in the act of deliberate choice, the other on the incompatibility of Determinism with our fundamental moral convictions.反對宿命論通常堅持兩條路線的爭論,其中一個基於意識的自由,在該法的故意選擇,對其他相抵觸的決定論與我們的基本道德信念。 The notions of responsibility, moral obligation, merit, and the like, as ordinarily understood, would be illusory if Determinism were true.概念的責任,道義上的責任,擇優的原則,並願,因為通常理解的,將是一種假象,如果宿命論都是實話。 The theory is in fact fatal to ethics, as well as to the notion of sin and the fundamental Christian belief that we can merit both reward and punishment.該理論實際上是在致命的道德,以及為概念的單仲偕和根本的基督教信仰,我們可以都值得獎勵和懲罰。 (See FREE WILL; ETHICS; FATALISM.) (見自由意志;倫理;宿命論) 。

Publication information Written by Michael Maher.出版信息該書由Michael馬希爾。 Transcribed by Rick McCarty.轉錄由里克麥卡蒂。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.天主教百科全書,第四卷。 Published 1908. 1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat. nihil obstat 。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約


Free Will自由意志

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

RELATION OF THE QUESTION TO DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY有關的問題,以不同的分支哲學

HISTORY歷史

Free Will in Ancient Philosophy自由意志,在古代哲學

Free Will and the Christian Religion自由意志與基督教

Catholic Doctrine天主教教義

Thomist and Molinist Theories thomist和molinist理論

Free will and the Protestant Reformers自由意志與新教改革者

Free Will in Modern Philosophy自由意志,在現代哲學

THE ARGUMENT論據

Proof證明

Objections反對

NATURE AND RANGE OF MORAL LIBERTY性質和範圍的道德自由

CONSEQUENCES後果

The question of free will, moral liberty, or the liberum arbitrium of the Schoolmen, ranks amongst the three or four most important philosophical problems of all time.問題的自由意志,道德自由,或liberum arbitrium的schoolmen ,職級,其中3個或4個最重要的哲學問題的所有時間。 It ramifies into ethics, theology, metaphysics, and psychology.它ramifies到倫理學,神學,形而上學和心理學。 The view adopted in response to it will determine a man's position in regard to the most momentous issues that present themselves to the human mind.認為,通過在回應它,將決定一個人的立場,對於最重要的問題,在目前向人的頭腦。 On the one hand, does man possess genuine moral freedom, power of real choice, true ability to determine the course of his thoughts and volitions, to decide which motives shall prevail within his mind, to modify and mould his own character?在一方面,沒有人擁有真正的道德自由,權力,真正的選擇,真正有能力,以確定過程中他的思想和volitions ,以決定那些動機為準在他的心目中,以修改及模具他自己的性格? Or, on the other, are man's thoughts and volitions, his character and external actions, all merely the inevitable outcome of his circumstances?或者,另一方面,則是人為的思想和volitions ,他的性格和外部的行動,一切只是必然的結果,他的情況嗎? Are they all inexorably predetermined in every detail along rigid lines by events of the past, over which he himself has had no sort of control?它們都不可避免地預定在每一個細節沿剛性線,由過去的事件,而他自己卻苦無形式的管制? This is the real import of the free-will problem.這是真正進口的自由意志問題。

RELATION OF THE QUESTION TO DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY有關的問題,以不同的分支哲學

(1) Ethically, the issue vitally affects the meaning of most of our fundamental moral terms and ideas. ( 1 )在倫理上,這個問題非常影響的意思是我們大部分基本道義上講與思路。 Responsibility, merit, duty, remorse, justice, and the like, will have a totally different significance for one who believes that all man's acts are in the last resort completely determined by agencies beyond his power, from that which these terms bear for the man who believes that each human being possessed of reason can by his own free will determine his deliberate volitions and so exercise a real command over his thoughts, his deeds, and the formation of his character.責任,擇優的原則,職責,悔意,正義,等等,將有完全不同的意義,一個人認為,一切人的行為是在萬不得已完全取決於機構超越他的權力,從這些條款承擔該名男子世衛組織認為,每個人擁有的原因,可以由他自己的自由意志決定,他故意volitions等工作,真正的指揮權,他的思想,他的事蹟,並形成他的性格。

(2) Theology studies the questions of the existence, nature and attributes of God, and His relations with man. ( 2 )神學研究問題的存在,性質和屬性的神,他的關係人。 The reconciliation of God's fore-knowledge and universal providential government of the world with the contingency of human action, as well as the harmonizing of the efficacy of supernatural grace with the free natural power of the creature, has been amongst the most arduous labours of the theological student from the days of St. Augustine down to the present time.和解的上帝的前列知識普及天賜政府對世界與應變的人的行動,以及為協調的功效有神靈的恩典與自由大自然的力量的造化,一直當中最艱鉅的勞動的神學學生,由天聖奧古斯丁到現在的時間。

(3) Causality, change, movement, the beginning of existence, are notions which lie at the very heart of metaphysics. ( 3 )因果關係,變化,運動,一開始存在,是概念,其中的核心所在的形而上學。 The conception of the human will as a free cause involves them all.觀,人的意志是一個自由的原因牽涉到他們所有人。

(4) Again, the analysis of voluntary action and the investigation of its peculiar features are the special functions of Psychology. ( 4 )再次,分析志願行動,並調查其特有的功能,是特殊功能的心理。 Indeed, the nature of the process of volition and of all forms of appetitive or conative activity is a topic that has absorbed a constantly increasing space in psychological literature during the past fifty years.事實上,大自然的過程中的意志和一切形式的appetitive或意動活動是一個話題,同時也吸收了一種不斷增加的空間,在心理文學在過去的五十年。

(5) Finally, the rapid growth of sundry branches of modern science, such as physics, biology, sociology, and the systematization of moral statistics, has made the doctrine of free will a topic of the most keen interest in many departments of more positive knowledge. ( 5 )最後,快速增長的雜黨支部的現代科學,如物理學,生物學,社會學,以及系統化的道德統計,作出了中庸的自由意志的一個話題最濃厚的興趣,許多政府部門更積極知識。

HISTORY歷史

Free Will in Ancient Philosophy自由意志,在古代哲學

The question of free will does not seem to have presented itself very clearly to the early Greek philosophers.問題,我們的自由意志似乎並沒有介紹得十分明顯,以早期希臘哲學家。 Some historians have held that the Pythagoreans must have allotted a certain degree of moral freedom to man, from their recognition of man's responsibility for sin with consequent retribution experienced in the course of the transmigration of souls.一些歷史學家認為, pythagoreans必須有分配了一定程度的道德自由人,從他們認識到人的責任單與相應的報應的經歷在這個過程中的輪迴的靈魂。 The Eleatics adhered to a pantheistic monism, in which they emphasized the immutability of one eternal unchangeable principle so as to leave no room for freedom.該eleatics堅持一個pantheistic一元論,他們在強調變通的一個永恆的千古不變的原則,以不留下任何自由的空間。 Democritus also taught that all events occur by necessity, and the Greek atomists generally, like their modern representatives, advocated a mechanical theory of the universe, which excluded all contingency.德謨克利特也教導說,所有的事件發生必然與希臘atomists大致一樣,其現代的代表,主張力學理論的宇宙,其中排斥一切應變。 With Socrates, the moral aspect of all philosophical problems became prominent, yet his identification of all virtue with knowledge and his intense personal conviction that it is impossible deliberately to do what one clearly perceives to be wrong, led him to hold that the good, being identical with the true, imposes itself irresistibly on the will as on the intellect, when distinctly apprehended.與蘇格拉底,道德方面的所有哲學問題突出,但他的鑑定所有的美德與知識和他的個人信念,即這是不可能刻意做什麼,顯然仍是錯的,這促使他認為好的,正完全相同的真實,對自己勢不可擋地對將作為對智力,當明顯逮捕。 Every man necessarily wills his greatest good, and his actions are merely means to this end.每一個男人一定遺囑,他最大的善,他的行動只是手段來達到這個目的。 He who commits evil does so out of ignorance as to the right means to the true good.他犯了邪惡,所以出於無知,以正確的方式來真正的好。 Plato held in the main the same view.柏拉圖舉行的,主要有相同的看法。 Virtue is the determination of the will by the knowledge of the good; it is true freedom.德治是決心的,將是由知識的好,它是真正的自由。 The wicked man is ignorant and a slave.壞蛋的人是無知的奴隸。 Sometimes, however, Plato seems to suppose that the soul possessed genuine free choice in a previous life, which there decided its future destiny.但是,有時柏拉圖似乎假定靈魂,擁有真正的自由選擇,在以前的生活中,其中有決定自己未來的命運。 Aristotle disagrees with both Plato and Socrates, at least in part.亞里士多德不同意雙方柏拉圖與蘇格拉底的,至少在一部分。 He appeals to experience.他呼籲經驗。 Men can act against the knowledge of the true good; vice is voluntary.男人可以對法的認識,真正的好;副主席是自願的。 Man is responsible for his actions as the parent of them.男子是負責他的行動作為母公司的。 Moreover his particular actions, as means to his end, are contingent, a matter of deliberation and subject to choice.此外,他特別行動,是指以他的結局,是隊伍中的一個問題,審議並受選擇。 The future is not all predictable.未來是不是所有的可預測性。 Some events depend on chance.有些活動要靠機會。 Aristotle was not troubled by the difficulty of prevision on the part of his God.亞里士多德並不困擾的難度預知對他的部分神。 Still his physical theory of the universe, the action he allots to the noûs poietkós, and the irresistible influence exerted by the Prime Mover make the conception of genuine moral freedom in his system very obscure and difficult.還有他的物理理論的宇宙,他的行動allots向noûs poietkós ,以及不可抗拒的影響,不可能畢其功於一役原動機,使觀真正的道德自由,在他的制度很模糊性和難度。 The Stoics adopted a form of materialistic Pantheism.該stoics通過某種形式的唯物主義泛神論。 God and the world are one.上帝和世界都是一個。 All the world's movements are governed by rigid law.世界上所有的動作都是由剛性的規定。 Unvaried causality unity of design, fatalistic government, prophecy and foreknowledge--all these factors exclude chance and the possibility of free will.不變因果的統一設計,聽天由命的政府,預言和foreknowledge -所有這些因素排除在外的機會和可能性,我們的自由意志。 Epicurus, oddly in contrast here with his modern hedonistic followers, advocates free will and modifies the strict determinism of the atomists, whose physics he accepts, by ascribing to the atoms a clinamen, a faculty of random deviation in their movements.其半徑,奇怪的反差,在這裡與他的現代享樂主義的信徒,主張自由意志和修改的嚴格決定論的atomists ,其物理他接受,所指稱向原子一clinamen ,系隨機偏差,在他們的行踪。 His openly professed object, however, in this point as in the rest of his philosophy, is to release men from the fears caused by belief in irresistible fate.他的公開自稱對象,不過,在這一點,作為在休息的他的哲學思想,是要釋放的男子從恐懼所造成的信念,在不可抗拒的命運。

Free Will and the Christian Religion自由意志與基督教

The problem of free will assumed quite a new character with the advent of the Christian religion.問題,我們的自由意志承擔了不少新的特色來臨的基督教。 The doctrine that God has created man, has commanded him to obey the moral law, and has promised to reward or punish him for observance or violation of this law, made the reality of moral liberty an issue of transcendent importance.該學說認為,上帝創造了人,已經命令他必須服從道德律,並已承諾要獎賞或懲罰他,為遵守或違反這一法律,使現實的道德自由的問題,超然的重要性。 Unless man is really free, he cannot be justly held responsible for his actions, any more than for the date of his birth or the colour of his eyes.除非男子是真正的自由,他不能理直氣壯地追究責任,為他的行動,任何多為自己的出生日期或膚色的他的眼睛。 All alike are inexorably predetermined for him.一切都不可阻擋地預定了。 Again, the difficulty of the question was augmented still further by the Christian dogma of the fall of man and his redemption by grace.再次,困難的問題是增強還是進一步由基督教教義的秋季男子和他的救贖,由恩典。 St. Paul, especially in his Epistle to the Romans, is the great source of the Catholic theology of grace.聖保祿,尤其是在他的書中說,羅馬人,是偉大的來源天主教神學的恩典。

Catholic Doctrine天主教教義

Among the early Fathers of the Church, St. Augustine stands pre-eminent in his handling of this subject.其中早期教會的神父,聖奧古斯丁停機前知名他在處理這方面的問題。 He clearly teaches the freedom of the will against the Manichæeans, but insists against the Semipelageians on the necessity of grace, as a foundation of merit.他明確任教的自由意志,對manichæeans ,但堅持反對semipelageians關於必須恩典,作為一個基礎,是有道理的。 He also emphasizes very strongly the absolute rule of God over men's wills by His omnipotence and omniscience--through the infinite store, as it were, of motives which He has had at His disposal from all eternity, and by the foreknowledge of those to which the will of each human being would freely consent.他還強調了非常強烈的絕對統治上帝超過男性的遺囑由他的全能和無所不知-通過無限存儲,因為它被的動機,他曾在他的處置從所有永恆,以及由f oreknowledge這些哪該會的每個人都將自由地同意。 St. Augustine's teaching formed the basis of much of the later theology of the Church on these questions, though other writers have sought to soften the more rigorous portions of his doctrine.聖奧古斯丁的教學建制的基礎上的很大一部分後來神學教會對這些問題,但其他作者試圖軟化了更嚴格的部分,他的教義。 This they did especially in opposition to heretical authors, who exaggerated these features in the works of the great African Doctor and attempted to deduce from his principles a form of rigid predeterminism little differing from fatalism.他們這樣做,特別是在反對邪教的作者,他們誇大了這些特點,在工程的偉大非洲的醫生,並企圖推論,他的原則的一種形式僵化predeterminism一點不同於宿命論的思想。 The teaching of St. Augustine is developed by St. Thomas Aquinas both in theology and philosophy.教學中的聖奧古斯丁,是由聖托馬斯阿奎那無論是在神學和哲學。 Will is rational appetite.將是理性的胃口。 Man necessarily desires beatitude, but he can freely choose between different forms of it.男子一定beatitude慾望,但他可以自由地選擇不同形式的。 Free will is simply this elective power.自由意志很簡單,就是選任權力。 Infinite Good is not visible to the intellect in this life.無限好,是不可見的,以智力在此生活。 There are always some drawbacks and deficiencies in every good presented to us.總有那麼一些缺點和不足,在每一個好提交給我們。 None of them exhausts our intellectual capacity of conceiving the good.他們之中沒有排氣管我們的智慧能力,構思好的方向發展。 Consequently, in deliberate volition, not one of them completely satiates or irresistibly entices the will.因此,在故意的意志,他們沒有一個人完全satiates還是勢不可擋地引誘意志。 In this capability of the intellect for conceiving the universal lies the root of our freedom.在這方面的能力的智力為構思普遍所在的根源,我們的自由。 But God possesses an infallible knowledge of man's future actions.但是上帝擁有一個犯錯的知識人的未來的行動。 How is this prevision possible, if man's future acts are not necessary?怎麼會這樣預知可能的,如果人的未來行為是不是有必要呢? God does not exist in time.上帝不存在的時間。 The future and the past are alike ever present to the eternal mind as a man gazing down from a lofty mountain takes in at one momentary glance all the objects which can be apprehended only through a lengthy series of successive experiences by travellers along the winding road beneath, in somewhat similar fashion the intuitive vision of God apprehends simultaneously what is future to us with all it contains.未來和過去是完全一樣的存在,以永恆的心態,一名男子正在凝視下,從崇高的山區需在一個短暫的一瞥所有物體,可以被逮捕,只有通過一個漫長的一系列連續的經驗,由旅客沿著曲折的道路下方在有點類似時裝直觀的視覺神逮捕,同時什麼是未來向我們提出的所有內容。 Further, God's omnipotent providence exercises a complete and perfect control over all events that happen, or will happen, in the universe.此外,上帝的無所不能的普羅維登斯演習的一個完整和完善控制一切的事件發生,或將發生,在宇宙中。 How is this secured without infringement of man's freedom?怎麼會這樣擔保不受侵犯人的自由嗎? Here is the problem which two distinguished schools in the Church--both claiming to represent the teaching, or at any rate the logical development of the teaching of St. Thomas--attempt to solve in different ways.這裡是一個問題,這兩個傑出的學校,在教會裡-都聲稱代表的教學,或在任何利率合乎邏輯的發展,教學的聖托馬斯-試圖解決方式不同。 The heresies of Luther and Calvin brought the issue to a finer point than it had reached in the time of Aquinas, consequently he had not formally dealt with it in its ultimate shape, and each of the two schools can cite texts from the works of the Angelic Doctor in which he appears to incline towards their particular view.該異端邪說的路德和卡爾文所帶來的問題,以更細一點,比它已達成的時候,阿奎那,因此,他還沒有正式處理的,它在它的最終形成,並每兩所學校可以舉出文本,從工程的天使般的醫生,而他似乎傾向於其特殊的觀點。

Thomist and Molinist Theories thomist和molinist理論

The Dominican or Thomist solution, as it is called, teaches in brief that God premoves each man in all his acts to the line of conduct which he subsequently adopts.多米尼加或thomist解決方案,因為它是所謂的,任教於簡短的上帝premoves每個男人在他的所有行為,以線的行為,他隨後通過。 It holds that this premotive decree inclines man's will with absolute certainty to the side decreed, but that God adapts this premotion to the nature of the being thus premoved.它認為,這premotive法令傾向以人的意志絕對肯定地向方發布命令,但上帝適應化修改,這premotion向大自然的福祉,因此premoved 。 It argues that as God possesses infinite power He can infallibly premove man--who is by nature a free cause--to choose a particular course freely, whilst He premoves the lower animals in harmony with their natures to adopt particular courses by necessity.該報告認為,由於上帝擁有無限權力,他能infallibly premove男子-誰是由本質上是一個自由的事業-選擇某一課程,暢所欲言,而他p r emoves低下動物和諧相處其性質採取特別課程的必要性。 Further, this premotive decree being inevitable though adapted to suit the free nature of man, provides a medium in which God foresees with certainty the future free choice of the human being.此外,這項法令premotive正在不可避免的,雖然適合免費性質的人,提供了一個媒介,在上帝預見肯定未來的自由選擇的人。 The premotive decree is thus prior in order of thought to the Divine cognition of man's future actions.該premotive法令,因此,事先為了思路,以神聖的認知,人的未來行動。 Theologians and philosophers of the Jesuit School, frequently styled Molinists, though they do not accept the whole of Molina's teaching and generally prefer Francisco Suárez's exposition of the theory, deem the above solution unsatisfactory.神學家和哲學家的耶穌會學校,頻頻施展molinists ,雖然他們不接受全莫利納的教學和一般喜歡弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯的論述的理論,認為上述解決辦法不理想。 It would, they readily admit, provide sufficiently for the infallibility of the Divine foreknowledge and also for God's providential control of the world's history; but, in their view, it fails to give at the same time an adequately intelligible account of the freedom of the human will.它會,他們願意承認,提供足以為infallibility的神聖foreknowledge ,也是上帝的天賜控制整個世界的歷史,但在他們看來,它未能給予在同一時間內充分理解到自由的人的意志。 According to them, the relation of the Divine action to man's will should be conceived rather as of a concurrent than of a premotive character; and they maintain that God's knowledge of what a free being would choose, if the necessary conditions were supplied, must be deemed logically prior to any decree of concurrence or premotion in respect to that act of choice.據他們說,相關的神聖行動,以人的意志為應構思,而不是作為一個並行比一premotive品格;他們認為,上帝的知識,對什麼是自由的人會選擇,如果必要的條件,提供了,必須當作邏輯之前,任何法令的競合或premotion在尊重該法令的選擇。 Briefly, they make a threefold distinction in God's knowledge of the universe based on the nature of the objects known--the Divine knowledge being in itself of course absolutely simple.簡單地說,他們作出了三倍區別,在上帝的宇宙知識的基礎上的性質,對象,被稱為-神聖知識本身當然絕對簡單。 Objects or events viewed merely as possible, God is said to apprehend by simple intelligence (simplex intelligentia).物體或事件僅僅看作是可能的,上帝是說,逮捕由簡單的智慧(單工intelligentia ) 。 Events which will happen He knows by vision (scientia visionis).事件會發生,他知道以願景(科學visionis ) 。 Intermediate between these are conditionally future events--things which would occur were certain conditions fulfilled.中間之間,這些都是有條件未來事件-這件事會發生某些條件履行。 God's knowledge of this class of contingencies they term scientia media.上帝的知識,這一類突發事件,他們任期內的知識傳播媒介。 For instance Christ affirmed that, if certain miracles had been wrought in Tyre and Sidon, the inhabitants would have been converted.例如基督申明的是,如果某些奇蹟已經緊張得要命,在提爾和西頓,居民將得以轉化。 The condition was not realized, yet the statement of Christ must have been true.符合有關條件未能實現,但在聲明中的基督,必須有正確的。 About all such conditional contingencies propositions may be framed which are either true or false--and Infinite Intelligence must know all truth.對於所有此類有條件應急命題可能誣陷,這是真還是假-和無窮智慧必須知道所有的真相。 The conditions in many cases will not be realized, so God must know them apart from any decrees determining their realization.條件,在許多情況下將無法實現,所以上帝要知道,他們除了從任何法令,確定其實現。 He knows them therefore, this school holds, in seipsis, in themselves as conditionally future events.他知道他們,因此,這所學校舉行,在seipsis ,在自己有條件,後世之師。 This knowledge is the scientia media, "middle knowledge", intermediate between vision of the actual future and simple understanding of the merely possible.這方面的知識,是知識媒體, "中的知識" ,中間之間的遠見未來實際和簡單的了解僅僅是可能的。 Acting now in the light of this scientia media with respect to human volitions, God freely decides according to His own wisdom whether He shall supply the requisite conditions, including His co-operation in the action, or abstain from so doing, and thus render possible or prevent the realization of the event.代理,現在在這個知識媒體與尊重人類volitions ,上帝自由地決定根據他自己的智慧,他是否應當提供必要的條件,包括他的通力合作,使這項行動,或棄權,沒有這樣做,從而使盡可能或阻止實現該項活動。 In other words, the infinite intelligence of God sees clearly what would happen in any conceivable circumstances.或者換句話說,無窮的智慧神洞若觀火,會發生什麼事,在任何情況下,可以想像的。 He thus knows what the free will of any creature would choose, if supplied with the power of volition or choice and placed in any given circumstances.因此,他知道什麼是自由意志的任何動物都會選擇,如果供應與電力的意志或選擇和放置在任何特定的情況而定。 He now decrees to supply the needed conditions, including His corcursus, or to abstain from so doing.他現在的法令,以供應所需的條件,其中包括他corcursus ,或棄權,沒有這樣做。 He thus holds complete dominion and control over our future free actions, as well as over those of a necessary character.因此,他擁有完整的統治和控制,我們未來的自由行動,以及對這些的一個必要特徵。 The Molinist then claims to safeguard better man's freedom by substituting for the decree of an inflexible premotion one of concurrence dependent on God's prior knowledge of what the free being would choose.該molinist然後索賠,以保障更好的人的自由所取代該法令的僵化premotion之一競合依賴於上帝的事先知道什麼免費目前還是會選擇。 If given the power to exert the choice.如果賦予權力,盡自己的選擇。 He argues that he exempts God more clearly from all responsibility for man's sins.他辯稱,他豁免前上帝更清楚地從所有責任人的罪孽。 The claim seems to the present writer well founded; at the same time it is only fair to record on the other side that the Thomist urges with considerable force that God's prescience is not so understandable in this, as in his theory.索賠似乎到現在的作家,以及成立,在同一時間內,它是唯一公平的,以記錄在另一邊說, thomist敦促以相當大的力量就是神的之明,是不是可以理解,在這方面,正如在他的理論。 He maintains, too, that God's exercise of His absolute dominion over all man's acts and man's entire dependence on God's goodwill are more impressively and more worthily exhibited in the premotion hypothesis.他堅持,也就是神的行使他的絕對統治一切人的行為和人的整個依賴上帝的善意,更令人印象深刻和更多的抱負,展示在premotion假說。 The reader will find an exhaustive treatment of the question in any of the Scholastic textbooks on the subject.讀者會發現一個詳盡的治療問題,在任何有關學術教科書對此事的意見。

Free will and the Protestant Reformers自由意志與新教改革者

A leading feature in the teaching of the Reformers of the sixteenth century, especially in the case of Luther and Calvin, was the denial of free will.領先的特點,在教學中的改革者的16世紀,特別是在案件路德和卡爾文被剝奪自由意志。 Picking out from the Scriptures, and particularly from St. Paul, the texts which emphasized the importance and efficacy of grace, the all-ruling providence of God, His decrees of election or predestination, and the feebleness of man, they drew the conclusion that the human will, instead of being master of its own acts, is rigidly predetermined in all its choices throughout life.採摘從誦經,特別是來自聖保羅,文本,其中強調的重要性和有效性的恩典,所有執政的普羅維登斯的上帝,他的法令,選舉或宿命,以及衰弱的男子,他們得出的結論人的意志,而不是被主宰自己的行為,是硬性預定在其所有的選擇,在整個人生。 As a consequence, man is predestined before his birth to eternal punishment or reward in such fashion that he never can have had any real free-power over his own fate.因此,男子是命中註定前他出生時,以永恆的懲罰或獎勵,在這樣的口吻表示,他從未有過任何真正的自由權,他自己的命運。 In his controversy with Erasmus, who defended free will, Luther frankly stated that free will is a fiction, a name which covers no reality, for it is not in man's power to think well or ill, since all events occur by necessity.在他的爭議與伊拉斯謨,他們捍衛了自由意志,路德坦率地表示,自由意志是一個虛構,一個名字,其中包括沒有任何現實的,因為它不是在人的權力,認為變好或變壞,因為所有的事件發生所必需的。 In reply to Erasmus's "De Libero Arbitrio", he published his own work, "De Servo Arbitrio", glorying in emphasizing man's helplessness and slavery.在回答伊拉斯謨的"時點的Libero arbitrio " ,他發表了他自己的工作, "德伺服arbitrio " , glorying在強調人的無助和奴役。 The predestination of all future human acts by God is so interpreted as to shut out any possibility of freedom.該宿命未來所有人類的行為是由上帝是這樣解釋的,以封殺任何可能的自由。 An inflexible internal necessity turns man's will whithersoever God preordains.靈活的內部必要性輪流以人的意志為whithersoever上帝preordains 。 With Calvin, God's preordination is, if possible, even more fatal to free will.與卡爾文上帝的欽點的是,如果可能的話,更是致命的自由意志。 Man can perform no sort of good act unless necessitated to it by God's grace which it is impossible for him to resist.男子可以執行任何形式的良好行為,除非有必要給它的上帝的恩典,這是不可能的,他抗拒。 It is absurd to speak of the human will "co-operating" with God's grace, for this would imply that man could resist the grace of God.它的荒謬發言的人的意志的"合作經營" ,與上帝的恩典,因為這將意味著這名男子能抗拒上帝的恩典。 The will of God is the very necessity of things.上帝的意志是非常有必要的事情。 It is objected that in this case God sometimes imposes impossible commands.它是反對說,在這種情況下,上帝有時施加不可能的命令。 Both Calvin and Luther reply that the commands of God show us not what we can do but what we ought to do.雙方卡爾文和路德答复中表示,指令的上帝告訴我們,沒有我們所能做的,但我們所應該做的。 In condemnation of these views, the Council of Trent declared that the free will of man, moved and excited by God, can by its consent co-operate with God, Who excites and invites its action; and that it can thereby dispose and prepare itself to obtain the grace of justification.在譴責這些意見後,會遄宣布自由意志為轉移的,感動和興奮,上帝,可以由它的同意合作經營與神,人興奮,並請其行動,並認為它可以從而處置,並做好準備獲得寬限期的理由。 The will can resist grace if it chooses.該會都無法抗拒的恩典,如果它選擇。 It is not like a lifeless thing, which remains purely passive.它是不是像一個沒有生命的東西,這仍然是純粹被動的。 Weakened and diminished by Adam's fall, free will is yet not destroyed in the race (Sess. VI, cap. i and v).弱化,並削弱亞當的降臨,自由意志是沒有毀在正式比賽中( sess.六,帽,我和其他五) 。

Free Will in Modern Philosophy自由意志,在現代哲學

Although from Descartes onward, philosophy became more and more separated from theology, still the theological significance of this particular question has always been felt to be of the highest moment.雖然從笛卡爾開始,哲學變得越來越脫離神學,仍是神學的意義,尤其是這一問題,一直認為是可以達到的最高的時刻。 Descartes himself at times clearly maintains the freedom of the will (Meditations, III and IV).笛卡爾自己的時候,清楚地保持著自由意志(沉思,三和四) 。 At times, however, he attenuates this view and leans towards a species of providential determinism, which is, indeed, the logical consequence of the doctrines of occasionalism and the inefficacy of secondary causes latent in his system.有些時候,不過,他的衰減這一觀點和傾向某一物種的天賜宿命論,它確實是合乎邏輯的後果,該學說occasionalism和無效的二次原因潛伏在他的體系。

Malebranche developed this feature of Descartes's teaching.馬勒伯朗士發達國家的這一特點笛卡爾對他的教誨。 Soul and body cannot really act on each other.靈魂和身體不能真正對對方的經驗。 The changes in the one are directly caused by God on the occasion of the corresponding change in the other.變化的一個直接造成對上帝之際,相應的變化,在其他。 So-called secondary causes are not really efficacious.那些所謂次要原因,是不是真的有效。 Only the First Cause truly acts.只有第一個原因,真正的行為。 If this view be consistently thought out, the soul, since it possesses no genuine causality, cannot be justly said to be free in its volitions.如果這一觀點得到一貫思想,靈魂,因為它不擁有任何真正的因果關係,不能理直氣壯地說是免費的,在其volitions 。 Still, as a Catholic theologian, Malebranche could not accept this fatalistic determinism.儘管如此,作為天主教神學家,馬勒伯朗士不能接受這個聽天由命的宿命論。

Accordingly he defended freedom as essential to religion and morality.因此,他捍衛新聞自由非常重要的宗教和道德。 Human liberty being denied, God should be deemed cruel and unjust, whilst duty and responsibility for man cease to exist.人的自由被剝奪,上帝應視為殘酷和不公正的,而義務和責任人不再存在。 We must therefore be free.因此,我們必須得到自由。 Spinoza was more logical.斯賓諾莎是更合乎邏輯的。 Starting from certain principles of Descartes, he deduced in mathematical fashion an iron-bound pantheistic fatalism which left no room for contingency in the universe and still less for free will.從某些原則的笛卡兒,他推導出數學時裝鐵勢必pantheistic宿命論而沒有留下餘地應變在宇宙中,仍不足為自由意志。 In Leibniz, the prominence given to the principle of sufficient reason, the doctrine that man must choose that which the intellect judges as the better, and the optimistic theory that God Himself has inevitably chosen the present as being the best of all possible worlds, these views, when logically reasoned out, leave very little reality to free will, though Leibniz set himself in marked opposition to the monistic geometrical necessarianism of Spinoza.在萊布尼茲,突出了這一原則,有足夠的理由,這個學說認為,人必須選擇其中智力法官向好,樂觀論上帝本人已無可避免地選擇了目前被認為最好的一切可能的世界中,這些意見,從邏輯上的時候,理性的,休假很少的現實,以自由意志,儘管萊布尼茨設置自己的標誌,反對以monistic幾何necessarianism斯賓諾莎。

In England the mechanical materialism of Hobbes was incompatible with moral liberty, and he accepted with cynical frankness all the logical consequences of his theory.在英國是機械唯物論的霍布斯是不符合道德自由,而且他接受了玩世不恭的坦誠一切合乎邏輯的後果,他的理論。 Our actions either follow the first appetite that arises in the mind, or there is a series of alternate appetites and fears, which we call deliberation.我們的行動要么跟上第一食慾產生在他心中,還是存在著一系列的候補慾望與恐懼中,我們稱之為審議。 The last appetite or fear, that which triumphs, we call will.最近食慾或恐懼,那勝利,我們呼籲會。 The only intelligible freedom is the power to do what one desires.唯一的理解自由是權力做什麼的一個願望。 Here Hobbes is practically at one with Locke.這裡霍布斯實際上是一個與駱家輝。 God is the author of all causes and effects, but is not the author of sin, because an action ceases to be sin if God wills it to happen.上帝是作者的所有成因和影響,但不是作者的罪過,因為一個行動不再是罪過,如果上帝的意志,這都可能發生。 Still God is the cause of sin.還是神,是導致罪惡的。 Praise and blame, rewards and punishments cannot be called useless, because they strengthen motives, which are the causes of action.讚揚和指責,兌現獎懲,不能稱為沒用,因為他們加強動機,這是訴訟權。 This, however, does not meet the objection to the justice of such blame or praise, if the person has not the power to abstain from or perform the actions thus punished or rewarded.不過,這並不符合反對以司法的這種指責或讚美,如果這個人有沒有權力以棄權或執行行動,因此受到懲罰或獎賞。 Hume reinforced the determinist attack on free will by his suggested psychological analysis of the notion or feeling of "necessity".休謨,強化了決定論攻擊的自由意志,由他的建議,心理分析的概念或感覺的"必要性" 。 The controversy, according to him, has been due to misconception of the meaning of words and the error that the alternative to free will is necessity.這場爭論,據他介紹,已因誤解的字義和誤差表示,替代自由意志是必須的。 This necessity, he says, is erroneously ascribed to some kind of internal nexus supposed to bind all causes to their effects, whereas there is really nothing more in causality than constant succession.這種必要性,他說,是錯誤地歸因於某種內在的聯繫來約束所有的原因及其影響,而實在沒有什麼更多的因果關係比不斷繼承。 The imagined necessity is merely a product of custom or association of ideas.該想像的必要性,只不過是一個產品的定制或協會的想法。 Not feeling in our acts of choice this necessity, which we attribute to the causation of material agents, we mistakenly imagine that our volitions have no causes and so are free, whereas they are as strictly determined by the feelings or motives which have gone before, as any material effects are determined by their material antecedents.沒有感覺,在我們的行為,選擇這個必要性,而我們的屬性,以因果關係的物質代理商,我們錯誤地想像我們volitions沒有原因等,是免費的,而他們是嚴格確定的感情或動機都已宣布之前,因為任何物質的影響,主要取決於他們的物質前因。 In all our reasonings respecting other persons, we infer their future conduct from their wonted action under particular motives with the same sort of certainty as in the case of physical causation.在我們所有的reasonings尊重其他人,我們可以推斷其未來的行為,從他們的wonted行動受到特別的動機與同類確定性的情況一樣,物理因果關係。

The same line of argument was adopted by the Associationist School down to Bain and JS Mill.按照同樣的論據是通過由associationist學校下降到貝恩和js軋機。 For the necessity of Hobbes or Spinoza is substituted by their descendants what Professor James calls a "soft determinism", affirming solely the invariable succession of volition upon motive.對於必要性霍布斯或斯賓諾莎是取代他們的後裔什麼教授詹姆斯稱之為"軟宿命論" ,申明完全不變的繼承意願後動機。 JS Mill merely developed with greater clearness and fuller detail the principles of Hume. js軋機只是發達國家有更大的清晰和更詳細的原則休謨。 In particular, he attacked the notion of "constraint" suggested in the words necessity and necessarianism, whereas only sequence is affirmed.尤其是,他攻擊的概念, "牽制"建議,在字的必要性和necessarianism ,而只有順序是肯定的。 Given a perfect knowledge of character and motives, we could infallibly predict action.鑑於一個完美的知識的性質和動機,我們可以infallibly預測的行動。 The alleged consciousness of freedom is disputed.據稱意識的自由是有爭議的。 We merely feel that we choose, not that we could choose the opposite.我們只是覺得我們的選擇,不是我們可以選擇相反。 Moreover the notion of free will is unintelligible.此外概念的自由意志是不知所云。 The truth is that for the Sensationalist School, who believe the mind to be merely a series of mental states, free will is an absurdity.事實的真相是,為追求轟動效應的學校,他們相信的態度僅僅是一系列的精神狀態的自由意志,是一種荒謬。 On the other side, Reid, and Stewart, and Hamilton, of the Scotch School, with Mansel, Martineau, WJ Ward, and other Spiritualist thinkers of Great Britain, energetically defended free will against the disciples of Hume.在另一邊,瑞德和斯圖爾特和漢密爾頓的蘇格蘭學校,與mansel , martineau , WJ通信公司的病房,和其他spiritualist思想家大不列顛,大力捍衛了自由意志,對弟子的休姆。 They maintained that a more careful analysis of volition justified the argument from consciousness, that the universal conviction of mankind on such a fact may not be set aside as an illusion, that morality cannot be founded on an act of self-deception; that all languages contain terms involving the notion of free will and all laws assume its existence, and that the attempt to render necessarianism less objectionable by calling it determinism does not diminish the fatalism involved in it.他們認為,一個更仔細的分析是自願有道理的論點,從意識,即世界的信念,人類對這樣一個事實未必預留作為一種幻想,認為道德不能建立在對行為的自我欺騙;所有語文含有條款涉及概念的自由意志與所有法律都假定其存在,並認為,試圖使necessarianism那麼反感,所謂宿命論並不降低宿命論捲入。 The truth that phenomenalism logically involves determinism is strikingly illustrated in Kant's treatment of the question.真理phenomenalism邏輯涉及宿命論是驚人地說明康德的問題的處理。 His well-known division of all reality into phenomena and noumena is his key to this problem also.他的著名的分工都結合實際現象和本體是他的關鍵,這個問題也。 The world as it appears to us, the world of phenomena, including our own actions and mental states, can only be conceived under the form of time and subject to the category of causality, and therefore everything in the world of experience happens altogether according to the laws of nature; that is, all our actions are rigidly determined.這個世界,因為它在我們看來,世界上的現象,包括我們自己的行動和精神狀態的,只能根據所構思的形式,時間和主題,以一類的因果關係,因此,一切都在世界上的經驗,先後發生根據自然規律的,那就是我們的一切行動都是硬性確定。 But, on the other hand, freedom is a necessary postulate of morality: "Thou canst, because thou oughtest."但是,另一方面,自由是一個必要的公設的道德: "你canst的,因為你oughtest " 。 The solution of the antinomy is that the determinism concerns only the empirical or phenomenal world.解決這一悖論的是,該決定只涉及實證或以驚人的世界。 There is no ground for denying liberty to the Ding an sich.有沒有理由否定自由向丁的Sich 。 We may believe in transcendental freedom, that we are noumenally free.我們可以相信,在先驗自由,我們是noumenally免費的。 Since, moreover, the belief that I am free and that I am a free cause, is the foundation stone of religion and morality, I must believe in this postulate.此後,而且,相信我的自由和我是一個自由的事業,是為了奠定基礎,宗教和道德,我必須相信,在這一假設。 Kant thus gets over the antinomy by confining freedom to the world of noumena, which lie outside the form of time and the category of causality, whilst he affirms necessity of the sensible world, bound by the chain of causality.康德因此獲得超過悖論局限於自由世界的本體,這就是外界的形式,時間及種類的因果關係,雖然他申明的必要性,有理智的世界,約束連鎖的因果關係。 Apart from the general objection to Kant's system, a grave difficulty here lies in the fact that all man's conduct--his whole moral life as it is revealed in actual experience either to others or himself--pertains in this view to the phenomenal world and so is rigidly determined.除了一般的反對康德的體制,一個嚴重的困難,關鍵在於一個事實,即所有的人的行為-他的整個道德生活,因為這是暴露在實際經驗或是他人或自己-是屬於這種觀點認為,以驚人的世界和這麼硬性確定。

Though much acute philosophical and psychological analysis has been brought to bear on the problem during the last century, it cannot be said that any great additional light has been shed over it.儘管有很多尖銳的哲學和心理學分析,已提請承受問題,在上個世紀,但並不能說,任何偉大的增加輕已擺脫它。 In Germany, Schopenhauer made will the noumenal basis of the world and adopted a pessimistic theory of the universe, denying free will to be justified by either ethics or psychology.在德國,叔本華將作出本體的基礎上的世界,並通過了悲觀論的宇宙,否認自由意志,要說明理由或道德或心理學。 On the other hand, Lotze, in many respects perhaps the acutest thinker in Germany since Kant, was an energetic defender of moral liberty.另一方面,關於lotze ,在許多方面也許acutest思想家,在德國自康德,是一個充滿活力的維護者道德自由。 Among recent psychologists in America Professors James and Ladd are both advocates of freedom, though laying more stress for positive proof on the ethical than on the psychological evidence.在最近的心理學家,在美國教授詹姆斯和雷德都是主張自由,但更注重為積極舉證責任倫理比對心理的證據。

THE ARGUMENT論據

As the main features of the doctrine of free will have been sketched in the history of the problem, a very brief account of the argument for moral freedom will now suffice.作為主要特徵的教義的自由意志已經勾畫出在過去的歷史問題,這是一個很簡單交代了論據道德自由,現在就夠了。 Will viewed as a free power is defined by defenders of free will as the capacity of self-determination.將看作是一個自由的權力,是指由捍衛我們的自由意志為自我發展的能力的決心。 By self is here understood not a single present mental state (James), nor a series of mental states (Hume and Mill), but an abiding rational being which is the subject and cause of these states.自此理解為不是一個單一的,目前精神狀態(詹姆斯) ,也沒有一系列的心理狀態(休姆和軋機) ,而是一種理性守法正在這是主題,並引起這些國家的。 We should distinguish between:我們應當區分:

spontaneous acts, those proceeding from an internal principle (eg the growth of plants and impulsive movements of animals);自發的行為,那些從內部原則(如植物的生長和浮躁變動的動物) ;

voluntary acts in a wide sense, those proceeding from an internal principle with apprehension of an end (eg all conscious desires);自願行為,在廣泛的意義上說,這些從內部原理與惶惑的結束(如所有的自覺願望) ;

and, finally those voluntary in the strict sense, that is, deliberate or free acts.以及最後那些自願在嚴格意義上講,這是蓄意或自由的行為。

In such, there is a self-conscious advertence to our own causality or an awareness that we are choosing the act, or acquiescing in the desire of it.在這樣的,是有自我意識的精密的,以我們自己的因果關係或認識到,我們正在選擇行為,或默許的慾望。 Spontaneous acts and desires are opposed to coaction or external compulsion, but they are not thereby morally free acts.自發的行為和慾望卻是反對coaction或外部的強制,但他們並不因此在道義上的自由的行為。 They may still be the necessary outcome of the nature of the agent as, eg the actions of lower animals, of the insane, of young children, and many impulsive acts of mature life.他們仍然可以得到所需的結果的性質以及代理商,例如行動較低的動物,對人精神失常,年幼兒童,許多衝動行為,成熟的生活。 The essential feature in free volition is the element of choice--the vis electiva, as St. Thomas calls it.本質特徵,在自由意志是要素的選擇-對於e lectiva,正如聖托馬斯呼籲。 There is a concomitant interrogative awareness in the form of the query "shall I acquiesce or shall I resist? Shall I do it or something else?", and the consequent acceptance or refusal, ratification or rejection, though either may be of varying degrees of completeness.有一個伴隨訊問意識形式的質疑, "我應該默許或我應該抵制呢?我應該怎麼辦呢,還是別的? " ,並作出相應的接受或拒絕,批准或否決,雖然二者可能會有不同程度的完整性。 It is this act of consent or approval, which converts a mere involuntary impulse or desire into a free volition and makes me accountable for it.正是這種行為,同意或批准,並轉換成只有非自願性衝動或慾望成一個自由意志,並讓我負責。 A train of thought or volition deliberately initiated or acquiesced in, but afterward continued merely spontaneously without reflective advertence to our elective adoption of it, remains free in causa, and I am therefore responsible for it, though actually the process has passed into the department of merely spontaneous or automatic activity.一列火車的思想或意志刻意發起或默許,但隨後繼續只是自發無反光精密的,以我們的選修課通過它,仍是自由中的原因,因此,我很負責,雖然實際的過程中通過成為部只是自發性或自動活動。 A large part of the operation of carrying out a resolution, once the decision is made, is commonly of this kind.大部份的運作進行了一項決議,一旦作出了這個決定,是這種嘗試。 The question of free will may now be stated thus.問題的自由意志,現在可以說明,因此。 "Given all the conditions requisite for eliciting an act of will except the act itself, does the act necessarily follow?" "考慮到所有必要的條件,為激發意志的行為,除行為本身,是否該法一定要跟進" ? Or, "Are all my volitions the inevitable outcome of my character and the motives acting on me at the time?"或者, "都是我的volitions的必然結果,我的性格和行事的動機就在我的時候" ? Fatalists, necessarians, determinists say "Yes". fatalists , necessarians , determinists說"是" 。 Libertarians, indeterminists or anti-determinists say "No. The mind or soul in deliberate actions is a free cause. Given all the conditions requisite for action, it can either act or abstain from action. It can, and sometimes does, exercise its own causality against the weight of character and present motives.自由論, indeterminists或反determinists說: "不是心靈或靈魂蓄意行動,是一個自由的事業。提供一切必要的條件,為行動,它可以作為或棄權行動,它可以,而且有時候,行使自己的因果關係對體重的性格和現在的動機。

Proof證明

The evidence usually adduced at the present day is of two kinds, ethical and psychological--though even the ethical argument is itself psychological.證據通常引證,在現今是兩種,道德和心理-雖然甚至倫理的說法,本身就是心理。

(1) Ethical Argument ( 1 )的倫理爭論

It is argued that necessarianism or determinism in any form is in conflict with the chief moral notions and convictions of mankind at large.人們認為, necessarianism或宿命論,任何形式的衝突與行政道德觀念和信念的人類在逃。 The actual universality of such moral ideas is indisputable.實際的普遍性,這種道德觀念是不容置疑的。 Duty, moral obligation, responsibility, merit, justice signify notions universally present in the consciousness of normally developed men.有責任,道德義務,責任,擇優的原則,正義的象徵觀念普遍,目前在意識的發展,通常男人。 Further, these notions, as universally understood, imply that man is really master of some of his acts, that he is, at least at times, capable of self-determination, that all his volitions are not the inevitable outcome of his circumstances.此外,這些概念,為普遍理解,意味著人是真正掌握他的一些行為,他是,至少在目前的時代,有能力的自決權,其所有volitions並不必然結果他的情況而定。 When I say that I ought not to have performed some forbidden act, that it was my duty to obey the law, I imply that I could have done so.當我說我不應該表現一些禁止行為,這是我的職責是要遵守法律,我說我本來可以這樣做。 The judgment of all men is the same on this point.判斷所有男人都是一樣的就這一點。 When we say that a person is justly held responsible for a crime, or that he deserves praise or reward for an heroic act of self-sacrifice, we mean that he was author and cause of that act in such fashion that he had it in his power not to perform the act.當我們說一個人是公正地舉行,負責犯罪的,或者說,他是值得表揚或獎勵,為英雄行為的犧牲自我,是指他是作家,造成這種行為的,在這樣的口吻表示,他曾在他的有權不履行的行為。 We exempt the insane or the child, because we believe them devoid of moral freedom and determined inevitably by the motives which happened to act on them.我們豁免瘋漢或子女,因為我們認為他們缺乏道德的自由和決心,必然是由動機正好就這些建議採取行動。 So true is this, that determinists have had to admit that the meaning of these terms will, according to their view, have to be changed.所以真正的情況是, determinists都不得不承認的意思這些條款,將按照他們的觀點,都將發生變化。 But this is to admit that their theory is in direct conflict with universal psychological facts.不過,這是不得不承認,他們的理論是在直接衝突的普遍心理事實。 It thereby stands disproved.因此,它主張反駁。 Again, it may be urged that, if logically followed out, the determinist doctrine would annihilate human morality, consequently that such a theory cannot be true.再次,它可能會敦促說,如果從邏輯上遵循的那樣,決定論學說,將消滅人類的道德,因此,這種理論是不正確的。 (See FATALISM.) (見宿命論) 。

(2) Psychological Argument ( 2 )心理論調

Consciousness testifies to our moral freedom.意識的,證明我們的道德自由。 We feel ourselves to be free when exercising certain acts.我們覺得自己獲得自由時,在行使某些行為。 We judge afterwards that we acted freely in those acts.我們的法官事後說,我們採取了行動自由的行為。 We distinguish them quite clearly from experiences, in which we believe we were not free or responsible.我們分辨他們很清楚,從經驗,在這方面,我們相信我們不是免費或承擔責任。 The conviction is not confined to the ignorant; even the determinist psychologist is governed in practical life by this belief.信念是不局限於無知;即使決定論心理學家,是在現實生活中,由這個信念。 Henry Sidgwick states the fact in the most moderate terms, when he says:亨利sidgwick國的事實,在最溫和的條件時,他說:

Certainly in the case of actions in which I have a distinct consciousness of choosing between alternatives of conduct, one of which I conceive as right or reasonable, I find it impossible not to think that I can now choose to do what I so conceive, however strong may be my inclination to act unreasonably, and however uniformly I may have yielded to such inclinations in the past (Methods of Ethics).當然,在案件的行動中,我有一個鮮明的意識之間作出選擇的替代品的行為,一,而我設想作為正確或合理的,我覺得這是不可能的,不要以為我現在可以選擇做我這麼設想,但強大的,可我傾向採取不合理的,但是均勻我可能屈服於這種傾向在過去(方法的倫理) 。

The force of the evidence is best realized by carefully studying the various mental activities in which freedom is exercised.該部隊的證據就是最好的,實現了仔細研究各種心理活動中,自由是行使。 Amongst the chief of these are: voluntary attention, deliberation, choice, sustained resistance to temptation.其中包括行政的,它們是:自願的注意,醞釀,選擇,持續抵抗的誘惑。 The reader will find them analyzed at length by the authors referred to at the end of this article; or, better still, he can think them out with concrete examples in his own inner experience.讀者會發現,他們分析了在長度由作者提到的在本世紀末條;或者,更好的辦法是,他能想出來,與具體的例子,在他自己的內心體驗。

Objections反對

The main objection to this argument is stated in the assertion that we can be conscious only of what we actually do, not of our ability to do something else.主要是反對這樣的說法,是在表明,我們可以意識到,只有我們所說的,其實這樣做,而不是我們是否有能力做的是傳球。 The reply is that we can be conscious not only of what we do, but of how we do it; not only of the act but of the mode of the act.答复是,我們可以有意識地不僅是我們做什麼,而是我們如何做,不僅該法,但該模式的這一法案。 Observation reveals to us that we are subjects of different kinds of processes of thought and volition.觀察發現,我們認為,我們是學科的不同種過程的思想和意志。 Sometimes the line of conscious activity follows the direction of spontaneous impulse, the preponderating force of present motive and desire; at other times we intervene and exert personal causality.有時路線的自覺活動如下方向的自發衝動, preponderating力量,目前的動機和願望,在其他時候,我們介入並施加個人的因果關係。 Consciousness testifies that we freely and actively strengthen one set of motives, resist the stronger inclination, and not only drift to one side but actively choose it.意識證明了我們自由,並積極加強一套動機,抵禦強大的傾向,而不是僅僅漂移向一邊傾斜,但積極之選。 In fact, we are sure that we sometimes exert free volition, because at other times we are the subject of conscious activities that are not free, and we know the difference.事實上,我們相信,我們有時發揮自由意志,因為在其他時候,我們的主題有意識的活動,是不自由,而且我們知道,不同之處。 Again, it is urged that experience shows that men are determined by motives, and that we always act on this assumption.再次,它是敦促經驗表明,男性是取決於動機,而且我們始終對這個假設。 The reply is that experience proves that men are influenced by motives, but not that they are always inexorably determined by the strongest motive.答复是,經驗證明,人是受動機,但不是說他們永遠是不可阻擋地取決於最強的動機。 It as alleged that we always decide in favour of the strongest motive.它指稱我們總是決定贊成最強的動機。 This is either untrue, or the barren statement that we always choose what we choose.這是無論是不真實的,或荒蕪的聲明說,我們總是選擇什麼,我們選擇的。 A free volition is "a causeless volition".自由意志是" causeless意志" 。 The mind itself is the cause.頭腦本身就是事業。 (For other objections see FATALISM; ENERGY, THE LAW OF THE CONSERVATION OF; and the works referred to at the end of this article.) (其他異議見宿命論;能源,法律的保護和工程結尾處提到的這篇文章) 。

NATURE AND RANGE OF MORAL LIBERTY性質和範圍的道德自由

Free will does not mean capability of willing in the absence of all motive, or of arbitrarily choosing anything whatever.自由意志不等於能力,願意在缺乏所有的動機,或擅自將選擇什麼什麼。 The rational being is always attracted by what is apprehended as good.理性的,是始終吸引什麼是理解為好。 Pure evil, misery as such, man could not desire.純粹的邪惡,痛苦,因為這樣的,人不能慾望。 However, the good presents itself in many forms and under many aspects--the pleasant, the prudent, the right, the noble, the beautiful--and in reflective or deliberate action we can choose among these.不過,好禮物本身的形式有多種,並在許多方面-愉快的,審慎的,正確的,高尚的,美麗的-以及在反射或蓄意行動,我們可以選擇其中。 The clear vision of God would necessarily preclude all volition at variance with this object, but in this world we never apprehend Infinite Good.明確的遠景上帝一定會排除一切意志的差異這個對象,但在這個世界上,我們從來沒有逮捕無限好。 Nor does the doctrine of free will imply that man is constantly exerting this power at every waking moment, any more than the statement that he is a "rational" animal implies that he is always reasoning.也不中庸自由意志意味著人是不斷施加這種權力,在每一個醒來的時刻,任何以上聲明中表示,他是一個"理性"的動物,意味著他永遠是以理服人。 Much the larger part of man's ordinary life is administered by the machinery of reflex action, the automatic working of the organism, and acquired habits.許多較大部分的人的普通生活,是由機械的反射行動,自動工作的有機體,和後天的生活習慣。 In the series of customary acts which fill up our day, such as rising, meals, study, work, etc., probably the large majority are merely "spontaneous" and are proximately determined by their antecedents, according to the combined force of character and motive.在一連串的習慣行為,填補了我們一天,如上升,膳食,學習,工作等,可能大部分都只是"自發" ,並在proximately取決於它們的前因,根據結合的力量和人格動機。 There is nothing to arouse special volition, or call for interference with the natural current, so the stream of consciousness flows smoothly along the channel of least resistance.有沒有引起特別的意志,或撥打為干擾的自然電流,所以流的意識暢順沿通道的阻力最小。 For such series of acts we are responsible, as was before indicated, not because we exert deliberate volition at each step, but because they are free in causa, because we have either freely initiated them, or approved them from time to time when we adverted to their ethical quality, or because we freely acquired the habits which now accomplish these acts.這樣的一系列行為,我們有責任,正如前表示,這不是因為我們故意施加意志的每一步,但因為他們是自由中的原因,因為我們已經啟動了自由,或經核准的,他們不時當我們adverted他們的道德品質,或者是因為我們獲得了自由的習性,目前完成這些行為。 It is especially when some act of a specially moral complexion is recognized as good or evil that the exertion of our freedom is brought into play.這是特別是當某些行為的一個特別道德臉色被公認是善或惡說,勞累,我們的自由,是把優勢發揮出來。 With reflective advertence to the moral quality comes the apprehension that we are called on to decide between right and wrong; then the consciousness that we are choosing freely, which carries with it the subsequent conviction that the act was in the strictest sense our own, and that we are responsible for it.反光精密的,以道德品質,隨之而來的顧慮,我們正在呼籲,以決定正確與錯誤;則意識,才使我們選擇自由,其中帶有隨後的信念,即該法是在嚴格的意義上我們自己的,並我們對此負責。

CONSEQUENCES後果

Our moral freedom, like other mental powers, is strengthened by exercise.我們的道德自由,像其他精神權力,是加強演練。 The practice of yielding to impulse results in enfeebling self-control.實踐屈服於一時衝動的結果,在enfeebling自我控制。 The faculty of inhibiting pressing desires, of concentrating attention on more remote goods, of reinforcing the higher but less urgent motives, undergoes a kind of atrophy by disuse.醫學院抑制迫切願望,集中注意於較偏遠的貨物,加固較高,但較不迫切的動機,有一個種萎縮不用。 In proportion as a man habitually yields to intemperance or some other vice, his freedom diminishes and he does in a true sense sink into slavery.在比例作為一個男人慣常屈服於intemperance或其他一些國家副主席,他的自由,削弱了,他是否在真正意義上陷入奴役。 He continues responsible in causa for his subsequent conduct, though his ability to resist temptation at the time is lessened.他繼續負責中的原因,為他後來的行為,雖然他有能力抵禦誘惑,在當時的減少。 On the other hand, the more frequently a man restrains mere impulse, checks inclination towards the pleasant, puts forth self-denial in the face of temptation, and steadily aims at a virtuous life, the more does he increase in self-command and therefore in freedom.在另一方面,更頻密的一名男子,制約僅僅是衝動,制衡傾向舒適,提出了自我否定,在面對各種誘惑的,穩妥的目的,是良性的生活中,更多的他是否增加自我指揮,因此,在新聞自由。 The whole doctrine of Christian asceticism thus makes for developing and fostering moral liberty, the noblest attribute of man.整個教義的基督教禁慾主義,從而使得為發展和促進道德自由,最崇高的屬性的人。 William James's sound maxim: "Keep the faculty of effort alive in you by a little gratuitous exercise every day", so that your will may be strong to stand the pressure of violent temptation when it comes, is the verdict of the most modern psychology in favour of the discipline of the Catholic Church.威廉詹姆斯的聲音格言: "保持系的努力活著,在你的一點無償行使每一天" ,讓你將可能會較為強勁站的壓力,暴力的誘惑,當它來了,是翻案的最現代心理學有利於學科的天主教教會。

Publication information Written by Michael Maher.出版信息該書由Michael馬希爾。 Transcribed by Rick McCarty.轉錄由里克麥卡蒂。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.天主教百科全書,第六卷。 Published 1909. 1909年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. nihil obstat , 1909年9月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

The literature of the free-will controversy is enormous, nearly all the leading philosophers having dealt with the problem.著文學的自由,將爭議的問題是巨大的,幾乎所有的領導哲學家談論過這個問題。 Perhaps the best general historical treatment of all the branches of the question--fatalism, predestination, necessarianism, determinism--is to be found in FONSEGRIVE, Essai sur le libre arbitre (2nd ed., Paris, 1896).也許最好的一般歷史地對待所有分支機構的問題-宿命,宿命, n ecessarianism,宿命論-是要找到fo nsegrive,e s saisu r樂頒發資料ar bitre(第二版,巴黎,1 8 96年) 。 See also ALEXANDER, Theories of the Will (New York, 1884); JANET AND SEAILLES, History of Problems of Philosophy (tr. New York and London, 1902).也見亞歷山大,理論的意志(紐約, 1884年) ; Janet和seailles ,歷史問題的哲學( tr.紐約和倫敦, 1902年) 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Predestination 宿命
Fatalism 宿命論

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