Religious Cults教派

General Information 一般資料

There is no definition of cult that is universally accepted by sociologists and psychologists of religion.是沒有定義的邪教,是公認的,由社會學家和心理學家的宗教。 The term cult is popularly applied to groups characterized by some kind of faddish devotion to a person or practice that is significantly apart from the cultural mainstream.任期邪教是普遍適用於群體的特點是一些種樊氏秀奉獻給一個人或做法,是顯著,除了主流文化。 For example, certain kinds of activities may take on cultlike ritualistic characteristics (recent widespread interest in intense physical exercise has been termed the physical fitness cult).例如,某些類型的活動,可採取對cultlike老一套的特點(最近廣泛關注,在激烈的體育鍛煉被稱為體能邪教) 。

Movie stars, entertainers, and other public figures sometimes generate passionate bands of followers that are called cults (the Elvis Presley cult, to cite one).電影明星,演藝人員,以及其他公眾人物,有時候會產生激情樂隊的追隨者說,是所謂的邪教(貓王邪教,舉一個) 。 Groups that form around a set of esoteric beliefs - not necessarily religious - may also be termed cults (for example, flying saucer cults).群體形成的一套深奧的信仰-不一定是宗教-也可被稱為邪教(例如,飛碟教派)。 When applied to religious groups, cult retains much of this popular usage but takes on more specific meaning, especially when contrasted with other kinds of religious organizations.當適用於宗教團體,邪教保留了大部分的流行用法,但將承擔更多的具體的含義,特別是當對比的,與其他類型的宗教組織。

Cults and Other Forms of Religious Organization邪教組織和其他形式的宗教組織

The most commonly used classification of religious organizations is as churches or sects.最常用的分類的宗教組織,是由於教會或教派。 Although there have been numerous modifications of the original distinction, the following points are generally retained.儘管有過多次修改了原來的區別,以下幾點是一般保留。

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Church refers to a religious organization claiming a monopoly on knowledge of the sacred, having a highly structured or formalized dogma and hierarchy, but also being flexible about membership requirements as the organization attempts to minister to the secular society of which it is a part.教會指的是一個宗教組織聲稱壟斷了知識的神聖的,具有高度結構化或形式化的教條和層次性,而且還具有靈活,關於會員資格的要求,作為該組織企圖部長向世俗社會的,它是一個組成部分。

Sects, on the other hand, are protests against church attempts to accommodate to secular society.宗派的,但另一方面,是抗議教會的企圖,以容納到世俗社會。 A sect views itself as a defender of doctrinal purity, protesting what it interprets as ecclesiastical laxity and excesses.一個教派的觀點本身作為一個後衛的理論純度,抗議它解讀為教會懈怠和過激行為。 As protectors of the true faith, sects tend to withdraw from the mainstream of worldly activities, to stress strict behavior codes, and to demand proof of commitment.作為保護者的真信仰,宗派往往要退出主流的世俗活動,要強調嚴格的行為守則,並要求在場的承諾。

Cults have some of the same characteristics as sects.邪教都有一些相同的特點,作為支派。 In fact, some scholars prefer not to make a distinction.事實上,有些學者傾向於不作區分。 There are, however, some noteworthy differences.然而,存在一些值得注意的分歧。 Cults do not, at least initially, view themselves as rebelling against established churches.邪教不,至少在初期,把自己看作是反抗建立了教堂。 Actually, the practices of cults are often considered to enrich the life of the parent church of which they may be a part.其實,習俗的邪教往往被認為是豐富的生命,父母教會的,他們可能是一個部分。 Cults do not ordinarily stress doctrinal issues or theological argument and refinement as much as they emphasize the individual's experience of a more personal and intense relationship with the divine.邪教不通常應力理論問題或神學爭論和細化之多,他們強調個人的經驗,更個性化和激烈與神聖。 Most of these groups are ephemeral, seldom lasting beyond a single generation; transient; and with fluctuating membership.大部分這些團體都是短暫的,很少持久超越單一的一代;暫態;與脈動成員。

Mysticism is frequently a strong element in cult groups.神秘成為一種常見的強大因素的邪教團體。 Religious orders such as the Franciscans began as cults built around the presence of a charismatic leader who emphasized a life style dedicated to attaining high levels of spirituality. Mormonism began as a cult, became a sect, and eventually evolved into a church. All the great world religions followed this same pattern of development as they accumulated members and formalized hierarchy and dogma.宗教命令,如方濟會開始邪教組織圍繞存在一個有魅力的領導者,也強調了生活方式致力於實現高水平的靈性。 mormonism開始定為邪教,成為一個教派,並最終演變成一所教堂,所有偉大世界宗教遵循這個相同的發展模式,因為他們積累的成員和形式化的層次和教條。

Contemporary Cults當代邪教

Cults are as old as recorded history, but contemporary interest in cults became amplified during the late 1960s and early 1970s as numbers of educated middle class youths abandoned traditional religions and embraced beliefs and practices that were either culturally unprecedented (Eastern religions) or seemed to be throwbacks to an earlier era (Fundamentalist Christianity).邪教一樣古老,有記載的歷史,但現代的興趣,成為邪教的擴增,在上世紀60年代末和70年代初,因為有多少受過教育的中產階級青年放棄傳統宗教和信奉信仰和習俗都是在文化上空前(東方宗教) ,或似乎是throwbacks較早前的一項時代(基督教原教旨主義) 。 During this period, young people were increasingly found living in various types of religious communes and engaging in unconventional behavior, such as speaking in tongues (glossolalia), faith healing, meditating (often under the tutelage of a spiritual leader or guru), and following leaders that conventional society tended to look upon with suspicion and distaste.在這個時期,年輕的人越來越多地發現生活在不同類型的宗教公社和從事非傳統的行為,例如說,在舌頭(說方言) ,信仰癒合,打坐(往往根據監護的精神領袖或大師) ,並以下領導人時表示,傳統的社會傾向的眼光來看待與猜疑和distaste 。 Interest in cults turned to a combination of fascination and revulsion upon the mass suicide of the Jones cult in November 1978.有興趣邪教轉向相結合的魅力和憎惡後集體自殺的邪教瓊斯在1978年11月。

Modern cults come in a bewildering variety of ideologies, practices, and forms of leadership.現代邪教來,在撲朔迷離的各種意識形態,做法和形式的領導。 They range from those adhering to a sort of biblical Christianity to those seeking satori (sudden enlightenment) via the pursuits of Zen Buddhism.這些措施包括那些堅持一種基督教聖經向那些尋求頓悟(突如其來的啟示)經追求禪宗。 Some cults have a flexible, functional leadership, such as many groups in the Charismatic Movement emanating from the mainline Christian religions, and others have mentors who control and orchestrate cult events, such as the Reverend Sun Myung Moon, leader of the Unification church.一些邪教有一個靈活的,功能性的領導,如許多團體在有魅力的運動源自主線基督宗教的,另一些人的導師,他們的控制和協調邪教活動的時候,比如牧師孫明博月亮,領導人對統一教會。 Some Hindu gurus, such as Bhagwan Shree Rajineesh of the Rajineeshee sect have been believed by their followers to be living embodiments of God.一些印度教大師,如bhagwan shree拉吉尼什的rajineeshee節一直相信,他們的追隨者將居住體現上帝。

The common denominator of all the modern cults is an emphasis on community and on direct experience of the divine.共同分母的各種現代化的邪教組織是一個把重點放在社區,以及直接的經驗神聖的。 In a cult, participants often find a level of social support and acceptance that rivals what may be found in a nuclear family.在一個邪教組織,參加者經常發現某種程度的社會支持與認同,即競爭對手是什麼,可發現在一個核心家庭。 Cult activity, which is often esoteric and defined as direct contact with the divine, generates a sense of belonging to something profound and of being a somebody.邪教活動,它往往是深奧,並界定為直接接觸與神聖,產生歸屬感,有深刻的是一個有人。 The modern cult may be viewed as a cultural island that gives adherents an identity and a sense of meaning in a world that has somehow failed to provide them these things.現代邪教,可以被看作是一種文化,島上給人遺民身分認同感和意義的世界,竟沒有向他們提供這些東西。

Several factors have been suggested as contributing to the quests of modern youths for meaning and identity via cults.有幾個因素有人建議,作為向quests現代青年的意義和身份途經邪教。 Each of these factors relates to a disenchantment with, or loss of meaning of, traditional ways of viewing reality.每個這些因素涉及到一個幻滅,或喪失意義的,傳統的方法檢視現實。 A list of these contributing elements would include the following: the turmoil of the 1960s, including the unpopular Vietnam War, the assassinations of several popular national leaders, and growing evidence of top level political incompetence and corruption; continued widespread drug use among youths, which tends to disrupt family relations and fosters the formation of drug subcultures stressing esoteric experience; the rapid expansion of technological innovations such as computers, and social organizations, such as bureaucracies, that tend to erode the individual's sense of being in control of his or her own destiny; the apparent failure of traditional religions to solve problems of war, hunger, and alienation; the growth of humanistic education that tends to discredit traditional ways of believing and behaving; the threat of ecological and nuclear disaster; and finally, affluence, which provides the means to pursue alternative life styles.列出這些貢獻內容將包括以下幾個方面:動亂的20世紀60年代,其中包括不得人心的越南戰爭,暗殺幾個最受歡迎的國家領導人,以及越來越多的證據表明高層政治上的無能和腐敗;仍然存在著廣泛的使用毒品的青少年,其中往往會擾亂家庭關係和促進形成毒品亞文化講深奧的經驗;急速擴張的技術革新,如計算機,和各社會團體,如官僚機構,往往削弱了個人的責任感,在被控制的他或她自己命運;表觀失敗的傳統宗教來解決問題,戰爭,飢餓和隔閡;生長的人文教育趨於抹黑傳統方式相信和表現方式;威脅生態和核災難;最後,富裕,其中規定該不擇手段追求另類生活方式。

Cults are challenges to conventional society.邪教是挑戰傳統的社會。 As such, they engender intense questions concerning their possible impact.這樣,它們產生尖銳的問題,其可能造成的影響。 The modern cults have clearly raised anew the legal issue of how far a society is willing to go to guarantee religious freedom.現代邪教已經明確提出了新的法律問題有多遠一個社會願意去,以保證宗教自由。 Some of the cults have been accused of brainwashing members and thereby violating the 1st Amendment to the Constitution.一些邪教已被指責為洗腦的成員,從而違反了第1次憲法修正案。 Court cases involving young people who were forcefully removed from cults by parents are still being decided.法院案件涉及青少年的人強行帶走邪教父母現仍決定。 Future court decisions could significantly modify traditional protection of religious diversity in the United States.未來法院的判決可以大大改變傳統保護宗教的多樣性,在美國發行。 Some cults, Hare Krishna being one, have established a legal defense and public education organization to fight for their rights to exist and practice what they believe.一些邪教組織的時候,克利須那之一,已成立了一個法律辯護和公共教育組織,為他們爭取權利的存在與實踐,他們相信。

Other impacts are less clear.其他影響是不太清楚。 This wave of cults could crumble into the dust of history as so many others have.這一波的邪教可能崩潰成為灰塵的歷史,使許多其他人。 Conversely, this age could also be one of those historical junctures that produces an enduring change in theories of human nature and in the structure of social organizations.反過來說,這個年齡也可以一個人的歷史關頭,生產具有持久的變化,人性論,並在體制上的社會組織。 If so, the new cults provide some idea of the nature of that change.如果是的話,新的邪教組織提供了一些思路的性質,即改變。 Almost all of them represent an emotional and personal approach to religious experience; they emphasize continued adaptation in a changing world; they stress the attainment of individual power and excellence via the pursuit of cult practices; and they often stress the necessity of harmony between humankind and other aspects of nature.幾乎所有的人都代表著一種情緒化和個性化的方法,以宗教經驗,他們強調,不斷適應在不斷變化的世界中,他們強調實現個人權力和卓越途經追求邪教組織的做法;他們往往要強調有必要之間的和諧和人類其他方面的性質。 As such, contemporary cults reinforce many traditional American values, such as independence, achievement, self mastery, and conservation or ecology, that have lost ground in the face of affluence and self seeking.因此,當代邪教強化許多傳統的美國價值觀念,如獨立性,成就,自我掌握,並保護生態,失去了,在面對富裕和自我追求。 Just as the Protestant Ethic supported early capitalism, the general ethic of the cults may be the stabilizing element in future society.正如新教倫理支持早期資本主義的,一般倫理的邪教可能是穩定因素,在未來的社會。 If so, cult members may well be the leaders of that new age.如果是的話,邪教組織成員,很可能成為領導人的這個新時代的尖端。 Clearly, however, an historical verdict must be awaited.但是很顯然,是一個歷史性的裁決必須等待。

Richard J Bord理查德j bord

Bibliography 參考書目
W Appel, Cults in America (1983); JA Beckford, Cult Controversies (1985); JE Biersdorf, Hunger for Experience (1975); H Bridges, American Mysticism (1970); C Edwards, Crazy for God: The Nightmare of Cult Life (1979); J Ellul, The New Demons (1975); RS Ellwood and H Partin, Religious and Spiritual Groups in Modern America (1988); F Fitzgerald, Cities on a Hill (1986); H Gardner, The Children of Prosperity (1978); CY Glock and RN Bellah, eds., The New Religious Consciousness (1976); I Hexham and K Poewe, Understanding Cults and New Religions (1986); JG Melton, The Encyclopedic Handbook of Cults in America (1986); J Needleman, The New Religions (1970); R Quebedeaux, The New Charismatics (1976); T Robbins, ed., Cults, Culture and the Law (1985).瓦特阿佩爾,邪教在美國( 1983年) ; JA部貝克福德,邪教爭議( 1985年) ;是biersdorf ,飢餓的經驗( 1975年) ; h橋樑,美洲神秘主義( 1970條) , c愛德華茲瘋狂上帝:惡夢的邪教生活( 1979年) ; j埃呂爾,新的惡魔( 1975年) ;盧比ellwood和H partin ,宗教和精神團體在現代美國( 1988年) ,女菲茨杰拉德,市的一個小山上, ( 1986年) ; h加德納,孩子的繁榮( 1978年) ;外幣格洛克和氡bellah合編,新的宗教意識( 1976 ) ,我將赫克瑟姆和K poewe ,了解邪教與新興宗教( 1986年) ; jg道格拉斯-邁,百科全書手冊的邪教在美國( 1 986年) ; j needleman ,新的宗教( 1970 )與r quebedeaux ,新charismatics ( 1976年)和t羅賓斯版,邪教,文化和法律的規定( 1985 ) 。


Cults邪教

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Defining a cult is far more difficult than is often appreciated.界定邪教,是迄今為止較為困難多很多讚賞。 Many evangelical Christians support the activities of Jews for Jesus and see them as a legitimate missionary group.很多福音派基督徒的支持活動的猶太人為耶穌,並看到他們作為一個合法的傳教團體。 But members of the Jewish community regard them as an evil and deceptive cult, a fact that well illustrates the problems surrounding the word.但是,大家的猶太社區把它們當作一種邪惡與欺騙的邪教組織,這樣的事實,以及遭遇種種困難周邊字。 In its modern form the word "cult" was originally used by Ernst Troeltsch in his classic work, The Social Teaching of the Christian Churches (1912), where he classifies religious groups in terms of church, sect, and cult.在其現代形式改為"邪教組織"原本是由恩斯特特勒爾奇在他的經典工作,社會教學中的基督教教堂( 1912 ) ,在那裡他歸類宗教群體而言,教會,教派和邪教。

For Troeltsch the cult represents a mystical or spiritual form of religion that appeals to intellectuals and the educated classes.為特勒爾奇邪教代表著一種神秘的或精神形式的宗教,呼籲知識分子和受過教育的階層。 At the heart of the cult is a spirituality which seeks to enliven a dead orthodoxy.處於核心地位的邪教是一種靈性,旨在盤活死的正統。 Thus for Troeltsch the early Luther, many Puritans, and pietism can be seen as examples of cultic religion.因此,為特勒爾奇早期路德,許多清教徒和pietism可以被看作是例子邪教宗教。 Although Troeltsch's ideas about the distinction between church and sect generated a vigorous debate, little attention has been paid to his views on the cult.雖然特勒爾奇的思路之間的區別,教會和教派產生了激烈的辯論,很少注意已經支付給了他的看法邪教。 However, several liberal writers influenced by Troeltsch have seen evangelical Christianity in terms of a cult.但是,有幾位自由作家的影響,特勒爾奇看到福音派基督教而言,一個邪教。

More important for the modern usage of the word "cult" has been the development of evangelical polemics against groups which they have seen as heretical.更重要的,為現代用法的詞"邪教"一直是發展的福音論戰針對群體,而他們被視為異端邪說。 The classic work on this subject, which probably gave the word its modern usage, is Jan van Baalen's The Chaos of Cults (1938).經典工作,就這個問題,這很可能給有傳言稱,其現代用法,是揚範baalen的混亂的邪教( 1938 ) 。 In this work van Baalen expounds the beliefs of various religious groups such as theosophy, Christian Science, Mormonism, and Jehovah's Witnesses and subjects them to a rigorous theological critique from an evangelical perspective.在這項工作中範baalen闡述信仰不同宗教的團體,如theosophy ,基督教科學, mormonism ,和耶和華見證人和課題,他們是一個嚴峻的神學的批判,從一個福音視野。 In the last twenty years a large number of evangelical books dealing with cults have appeared.在過去二十年了一大批福音書籍處理邪教問題已經出現。 Over the course of time these have increasingly concentrated on the allegedly fraudulent claims of the cults, the immoralities of their leaders, and the ways in which their followers are deceived.以上課程的時間,這些都越來越多地集中在涉嫌騙取該邪教的問題上, immoralities他們的領導人,以及如何使他們的追隨者是欺騙了。 As a result, in many cases a transition has occurred from a theological argument refuting the claims of various religious groups to a reliance upon psychological arguments which suggest that members of these groups are in some way brainwashed.因此,在許多情況下,轉型已經發生,從神學的論點進行反駁索賠不同宗教的團體到一個依賴心理的論點,顯示這些群體的成員都以某種方式強迫洗腦。

This development poses a great danger for evangelical Christianity as can be seen from William Sargent's The Battle for the Mind (1957).這方面的發展帶來了很大的危險,福音派基督教中可以看出,從威廉薩的戰鬥精神( 1957 ) 。 In this book Sargent takes evangelical conversion as a classic example of brainwashing.在這本書裡薩需福音轉化為一個典型的例子洗腦。 More recently this argument has been developed by Jim Siegelman and Flo Conway in their popular book Snapping (1979), where the experience of born again Christians is compared to the process by which people join groups like the Moonies.最近這種說法已經研製成功由Jim siegelman與FLO康威在其受歡迎的圖書搶購( 1979 ) ,在那裡的經驗再次降生基督徒是比較過程中,其中的人加入團體如moonies 。 Such books as these and stories in the media about brainwashing have led to considerable pressure on governments in various American states, Canada, Britain, and Germany for anticonversion laws.這類書籍,因為這些故事,在媒體關於洗腦導致了相當大的壓力,各地政府,美洲國家組織,加拿大,英國,德國,為anticonversion法律。 These laws are supposedly aimed at groups like the Moonies.這些法律都是針對團體如moonies 。 But because of their lack of definition (cf. the Lasher Amendment, State of New York in Assembly, March 25, 1980) they are in practice aimed at any form of change of life style brought about by a religious conversion.但由於他們缺乏定義(參看lasher修正案,紐約州在大會, 1980年3月25日) ,他們是在實踐中針對任何形式的改變的生活方式所帶來的是一個宗教轉換。

Today the real problem of cults is the propaganda value of the word "cult" in a secular society.今天真正的問題,邪教的宣傳價值,用"邪教"在一個世俗社會。 Although there are reliable statistics to show that the total membership of groups like the Children of God, the Unification Church (Moonies), and Hare Krishna is less than 35,000 in the United States and even fewer in other Western countries, these groups are presented as a major threat to society.雖然有可靠的統計數據顯示,佔成員總數的團體,例如兒童的神,統一教會( moonies ) ,克利須那是少於35000個,在美國,甚至更少,在其他西方國家,這些團體是作為一個重大威脅的社會。 As a result secularists are able to urge the acceptance of laws which replace religious freedom by a grudgingly granted religious toleration.由於世俗能夠敦促接受法律取代宗教的自由,由不情願地給予宗教,嚴懲不貸。 Rather than persisting with the use of a word which has now become a propaganda weapon, the academic practice of calling such groups "new religious movements" should be followed.而不是堅持使用一個詞如今已成為宣傳的武器,學術界的實踐呼喚這種團體"新宗教運動" ,應遵循的。 An alternative to this neutral terminology available for Christians who oppose such groups on theological grounds would be to revive the usage of "heretic" or simply call such groups "spiritual counterfeits."替代這個中性術語供基督徒反對這類群體對神學的理由,將振興使用的"邪教"或簡單的是調用這些群體的"心靈冒牌貨" 。 Such a procedure would move the debate away from psychological theories that can be used by secularists against Christianity to the arena of theological discussion and religious argument.這樣一種程序動議辯論,改為從心理學理論認為,可以用世俗反對基督教到舞台上的討論神學和宗教的說法。

I Hexham i將赫克瑟姆
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
M Hill, Sociology of Religion; WR Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults; HW Richardson, ed., New Religions and Mental Health; CY Glock and RN Bellah, eds., The New Religious Consciousness; II Zaretzky and MP Leone, eds., Religious Movements in Contemporary America; T Robbins and D Anthony, eds., In Gods We Trust; RS Ellwood, Religious and Spiritual Groups in Modern America; J Needleman and G Baker, eds., Understanding the New Religions.米山,社會學的宗教;水利馬丁,英國的邪教;華文理查森版,新的宗教和心理健康;外幣格洛克和氡bellah合編,新的宗教意識;第二zaretzky和MP籌措合編。 ,宗教運動,在當代美國和t羅賓斯和D安東尼合編,在神我們的信任;盧比ellwood ,宗教和精神團體在現代美國; j needleman和G貝克合編,了解新的宗教。


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