Crucifixion在十字架上

General Information 一般資料

Crucifixion was a method of execution used by the Romans to punish slaves and foreigners.在十字架上是一個執行方法使用的羅馬,以懲罰奴隸和外國人。 Hung from a crossbar astride an upright peg, the naked victim was allowed to hang as a public spectacle until dead. No vital organs were damaged, and death was slow agony.洪從橫梁分腿直立掛,赤裸受害人被允許坑作為一個公共眼鏡,直至死亡。 並無重要器官被損壞,但與死亡是緩慢的痛苦。 Prior to crucifixion, the victim was scourged and made to carry the crossbar to the execution site. 之前在十字架上時,受害人scourged ,並提出進行了橫梁到執行現場。 The crucifixion of Jesus Christ followed this order of events (Mark 15:15; John 19:17). 十字架上的耶穌遵循這條命令的事件 (馬克15:15 ;約翰19時17分) 。

Though closely associated with Rome, crucifixion originated with the Phoenicians and Persians.雖然密切相關,與羅馬,在十字架上源於腓尼基人和波斯人。 It was practiced from the 6th century BC until the 4th century AD.這是實行從6世紀到公元前4世紀的廣告。 The Roman emperor Constantine I banned crucifixion in 337.羅馬皇帝君士坦丁i禁止在十字架上337 。

Because Jesus was crucified, the Cross has assumed theological significance for Christians. 因為耶穌被釘在十字架上,兩岸擺出神學意義,為基督徒。 It symbolizes reconciliation with God through faith in Christ (1 Cor. 1:18 - 25), whose life, death, and Resurrection are proof of God's forgiveness of human sin. 它象徵著和解與上帝信仰基督( 1肺心病。 1:18 -2 5) ,他們的生命,死亡,與復活證明了上帝的寬恕人的罪過。

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Crucifixion在十字架上

(Editor's Comments) (編者的評論)

There appear to be a number of misconceptions regarding the Crucifixion of Jesus.看來有一些人的誤解就在十字架上的耶穌。 Jesus was NOT the first nor the only person to be crucified.耶穌不是第一次,也不是唯一的那個人被釘在十字架上。 The Romans had used that method of execution for at least 70 years before Jesus was Crucified.羅馬人曾使用這種方法的執行,至少在70年前,耶穌被釘在十字架上。 In around 40 BC, in Rome, a historian recorded that 2,000 people were crucified in a single day, for the entertainment of Quintilius Varus!大約在公元前40 ,在羅馬,一位歷史學家記錄表明, 2000人被釘在十字架上,在一個單一的一天,為娛樂的quintilius內翻! About 40 years after Jesus' Crucifixion, the Romans crucified around 500 per day in 70 AD.大約40年後,耶穌的十字架上,羅馬人釘在十字架上大約500人每天在70個專案。

Even by Jesus' time, it is clear that they had developed "efficient" methods.連耶穌的時候,很清楚的說,他們研製的"高效率"的方式。 For example, on that day of the 2,000 crucifixions, it seems unlikely that the workers would have had the time to dig 2,000 holes and built 2,000 crosses, just for practical reasons.舉例來說,那一天的2000年crucifixions ,這似乎不大可能,工人將有時間,挖孔, 2000年和2000年建成十字架,只為現實的原因。 The following articles indicate that it was extremely common for the upright pole to be left in place, at the standard location for the crucifixions, and that Jesus (and the others) almost certainly carried just the horizontal cross-bar, still a heavy burden.下列條款表明,它是非常普遍的正氣極以留在地方,在標準位置為crucifixions ,耶穌(以及其他人) ,幾乎可以肯定剛剛進行橫向交叉酒吧,仍是一個沉重的負擔。 Once there, the execution crew would have lifted Jesus and the cross-bar up onto the already vertical pole.一旦到了那裡,執行人員將已解除耶穌和跨酒吧上已經垂直的木棍。

Most modern depictions of the Crucifixion show Jesus being quite high up, but that almost certainly was not the case.最現代的描寫曠野裡顯示耶穌被相當高了,但幾乎可以肯定是情況並非如此。 Victims of crucifixion generally had their feet just a foot or two above the ground.受害者在十字架上普遍對他們的腳剛一英尺或兩個以上的地上。 Also, part of the "punishment" of crucifixion (and a visible example of that punishment for the community as a whole) was that it was generally an extended process.另外,部分的"懲罰"釘死在十字架上(和有形的例子,認為處罰,為社會作為一個整體) ,即它是一個普遍延長的過程。 One of the articles below even mention that some crosses had a small "seat" area to partially support the weight of the body, with the intent of extending the suffering further.其中下面的文章,甚至提一些跨越了一個小"座位"地區部分地支撐體重的身體,與原意延長痛苦。

These matters are confirmed by a variety of Jewish laws of the time.這些事情都證實了各種各樣的猶太法律的規定時間。 Several dealt with the "official" ways of determining the moment of death such that the body could be taken down.幾個處理的"正式"的方式確定,目前死亡的,例如該機構可予拆除。 Yev. yev 。 120b mentions that one of those methods of confirmation was when stray animals began to feed on the flesh of the feet and legs, which could be reached because of the legs being close to the ground. 120b提到,其中一人的方法確認時,流浪動物開始飼料對肉的腳和腿,它可以達成,因為腿貼近地面。 Oho. oho 。 3:5 mentions ways of determining when the blood had become impure. 3時05分提到如何確定時,血液已變得不純。 Many other laws associated with crucifixion existed in Jewish law of the time.其他許多法律與存在釘死在十字架上,在猶太法律的時候。 Tosef, Git 7:1, Git 70b, describe how a person could get a divorce from a person being crucified. tosef , git 7:1 , git 70 B條,描述了如何一個人能得到的是脫離一個人被釘在十字架上。 Interestingly, Yev.有趣的是, yev 。 16:3, 15c, apparently allowed the possibility that a rich matron could "redeem" a person being crucified to become her husband! 16時03分, 15 C ,顯然是不允許的可能性豐富的護士長可以"贖回"一個人被釘在十字架上,成為她的丈夫!

Also, a modern misconception is that the spikes were driven through the hands.同時,一個現代化的誤解,是因為尖峰被逐出通過手中。 The Romans had discovered much earlier that the skin would just tear away and the person would fall from the cross.羅馬人發現了更早,即皮膚會剛撕離和網站負責人將屬於從十字架上。 The spikes were certainly driven through the wrist area, between some bones there.花穗當然驅動,通過手腕地區,在一些骨頭。

Finally, as a confirmation of the reality of the Crucifixion of Jesus, Jewish records record the event.最後,證實了這一現實的十字架上的耶穌,猶太人記錄記錄這次活動。 In the Talmud, Sanh.在猶太法典, sanh 。 7:4 refers to Him being subjected to halakhah , being "hanged alive". 7時04分是指他受到哈拉哈 ,被"絞死"的內涵。 This, along with stoning, was the legal punishment for "leading others astray or practicing sorcery".正因如此,再加上用石頭砸死,是法律的懲罰"的要求,領導別人誤入歧途或練魔法" 。 Sanh. sanh 。 6:4 also refers to the event.六四,也指這項活動。


Crucifixion在十字架上

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Crucifixion was a common mode of punishment among heathen nations in early times.在十字架上是一個共同的模式處罰當中異教徒國家在早期時代。 It is not certain whether it was known among the ancient Jews; probably it was not.這是不能確定是否有人知道古代猶太人大概事實並不是這樣。 The modes of capital punishment according to the Mosaic law were, by the sword (Ex. 21), strangling, fire (Lev. 20), and stoning (Deut. 21).以何種方式執行死刑據鑲嵌法,由劍(如: 21 ) ,絞殺,消防( lev. 20 ) ,並用石頭砸死(申命記21 ) 。 This was regarded as the most horrible form of death, and to a Jew it would acquire greater horror from the curse in Deut.這被視為是最可怕形式的死刑,並以一個猶太人,將獲取更大的恐懼詛咒在deut 。 21:23. 21時23分。 This punishment began by subjecting the sufferer to scourging.這種處罰開始受到患者以scourging 。 In the case of our Lord, however, his scourging was rather before the sentence was passed upon him, and was inflicted by Pilate for the purpose, probably, of exciting pity and procuring his escape from further punishment (Luke 23:22; John 19:1).在案件我們的主,但是,他scourging相當前一句是通過他,並受到比拉多為目的,也許令人振奮的惋惜和採購逃生時,從進一步處罰(盧克23時22分;約翰19 : 1 ) 。

The condemned one carried his own cross to the place of execution, which was outside the city, in some conspicuous place set apart for the purpose.該譴責一人拎著他自己的十字架上的地方執行,這是市外,在一些比較突出的地方,除設置為目的。 Before the nailing to the cross took place, a medicated cup of vinegar mixed with gall and myrrh (the sopor) was given, for the purpose of deadening the pangs of the sufferer.前釘在十字架上發生了,一個藥杯醋混合膽石和沒藥( sopor )獲得,為了隔阻不堪的患者。 Our Lord refused this cup, that his senses might be clear (Matt. 27:34).我們的主拒絕這一杯,他的理智可能清楚。 ( 27:34 ) 。 The spongeful of vinegar, sour wine, posca, the common drink of the Roman soldiers, which was put on a hyssop stalk and offered to our Lord in contemptuous pity (Matt. 27:48; Luke 23:36), he tasted to allay the agonies of his thirst (John 19:29).該spongeful食醋,酸,酒,波斯卡,共同飲酒的羅馬士兵,其中被放到了一個hyssop秸稈,並提供給我們的主在藐視可惜。 ( 27:48 ;盧克23時36分) ,他飽嚐了平息痛苦的,他乾渴(約翰19時29分) 。 The accounts given of the crucifixion of our Lord are in entire agreement with the customs and practices of the Roman in such cases.該賬戶給予的曠野裡的我們的主是在全部協議與習俗和慣例,羅馬在這種情況下。 He was crucified between two "malefactors" (Isa. 53:12; Luke 23:32), and was watched by a party of four soldiers (John 19:23; Matt. 27:36, 54), with their centurion.他被釘在十字架上兩個" malefactors " (以賽亞書53:12 ;盧克23時32分) ,並觀看了由黨的4名士兵(約翰19時23分;馬特。 27:36 , 54歲) ,其百人。

The "breaking of the legs" of the malefactors was intended to hasten death, and put them out of misery (John 19:31); but the unusual rapidity of our Lord's death (19:33) was due to his previous sufferings and his great mental anguish. "給打破了腿"的malefactors用意是加快死刑,並把他們走出苦難(約翰19時31分) ,不過,這個不尋常的速度快於我們的主之死( 19時33分) ,是因為他過去的苦難和他的偉大的精神痛苦。 The omission of the breaking of his legs was the fulfilment of a type (Ex. 12:46).遺漏打破了他的雙腿是實現A型(例如: 12時46分) 。 He literally died of a broken heart, a ruptured heart, and hence the flowing of blood and water from the wound made by the soldier's spear (John 19:34).他從字面上死於破碎的心,一個破裂的心,並因此流的血和水從傷口是由士兵的矛(約翰19時34分) 。 Our Lord uttered seven memorable words from the cross, namely, (1) Luke 23:34; (2) 23:43; (3) John 19:26; (4) Matt.我們的主說出了七個難忘的話從十字架上,即( 1 )路加福音23時34分, ( 2 ) 23時43分( 3 )約翰19時26分, ( 4 )馬特。 27:46, Mark 15:34; (5) John 19:28; (6) 19:30; (7) Luke 23:46. 27:46 ,馬克15:34 ( 5 )約翰19時28分( 6 ) 19:30 ( 7 )路加福音23:46 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Cross, Crucifixion十字架,在十字架上

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Greek word for "cross," stauros, literally refers to an upright, pointed stake or pale.在希臘語意為"交叉" , stauros ,從字面上是指一個正直的,是指股份或面色蒼白。 The word xylon is usually "wood" or "tree."字xylon通常是"木"或"樹" 。 In the NT and in some other literature of the time both frequently refer to a particularly cruel and degrading form of capital punishment known as crucifixion.在新台幣,並在其他一些文學的時候都經常提到一個特別殘忍及有辱人格的方式執行死刑稱為釘死在十字架上。 In both canonical and later Christian literature "cross" and "crucifixion" take on a particularly important significance because of their connection with the death of Jesus and his expectations of his disciples.在這兩個典型,以及後來的基督教文學的"跨" , "十字架上" ,就一定能出現一個有著特別重要的意義,因為他們涉嫌與死亡的耶穌和他的期望,他的弟子。 Any understanding of crucifixion in the ancient world must include the facts related to the act itself, its effect upon the victim, and the sociocultural implications attached to it.任何了解的是受難日,在古代世界,必須包括有關的事實行為本身,其效果後,受害人和社會文化的影響,重視它。

Method of Crucifixion方法是受難日

Crucifixion involved elevating the condemned upon a pole, some form of frame or scaffolding, or a natural tree, thus exposing him to public view and derision.在十字架上所涉及的提升譴責後,一極,某種形式的框架或棚架,或天然樹,從而暴露了他對公眾的意見,並揶揄。 In many cases the individual was put to death through some other means and all or a part of the body (usually the head) then elevated.在許多情況下,個別被置於死亡的,通過一些其他手段,並全部或身體的一部分(通常是頭) ,然後升高。 In other circumstances it became the actual means of execution.在其他情況下,它已成為實際的方式執行死刑。 Because of both the effect of crucifixion upon the body and the lengthy period which usually elapsed before death, it represented the most painful, cruel, and barbaric form of execution.由於雙方的影響,在十字架上後,身體的影響和漫長的期限,通常已過了死亡前,它代表了最痛苦的,殘忍,野蠻的方式處決。 Its roots are lost in history.其根源是喪失了歷史。 In one form or another it is known to have been practiced by many groups (such as the Indians, Scythians, Celts, Germani, Britanni, and Taurians) but is most closely associated with the Persians, Carthaginians, Phoenicians, Greeks, and especially the Romans.在一種或另一種形式,這是眾所周知的已經實行的許多團體(如印度人, scythians ,凱爾特人, germani , britanni , taurians ) ,但最密切的聯繫,與波斯人,迦太基,腓尼基人,希臘人,特別是入鄉隨俗。 Some evidence suggests that it may have been associated with religious human sacrifice as well as a means of punishment.一些證據表明,它可能已被相關宗教人的犧牲以及作為懲罰手段。

Earlier forms probably involved impaling the condemned on a single pole or suspending him by wedging the head between a "Y" at one end of the implement.較早前形式可能涉及impaling了譴責,對單極或暫停他的楔入頭部之間的一個" Y "型在一端的實施。 By NT times there seem to have been several different forms of "crosses" commonly used by the Romans.由新台幣時代似乎已經有若干不同形式的"十字架" ,普遍採用了羅馬。 In addition to the single pole (crux simplex), most involved the use of at least two separate pieces of wood to construct a frame.此外,以單桿(癥結單純形) ,其中大多數涉及使用至少有兩個獨立的塊材,以構建一個框架。 However, crucifixion gave executioners opportunity to use their most cruel and sadistic creativity; victims were occasionally hung in grotesque positions by a variety of means.然而,在十字架上了劊子手機會,利用自己最殘忍的虐待狂和創造力;受害者是偶爾掛在怪誕的立場受到各種法律途徑解決問題。 The two cross forms most likely used for the execution of Jesus are the St. Anthony's cross (crux commissa), shaped like a "T," or the Latin cross (crux immissa), on which the vertical piece rises above both the horizontal cross-bar (patibulum) and the head of the victim; the statement in Matt.兩條過形式最有可能用於執行耶穌是聖安多尼的交叉(癥結commissa ) ,形狀像一個的" T " ,或者拉丁語交叉(癥結immissa ) ,而垂直件上升到高於無論是橫向交叉-酒吧( patibulum )和抬頭的受害者;陳述馬特。 27:37 (cf. Luke 23:38) that the inscription was placed "over his head" and most ancient tradition favor the latter. 27:37 (參見盧克23時38分)說,該碑文被置於"他的頭" ,最古老的傳統,有利於後者。

Detailed descriptions of crucifixion are few; writers seem to have avoided the subject.詳細說明釘死在十字架上,是少數;作家似乎都避開這一話題。 Recent archaeological discoveries, including skeletal remains of a crucifixion in first century Palestine (at Giv'at ha-Mivtar in Jerusalem), have added considerably to knowledge of the act. It seems that the Gospel accounts of the death of Jesus describe a standard Roman procedure for crucifixion.最近的考古發現,包括遺骸一個十字架上,在第一世紀的巴勒斯坦( giv'at夏mivtar在耶路撒冷) ,更增添了相當知識的行為,這似乎與福音的帳目死亡耶穌描述一個標準的羅馬程序釘死在十字架上。 After the pronouncement of sentence, the condemned was required to carry the horizontal piece to the place of execution, always outside the city. The leader of the four-man execution squad led the procession bearing a sign detailing the reason for the execution. 後宣判刑期,譴責是必須進行橫向一塊給地方執行時,總是在城外。領導人4名男子執行小分隊,帶領遊行隊伍軸承的標誌,詳細說明原因,對於執行。 There the victim was flogged (this seems to have preceded condemnation in the case of Jesus, possibly to elicit sympathy). The victim's outstretched arms were affixed to the cross-bar by either nails or ropes.有受害人被鞭打(這似乎已經先譴責在案件耶穌,可能是為了激發同情) 。 受害人的outstretched手臂貼在兩岸酒吧,無論釘子或繩索。 This was then raised and secured to the perpendicular pole (which in some areas may have been left in place permanently, both for convenience and as a warning). A small board or peg may have been provided as sort of a seat to bear some of the weight of the condemned (this actually may have prolonged suffering by prohibiting suffocation). 這是當時提出的擔保,以垂直極點這在某些地區可能已被遺留在永久地方,無論是為方便起見,並作為警示) ,一個小板或掛,可能已提供作為排序的一個席位,以負部分重量的譴責(這實際上可能延長痛苦,禁止窒息) 。 The feet were then secured in a manner forcing the knees into a bent position. Contrary to popular contemporary opinion, crosses were not high; the feet were probably only a few inches above the ground. The sign describing the accusation was secured to the cross.腳,然後在擔保方式,強迫跪成一類Bent立場。 違背了當代流行的見解,十字架不高;腳,大概只有幾英寸以上的地上。標誌描述的指控毫無根據擔保在十字架上。

Death usually came slowly; it was not unusual for persons to survive for days on the cross. Exposure, disease, hunger, shock, and exhaustion were the usual immediate causes of death. 死刑通常較慢,這是很平常的人的生存,為將於10月14日在十字架上。曝光,疾病,飢餓,休克,並用盡人慣常立即死亡的一個主要原因。 Occasionally death was "mercifully" hastened by breaking the legs of the condemned.偶爾死因是"仁慈"所催生的腿打斷了譴責。 In Jesus' case death came much more swiftly than usual.在耶穌的死亡案例來更為迅速比平時多。 A spear was thrust into his side to assure he was really dead before the body was removed (John 19:31-37). Bodies of the crucified were often left unburied and eaten by carnivorous birds and beasts, thus adding to the disgrace.矛是推力到他身邊,以保證他是真的死之前,屍體被移走(約翰19:31-37 ) 。 屍體被釘十字架的人,往往留下未掩埋,並吃掉食蟲鳥類和獸類,從而增加了向以為恥。

The social stigma and disgrace associated with crucifixion in the ancient world can hardly be overstated.社會的恥辱和丟臉的相關釘死在十字架上,在古代世界很難過。 It was usually reserved for slaves, criminals of the worst sort from the lowest levels of society, military deserters, and especially traitors.它通常是預留作奴隸,罪犯的最壞排序從最低層次的社會,軍隊的逃兵,尤其是叛徒。 In only rare cases were Roman citizens, no matter what their crime, crucified.僅在罕見的情況下被羅馬公民,不論是幹哪一行的犯罪,被釘十字架。 Among the Jews it carried an additional stigma. Deut.其中猶太人進行額外的恥辱。 deut 。 21:23, "A hanged man is accursed by God," was understood to mean that the very method of death brought a divine curse upon the crucified. Thus, the idea of a crucified Messiah posed a special problem for such Jews as Paul (cf. Gal. 3:13; 1 Cor. 1:27-29). 14:28 , "上吊人是譴責的,由上帝"的理解,就是認為非常方法去世,使神的詛咒後,被釘十字架,因此,構思一個釘在十字架上的救世主構成的一個特殊問題,如猶太人正如保羅(比照加爾。 3時13分, 1肺心病。 1:27-29 ) 。

Significance of the Cross十字架的意義

NT writers assume the historicity of the crucifixion of Jesus and focus their attention upon its significance.新台幣作家擔負起歷史性的曠野裡的耶穌,並把注意力集中後,其重要意義。 In it they understand that he, "who was in the form of God, did not consider equality with God a thing to be grasped at," was willing to "humble himself," take "on the form of a servant," and endure "even the death on the cross" (Phil. 2:6-8).在它,他們知道,他" ,他們是在形式上的上帝,並沒有考慮平等與上帝的事必須把握的, "願意"謙虛自己, "吃"對形式的僕人" ,並忍受"即使死在十字架上" ( phil. 2:6-8 ) 。 This demonstrates the ultimate of humiliation and degradation.這表明,最終蒙受的屈辱和退化。 Yet, they affirm, the crucifixion of Jesus, the Messiah (Christ), was the will and act of God with eternal and cosmic significance.然而,他們確認,在十字架上的耶穌,彌賽亞(基督) ,是意志和上帝的旨意,與永恆和宇宙的意義。 At the simplest level, the crucifixion of Jesus was the means by which God provided salvation, the forgiveness of sins (cf. 1 Cor. 15:3).從最簡單的層面上,在十字架上的耶穌,是指由真主所提供的救恩,罪的赦免(參見一肺心病。 15時03分) 。 Christ crucified becomes the summary of the Christian message (1 Cor. 2:2).耶穌被釘十字架,成為簡易的基督徒的訊息( 1肺心病。 2:2 ) 。 The cross of Jesus, the beloved Son of God, is the supreme demonstration of the love God has for sinful man (cf. John 3:16; 15:16). In Jesus' death God deals concretely with the sin and guilt which offends his holiness and separates man from his Creator.十字架的耶穌,我可愛的上帝的兒子,是國家的最高表現愛上帝為罪孽深重的人(參見約翰3:16 ; 15:16 ) , 在耶穌的死亡上帝涉及具體與單仲偕和內疚,其中冒犯他的成聖和政企分開,男子從他的創造者。 Because of the cross God becomes both the righteous and just Judge and, at the same time, the one who makes forgiveness available and justifies believers (cf. Rom. 3:26). 由於兩岸上帝都成為正義與公正的法官,在同一時間內,一個人把寬恕可用,並證明信徒 (參見光盤。 3時26分) 。 The condemning legal demands set against man have been "canceled," nailed to the cross (Col. 2:14).該譴責的法律要求,對男子已"取消了, "被釘在十字架上(上校2時14分) 。 The word of the cross is God's word of reconciliation (II Cor. 5:19).這個詞的十字架,是上帝的話語和解(二肺心病。 5時19分) 。

The cross is also the symbol of discipleship.十字架的道理,也象徵門徒。 To first century Palestinians, who often witnessed the condemned carrying the crossbar to the site of their final torture, Jesus' word, "If any man will come after me, let him take up his cross and follow me" (Mark 8:34; cf. Matt. 10:38; Luke 14:27), must have come with a jolting, graphic impact.以第一世紀的巴勒斯坦人,他們往往目擊譴責進行了橫梁到現場了他們的最後酷刑,耶穌的一句話, "如果有任何人會在我之後,讓他背著他的十字架跟從我" (馬克8時34分;比照馬特。 10:38 ;盧克14時27分) ,必須配備一個顛簸,圖形的影響。 Jesus insists that the humiliation and suffering that culminated in his crucifixion were to characterize the experience of his followers.耶穌堅持認為,屈辱和痛苦,最終導致他被釘死在十字架上,以特有的經驗,他的追隨者。 "It is," he says, "for the disciple to be like his teacher" (Matt. 10:24). "這是" ,他說, "對於弟子,要像他的老師" 。 ( 10:24 ) 。 Crucifixion becomes a part of the identification between Christ and the believer who is "crucified with Christ" (Gal. 2:20).在十字架上,成為部分的鑑定之間的基督信徒,他們是"被釘十字架與基督" ( gal. 2時20分) 。 The negative side of the characteristics of the new life of the Christian consists in having "crucified" sinful natures and desires (Gal. 5:24).消極方面的特徵的新生活的基督徒組成,在具有"釘在十字架上"罪孽深重的天性和慾望( gal. 5時24分) 。

When understood in its historical, social context, Paul's statement that the proclamation of Christ crucified is a "stumbling block" or "scandal" (skandalon) to the Jews and "foolishness" (moria) to the Gentiles is both logical and clear.當了解其歷史,社會背景下,保羅的聲明中表示,宣布基督釘在十字架上是一個"絆腳石"或"醜聞" ( skandalon )向猶太人和"愚蠢" ( moria )外邦人既符合邏輯和清晰的。 Yet for Christians it remains an act and demonstration "of the power and wisdom of God" (1 Cor. 1:23-24).不過,對基督徒,它仍然是一個行為與示範"的力量和智慧凝聚起來,以神之名" ( 1肺心病。 1:23-24 ) 。

JJ Scott, Jr.斯科特的JJ小
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
B. Siede et al., NIDNTT, I, 389-405; JF Strange, IDB Supplement, 199-200; M. Hengel, Crucifixion.乙siede等人, nidntt ,我, 389-405 ;怡富奇怪,美洲開發銀行補充, 199-200 ;米亨格爾,釘死在十字架上。


Crucify (verb)釘死(動詞)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Crucify signifies (a) "the act of crucifixion," eg, Matt.釘死標誌(一) " ,該法的十字架上, "例如,馬特。 20:19; (b) metaphorically, "the putting off of the flesh with its passions and lusts," a condition fulfilled in the case of those who are "of Christ Jesus," Gal. 20時19分; (二)比喻, "拖的肉體的激情與性慾, "一個條件滿足的情況下,這些人是"基督耶穌的, "加爾。 5:24, RV; so of the relationship between the believer and the world, 6:14. 5時24分,風疹病毒,所以對關係的信奉者和世界上6時14分。


Crucify (verb)釘死(動詞)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

"to crucify with" (su, "for," sun, "with"), is used (a) of actual "crucifixion" in company with another, Matt. "釘死" (蘇" , "太陽" , " ) ,是用(一)實際的"十字架上" ,在公司與另一,馬特。 27:44; Mark 15:32; John 19:32 (b) metaphorically, of spiritual identification with Christ in His death, Rom. 27:44 ;大關15:32 ;約翰19時32分(二)比喻,精神鑑定與基督,在他死後,光盤。 6:6, and Gal. 6時06分,和GAL 。 2:20. 2時20分。


Crucify (verb)釘死(動詞)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(ana, again) is used in Heb. (全日空,再次) ,是用來在希伯來書。 6:6 of Hebrew apostates, who as merely nominal Christians, in turning back to Judaism, were thereby virtually guilty of "crucifying" Christ again. 6時06分的希伯來語叛教者,他們作為有名無實的基督徒,在回到猶太教,因而幾乎犯有"人釘在十字架上"基督。


Crucifixion在十字架上

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

Crucifixion was the act of putting to death by nailing or binding to a cross.被釘死在十字架上的行為將死釘或有約束力的,以在十字架上。 Among the modes of Capital Punishment known to the Jewish penal law, crucifixion is not found; the "hanging" of criminals "on a tree," mentioned in Deut.其中以何種方式執行死刑已知猶太刑法,在十字架上是沒有找到; "掛"罪犯"一棵樹"中提到的deut 。 xxi.二十一。 22, was resorted to in New Testament times only after lapidation (Sanh. vi. 4; Sifre, ii. 221, ed. Friedmann, Vienna, 1864).二十二歲,以在新約聖經時代後,才lapidation ( sanh.六,四; sifre ,二221 ,教育署。弗里德曼,維也納, 1864 ) 。 A Jewish court could not have passed a sentence of death by crucifixion without violating the Jewish law.一個猶太法院不能過去了,判處死刑,由釘死在十字架上,沒有任何違反猶太法律。 The Roman penal code recognized this cruel penalty from remote times (Aurelius Victor Cæsar, 41).羅馬刑法承認這種殘酷的刑罰從偏遠倍(奧勒勝利者cæsar , 41 ) 。 It may have developed out of the primitive custom of "hanging" ("arbori suspendere") on the "arbor infelix," which was dedicated to the gods of the nether world.它可能已經發展出來的原始習俗, "掛" (下稱" arbori suspendere " ) ,對"喬木infelix " ,這是奉獻給神的幽明。 Seneca ("Epistola," 101) still calls the cross "infelix lignum."塞涅卡( " epistola , " 101 )仍呼籲兩岸" infelix lignum " 。 Trees were often used for crucifying convicts (Tertullian, "Apologia," viii. 16).樹木常被用來釘在十字架上被定罪(戴爾都良, "縱容" ,八16 ) 。 Originally only slaves were crucified; hence "death on the cross" and "supplicium servile" were used indiscriminately (Tacitus, "Historia," iv. 3, 11).原本只有奴隸被釘在十字架上,因此有了"十字架上的死亡"和" supplicium奴性"的人,拿來就用(塔西佗, "歷史" ,四,三, 11 ) 。 Later, provincial freedmen of obscure station ("humiles") were added to the class liable to this sentence.後來,省freedmen朦朧詩站(下稱" humiles " ) ,被列入本級,可這句話。 Roman citizens were exempt under all circumstances (Cicero, "Verr." i. 7; iii. 2, 24, 26; iv. 10 et seq.).羅馬公民被免除任何情況下,都(西塞羅, " verr "一,七;三,二, 24日, 26日;四, 10頁起) 。 The following crimes entailed this penalty: piracy, highway robbery, assassination, forgery, false testimony, mutiny, high treason, rebellion (see Pauly-Wissowa, "Real-Encyc." sv "Crux"; Josephus, "BJ" v. 11, § 1).下列犯罪造成這種懲罰:盜版,公路搶劫,暗殺,偽造,虛假的證詞,叛變,叛國,叛亂(見Pauly ) -維索瓦, "實時encyc " sv "癥結" ;約瑟夫, " BJ的"五。 11 , § 1 ) 。 Soldiers that deserted to the enemy and slaves who denounced their masters ("delatio domini")were also punished by death on the cross.士兵遺棄向敵和奴隸,他們譴責他們的主人( " delatio多米尼" )也被處以十字架上的死亡。

Mode of Execution.執行方式。

The crosses used were of different shapes.十字架所用的不同形狀。 Some were in the form of a , others in that of a St. Andrew's cross, , while others again were in four parts, .一些人的形式,別人在這一個聖安德魯的十字架,而另一些又被分為四個部分, 。 The more common kind consisted of a stake ("palus") firmly embedded in the ground ("crucem figere") before the condemned arrived at the place of execution (Cicero, "Verr." v. 12; Josephus, "BJ" vii. 6, § 4) and a cross-beam ("patibulum"), bearing the "titulus"-the inscription naming the crime (Matt. xxvii. 37; Luke xxiii. 38; Suetonius, "Cal." 38).較常見的實物構成的股權(簡稱"沼澤" ) ,已深深印在地面上( " crucem figere " )之前譴責到達地點執行(西塞羅, " verr "五, 12歲;約瑟夫, " BJ的"七6 , § 4 )及跨梁( " patibulum " ) ,印有"職稱"的題詞命名犯罪。 (二十七。 37 ;路加福音二十三。 38 ;蘇埃托尼烏斯, "華航" , 38 ) 。 It was this cross-beam, not the heavy stake, which the condemned was compelled to carry to the scene of execution (Plutarch, "De Sera Num. Vind." 9; Matt. ib.; John xix. 17; See Cross).正是由於這種跨梁,而不是沉重的股份,其中譴責被迫進行了現場的執行(普魯塔克, "德血清序號。 vind " 9 ;馬特。興業;約翰十九。 17 ;見交叉) 。 The cross was not very high, and the sentenced man could without difficulty be drawn up with ropes ("in crucem tollere, agere, dare, ferre").兩岸是不是很高,但和被判刑人,可以毫無困難地得出了與繩索( " crucem tollere ,傑爾,不敢, ferre " ) 。 His hands and feet were fastened with nails to the cross-beam and stake (Tertullian, "Adv. Judæos," 10; Seneca, "Vita Beata," 19); though it has been held that, as in Egypt, the hands and feet were merely bound with ropes (see Winer, "BR" i. 678).他的手和腳也被系上鐵釘,以跨梁和股份(戴爾都良, "副judæos " , 10歲;塞涅卡, "履歷表貝婭塔" , 19 ) ;儘管它已舉辦了,因為在埃及,雙手和腳也被約束,只是用繩子(見溫特, "溴"一678 ) 。 The execution was always preceded by flagellation (Livy, xxxiv. 26; Josephus, "BJ" ii. 14, § 9; v. 11, § 1); and on his way to his doom, led through the most populous streets, the delinquent was exposed to insult and injury.預算執行情況是總是先flagellation ( livy ,三十四, 26人;約瑟夫, " BJ的"二14 § 9 ;訴11條第1款)和關於他的方式,以他的末日將要來臨,主導通過人口最多的街道,犯事暴露了侮辱和傷害。 Upon arrival at the stake, his clothes were removed, and the execution took place.抵達後,在股權,他的衣服被拆除,預算執行情況發生。 Death was probably caused by starvation or exhaustion, the cramped position of the body causing fearful tortures, and ultimately gradual paralysis.死因可能是造成飢餓或疲勞,擁擠的立場身體造成可怕的折磨,並最終逐漸陷入癱瘓。 Whether a foot-rest was provided is open to doubt; but usually the body was placed astride a board ("sedile").是否使用腳休息提供了開放疑問,但通常的屍體被放在首次發起委員會(以下簡稱"塞迪萊" ) 。 The agony lasted at least twelve hours, in some cases as long as three days.痛苦持續了至少12個小時,在某些情況下,只要3天。 To hasten death the legs were broken, and this was considered an act of clemency (Cicero, "Phil." xiii. 27).催生死亡雙腿被打斷,而這被認為是一個行為寬大處理(西塞羅, "菲爾"十三27 ) 。 The body remained on the cross, food for birds of prey until it rotted, or was cast before wild beasts.身體仍然在十字架上,為糧食猛禽直到它腐爛,或投了前野獸。 Special permission to remove the body was occasionally granted.特別許可,以消除身體偶爾被理所當然的。 Officers (carnifex and triumviri) and soldiers were in charge.主席團成員( carnifex和triumviri )和士兵負責。

This cruel way of carrying into effect the sentence of death was introduced into Palestine by the Romans.這種殘酷的方式進行生效判處死刑引入巴勒斯坦入鄉隨俗。 Josephus brands the first crucifixion as an act of unusual cruelty ("Ant." xiii. 14, § 2), and as illegal.約瑟夫品牌首次在十字架上,作為法具有非同尋常的殘酷性( "螞蟻" 。十三。 14 , § 2 ) ,並為非法的。 But many Jews underwent this extreme penalty (ib. xx. 6, § 2; "Vita," § 75; "BJ" ii. 12, § 6; 14, § 9; v. 11, § 1; Philo, ii. 529).但許多猶太人經歷了這一極端刑罰( ib.二十。 6 , § 2 , "履歷表" ,第75條; " BJ的"二12 , § 6 , 14 ,第9條;訴11條第1款;斐洛,二。 529 ) 。

During the times of unrest which preceded the rise in open rebellion against Rome (about 30-66 BC), "rebels" met with short shrift at the hands of the oppressor.在時代的動亂之前的崛起,在開放的反抗羅馬(約公元前30-66 ) , "造反派"見了不理會在手中的壓迫者。 They were crucified as traitors.他們被釘在十字架上視為叛徒。 The sons of Judas the Galilean were among those who suffered this fate.兒子猶大伽利略屬於那些遭受這種命運。 The details given in the New Testament accounts (Matt. xxvii. and parallels) of the crucifixion of Jesus agree on the whole with the procedure in vogue under Roman law.這本冊子的,在新約聖經的帳戶。 (二十七和平行線)的十字架上的耶穌同意,就整體而言,與程序盛行下羅馬法。 Two modifications are worthy of note: (1) In order to make him insensible to pain, a drink (ὁξος, Matt. xxvii. 34, 48; John xix. 29) was given him.兩項修改,是值得考慮的問題: ( 1 )為了使他理智的痛楚,飲料( ὁξος ,馬特。二十七。 34 , 48 ;約翰十九29 ) ,是給了他。 This was in accordance with the humane Jewish provision (see Maimonides, "Yad," Sanh. xiii. 2; Sanh. 43a).這是根據人道猶太條文(見邁蒙尼德, "亞得" , sanh 。十三。 2 ; sanh 。 43 A條) 。 The beverage was a mixture of myrrh () and wine, given "so that the delinquent might lose clear consciousness through the ensuing intoxication."飲料是一種混合物沒藥( )和酒,給" ,使逾期可能會失去意識清楚,通過隨後的中毒" 。 (2) Contrary to the Roman practise of leaving the body on the cross, that of Jesus was removed and buried, the latter act in keeping with Jewish law and custom. ( 2 )相反,羅馬練習離開組織,就兩岸關係,也就是耶穌被拆除和掩埋,而後者的行為符合猶太法和習俗。 These exceptions, however, exhaust the incidents in the crucifixion of Jesus that might point to a participation therein, and a regulation thereof, by Jews or Jewish law.這些例外,不過,廢氣事件在十字架上的耶穌可能指向一個參與,和規例時,由猶太人或猶太法律。 The mode and manner of Jesus' death undoubtedly point to Roman customs and laws as the directive power.模式及方式,耶穌的死無疑點,以羅馬習俗和法律,作為指令的權力。

From the Jewish point of view, the crime of which Jesus was convicted by the Jewish priests is greatly in doubt (see Jesus).從猶太人的角度來看,犯罪,其中,耶穌被定罪的猶太祭司,是極大疑問(見耶穌) 。 If it was blasphemy, lapidation should, according to Jewish law, have been the penalty, with suspension from the gallows after death (Mishnah Sanh. iii. 4; Sifre, iii. 221).如果這是褻瀆, lapidation要按照猶太教的規定,一直都是罰款,暫停從絞刑後,死刑( mishnah sanh三,四; sifre ,三, 221頁) 。 Nor were any of the well-known measures taken (Sanh. vi.)which provide before execution for the contingency of a reversal of the sentence.也沒有任何的知名度而採取的措施( sanh.六) ,其中規定執行前,為應急逆轉句子。 Neither was the "cross"-ie, the gallows for hanging-constructed as usual after lapidation, and as ordained in Sanhedrin vi.既不是"十字架" -即絞刑,為懸興建如常後, lapidation ,並作為受戒在公會六。 4. 4 。 His hands were not bound as prescribed; the "cross" was not buried with his body (Maimonides, "Yad," Sanh. xv. 9).他的手是不是必然為明; "十字架" ,是不是埋在他的身體(邁蒙尼德, "亞得" , sanh第十五9段) 。 Whether the Jewish law would have tolerated a threefold execution at one and the same time is more than uncertain (Sanh. vi. 4; Sifre, ii. 221).是否猶太法會容忍三倍執行,在同一個時間較不確定( sanh.六,四; sifre ,二, 221頁) 。

Date of Jesus' Crucifixion.日期為耶穌釘死在十字架上。

The greatest difficulty from the point of view of the Jewish penal procedure is presented by the day and time of the execution.最大的困難是從的角度來看,猶太刑法程序,是由白天的時間執行。 According to the Gospels, Jesus died on Friday, the eve of Sabbath.據福音書,耶穌死亡週五,除夕夜的安息日。

Yet on that day, in view of the approach of the Sabbath (or holiday), executions lasting until late in the afternoon were almost impossible (Sifre, ii. 221; Sanh. 35b; Mekilta to Wayaḳhel).然而,這一天,鑑於該辦法的安息日(或假期) ,處決持久的,直到晚在下午的人,幾乎是不可能的( sifre ,二221 ; sanh 。 35 B ; mekilta以wayaḳhel ) 。 The Synoptics do not agree with John on the date of the month.該synoptics不同意約翰對日期的月份。 According to the latter he died on the 14th of Nisan, as though he were the paschal lamb; but executions were certainly not regular on the eve of a Jewish holiday.根據後,他對死亡的十四大尼散月14日,因為他雖然被逾越的羔羊,但被處決肯定不會經常對即將到來的猶太節日。 According to the Synoptics, the date of his death was the 15th of Nisan (first day of Passover), when again no execution could be held (Mishnah Sanh. iv. 1; and the commentaries: Yer. Sanh. ii. 3; Yer. Beẓ. v. 2; Ket. i. 1).據該synoptics ,日期,他的逝世是十五大尼散月14日(第一天的逾越節) ,當再沒有執行可以如期舉行( mishnah sanh四。一日及評論文章:也門里亞爾。 sanh二。 3 ;也門里亞爾。 beẓ訴2 ; KET的一,一) 。 This discrepancy has given rise to various attempts at rectification.這個差異已經引起了各種嘗試,在治理整頓。 That by Chwolson is the most ingenious, assuming that Jesus died on the 14th, and accounting for the error in Matthew by a mistranslation from the original Hebrew in Matt.即由奇沃爾松是最巧妙,假設耶穌死亡的十四大,佔誤差在馬修一個誤譯從原來的希伯來語,在馬特。 xxvi.二十六。 17 (, due to the omission of the first ; see his "Das Letzte Passamahl Christi," p. 13). 17 (因遺漏第一;見他的"之letzte passamahl聖體" ,第13頁) 。 But even so, the whole artificial construction of the law regarding Passover when the 15th of Nisan was on Saturday, attempted by Chwolson, would not remove the difficulty of an execution occurring on Friday = eve of Sabbath and eve of holiday; and the body could not have been removed as late as the ninth hour (3 PM).但即使如此,整個人工建造該法關於逾越節時,第十五屆尼散月14日是週六,企圖由奇沃爾松,將不能消除困難的一次處決發生在週五=前夕安息日和夏娃的節日,以及機構可能不是已被調離遲至第九小時(下午三時) 。 Bodies of delinquents were not buried in private graves (Sanh. vi. 5), while that of Jesus was buried in a sepulcher belonging to Joseph of Arimathea.機構違法不埋在私人墓地( sanh.六5 ) ,而耶穌被埋葬在一個sepulcher屬於約瑟夫arimathea 。 Besides this, penal jurisdiction had been taken from the Sanhedrin in capital cases "forty years before the fall of the Temple."此外,刑事管轄權已經採取了由公會在死刑案件中的"四十年前的秋天,廟" 。

These facts show that the crucifixion of Jesus was an act of the Roman government.這些事實表明,在十字架上的耶穌的行為羅馬政府。 That it was customary to liberate one sentenced to death on account of the holiday season is not corroborated by Jewish sources.這是習慣,以解放一判處死刑,是考慮到假日季節,是不是印證了猶太人的來源。 But many of the Jews suspected of Messianic ambitions had been nailed to the cross by Rome.但許多猶太人涉嫌救世主的野心已經被釘在十字架上,由羅馬。 The Messiah, "king of the Jews," was a rebel in the estimation of Rome, and rebels were crucified (Suetonius, "Vespas." 4; "Claudius," xxv.; Josephus, "Ant." xx. 5, § 1; 8, § 6; Acts v. 36, 37).彌賽亞, "國王的猶太人" ,是一個反叛在估計羅馬,和叛軍被釘在十字架上(蘇埃托尼烏斯, " vespas 。 " 4 " ;克勞狄斯, "二十五;約瑟夫, "螞蟻"第XX 。 5 , § 1 ,第8 ,第6條;行為訴36 , 37 ) 。 The inscription on the cross of Jesus reveals the crime for which, according to Roman law, Jesus expired.碑文上的十字架的耶穌揭示了犯罪,而按羅馬法,耶穌過期。 He was a rebel.他是一個叛亂分子。 Tacitus ("Annales," 54, 59) reports therefore without comment the fact that Jesus was crucified.塔西佗(下稱"年鑑" , 54 , 59 )報告,因此並沒有表示意見事實,即耶穌被釘在十字架上。 For Romans no amplification was necessary.為入鄉隨俗,沒有功放是必要的。 Pontius Pilate's part in the tragedy as told in the Gospels is that of a wretched coward; but this does not agree with his character, as recorded elsewhere (see Süchrer, "Gesch." Index, sv).祂比拉多的一部分,在這場悲劇中說,作為在福音的是一個可憐的懦夫;但這並不同意他的性格,為其他地方的記錄(見süchrer , " gesch "指數, sv ) 。 The other incidents in the New Testament report-the rending of the curtain, darkness (eclipse of the sun), the rising of the dead from their graves-are apocalyptic embellishments derived from Jewish Messianic eschatology.其他事件,在新約聖經報告-再現的窗簾,黑暗(偏食太陽) ,上升的死者從墳墓裡-是世界末日裝飾源自猶太救世主末世。 The so-called writs for the execution (see Mayer, "Die Rechte der Israeliten, Athener, und Römer," iii. 428, note 27) are spurious.那些所謂令狀為執行(見Mayer表示,在"死rechte明鏡israeliten , athener , und羅梅爾, "三, 428 ,注27 )雜散。

Kaufmann Kohler, Emil G. Hirsch考夫曼科勒,埃米爾g.赫希
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版1901年至1906年之間。

Bibliography 參考書目
Ludwig Philipson, Haben die Juden Jesum Gekreuzigt?路德維希philipson , haben模具juden jesum gekreuzigt ? 2d ed., reprint, 1902; Hirsch, The Crucifixion from the Jewish Point of View, Chicago, 1892; Chwolson, Das Letzte Passamahl Christi, St. Petersburg, 1892; works of Jewish historians, as Grätz, Jost, etc.; Schürer, Gesch.; commentaries on the Gospels.KEGH第2版,再版, 1902年;赫希,曠野裡,從猶太人的角度來看,芝加哥, 1892年;奇沃爾松之letzte passamahl聖體,聖彼得斯堡, 1892年;工程的猶太歷史學家,作為grätz ,約斯特等; schürer , gesch ;評論對gospels.kegh


Also, see:此外,見:
Cross 兩岸關係
Seven Words On The Cross 七字交叉
Words Inscribed on the Cross 寫的是漢字,對兩岸關係
The Arising of Jesus 產生的耶穌

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