Covenant Theology盟約神學

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The doctrine of the covenant was one of the theological contributions that came to the church through the Reformation of the sixteenth century.該學說的盟約是一個神學的貢獻,來教會通過改造16世紀。 Undeveloped earlier, it made its appearance in the writings of Zwingli and Bullinger, who were driven to the subject by Anabaptists in and around Zurich.欠發達較早,它作出了自己的外貌,在著作zwingli和布凌格,那些被驅趕的主題,由anabaptists在靠近蘇黎世。 From them it passed to Calvin and other Reformers, was further developed by their successors, and played a dominant role in much Reformed theology of the seventeenth century when it came to be known as covenant, or federal, theology. Covenant theology sees the relation of God to mankind as a compact which God established as a reflection of the relationship existing between the three persons of the Holy Trinity.他們通過向卡爾文和其他改革者,得到了進一步發展,由他們的繼承人,並發揮了主導作用,在很多改革神學的十七世紀時,它後來被稱為盟約,或聯邦,神學。 盟約神學認為的關係上帝給人類作為緊湊而上帝設立反映了現有的關係,三者之間的人的聖三一。

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This emphasis on God's covenantal dealings with the human race tended to lessen what appeared to some to be harshness in the earlier Reformed theology which emanated from Geneva, with its emphasis on the divine sovereignty and predestination.這種強調對上帝的covenantal打交道的人的種族傾向淡化似乎有些被苛刻,在以前的改革神學,它是源自日內瓦的,其重點是對神的主權和宿命。 From Switzerland covenant theology passed over into Germany, and from there into the Netherlands and the British Isles.由瑞士盟約神學通過到德國,再從那裡進入荷蘭和英倫三島。 Among its early and most influential advocates were, besides Zwingli and Bullinger, Olevianus (Concerning the Nature of the Covenant of Grace Between God and the Elect, 1585), Cocceius (Doctrine of the Covenant and Testaments of God, 1648), and Witsius (The Oeconomy of the Covenants, 1685).其早期和最有影響力的鼓吹者,除了zwingli和布凌格, olevianus (有關性的盟約的恩典與上帝的選, 1585 ) , cocceius (學說的盟約,並證明了上帝的, 1648 ) ,和witsius (該oeconomy的公約, 1685年) 。 It was taken up into the Westminister Confession and came to have an important place in the theology of Scotland and New England.它被帶到了進入westminister招供,並有重要的地位,在神學的蘇格蘭和新英格蘭。

The Covenant of Works該公約的作品

Having created man in his own image as a free creature with knowledge, righteousness, and holiness, God entered into covenant with Adam that he might bestow upon him further blessing.創造了男子,在他自己的形象,作為一個自由的動物,有知識,義,和聖潔,上帝訂立盟約與亞當表示,他可能賜給他進一步祝福。 Called variously the Edenic covenant, the covenant of nature, the covenant of life, or preferably the covenant of works, this pact consisted of (1) a promise of eternal life upon the condition of perfect obedience throughout a probationary period; (2) the threat of death upon disobedience; and (3) the sacrament of the tree of life, or, in addition, the sacraments of paradise and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.所謂不同程度的edenic公約,該公約的性質,該公約的生活,還是最好盟約的作品,這個協議包括( 1 )承諾的永恆生活條件的完善,服從整個試用期; ( 2 )死亡的威脅後,抗命; ( 3 )聖事的生命樹,或者,此外,聖禮天堂與樹的知識,善良與邪惡。 Although the term "covenant" is not mentioned in the first chapters of Genesis, it is held that all the elements of a covenant are present even though the promise of eternal life is there by implication only.雖然"盟約" ,是沒有提及,在第一章的成因中,認為所有元素的一個公約是目前即使承諾永恆的生命是有含意。 Before the fall Adam was perfect but could still have sinned; had he retained his perfection throughout the probationary period, he would have been confirmed in righteousness and been unable to sin.垮台前亞當是十全十美的,但仍然可以去犯罪;過他保留著他的完美在整個試用期間,他將已被確認為正義和一直無法單。

Inasmuch as he was acting not only for himself but representatively for mankind, Adam was a public person.因為,他是不是只為自己,但代表性,為人類,亞當是一個公眾人物。 His fall therefore affected the entire human race that was to come after him; all are now conceived and born in sin.他的下降,因此影響到整個人類的,那就是讓他的,全都是現在在構思和誕生於罪過。 Without a special intervention of God there would be no hope; all would be lost forever.如果沒有特別的干預,上帝將不會有希望,一切將永遠失去了。

The good news, however, is that God has intervened in behalf of mankind with another covenant. Unlike the earlier covenant of works, whose mandate was "Do this and you shall live" (cf. Rom. 10:5; Gal. 3:12), the covenant of grace is bestowed on men in their sinful condition with the promise that, in spite of their inability to keep any of the commandments of God, out of sheer grace he forgives their sin and accepts them as his children through the merits of his Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, on the condition of Faith.好消息,然而,就是上帝的介入,代表了人類與另一盟約, 不像早先公約的工程,其任務是"做這做,你將生活" (見光盤。 10時05分;加爾3 : 12 ) ,該公約的恩典賜予的男子在其罪孽深重的條件與承諾,儘管他們無法保持任何的誡命神的,但是,出於純粹的恩典,他寬恕自己的罪過,並接納他們為他的孩子們通過值得的,他的兒子,主耶穌基督,條件是信念。

The Covenant of Redemption該公約的救贖

According to covenant theology, the covenant of grace, established in history, is founded on still another covenant, the covenant of redemption, which is defined as the eternal pact between God the Father and God the Son concerning the salvation of mankind.根據盟約神學,該公約的寬限期,在既定的歷史,是建基於還有一項公約,該公約的救贖,它的定義是永恆的條約上帝和上帝的兒子,關於救贖人類。 Scripture teaches that within the Godhead there are three persons, the same in essence, glory, and power, objective to each other.聖經教導我們,在神的源頭有三個人,同時在本質上,榮耀,權力,目的是相輔相成的。 The Father loves the Son, commissions him, gives him a people, the right to judge, and authority over all mankind (John 3:16; 5:20, 22, 36; 10:17 - 18; 17:2, 4, 6, 9, 24; Ps. 2:7 - 8; Heb. 1:8 - 13); the Son loves the Father, delights to do his will, and has shared his glory forever (Heb. 10:7; John 5:19; 17:5).父親愛兒子,佣金他,讓他一個人,正確的判斷,和權威全人類(約翰3:16 ; 5點20 ,第22 ,第36條; 10時17 -1 8; 1 7時0 2分, 4 , 6日, 9日, 24歲;聚苯乙烯。 2點07分-八;以弗所書1 :8- 13 );兒子深愛著父親,愉悅做他的意願,並分享他的榮耀永遠(希伯來書1 0時0 7分;約翰五日: 19 ; 17時05分) 。 The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit commune with each other; this is one of the meanings of the Christian doctrine of the Trinity.父親,兒子,和聖靈公社與對方,這就是其中的含義基督教教義的三位一體。

On this foundation covenant theology affirms that God the Father and God the Son covenanted together for the redemption of the human race, the Father appointing the Son to be the mediator, the Second Adam, whose life would be given for the salvation of the world, and the Son accepting the commission, promising that he would do the work which the Father had given him to do and fulfill all righteousness by obeying the law of God.在此基礎上盟約神學申明上帝和上帝的兒子covenanted起來,為救贖人類,父親委任兒子成為調停者,第二個亞當,他們的生活會考慮為救贖的世界,和兒子接受該委員會,有前途,他會做的工作,父親給了他這樣做,並履行所有正義服從上帝的法規。 Thus before the foundation of the world, within the eternal being of God, it had been determined that creation would not be destroyed by sin, but that rebellion and iniquity would be overcome by God's grace, that Christ would become the new head of humanity, the Savior of the world, and that God would be glorified.所以才立黨之本,世界,並沒有永恆的福祉神,它已被確定,創造不會被人破壞罪過,但暴動和邪惡中,將克服由上帝的恩典,基督將成為新的主管人道,救世主的世界,神將榮耀。

The Covenant of Grace該公約的恩典

This covenant has been made by God with mankind.這個公約已經取得了神與人類。 In it he offers life and salvation through Christ to all who believe. Inasmuch as none can believe without the special grace of God, it is more exact to say that the covenant of grace is made by God with believers, or the elect. Jesus said that all those whom the Father had given him would come to him and that those who come would surely be accepted (John 6:37).在它提供的,他的生命和救恩透過基督所有的人相信。 因為沒有人能夠相信,如果沒有特別的恩賜,它是更確切的說,該公約的寬限期,是由上帝與信徒,或選出。耶穌說:所有這些人的父親給了他會來,他和那些來一定會被接受(約翰6時37分) 。 Herein is seen the close relation between the covenant of grace and the covenant of redemption, with the former resting on the latter.這裡是看到了緊密關係公約的恩典和盟約贖買的方式,與前休息了後者。 From eternity the Father has given a people to the Son; to them was given the promised Holy Spirit so that they might live in fellowship with God.從永恆父親打了一個人的兒子;向他們提供所承諾的聖靈,使他們有可能生活在團契與上帝。 Christ is the mediator of the covenant of grace inasmuch as he has borne the guilt of sinners and restored them to a saving relationship to God (Heb. 8:6; 9:15; 12:24).基督是調停人的盟約的恩典,因為他已經證明他有罪的罪人,並恢復他們節省了關係,以神(希伯來書8時06分; 9:15 ; 12時24分) 。 He is mediator, not only in the sense of arbitrator, although that is the sense in which the word is used in 1 Tim.他是調解員,不僅在意義上的仲裁員,雖然這是常識,這兩個字是用在一添。 2:5, but in the sense of having fulfilled all the conditions necessary for procuring eternal salvation for his people. 2時05分,但在意義上的完成了所有必要的條件,採購永恆的救贖,為他的人民。

Thus Heb.因此希伯來書。 7:22 calls Jesus the "surety" or "guarantee" of the new covenant, which is better than that which came through Moses. 7時22分來電耶穌的"擔保人"或"保證"的新的盟約,但總比說出來,通過摩西。 Within the context of this last passage repeated mention is made of God's promise to Christ and his people.內部的背景下這最後通過反复提到的是上帝的諾言,以基督和他的人民。 He will be their God and they will be his people.他將他們的神和他們的將是他的人。 He will bestow on them the grace they need to confess his name and live with him forever; in humble dependence on him for their every need, they will live in trustful obedience from day to day.他會賜給他們的恩典,他們需要交代自己的名字和他同住永遠;濡以沬依賴於他自己的每一個需要,他們將生活在相互信任的服從性,從日常。 This latter, called faith in Scripture, is the sole condition of the covenant, and even it is a gift of God (Eph. 2:8 - 9).這後者, 所謂的信念在經文中,是唯一的條件,公約的,甚至是神的恩賜 (以弗所書2時08 -9 ) 。

Although the covenant of grace includes various dispensations of history, it is essentially one.雖然該公約的寬限期,包括各種dispensations歷史的,它基本上是一種。 From the promise in the garden (Gen. 3:15), through the covenant made with Noah (Gen. 6 - 9), to the day that the covenant was established with Abraham, there is abundant evidence of God's grace.從承諾在花園裡(創3:15 ) ,通過該公約與挪亞(創6 -9 ) ,以當日該公約設立的亞伯拉罕,有大量證據上帝的恩典。 With Abraham a new beginning is made which the later, Sinaitic covenant implements and strengthens.亞伯拉罕一個新的開端,是其中後,西乃半島公約的實施和加強。 At Sinai the covenant assumes a national form and stress is laid on the law of God.在西奈盟約假設一個國家的形式和強調的是放在上帝的法規。 This is not intended to alter the gracious character of the covenant, however (Gal. 3:17 - 18), but it is to serve to train Israel until the time would come when God himself would appear in its midst.這是不打算改變大方性格的盟約,但是, ( gal. 3時17 -1 8) ,但它是為了向以色列火車到時候會來的時候,上帝會出現在它的中間。 In Jesus the new form of the covenant that had been promised by the prophets is manifest, and that which was of a temporary nature in the old form of the covenant disappears (Jer. 31:31 - 34; Heb. 8). While there is unity and continuity in the covenant of grace throughout history, the coming of Christ and the subsequent gift of the Holy Spirit have brought rich gifts unknown in an earlier age.在耶穌新形式的公約已答應由先知,是體現和表示,這是屬於暫時性質,在舊形式的盟約消失( jer. 31:31 -3 4;以弗所書8 ) 。則有是的統一性和連續性,在該公約的寬限期,在整個歷史上,在未來的基督,以及隨後聖靈的恩賜帶來了豐富的禮物,不知在較早年齡段。

These are a foretaste of future blessedness when this present world passes away and the Holy City, the New Jerusalem, comes down out of heaven from God (Rev. 21:2).這些都預示著未來幸福的時候,這個目前世界逝世和聖城新耶路撒冷,可以歸結出天國上帝(牧師21時02分) 。

ME Osterhaven我osterhaven

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
L Berkhof, Systematic Theology; C Hodge, Systematic Theology, II; H Heppe, Reformed Dogmatics; H Bavinck, Our Reasonable Faith; G Schrenk, Gottesreich und Bund in alteren Protestantismus; HH Wolf, Die Einheit des Bundes.升,伯克霍夫的,有系統的神學; c Hodge的,有系統的神學,二; h黑珀,改革dogmatics ; h巴文克,我們合理的信仰;克schrenk , gottesreich und外灘alteren protestantismus ;個HH狼來了,死einheit萬的Bundes 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Dispensationalism dispensationalism
Ultradispensationalism ultradispensationalism
Progressive Dispensationalism 漸進dispensationalism
Covenant 盟約

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