Covenant盟約

General Information 一般資料

A covenant is a mutual agreement between 2 or more persons to do or refrain from doing certain acts.公約的,是相互之間的協議2個或更多的人做或不做某些行為。 Sometimes, this is the undertaking of one of the parties.有時候,這是事業的當事方之一。 In the Bible, God is regarded as the witness of this pact (Gen. 31:50, 1Sam. 20:8).在聖經中,上帝被視為是證人的這一協議(創31:50 , 1sam 。 20時08分) 。

In the Old Testament, there are three different types of covenant:在舊約中,有三種不同類型的盟約:

  1. A two-sided covenant between human parties, both of whom voluntarily accept the terms of the agreement (1Sam. 18:3,4; Mal. 2:14; Obad. 7).一個兩方面的盟約關係人各方,他們兩人都自願地接受協議的條款( 1sam. 18:3,4 ;仲裁法。 2時14分; obad 7段) 。
  2. A one-sided disposition imposed by a superior party (Ezek. 17:13,14).一個片面強加處置,由上級黨( ezek. 17:13,14 ) 。 In this, God "commands" a covenant which man, the servant, is to obey (Josh. 23:16).在這方面,以神之名"指令"包含哪些人,是公僕,是必須絕對服從( josh. 23時16分) 。
  3. God's self-imposed obligation, for the reconciliation of sinners to Himself (Deut. 7:6-8; Ps. 89:3,4).上帝的自我強加的義務,為和解的罪人自己(申命記7:6-8 ;聚苯乙烯。 89:3,4 ) 。

God made several such covenants in the Bible:上帝幾次這樣的盟約在聖經:

The prophets foretold a New Covenant (Jer. 31:31-34) which would center in a person (Isa. 42:6; 49:8).先知們預言一個新的盟約 ( jer. 31:31-34 ) ,其中將中心的人(以賽亞書42:6 ; 49:8 ) 。 In the New Covenant, the Covenant of Grace , man is placed in right relationship to God through Christ (Heb. 7:22; 8:6-13; 2Cor. 3:6-18).在新的盟約, 盟約的恩典 ,人是放置在正確的關係,以上帝透過基督(希伯來書7時22分; 8:6-13 ; 2cor 。 3:6-18 ) 。

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Covenant盟約

General Information 一般資料

Covenant is a legal concept often used in the Bible as a metaphor to describe the relationship between God and humankind. The biblical usage was derived from ancient secular usage, where covenant meant a binding and solemn agreement between two or more parties. 公約是一個法律概念,往往用在聖經中是一個比喻來形容與上帝的關係和人類的生活。聖經用法源自古代世俗的用法,如盟約意味著一項具有約束力和嚴肅的協議,兩個或兩個以上的政黨。 There were different kinds of covenants in the biblical world, however, just as there are different kinds of contracts today.有各種不同的公約,在聖經中的世界,然而,正如有各種不同的合同。 One type of ancient covenant that serves as a model for certain biblical passages is the royal grant.其中一類古老的盟約,那作為一個模式,在一定聖經段落,是皇家補助金。 In this type of covenant, a king or other person in authority rewards a loyal subject by granting him an office, land, exemption from taxes, or the like.在這種類型的盟約,一個國王或其他人在管理局獎勵一個忠誠的主題,發放了一個辦公室,土地,免徵稅款,或類似的。 It is typical of such covenants that only the superior party binds himself; conditions are not imposed on the inferior party.這是典型的這種盟約,只有上級黨所約束自己;條件不是強加給劣勢。

Such covenants are also referred to as covenants of promise or unconditional covenants.這種盟約也被稱為盟約的許諾或無條件的盟約。 The covenants God made with Noah (Gen. 9:8 - 17), Abraham (Gen. 15:18), and David (2 Sam. 7; 23:5) fit this pattern.該公約的上帝與挪亞(創9時08分-1 7) ,亞伯拉罕(創0 2:22) ,大衛( 2薩姆7段; 2 3:5)適合這一模式。 In each of these cases, it is God alone who binds himself by a solemn oath to keep the covenant.在每一種情況下,它是上帝的人所約束自己的一個莊嚴的宣誓,以保持該公約。

The Mosaic covenant (Ex. 19 - 24; Deut.; Josh. 24) seems to have been modeled on another type of ancient covenant, the political treaty between a powerful king and his weaker vassal.鑲嵌盟約(例如: 19 -2 4條; d eut;喬什2 4) ,似乎已被模仿的另一種古老的盟約,政治條約之間的一個強大的國王和他的較弱的附庸。 Following the standard form of such treaties, God, the suzerain, reminds Israel, the vassal, how God has saved it, and Israel in response accepts the covenant stipulations.以下為標準的形式,這種條約,為神,是宗主,提醒以色列,附庸,神是怎麼挽救了它,以色列在回應時接受了公約規定的。 Israel is promised a blessing for obedience and a curse for breaking the covenant.以色列許諾是一大福音,服從和被詛咒打破盟約。

These two different conceptions of covenant, one stressing promise, the other obligation, eventually modified one another.這兩個不同的概念盟約,一講承諾外,其他的義務,最終修改了對方。 Jesus Christ added a third model, that of a last will and testament.耶穌基督增添了第三個模式,也就是最後遺囑。 At the Last Supper, he interpreted his own life and death as the perfect covenant (Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24; Luke 22:20). The idea of a covenant between God and humankind lies at the heart of the Bible. This idea explains the selection of the word testament, a synonym for covenant, in naming the two parts of the Bible.在最後的晚餐,他解釋自己的生命和死亡的,因為完美的盟約(馬太26:28 ;馬克14時24分;盧克22時20分) 。 構思一個盟約與上帝和人類熟記於心的聖經。這個概念解釋了選擇字的佐證,一個別名為盟約,在命名的兩個部分的聖經。

JJM Roberts jjm羅伯茨

Bibliography 參考書目
DR Hillers, Covenant: The History of a Biblical Idea (1969); GE Mendenhall, The Tenth Generation: The Origins of the Biblical Tradition (1973); AW Pink, The Divine Covenants (1984).博士hillers ,盟約:歷史上的一個聖經的思想( 1969年) ;葛mendenhall ,第十代:起源聖經的傳統( 1973年) ;胡粉紅色,神聖公約( 1984年) 。


Covenant (noun)盟約(名詞)

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Covenant primarily signifies "a disposition of property by will or otherwise."公約的主要標誌是"財產的處置是由會或以其他方式" 。 In its use in the Septuagint, it is the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning a "covenant" or agreement (from a verb signifying "to cut or divide," in allusion to a sacrificial custom in connection with "covenant-making," eg, Gen. 15:10, "divided" Jer. 34:18-19).在其使用在septuagint ,它是繪製一個希伯來字,意思是"盟約"或協議(由一個動詞標誌著" ,以減少或鴻溝" ,在提到一個祭祀風俗結合"盟約決策" ,如:將軍15:10 , "分化"哲。 34:18-19 ) 。 In contradistinction to the English word "covenant" (lit., "a coming together"), which signifies a mutual undertaking between two parties or more, each binding himself to fulfill obligations, it does not in itself contain the idea of joint obligation, it mostly signifies an obligation undertaken by a single person.在對比了英文單詞"盟約" ( lit. , "合" ) ,這標誌著雙方共同承擔兩方之間或更多,每一個有約束力自己履行義務,它本身並不包含的思想,共同的義務,它多半意味著承擔義務,由一個單一的人。

For instance, in Gal.例如,在半乳糖。 3:17 it is used as an alternative to a "promise" (vv. 16-18). 3時17分,它是用來作為一種替代,以一個"諾言" ( vv. 16-18 ) 。 God enjoined upon Abraham the rite of circumcision, but His promise to Abraham, here called a "covenant," was not conditional upon the observance of circumcision, though a penalty attached to its nonobservance.上帝是受命後,亞伯拉罕的成年禮包皮環切術,但他承諾,石禮謙,這裡所謂的"盟約" ,是不是有條件後,為紀念包皮環切術,雖然罰款重視其nonobservance 。 "

The NT uses of the word may be analyzed as follows: (a) a promise or undertaking, human or divine, Gal.新台幣用途的字,可分析如下: (一)保證或承諾,人還是神,半乳糖。 3:15; (b) a promise or undertaking on the part of God, Luke 1:72; Acts 3:25; Rom. 3:15 , ( b )一個承諾或承諾,對部分上帝,盧克1:72 ;行徑3時25分;光碟。 9:4; 11:27; Gal. 9時04分; 11:27 ;加爾。 3:17; Eph. 3時17分;厄。 2:12; Heb. 2時12分;希伯來書。 7:22; 8:6, 8, 10; 10:16; (c) an agreement, a mutual undertaking, between God and Israel, see Deut. 7時22分; 8時06分,第8 ,第10條; [ 10:16 ; (三)一項協議,雙方共同承擔,與上帝和以色列,見deut 。 29-30 (described as a 'commandment,' Heb. 7:18, cf. v. 22); Heb. 29-30 (稱為'戒律'以弗所書7時18分,比照五, 22 ) ;希伯來書。 8:9; 9:20; (d) by metonymy, the token of the covenant, or promise, made to Abraham, Acts 7:8; (e) by metonymy, the record of the covenant, 2 Cor. 8時09分; 9時20分; (四)轉喻,象徵性的公約,或承諾,取得了亞伯拉罕的行為, 7時08分; (五)轉喻,該記錄的盟約, 2肺心病。 3:14; Heb. 3時14分;希伯來書。 9:4; cf. 9時04分;比照。 Rev. 11:19; (f) the basis, established by the death of Christ, on which the salvation of men is secured, Matt.牧師11時19分(六)的基礎上,成立了由死的基督,而救贖的男人是有擔保的,馬特。 26:28; Mark 14:24; Luke 22:20; 1 Cor. 26:28 ;馬克14時24分;盧克22時20分, 1肺心病。 11:25; 2 Cor. 11:25 , 2肺心病。 3:6; Heb. 3時06分;希伯來書。 10:29; 12:24; 13:20. 10:29 ; 12時24分; 13:20 。 "This covenant is called the 'new,' Heb. 9:15, the 'second,' 8:7, the 'better,' 7:22. In Heb. 9:16-17, the translation is much disputed. There does not seem to be any sufficient reason for departing in these verses from the word used everywhere else. The English word 'Testament' is taken from the titles prefixed to the Latin Versions." " ,這是所謂的'新'以弗所書9:15 , '第二, ' 8時07分, '好, ' 7時22分在以弗所書9:16-17 ,翻譯是許多有爭議的,有似乎並沒有任何充分理由背離,在這些詩詞中,從所用的字眼天下。英文字'遺囑'是採取從字幕後綴的拉丁版本" 。


Covenant (verb)盟約(動詞)

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Covenant, lit., "to put together," is used only in the middle voice in the NT, and, means "to determine, agree," John 9:22 and Acts 23:20; "to assent," Acts 24:9; "to covenant," Luke 22:5.盟約,亮著" ,以聯合起來, "只用在中的聲音在新台幣,並指"決定的,同意的話, "約翰9時22分和行為23:20 ; "贊同"的行為, 24條: 9 ; "盟約" ,盧克22時05分。 Note: In Matt.注:在馬特。 26:15 the KJV translates histemi, "to place (in the balances)," ie, to weigh, "they covenanted with"; RV, "they weighed unto." 26:15該kjv翻譯histemi " ,以地方(在餘額) , "也就是說,要衡量" ,他們covenanted " ;風疹病毒, "他們權衡祂" 。


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Covenant Theology盟約神學

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The doctrine of the covenant was one of the theological contributions that came to the church through the Reformation of the sixteenth century.該學說的盟約是一個神學的貢獻,來教會通過改造16世紀。 Undeveloped earlier, it made its appearance in the writings of Zwingli and Bullinger, who were driven to the subject by Anabaptists in and around Zurich.欠發達較早,它作出了自己的外貌,在著作zwingli和布凌格,那些被驅趕的主題,由anabaptists在靠近蘇黎世。 From them it passed to Calvin and other Reformers, was further developed by their successors, and played a dominant role in much Reformed theology of the seventeenth century when it came to be known as covenant, or federal, theology.他們通過向卡爾文和其他改革者,得到了進一步發展,由他們的繼承人,並發揮了主導作用,在很多改革神學的十七世紀時,它後來被稱為盟約,或聯邦,神學。 Covenant theology sees the relation of God to mankind as a compact which God established as a reflection of the relationship existing between the three persons of the Holy Trinity.盟約神學認為的關係,上帝給人類作為緊湊而上帝設立反映了現有的關係,三者之間的人的聖三一。

This emphasis on God's covenantal dealings with the human race tended to lessen what appeared to some to be harshness in the earlier Reformed theology which emanated from Geneva, with its emphasis on the divine sovereignty and predestination.這種強調對上帝的covenantal打交道的人的種族傾向淡化似乎有些被苛刻,在以前的改革神學,它是源自日內瓦的,其重點是對神的主權和宿命。 From Switzerland covenant theology passed over into Germany, and from there into the Netherlands and the British Isles.由瑞士盟約神學通過到德國,再從那裡進入荷蘭和英倫三島。 Among its early and most influential advocates were, besides Zwingli and Bullinger, Olevianus (Concerning the Nature of the Covenant of Grace Between God and the Elect, 1585), Cocceius (Doctrine of the Covenant and Testaments of God, 1648), and Witsius (The Oeconomy of the Covenants, 1685).其早期和最有影響力的鼓吹者,除了zwingli和布凌格, olevianus (有關性的盟約的恩典與上帝的選, 1585 ) , cocceius (學說的盟約,並證明了上帝的, 1648 ) ,和witsius (該oeconomy的公約, 1685年) 。 It was taken up into the Westminister Confession and came to have an important place in the theology of Scotland and New England.它被帶到了進入westminister招供,並有重要的地位,在神學的蘇格蘭和新英格蘭。

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The Covenant of Works該公約的作品

Having created man in his own image as a free creature with knowledge, righteousness, and holiness, God entered into covenant with Adam that he might bestow upon him further blessing.創造了男子,在他自己的形象,作為一個自由的動物,有知識,義,和聖潔,上帝訂立盟約與亞當表示,他可能賜給他進一步祝福。 Called variously the Edenic covenant, the covenant of nature, the covenant of life, or preferably the Covenant of Works , this pact consisted of (1) a promise of eternal life upon the condition of perfect obedience throughout a probationary period; (2) the threat of death upon disobedience; and (3) the sacrament of the tree of life, or, in addition, the sacraments of paradise and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.所謂不同程度的edenic公約,該公約的性質,該公約的生活,還是最好盟約的作品 ,這個協議包括( 1 )承諾的永恆生活條件的完善,服從整個試用期; ( 2 )死亡的威脅後,抗命; ( 3 )聖事的生命樹,或者,此外,聖禮天堂與樹的知識,善良與邪惡。 Although the term "covenant" is not mentioned in the first chapters of Genesis, it is held that all the elements of a covenant are present even though the promise of eternal life is there by implication only.雖然"盟約" ,是沒有提及,在第一章的成因中,認為所有元素的一個公約是目前即使承諾永恆的生命是有含意。 Before the fall Adam was perfect but could still have sinned; had he retained his perfection throughout the probationary period, he would have been confirmed in righteousness and been unable to sin.垮台前亞當是十全十美的,但仍然可以去犯罪;過他保留著他的完美在整個試用期間,他將已被確認為正義和一直無法單。

Inasmuch as he was acting not only for himself but representatively for mankind, Adam was a public person.因為,他是不是只為自己,但代表性,為人類,亞當是一個公眾人物。 His fall therefore affected the entire human race that was to come after him; all are now conceived and born in sin.他的下降,因此影響到整個人類的,那就是讓他的,全都是現在在構思和誕生於罪過。 Without a special intervention of God there would be no hope; all would be lost forever.如果沒有特別的干預,上帝將不會有希望,一切將永遠失去了。

The good news, however, is that God has intervened in behalf of mankind with another covenant. Unlike the earlier covenant of works, whose mandate was "Do this and you shall live" (cf. Rom. 10:5; Gal. 3:12), the covenant of grace is bestowed on men in their sinful condition with the promise that, in spite of their inability to keep any of the commandments of God, out of sheer grace he forgives their sin and accepts them as his children through the merits of his Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, on the condition of Faith.好消息,然而,就是上帝的介入,代表了人類與另一盟約, 不像早先公約的工程,其任務是"做這做,你將生活" (見光盤。 10時05分;加爾3 : 12 ) ,該公約的恩典賜予的男子在其罪孽深重的條件與承諾,儘管他們無法保持任何的誡命神的,但是,出於純粹的恩典,他寬恕自己的罪過,並接納他們為他的孩子們通過值得的,他的兒子,主耶穌基督,條件是信念。

The Covenant of Redemption該公約的救贖

According to covenant theology, the covenant of grace, established in history, is founded on still another covenant, the covenant of redemption, which is defined as the eternal pact between God the Father and God the Son concerning the salvation of mankind.根據盟約神學,該公約的寬限期,在既定的歷史,是建基於還有一項公約,該公約的救贖,它的定義是永恆的條約上帝和上帝的兒子,關於救贖人類。 Scripture teaches that within the Godhead there are three persons, the same in essence, glory, and power, objective to each other.聖經教導我們,在神的源頭有三個人,同時在本質上,榮耀,權力,目的是相輔相成的。 The Father loves the Son, commissions him, gives him a people, the right to judge, and authority over all mankind (John 3:16; 5:20, 22, 36; 10:17 - 18; 17:2, 4, 6, 9, 24; Ps. 2:7 - 8; Heb. 1:8 - 13); the Son loves the Father, delights to do his will, and has shared his glory forever (Heb. 10:7; John 5:19; 17:5).父親愛兒子,佣金他,讓他一個人,正確的判斷,和權威全人類(約翰3:16 ; 5點20 ,第22 ,第36條; 10時17 -1 8; 1 7時0 2分, 4 , 6日, 9日, 24歲;聚苯乙烯。 2點07分-八;以弗所書1 :8- 13 );兒子深愛著父親,愉悅做他的意願,並分享他的榮耀永遠(希伯來書1 0時0 7分;約翰五日: 19 ; 17時05分) 。 The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit commune with each other; this is one of the meanings of the Christian doctrine of the Trinity.父親,兒子,和聖靈公社與對方,這就是其中的含義基督教教義的三位一體。

On this foundation covenant theology affirms that God the Father and God the Son covenanted together for the redemption of the human race, the Father appointing the Son to be the mediator, the Second Adam, whose life would be given for the salvation of the world, and the Son accepting the commission, promising that he would do the work which the Father had given him to do and fulfill all righteousness by obeying the law of God.在此基礎上盟約神學申明上帝和上帝的兒子covenanted起來,為救贖人類,父親委任兒子成為調停者,第二個亞當,他們的生活會考慮為救贖的世界,和兒子接受該委員會,有前途,他會做的工作,父親給了他這樣做,並履行所有正義服從上帝的法規。 Thus before the foundation of the world, within the eternal being of God, it had been determined that creation would not be destroyed by sin, but that rebellion and iniquity would be overcome by God's grace, that Christ would become the new head of humanity, the Savior of the world, and that God would be glorified.所以才立黨之本,世界,並沒有永恆的福祉神,它已被確定,創造不會被人破壞罪過,但暴動和邪惡中,將克服由上帝的恩典,基督將成為新的主管人道,救世主的世界,神將榮耀。

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The Covenant of Grace該公約的恩典

This covenant has been made by God with mankind.這個公約已經取得了神與人類。 In it he offers life and salvation through Christ to all who believe. Inasmuch as none can believe without the special grace of God, it is more exact to say that the covenant of grace is made by God with believers, or the elect. Jesus said that all those whom the Father had given him would come to him and that those who come would surely be accepted (John 6:37).在它提供的,他的生命和救恩透過基督所有的人相信。 因為沒有人能夠相信,如果沒有特別的恩賜,它是更確切的說,該公約的寬限期,是由上帝與信徒,或選出。耶穌說:所有這些人的父親給了他會來,他和那些來一定會被接受(約翰6時37分) 。 Herein is seen the close relation between the covenant of grace and the covenant of redemption, with the former resting on the latter.這裡是看到了緊密關係公約的恩典和盟約贖買的方式,與前休息了後者。 From eternity the Father has given a people to the Son; to them was given the promised Holy Spirit so that they might live in fellowship with God.從永恆父親打了一個人的兒子;向他們提供所承諾的聖靈,使他們有可能生活在團契與上帝。 Christ is the mediator of the covenant of grace inasmuch as he has borne the guilt of sinners and restored them to a saving relationship to God (Heb. 8:6; 9:15; 12:24).基督是調停人的盟約的恩典,因為他已經證明他有罪的罪人,並恢復他們節省了關係,以神(希伯來書8時06分; 9:15 ; 12時24分) 。 He is mediator, not only in the sense of arbitrator, although that is the sense in which the word is used in 1 Tim.他是調解員,不僅在意義上的仲裁員,雖然這是常識,這兩個字是用在一添。 2:5, but in the sense of having fulfilled all the conditions necessary for procuring eternal salvation for his people. 2時05分,但在意義上的完成了所有必要的條件,採購永恆的救贖,為他的人民。

Thus Heb.因此希伯來書。 7:22 calls Jesus the "surety" or "guarantee" of the new covenant, which is better than that which came through Moses. 7時22分來電耶穌的"擔保人"或"保證"的新的盟約,但總比說出來,通過摩西。 Within the context of this last passage repeated mention is made of God's promise to Christ and his people.內部的背景下這最後通過反复提到的是上帝的諾言,以基督和他的人民。 He will be their God and they will be his people.他將他們的神和他們的將是他的人。 He will bestow on them the grace they need to confess his name and live with him forever; in humble dependence on him for their every need, they will live in trustful obedience from day to day.他會賜給他們的恩典,他們需要交代自己的名字和他同住永遠;濡以沬依賴於他自己的每一個需要,他們將生活在相互信任的服從性,從日常。 This latter, called faith in Scripture, is the sole condition of the covenant, and even it is a gift of God (Eph. 2:8 - 9).這後者, 所謂的信念在經文中,是唯一的條件,公約的,甚至是神的恩賜 (以弗所書2時08 -9 ) 。

Although the covenant of grace includes various dispensations of history, it is essentially one.雖然該公約的寬限期,包括各種dispensations歷史的,它基本上是一種。 From the promise in the garden (Gen. 3:15), through the covenant made with Noah (Gen. 6 - 9), to the day that the covenant was established with Abraham, there is abundant evidence of God's grace.從承諾在花園裡(創3:15 ) ,通過該公約與挪亞(創6 -9 ) ,以當日該公約設立的亞伯拉罕,有大量證據上帝的恩典。 With Abraham a new beginning is made which the later, Sinaitic covenant implements and strengthens.亞伯拉罕一個新的開端,是其中後,西乃半島公約的實施和加強。 At Sinai the covenant assumes a national form and stress is laid on the law of God.在西奈盟約假設一個國家的形式和強調的是放在上帝的法規。 This is not intended to alter the gracious character of the covenant, however (Gal. 3:17 - 18), but it is to serve to train Israel until the time would come when God himself would appear in its midst.這是不打算改變大方性格的盟約,但是, ( gal. 3時17 -1 8) ,但它是為了向以色列火車到時候會來的時候,上帝會出現在它的中間。 In Jesus the new form of the covenant that had been promised by the prophets is manifest, and that which was of a temporary nature in the old form of the covenant disappears (Jer. 31:31 - 34; Heb. 8). While there is unity and continuity in the covenant of grace throughout history, the coming of Christ and the subsequent gift of the Holy Spirit have brought rich gifts unknown in an earlier age.在耶穌新形式的公約已答應由先知,是體現和表示,這是屬於暫時性質,在舊形式的盟約消失( jer. 31:31 -3 4;以弗所書8 ) 。則有是的統一性和連續性,在該公約的寬限期,在整個歷史上,在未來的基督,以及隨後聖靈的恩賜帶來了豐富的禮物,不知在較早年齡段。

These are a foretaste of future blessedness when this present world passes away and the Holy City, the New Jerusalem, comes down out of heaven from God (Rev. 21:2).這些都預示著未來幸福的時候,這個目前世界逝世和聖城新耶路撒冷,可以歸結出天國上帝(牧師21時02分) 。

ME Osterhaven我osterhaven
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
L Berkhof, Systematic Theology; C Hodge, Systematic Theology, II; H Heppe, Reformed Dogmatics; H Bavinck, Our Reasonable Faith; G Schrenk, Gottesreich und Bund in alteren Protestantismus; HH Wolf, Die Einheit des Bundes.升,伯克霍夫的,有系統的神學; c Hodge的,有系統的神學,二; h黑珀,改革dogmatics ; h巴文克,我們合理的信仰;克schrenk , gottesreich und外灘alteren protestantismus ;個HH狼來了,死einheit萬的Bundes 。


Covenant盟約

General Information 一般資料

Covenant, in Old Testament theology, is a compact between God and his worshipers. Covenants were originally developed by the civilizations of the ancient Middle East as a means of regulating relations between social or political entities. 盟約,在舊約神學,是一個緊湊型之間的上帝和他的會眾。公約最初由文明的古老的中東作為一種手段,調節社會關係或政治實體。 The earliest evidence for covenants comes from Sumer in the 3rd millennium BC.最早證據盟約來自蘇美爾在第三公元前3000年。 In the late Bronze Age (14th century to 13th century BC), covenants were used by the Hittites to define the reciprocal obligations of suzerain and vassal.在青銅時代晚期( 14世紀至13世紀BC )的,公約所採用的赫梯界定等義務的宗藩。 Covenants often took the form of military treaties and were used to specify the terms of peace between a victor and a defeated foe.盟約往往採取的方式是軍事條約和被用來指明的條款之間的和平是勝利者,並擊敗敵人。

The earliest covenant recorded in the Old Testament occurs in Genesis 15:12-21, in which Yahweh pledges himself unconditionally to grant the land of Palestine to Abraham's descendants.最早的盟約記錄在舊約中出現成因15:12-21 ,其中雅威自己的承諾,無條件地給予巴勒斯坦的土地上,以亞伯拉罕的子孫。 Similarly, in 2 Samuel 7:13-17, Yahweh promises to establish the dynasty of King David forever.同樣,在二塞繆爾7:13-17 ,雅威諾言,以建立王朝的大衛王永遠。 This type of unilateral pledge is called a promissory covenant, in contrast to the obligatory covenant, such as that made between Yahweh and Moses, in which both parties bind themselves to abide by certain stipulations.這種類型的單方面承諾,是所謂的承諾公約,在對比度,以強制性公約,例如像之間雅威和摩西,其中雙方約束自己,遵守某些規定。 Exodus 24:7 relates that Moses took "the book of the covenant, and read it in the hearing of the people; and they said, 'All that the Lord has spoken we will do, and we will be obedient.'!"出埃及記24:7表示摩西了" ,書中的盟約,並宣讀了它在聽證會的人,以及他們說, '所有主發言後,我們會做的,我們會聽話' ! " Contemporary scholars believe that "the book of the covenant" includes the section in Exodus from 20:23 through 23:33.當代學者認為, "這本書的盟約" ,其中包括科外流,從20點23分,通過23時33分。

From these and other passages in the Pentateuch has arisen the conception of a covenant between Yahweh and the people of Israel, whereby the Israelites were to enjoy the blessing and protection of Yahweh in return for remaining obedient and faithful to him.從這些和其他旅費,在pentateuch出現的概念,包含之間雅威和以色列人民,讓以色列人被享受祝福和保護雅威以換取剩餘的順從和忠實地給他。 After the Jews were driven out of Palestine and scattered over the earth, the covenant between the Jews and Yahweh was interpreted by them to include an eventual restoration of their ancient homeland.之後,猶太人被趕出巴勒斯坦和散落在地球之間的契約,猶太人和雅威被解讀為他們包括最終恢復自己的古老家園。

According to Christian theology, Jesus Christ, by his death on the cross, made a covenant for the redemption of humanity. Theologians differ about the precise meaning of this covenant, sometimes called the New Covenant or the Covenant of the New Testament. Some believe that Christ's voluntary sacrifice redeemed all; others contend that only those who earn their redemption by faith alone, or by faith and good works, can or will be saved. 據基督教神學,耶穌基督,他的逝世對兩岸關係,作出了盟約為救贖人類。神學家不同,對準確含義這個公約,有時被稱為新的公約盟約的新約聖經。有些人認為基督的自願犧牲贖回全部;其他人則認為,只有那些賺其贖回所信仰單,或由信仰和好的作品,能夠或者將會得到拯救。


Cov'enant cov'enant

Advanced Information 先進的信息

A covenant is a contract or agreement between two parties.一項公約是一項合同或協議,兩方之間。 In the Old Testament the Hebrew word berith is always thus translated.在舊約希伯來文的字貝里特總是因此翻譯成英文。 Berith is derived from a root which means "to cut," and hence a covenant is a "cutting," with reference to the cutting or dividing of animals into two parts, and the contracting parties passing between them, in making a covenant (Gen. 15; Jer. 34:18, 19).貝里特是源於一個根源,亦即"削減" ,因此,公約是一個"剪" ,是參考了切割或分裂的動物分成兩部分,締約各方通過它們之間的,在作出盟約(根。 15 ;哲。 34:18 , 19 ) 。

The corresponding word in the New Testament Greek is diatheke, which is, however, rendered "testament" generally in the Authorized Version.相應的字,在新約聖經希臘是diatheke ,這是但是,立下"遺囑"籠統地說,在核定的版本。 It ought to be rendered, just as the word berith of the Old Testament, "covenant."它應該提供,正如字貝里特的舊約, "盟約" 。 This word is used (1) of a covenant or compact between man and man (Gen. 21: 32), or between tribes or nations (1 Sam. 11:1; Josh. 9:6, 15).這個字是用( 1 )一個公約或緊湊,人與文(創21 : 32 )之間,或部落或國家( 1薩姆。 11時01分;喬什。 9時06分, 15歲) 。 In entering into a convenant, Jehovah was solemnly called on to witness the transaction (Gen. 31:50), and hence it was called a "covenant of the Lord" (1 Sam. 20:8).在進入了一個盟約,耶和華是鄭重呼籲見證交易(創31:50 ) ,因此它被稱為"盟約的上主" ( 1薩姆。 20時08分) 。 The marriage compact is called "the covenant of God" (Prov. 2:17), because the marriage was made in God's name.婚姻契約是所謂的"盟約的上帝" ( prov. 2:17 ) ,因為婚姻是上帝的名字。 Wicked men are spoken of as acting as if they had made a "covenant with death" not to destroy them, or with hell not to devour them (Isa. 28:15, 18).邪惡的男人談及擔任代理,因為如果他們已經作出了"盟約與死亡"的人,不要把他們消滅,或與地獄不吃掉他們(以賽亞書28:15 , 18 ) 。

(2.) The word is used with reference to God's revelation of himself in the way of promise or of favour to men. ( 2 )這個詞是用來參考,以上帝的啟示,在自己的方式許諾或失寵於男子。 Thus God's promise to Noah after the Flood is called a covenant (Gen. 9; Jer.l 33:20, "my covenant").因此上帝的承諾諾亞大洪水過後,是被稱為盟約(創9 ; jer.l 33:20 , "我的盟約" ) 。 We have an account of God's covernant with Abraham (Gen. 17, comp. Lev. 26:42), of the covenant of the priesthood (Num. 25:12, 13; Deut. 33:9; Neh. 13:29), and of the covenant of Sinai (Ex. 34:27, 28; Lev. 26:15), which was afterwards renewed at different times in the history of Israel (Deut. 29; Josh. 24; 2 Chr. 15; 23; 29; 34; Ezra 10; Neh. 9).我們有一個帳戶上帝的covernant亞伯拉罕(創17可比。列弗。 26:42 ) ,該公約的神職人員( num. 25:12 , 13歲; deut 。 33:9 ; neh 。 13時29分)文件和公約的西奈(例如: 34:27 , 28列弗。 26:15 ) ,這是事後再次,在不同時間,在歷史上的以色列(申命記29 ;喬什24 2人權委員會15 , 23 ; 29 ; 34 ;以斯拉10歲; neh 9段) 。 In conformity with human custom, God's covenant is said to be confirmed with an oath (Deut. 4:31; Ps. 89:3), and to be accompanied by a sign (Gen. 9; 17).符合人的習俗,上帝的盟約是說,待證實與宣誓(申命記4時31分;聚苯乙烯。 89:3 ) ,並伴隨著一個跡象(創九17 ) 。 Hence the covenant is called God's "counsel," "oath," "promise" (Ps. 89:3, 4; 105:8-11; Heb. 6:13-20; Luke 1:68-75).因此,該公約是所謂上帝的"律師" , "誓言" , "諾言" (詩篇89:3 , 4 ; 105:8-11 ;以弗所書6:13-20 ;路加福音1:68-75 ) 。 God's covenant consists wholly in the bestowal of blessing (Isa. 59:21; Jer. 31:33, 34).上帝的盟約組成,全在贈與的祝福(以賽亞書59:21 ;哲。 31:36 , 34 ) 。 The term covenant is also used to designate the regular succession of day and night (Jer. 33:20), the Sabbath (Ex. 31:16), circumcision (Gen. 17:9, 10), and in general any ordinance of God (Jer. 34:13, 14).任期盟約也被用來指定繼承定期日間及夜間( jer. 33:20 ) ,安息日(如31:16 ) ,割禮(創17時09分, 10 ) ,並在總體上的任何條例神( jer. 34:13 , 14 ) 。 A "covenant of salt" signifies an everlasting covenant, in the sealing or ratifying of which salt, as an emblem of perpetuity, is used (Num. 18:19; Lev. 2:13; 2 Chr. 13:5). "盟約鹽" ,標誌著一個永恆的盟約中,在密封或批准,其中鹽,作為會徽的永久組成,可用於( num. 18時19分;列弗。 2時13分, 2人權委員會。 13時05分) 。

Covenant of Works盟約工程

The Covenant of Works was the constitution under which Adam was placed at his creation.該公約的工程,是根據憲法,其中亞當放在他的創作風格。 In this covenant, (1.) The contracting parties were (a) God the moral Governor, and (b) Adam, a free moral agent, and representative of all his natural posterity (Rom. 5:12-19).在這個公約, ( 1 )締約各方分別為: (一)神的道德總督,及( b )亞當,一個自由的道德代理人,並代表他的所有自然後代(羅馬書5:12-19 ) 。 (2.) The promise was "life" (Matt. 19:16, 17; Gal. 3:12). ( 2 )承諾是"生命" 。 ( 19:17 17 ;加爾。 3時12分) 。 (3.) The condition was perfect obedience to the law, the test in this case being abstaining from eating the fruit of the "tree of knowledge," etc. (4.) The penalty was death (Gen. 2:16, 17). (三)符合有關條件,完善以服從法律,但測試在這種情況下,作為自動棄權,吃水果的"樹的知識" ,等等( 4 ) ,被判處死刑(創2時16分, 17 ) 。

This covenant is also called a covenant of nature, as made with man in his natural or unfallen state; a covenant of life, because "life" was the promise attached to obedience; and a legal covenant, because it demanded perfect obedience to the law.這個公約也被稱作盟約的性質,因為與男子在他的自然人或unfallen狀態;盟約的生命,因為"生命"的承諾,重視服從;和法律公約,因為它要求完善以服從法律。 The "tree of life" was the outward sign and seal of that life which was promised in the covenant, and hence it is usually called the seal of that covenant. This covenant is abrogated under the gospel, inasmuch as Christ has fulfilled all its conditions in behalf of his people, and now offers salvation on the condition of faith. It is still in force, however, as it rests on the immutable justice of God, and is binding on all who have not fled to Christ and accepted his righteousness. "生命之樹" ,是向外簽署並蓋章的,生命是承諾在盟約,因此它通常被稱為密封的公約, 這個公約是根據廢止了福音,因為基督已經圓滿地完成了各項條件在代表他的人民,現在提供救贖論條件,信仰,它是仍然有效,不過,由於它取決於人們對一成不變正義的神,是約束所有的人都不會逃到基督接納他的正義感。

Covenant of Grace盟約的恩典

The eternal plan of redemption entered into by the three persons of the Godhead, and carried out by them in its several parts.永恆計劃的贖回進入了由3人的神的源頭,進行了它們在其幾部分組成。 In it the Father represented the Godhead in its indivisible sovereignty, and the Son his people as their surety (John 17:4, 6, 9; Isa. 42:6; Ps. 89:3).在它的父親,代表了神的源頭在其不可分割的主權,和兒子死了,他視人民為保證人(約翰17時04分, 6日, 9日;伊薩。 42:6 ;聚苯乙烯。 89:3 ) 。

The conditions of this covenant were,:條件,這個公約的人, :

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


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Covenanters盟約

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Covenanters were Scottish Presbyterians of the 17th century who subscribed to covenants (or bonds), the most famous being the National Covenant of 1638 and the Solemn League and Covenant of 1643.該盟約被蘇格蘭presbyterians的十七世紀的人所簽署盟約(或債券) ,其中最有名的被國家公約的1638和莊嚴聯賽和公約的1643年。 The National Covenant opposed the new liturgy introduced (1637) by King Charles I. This led to the abolition of episcopacy in Scotland and the Bishops' Wars (1639-41), in which the Scots successfully defended their religious freedom against Charles.全國盟約反對新的禮儀中介紹了( 1637 ) ,由國王查爾斯一,這導致取消之故,在蘇格蘭和美國主教團戰爭( 1639至1641年) ,其中蘇格蘭人成功捍衛了他們的宗教自由,對查爾斯。

In the Solemn League and Covenant, the Scots pledged their support to the English parliamentarians in the English Civil War with the hope that Presbyterianism would become the established church in England.在莊嚴的聯賽和盟約,蘇格蘭人表示,他們支持以英語國會議員在英國內戰與希望presbyterianism將成為既定的教堂在英國。 This hope was not fulfilled.這個願望沒有實現。 In fact, after the Restoration (1660), King Charles II restored the episcopacy and denounced the covenants as unlawful.事實上,在修復後( 1660 ) ,國王查爾斯二世恢復之故,並譴責人權公約,是非法的。 Three revolts of the Covenanters (1666, 1679, 1685) were harshly repressed.三起義的盟約( 1666 ,為1679 , 1685 )被嚴厲鎮壓。 After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, William III reestablished the Presbyterian church in Scotland but did not renew the covenants.之後,光榮革命的1688年,威廉三,重新確立了基督教長老會在蘇格蘭,但沒有續簽盟約。

Charles H. Haws查爾斯每小時容易

Bibliography 參考書目
Cowan, IB, Scottish Covenanters (1976); Stevenson, D., The Scottish Revolution, 1637-44 (1973). Cowan先生,興業,蘇格蘭盟約派( 1976年) ;史蒂文森博士,蘇格蘭革命, 1637年至1644年( 1973年) 。


Covenant of Works盟約工程

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Covenant of Works, was entered into by God with Adam as the representative of the human race (comp. Gen. 9:11, 12; 17: 1-21), so styled because perfect obedience was its condition, thus distinguishing it from the covenant of grace.該公約的作品,是進入上帝與亞當為代表的是人類( comp.上將9時11分, 12歲; 17 : 1-21 ) ,所以風格的,因為完美的服從性是它的條件,從而區別於該公約的恩典。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Palestinian Covenant巴勒斯坦盟約

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray 來自:主頁聖經研究評論詹姆斯米灰色

Deuteronomy Chapters 29-30申命記章29-30

The Terms of the Covenant該條款的盟約

c. 30 The Scofield Bible analyzes the Palestinian covenant into seven parts, as follows: Verse 1. 30史高菲聖經分析了巴勒斯坦盟約分為七個部分,內容如下:韻文1 。 Disperson for disobedience. disperson為抗命。 Compare c.比較長 28:63-68 and Gen. 15:18. 28:63-68和將軍02:22 。 " 2. Further repentence while in dispersion. " 3. "二,進一步悔過書,而在分散" 。 3 。 Return of the Lord (compare Amos 9:9-14; Acts 15:14-17).返回主(比較阿莫斯9:9-14 ;行為15:14-17 ) 。 " 5. Restoration to the land (compare Isa. 11:11, 12; Jer. 23:3-8; Ezek. 37:21-25). " 6. " 5 。恢復土地(比較伊薩。 11:11 , 12歲;哲。 23:3-8 ; ezek 。 37:21-25 ) 。 " 6 。 National conversion (compare Hos. 2:14-16; Rom. 11:26, 27).全國轉換(比較居者有其屋。 2:14-16 ;光碟。 11:26 , 27 ) 。 " 7. Judgment on Israel's oppressors (compare Isa. 14:1, 2; Joel 3:1-8; Matt. 25:31-46). " 9. " 7 。裁決對以色列的壓迫者(比較伊薩。 14時01分, 2 ;的Joel 3:1-8 ;馬特。 25:31-46 ) 。 " 9 。 National prosperity (compare Amos 9:11-14).國家繁榮(比較阿莫斯9:11-14 ) 。

We are not to suppose that the promises were fulfilled by Israel's restoration from the Babylonian captivity.我們不是去假定的承諾得到實現,由以色列的修復工程從巴比倫獲釋。 It will be recalled that she was not then scattered "among all the nations" or "unto the utmost parts of heaven."人們還記得,她是不會那麼分散的, "在所有國家的"或"所不欲,最大部分的天堂" 。 Moreover, when God recalled them from Babylon, they were not all brought back nor multiplied above their fathers (5), nor were their hearts circumcised to love the Lord (6).此外,當上帝的回憶,他們從巴比倫,他們並不都帶回來,也沒有再乘以上述的父親( 5 ) ,也沒有被他們的心接受割禮,以愛主( 6 ) 。 It may be said that there was a foreshadowing of the ultimate fulfilment of the prophecy at that time, but nothing more.可以說,有一個鋪墊的,最終實現的預言,在那個時間,但此而已。 The complete accomplishment is yet to come.完整的成績,的確還在後頭。 Israel is yet to be converted to Jesus Christ as her Messiah, and returned to her land in accordance with what all the prophets teach.以色列尚未轉換為耶穌基督是她的救世主,並回到自己的土地按照何種所有先知任教。

Questions 1. 問題 1 。 Name and distinguish between the two covenants mentioned.名稱和區分這兩項公約的提及。 2. 2 。 How many of the Scripture references have you examined under the paragraph "The Need of Eye Salve"?有多少經文參考你檢查下段"的需要,眼心何忍" ? 3. 3 。 Name the seven features of the Palestinian covenant.姓名七個特點巴勒斯坦盟約。 4. 4 。 Why was not the restoration from Babylon the fulfilment of these promises?為什麼沒有恢復從巴比倫履行這些承諾? 5. 5 。 When will they be fulfilled?時,他們會履行?


Covenanters盟約

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

The name given to the subscribers (practically the whole Scottish nation) of the two Covenants, the National Covenant of 1638 and the Solemn League and Covenant of 1643.姓名考慮到用戶(幾乎整個蘇格蘭民族)的兩個人權公約,國家公約的1638和莊嚴聯賽和公約的1643年。 Though the covenants as national bonds ceased with the conquest of Scotland by Cromwell, a number continued to uphold them right through the period following the Restoration, and these too are known as Covenanters.雖然該公約的國家債券停止與征服的,由蘇格蘭克倫威爾,一些繼續堅持他們有權通過之後的一段時間裡恢復,而這也被稱為盟約。 The object of the Covenants was to band the whole nation together in defense of its religion against the attempts of the king to impose upon it an episcopal system of church government and a new and less anti-Roman liturgy.該物體的公約,是要帶全民族的共同防務,其對宗教的企圖國王強加於它是一個系統的主教教堂政府和一個新的和少的反羅馬教會禮儀。 The struggle that ensued was a struggle for supremacy, viz.: as to who should have the last word, the King or the Kirk, in deciding the religion of the country.這場鬥爭隨後是一個奮鬥的至高無上的,即:至於誰應該有最後的發言權,國王或柯克,在決定宗教的國家。 How this struggle arose must first be briefly explained.如何鬥爭此起彼伏,首先要簡要解釋。

The causes of this Protestant conflict between Church and State must be sought in the circumstances of the Scottish Reformation.造成這一衝突的新教教會和國家之間必須尋求在此情況下的蘇格蘭改造。 (For a summary of the history of the Scottish reformation down to 1601 see ch. ii of Gardiner's "History of England".) Owing to the fact that Scotland, unlike England, has accepted Protestantism, not at the dictates of her rulers, but in opposition to them, the reformation was not merely an ecclesiastical revolution, but a rebellion. (總結了歷史的蘇格蘭改造下降到1601年見章第二節加德納的"歷史的英格蘭" ) ,由於這一事實,即蘇格蘭,不像英國,接受了基督教的,而不是聽命於她的統治者,但在反對派對他們來說,改革不僅是一個宗教革命,而是一種反叛。 It was, therefore, perhaps no mere chance that made the Scottish nation, under the guidance of John Knox and later Andrew Melville, adopt that form of Protestantism which was, in its doctrine, farthest removed from Rome, to which their French regents adhered, and which in its theory of church government was most democratic.因此,有人也許不只是機會,使得蘇格蘭民族的指導下,約翰諾克斯後來安德魯梅爾維爾,採取這種形式的新教是,在它的教義,最遠罷免羅馬,而他們的法語科羅拉多大學堅持,而在其理論的教會,政府是最民主的。 Presbyterianism meant the subordination of the State to the Kirk, as Melville plainly told James VI at Cupar in 1596, on the famous occasion when he seized his sovereign by the sleeve and called him "God's silly vassal". presbyterianism指的是從屬的國家向柯克,梅爾維爾赤裸裸地告訴詹姆士六世在cupar在1596 ,對著名的場合時,他繳獲其主權由袖和他稱為"上帝的無聊的附庸" 。 In the church, king and beggar were on an equal footing and of equal importance; king or beggar might equally and without distinction be excommunicated, and be submitted to a degrading ceremonial if he wished to be released from the censure; in this system the preacher was supreme.在教會裡,國王和乞丐,都是在平等的立足點上的平等的重要性;國王還是乞丐,可能同樣是和不加區分地予以驅逐,並提交給一個有辱人格的典禮,如果他願意被釋放出來訓斥;在這個體系中的佈道者被最高法院。 The civil power was to be the secular arm, the instrument, of the Kirk, and was required to inflict the penalties which the preacher imposed on such as contemned the censure and discipline of the Church.公務員的權力是被世俗手臂,文書,對柯克,並須施加刑罰,其中佈道者強加如contemned譴責和紀律的教會。 The Kirk, therefore, believed that the Presbyterian system, with its preachers, lay elders, and deacons, kirk sessions, synods, and general assemblies, was the one, Divinely appointed means to salvation, claimed to be absolute and supreme.該柯克,因此相信該長老會制度,它的傳教士,奠定長老,和執事,柯克會議,主教會議的,而一般的集會,是一個神聖的委任方式來救贖,他聲稱是絕對的和最高的。 Such a theory of the Divine right of Presbytery was not likely to meet with the approval of the kings of the Stuart line with their exaggerated idea of their own right Divine and prerogative.這種理論的神權的長老,是不太可能,以滿足在徵得國王的斯圖爾特符合他們的想法誇大自己的神聖權利和特權。 Nor could a church where the ministers and their elders in the kirk assemblies judged, censured, and punished all offenders high or low, craftsman or nobleman, be pleasing to an aristocracy that looked with feudal contempt on all forms of labour.也不能一所教堂那裡部長和他們的長輩在柯克集會評判,責難,並懲罰所有罪犯偏高或偏低,技工或貴族,令人高興的是一個貴族說,期待與封建蔑視一切形式的勞動。 Both noble and king were therefore anxious to humble the ministers and deprive them of some of their influence.既有崇高和景,因此急於以謙卑的部長和剝奪了他們對他們的一些影響力。 James VI was soon taught the spirit of the Presbyterian clergy; in 1592 he was compelled formally to sanction the establishment of Presbytery; he was threatened with rebellion if he failed to rule according to the Gospel as interpreted by the ministers.詹姆士六世很快就被教導精神上來,把長老會的神職人員; 1592年,他被迫正式批准設立的長老,他被威脅與反叛,如果他沒有統治據福音的詮釋,由部長。 If his kingly authority was to endure, James saw that he must seek for some means by which he could check their excessive claims.如果他的王道管理局忍受,詹姆斯看到了,他必須尋求一些方法,使他可以檢查其過分的要求。 He first tried to draw together the two separate representative institutions in Scotland - the Parliament, representing the king and the nobility, and the General Assembly, representing the Kirk and the majority of the nation - by granting the clergy a vote in Parliament.他首次嘗試借鑒連同兩個獨立的代議機構,在蘇格蘭-議會中,代表國王和貴族,並得到大會代表柯克和廣大民族-通過給予神職人員表決,在國會。 Owing, however, to the hostility of clergy and nobility, the scheme fell through.然而,由於敵意的教士和貴族,這項計劃告吹。 James now adopted that policy which was to be so fruitful of disaster;he determined to re-introduce episcopacy in Scotland as the only possible means of brining the clergy to submit to his own authority.詹姆斯目前採用這種政策是如此豐碩的災難,他決心要重新引進之故在蘇格蘭作為唯一可能的方式, brining神職人員向他自己的權威。 He had already gone some way towards accomplishing his object when his accession to the English throne still further strengthened his resolve.他已經歷了一些長足的進展,完成他的對象時,他加入了英語寶座仍然進一步堅定了他的決心。 For he considered the assimilation of the two Churches both in their form of government and in their doctrine essential to the furtherance of his great design, the union of the two kingdoms.對於他認為同化這兩個教會都在他們的政府形式,並在其學說至關重要的推動他的偉大設計,該聯盟的兩個王國。

By 1612, James had succeeded in carrying out the first part of his policy, the re-establishment of diocesan episcopacy.通過第1612詹姆斯曾成功地進行了第一部分,他的政策,重新建立的教區主教。 Before his death he had also gone a long way towards effecting changes in the ritual and doctrine of Presbyterianism.在他死之前,他也經歷了漫長的道路走向變化的影響,在祭祀和學說的presbyterianism 。 On Black Saturday, 4 Aug., 1621, the Five Articles of Perth were ratified by the Estates.對黑週六, 1621年8月4日,五篇文章珀斯批准了屋。 Imposed as these were upon an unwilling nation by means of a packed Assembly and Parliament, they were to be the source of much trouble and bloodshed in Scotland.強加的,因為這些人後,不情願的民族是指一個包裝大會和議會,他們要的來源很多麻煩和流血事件在蘇格蘭。 Distrust of their rulers, hatred of bishops, and hatred of all ecclesiastical changes was the legacy bequeathed by James to his son.不信任自己的統治者,仇恨的主教,和仇恨的所有教會的變化是遺產,遺贈由詹姆斯以他的兒子。 James had sowed the wind, and Charles I was soon to reap the whirlwind.詹姆斯已經播下了風,和查爾斯我是即將收穫旋風。 Charles' very first action, his "matching himself with the daughter of Heth", ie, France (see Leighton, "Sion's Plea against Prelacy" quoted by Gardiner, "Hist. of England, ed. 1884, VII, 146), aroused suspicion as to his orthodoxy, and in the light of that suspicion every act of his religious policy was interpreted, wrongly we know, as some subtle means of favoring popery. His wisest course would have been to annul the hated Five Articles of Perth, which to Scotchmen were but so many injunctions to commit idolatry. In spite of concessions, however, he let it be known that the articles were to remain (Row, Historie of the Kirk of Scotland, p. 340; Balfour, Annals, II, 142; Privy Council Register, NS, I, 91-93). Further, he took the unwise step of increasing the powers of the bishops; five were given a place in the Privy Council; and the Archbishop Spottiswoode was made President of the Exchequer and ordered as Primate to take precedence of every other subject. This proceeding not only roused the indignation of Protestants, who in the words of Row, considered bishops "bellie-gods", but it further offended the aristocracy, who felt themselves thus slighted. But a persecution of the Kirk and its preachers would not have brought about as rebellion. Charles could always count on his subservient bishops, and on the nobles ever willing to humble the ministers. But he now took a step which alienated his only allies. James had always been careful to keep the nobles on his side by lavish grants of the old church lands. By the Act of Revocation, which passed the Privy Seal, 12 October, 1625 (Privy Council Register I, 193), Charles I touched the pockets of the nobility, raised at once a serious opposition, and led the barons to form an alliance with the Kirk against the common enemy, the king. It was a fatal step and proved "the ground-stone of all the mischief that followed after, both to this king's government and family (Balfour, Annals, II, 128).查爾斯非常的第一次行動,他的"匹配自己的女兒,海斯的" ,即法國(見禮頓, "錫永的認罪對prelacy "引述加德納, "歷史。英格蘭版1884年,第七條, 146條) ,引起了懷疑他的正統,並根據這一猜疑每法令他的宗教政策進行解釋,錯誤,我們知道,由於一些微妙的手段偏袒popery ,他的明智的,當然會被取消恨五篇文章的珀斯,其中以scotchmen人,但這麼多的禁制令犯下偶像崇拜。不顧的讓步,不過,他讓人知道說,這些文章繼續(連續的歷史的柯克的蘇格蘭, 340頁;鮑爾弗,縣志,二, 142 ;樞密院登記,生理鹽水,我, 91-93 ) 。此外,他還採取不明智的步驟,增加權力的主教; 5人,給予地方在樞密院;大主教spottiswoode了總統的國庫和命令作為靈長類動物,以最優先的每一個其他議題,這程序中,不僅激起了憤慨的新教徒,他們在的話,緬甸考慮主教" bellie -神" ,但它進一步得罪了貴族,他們認為自己因此輕視,但迫害的柯克和其傳教士就不會帶來作為叛亂。查爾斯總是可以指望他屈從主教,並於貴族以往任何時候都願意謙虛的部長們,但他現在採取的一個步驟,這疏遠了他唯一的盟國。詹姆斯一直謹慎地保持貴族對他的共同的盛情資助的舊教會的土地,通過該法令的廢止,其中通過樞密院印章, 1625年10月12日(英國樞密院登記, 193人) ,查爾斯我摸了口袋貴族,提出了在一次嚴重的反對,並領導大亨,來形成一個聯盟,與柯克反對共同的敵人,國王,這是一個致命的步驟,並證明了"地面石材全部作怪隨後後,無論這個國王的政府和家庭(鮑爾弗,縣志,第二,第128條) 。 Thus, before he had set foot in Scotland, Charles had offended every class of his people.因此,之前他已踏上了在蘇格蘭,查爾斯曾得罪了每個班級他的人。 His visit to Scotland made matters worse; Scotchmen were horrified to see at the coronation service such "popish rags" as "white rochets and white sleeves and copes of gold having blue silk to their foot" worn by the presiding bishops which "bred great fear of inbringing of popery" (Spaulding, Hist. of the Troubles in England and Scotland, 1624-45, I, 36).他前往蘇格蘭使事情更糟; scotchmen人震驚地看到,在加冕服務,例如" popish抹布" ,因為"白rochets及白色長袖和應對黃金有藍色絲綢自己的腳"穿的主持主教,其中"孕育了巨大的恐慌對inbringing的popery " (斯波爾丁,歷史的。闖過難關,在英格蘭和蘇格蘭, 1624年至1645年,我36歲) 。 Acts, too, were passed through Parliament which plainly showed the king's determination to change the ecclesiastical system of Scotland.行為,也被多數票通過,其中赤裸裸地表明國王的決心改變教會系統的蘇格蘭。 Scotland was therefore ready for an explosion.蘇格蘭,因此,準備爆炸。

The spark was the New Service Book.星火是新的服務預訂。 Both Charles and Laud had been shocked at the bare walls and pillars of the churches, all clad with dust, sweepings, and cobwebs; at the trafficking which went on in the Scottish churches; at the lengthy "conceived prayers" often spoken by ignorant men and not infrequently as seditious as the sermons (Baillie, OSB, writing in 1627, cited by William Kintoch, "Studies in Scottish Ecclesiastical History", pp. 23, 24; also, "Large Declaration", p. 16).無論查爾斯和讚揚了被震撼,在裸露的牆壁和支柱的教會,都身著蒙塵, sweepings , cobwebs上販賣,其中又以對在蘇格蘭教堂,在冗長的"構思祈禱"常說的無知男人而不是偶爾為煽動,因為布道( baillie ,定向結構刨花板,寫作,在1627年,引自威廉kintoch , "研究在蘇格蘭教會史" ,第23條,第24條,也都"的大宣言" ,第16頁) 。 The king desired to have decency, orderliness, uniformity.國王想要有正當行為,有序,均勻。 Hence he ordered a new service book, prepared by himself and Laud, to be adopted by Scotland.因此他下令一項新的服務,書,準備由他自己和讚揚,將通過的蘇格蘭。 The imposition of the New Service Book was a piece of sheer despotism on the part of the king; it had no ecclesiastical sanction whatever, for the General Assembly, and even the bishops as a body, had not been consulted; neither had it any lay authority, for it had not the approval of Parliament; it went counter to all the religious feeling of the majority of the Scottish people; it offended their national sentiment, for it was English.實行這項新服務,本書是一幅純粹的專制主義對部分國王;它沒有教會制裁,無論如何,為大會,甚至主教作為一個機構,他一直沒有徵詢;都不具備任何裁員權威,因為它已經沒有議會的批准,而是去對付所有的宗教感情的,大多數的蘇格蘭人民,它得罪了他們的民族情感,因為它是英語。 Rowe summed up the objections to it by calling it a "Popish-English-Scotish-Mass-Service-Book" (op. cit., p. 398).羅維總結了反對它稱它是" popish -英語- scotish -大眾服務簿" (同前,頁398 ) 。 There could, therefore, be very little doubt as to how Scotland would receive the new liturgy.有,所以可以很毫無疑問,至於如何蘇格蘭將獲得新的禮拜儀式。 The famous riot at St. Giles, Edinburgh, 23 July, 1637 (account of it in the King's "Large Declaration", and Gordon's "Hist. of Scots Affairs", I, 7), when at the solemn inauguration of the new service, somebody, probably a woman, threw the stool at the deacon's head, was but an indication of the general feeling of the country.著名的防暴在聖賈爾斯,愛丁堡, 1637年7月23日(戶口的,它在國王的"大宣言" ,而戈登的"歷史。蘇格蘭事務" ,我想, 7 ) ,當在莊嚴的就職典禮的新服務會上,有人,可能是一名女子,義無返顧地大便在執事的頭,只不過是表明了一般的感覺,該國。 From all classes and ranks, and from every part of the country except the north-east, the petitions came pouring into the Council for the withdrawal of the liturgy.來自各階層和隊伍,並從每一個國家的一部分,除東北部,前來請願澆築到安理會撤回禮儀。 Every attempt to enforce the prayer book led to a riot.每一個試圖強制執行的祈禱書,引發了一場騷亂。 In a word, the resistance was general.總的來說,阻力一般。 The Council was powerless.安理會是無能為力的。 It was suggested therefore that each of the four orders - nobles, lairds, burghers, and ministers - should choose four commissioners to represent them and transact business with the Council, and that then the crowd of petitioners should return to their homes.有人建議,因此,每家的訂單-貴族, l airds, b urghers,和部長-應該選擇四個委員代表他們進行交易與理事會,並隨後離去的請願者應該返回自己的家園。 Accordingly, four committees, or "Tables" (Row, pp. 465,6) were chosen, the petitioners dispersed, and the riots in Edinburgh ceased.因此,四個委員會,或"表格" (排,第465,6 )被選定後,請願者散去,暴動在愛丁堡停止。 But this arrangement also gave the opposition the one thing necessary for a successful action, a government.但這項安排,也給反對黨的一件事有必要在一項成功的行動,一個政府。 The sixteen could, if only united, direct the mobs effectively.十六可以,如果只有團結起來,指揮暴民有效。 The effect of having a guiding hand was at once seen.的影響,有一個指導,另一方面是在一次看到。 The demands of the supplicants became more definite and peremptory and on 21 December the Tables presented the Council a collective "Supplication" which not only demanded the recall of the liturgy, but, further, the removal of the bishops from the council on the ground that, as they were parties in the case, they should not be judges (Balfour, Annals, II, 244-5: Rothes, Relation, etc., pp. 26 sqq., gives an account of the formation of the "Tables").要求該supplicants變得更為明確和蠻橫,並於12月21日,該圖表介紹了安理會的集體" supplication "這不僅要求召回的禮儀中,但進一步的,取消主教從安理會所持理由是,因為它們案件當事方,他們不應該被法官(鮑爾弗,縣志,二, 244-5 : rothes ,關係,等等,第26 sqq ,敘述了組建"統計表" ) 。 The supplicants, in other words, look upon the quarrel between king and subjects as a lawsuit.該supplicants ,換句話說,看後之間的爭吵國王和科目作為訴訟。

Charles' answer to the "Supplication" was read at Sterling, on 19 February, 1638.查爾斯回答" supplication "上宣讀了英鎊,在1638年2月19日。 He defended the prayer book and declared all protesting meetings illegal and treasonable.他捍衛了祈禱書,並宣布所有的抗議集會是非法的叛逆。 A counter proclamation had been deliberately prepared by the supplicants and no sooner had the king's answer been read than Lords Home and Lindsay, in the name of the four orders, lodged a formal protestation.一個反文告被蓄意準備由supplicants並沒有隨著國王的答案已經讀過,比上議院家和林賽,在名稱的四項命令,提出正式抗議。 The same form was gone through in Linlithgow and Edinburgh.同樣的形式,是經過在林利斯戈和愛丁堡。 By these formal protestations, the petitioners were virtually setting up a government against the government, and as there was no middle party to appeal to, it became necessary to prove to the king that the supplicants, and not he, had the nation behind them.由這些正式的抗議,請願者幾乎是成立一個政府對政府,因為沒有中間黨派呼籲,它已成為必要的證明向國王表示, supplicants ,而不是他,有民族的才是重要的。 The means was ready to hand.手段,就已經作好了把。 The nobility and gentry of Scotland had been in the habit for entering into "bands" for mutual protection.貴族士紳的蘇格蘭已經在習慣,為進入"帶"相互保護。 Archibald Johnson of Warristoun is said to have suggested that such a band or covenant now be adopted, but not as heretofore by nobles and lairds only, but by the whole Scottish people; it was to be a national covenant, taking as its basis the Negative Confession of Faith which had been drawn up by the order of James VI in 1581. archibald約翰遜的warristoun據說已暗示,這種波段或盟約,現在獲得通過,但不作為在此之前,由貴族和lairds而已,但由整個蘇格蘭人民,它是一個民族盟約,同時,其依據是負面自白的信仰,已制定了由常規的詹姆士六世在1581年。 The great document was composed.大文件組成。 After reciting the reason of the band, that the innovations and evils contained in the supplications had no warrant in the word of God, they promise and swear to continue in the profession and obedience of the aforesaid religion, that we shall defend the same, and resist all those contrary errors and corruptions, according to our vocation, and to the uttermost of that power which God has put in our hands all the days of our life". Yet, whilst uttering oaths that seem scarcely compatible with loyalty to the king, they likewise promised and swore that we shall, to the utmost of our power with our means and lives, stand to the defense of our dread sovereign, his person and authority, in defense of the foresaid true religion, liberties and laws of the kingdom" (Large Declaration, p. 57), and they further swore to mutual defense and assistance.後念的原因,樂隊,即創新與邪惡的較量中supplications沒有認股權證,在上帝的話,他們承諾,並發誓繼續在專業並服從上述宗教,我們將保衛一樣的,抵制所有這些相反的錯誤和反腐倡廉工作,根據我們的天職,並為重,這種權力而上帝已在我們的手中,所有的日子,我們的生命" ,不過,雖然使用偽造宣誓似乎很少與效忠國王,他們同樣許諾,並信誓旦旦保證,我們會以最大的力量,與我們的手段和生命安全,請站在國防部的恐懼,我們的主權,他的人格和權威,在國防部的foresaid真正的宗教,自由和法律的王國" (大宣言,第57頁) ,同時,他們還發誓要共同防禦和援助。 In these professions of loyalty, the Covenanters, for so we must now call the supplicants, were probably sincere; during the whole course of the struggle the great majority never wished to touch the throne, they only wished to carry out their own idea of the strictly limited nature of the king's authority.在這些專業的忠誠度,這個盟約,所以,我們現在必須致電supplicants ,很可能是真誠的; ,在整個過程中的鬥爭中,絕大部份從來沒有想觸摸寶座,他們只願意在履行自己的想法了嚴格的有限性,國王的權威。 Charles was the king, and they would obey, if he did as they commanded.查爾斯是國王,他們將服從,如果他沒有,因為他們指揮的。

The success of the Covenant was great and immediate.成功的盟約,是偉大而立竿見影。 It was completed on 28 February and carried for signature to Greyfriars church.它完成於2月28日,並進行簽字,以greyfriars教堂。 Tradition tells how the parchment was unrolled on a tombstone in the churchyard and how the people came in crowds weeping with emotion to sign the band.傳統告訴如何羊皮紙是unrolled一個墓碑,在教堂以及如何人們在歡迎人群中哭泣無感慨地簽署階。 This strange seen was soon witnessed in almost every parish in Scotland, if we except the Highlands and the North-East.這種奇怪的失踪很快就被目擊在幾乎每堂在蘇格蘭,如果我們除了高地和東北部地區。 Several copies of the Covenant were distributed for signature.幾本盟約分發供簽署。 "Gentlemen and noblemen carried copies of it in portmantles and pockets requiring subscriptions thereunto, and using their utmost endeavours with their friends in private for to subscribe." "君子和貴族進行的副本,它在portmantles和口袋,要求訂閱thereunto ,並利用自己最大的努力與他們的朋友在私下認購" 。 "And such was the zeal of many subscribers, that for a while many subscribed with tears on their cheeks" and it is even said that some did draw their blood, and use it in place of ink to underwrite their name" (Gordon, Scots Affairs, I, 46). Not all, however, were willing subscribers to the Covenant. For many persuasion was sufficient to make them join the cause; other required rougher treatment. All those who refused to sign were not only looked upon as ungodly, but as traitors to their country, as ready to help the foreign invader. And as the greater that the number of subscribers grew, the more imperious they were in exacting subscriptions from others who refused to subscribe, so that by degrees they proceeded to contumelies and reproaches, and some were threatened and beaten who durst refuse, especially in the greatest cities" (Ibid, p. 45). " ,而這種被熱情的很多用戶,即有一陣子很多認購眼含熱淚對他們的臉頰" ,是更說,有些只是借鑒他們的血液,並用它代替墨汁,以包銷他們的名字" (高登,蘇格蘭人國際事務中,我, 46歲) 。並非所有的,不過,願意向用戶提供盟約對於很多勸導,足以使他們加入的原因,其他需要粗糙的待遇,凡是拒絕簽署不僅看作為ungodly ,但由於漢奸向自己的國家,作為隨時準備幫助外國侵略者,並為更大認為,對用戶數量的增長,更專橫的,他們在嚴格的征訂由其他人拒絕訂閱,以便最遲度,他們接著contumelies和責備,有的威脅和毆打的人(集團垃圾,尤其是在上最偉大的城市" (同上,第45頁) 。 No blood, however, was shed until the outbreak of the war.沒有血緣,但是,棚,直到戰爭爆發。 Ministers who refused to sign were silenced, ill-treated, and driven from their homes.部長們拒絕簽字的人鴉雀無聲,虐待,並趕出自己的家園。 Toleration and freedom of conscience was hated by both parties and by none more fanatically than the Scottish Presbyterians.容忍和良心自由是深惡痛絕的,雙方並沒有更狂熱地比蘇格蘭presbyterians 。 Scotland was in truth a covenanted nation.蘇格蘭是在真理一covenanted民族。 A few great land-owners, a few of the clergy, especially the Doctors of Aberdeen who feared that their quiet studies and intellectual freedom would be overwhelmed, stood aloof from the movement.少數大土地擁有者,其中的一些神職人員,尤其是醫生,香港仔,他們擔心自己的安靜的研究和知識自由將無法應付,站在超然,從運動。 Many, no doubt, signed in ignorance of what they were doing, some because they were frightened, but more still because they were swayed by an overpowering excitement and frenzy.許多毫無疑問,簽署了在無知的他們做些什麼,有些是因為他們害怕,但更多的還是因為它們不徇私情一個壓倒的興奮與狂熱。 Neither side could now retreat, but Charles was not ready for war.任何一方都不可以,現在撤退,但查爾斯沒有準備好戰爭。 So to gain time he made a show of concession and promised a General Assembly.所以,以爭取時間,他作了一個顯示的讓步,並承諾大會。 The Assembly met at Glasgow 21 Nov., and immediately brought matters to a head.大會今天下午在格拉斯哥11月21日,並立即帶來事項達到了頂點。 It attacked the bishops, accusing them of all manner of crimes; in consequence Hamilton, as commissioner, dissolved it.它攻擊主教,指責他們以各種方式犯罪的;後果漢密爾頓,處長職務,解散它。 Nothing daunted, the Assembly then resolved that it was entitled to remain in session and competent to judge the bishops, and it proceeded to pull down the whole ecclesiastical edifice built up by James and Charles.沒有沮喪,裝配,然後解決它有權繼續開會,並有能力判斷主教,並著手拉下整個教會大廈建立了由詹姆斯和查爾斯。 The Service Book, Book of Canons, the Articles of Perth were swept away; the episcopacy was declared forever abolished and all assemblies held under episcopal jurisdiction were null and void; the bishops were all ejected and some excommunicated; Presbyterian government was again establis hed.服務本書,書中的大砲,文章珀斯被沖走;主教被宣布永遠廢除所有集會舉行下主教管轄無效;主教都跳傘和一些驅逐;長老政府再次establis華大電子。

War was now inevitable.戰爭是無可避免的。 In spite of their protestations of loyalty, the Covenanters had practically set up a theory in opposition to the monarchy.儘管他們抗議的忠誠度,盟約派了,實際上成立了一個理論,反對君主制。 The question at issue, as Charles pointed out in his proclamation, was whether he was to be king or not?這個問題的問題,因為查爾斯指出,在他的代表作,是他是否被國王或不? Toleration was the only basis of compromise possible; but toleration was deemed a heresy by both parties, and hence there was no other course but to fight it out.耐受性是唯一的基礎上妥協的可能,但耐受性被認為是異端雙方當事人,因此,目前還沒有其它課程,但在打出來。 In two short wars, known as the Bishops' Wars, the Covenanters in arms brought the king to his knees, and for the next ten years Charles was only nominally sovereign of Scotland.在短短兩戰爭中,被稱為主教戰爭中,他們盟約武器所帶來的國王,以他的膝蓋,並為下一個十年查爾斯只是名義上的君主蘇格蘭。 A united nation could not be made to change its religion at the command of a king.一個團結的民族,無法作出改變其宗教上的指揮,一個國王。 The triumph of the Covenants, however, was destined to be short-lived.凱旋的盟約,但是,是注定要短命。 The outbreak of the Civil War in England was soon to break the Covenanting party in twain.爆發內戰,在英國很快就被打破covenanting黨和Twain 。 Men were to be divided between their allegiance to monarchy and their allegiance to the Covenant.男人被分為兩派,他們效忠王室的向心力和盟約。 Scotchmen in spite of their past actions still firmly adhered to the monarchical form of government, and there cannot be much doubt that they would much rather have acted as mediators between the king and his Parliament than have interfered actively. scotchmen儘管其在過去的行動依然牢牢堅持以君權的政府形式,並不能有很大的疑問,他們會寧願充當調解員之間的國王和他的國會比都干擾著積極的。 But the royalist successes of 1643 alarmed them.但保皇黨的成功, 1643年震驚。 Presbyterianism would not endure long in Scotland if Charles won. presbyterianism不會忍受長期在蘇格蘭如果查爾斯韓元。 For this reason the majority of the nation sided with the Parliament, but it was with reluctance that the Covenanters agreed to give the English brotherly assistance.基於這個原因,大多數的民族片面與議會,但它是無奈的說,盟約同意讓英語兄弟般的援助。 This assistance they were determined to give only on one condition, namely that England should reform its religion according to the Scottish pattern.這項援助他們決定只對其中一項條件,即:英格蘭應改革其宗教據蘇格蘭格局。 To this end England and Scotland entered into the Solemn League and Covenant (17 Aug., 1643).為此,英格蘭和蘇格蘭進入莊嚴的聯賽和公約( 1643年8月17日) 。 It would have been well for Scotland if she had never entered the League to enforce her own church system on England.如果有良好的蘇格蘭,如果她從來沒有進入聯盟,以執行自己的教會制度,對英格蘭。 If she had been satisfied with a simple alliance and assistance, all would have been well.如果她已不滿足於簡單的聯盟和援助,都將有很好的。 But by materially helping the English Parliament to win at Marsten Moor she had helped to place the decision of affairs of state in the hands of the army, which was predominantly Independent, and hated presbyters as much as bishops.If the Scotch had recrossed the Tweed in 1646 and had left the Parliament and the army to fight out for themselves the question of ecclesiastical government, England would not have interfered with their religion; but the Covenanters thought it their duty to extirpate idolatry and Baal-worship and establish the true religion in England, and so came in conflict with those who wielded the sword.但物質上幫助英語議會爭取在marsten泊岸,她幫助把決定國家事務,在軍隊手中,其中主要是獨立的,並痛恨長老高達bishops.if在蘇格蘭已recrossed特威德在1646年,並已離開了議會和軍隊,以爭取為自己的問題,教會,政府,英國就不會干涉他們的信仰,不過,這個盟約派認為,他們有責任消滅偶像崇拜與巴力崇拜,並建立真正的宗教,在英格蘭,所以排在衝突與那些揮舞劍。 The result was that England not only did not become Presbyterian, but Scotland herself became a conquered country.其結果是,英國不僅沒有成為長老,但蘇格蘭自己成為一個被征服的國家。 In military matters the Covenanters were successful in England, but in their own country they were sorely tried for a year (1644) by the brilliant career of Montrose (an account of the career of Montrose in given in A. Lang, Hist. of Scot., III, v).在軍事事項盟約成功英格蘭,但在他們自己的國家,他們都是嚴峻的考驗,為一年( 1644年)由輝煌的音樂生涯的蒙特羅斯(一個帳戶的職業生涯的蒙特羅斯在給予甲郎,歷史的。逍遙法外,三,五) 。 On account of the nature of the troops engaged, the encounters were fought with a vindictive ferocity unknown in the English part of the Civil War.關於戶口的性質,部隊從事,遇到被打了一個報復性的猛烈程度不明,在英文部分的內戰。 Not only was the number of slain very great, but both sides slaked their thirst for vengeance in plunder, murder, and wholesale massacres.這不僅是數量的殺害很大,但雙方slaked渴望復仇,在掠奪,謀殺,和批發屠殺。 In this respect the Covenanters must bear the greater share of the blame.在這方面,盟約必須承擔更大份額的責任。 The Catholic Celts whom Montrose led undoubtedly committed outrages, especially against their personal enemies the Campbells, during the winter campaigns of Inverlochy (Patrick Gordon, Britane's Distemper, pp. 95 sqq.), but restrained by Montrose, they never perpetrated such perfidy as the Covenanters after Philiphaugh, and the slaughter of three hundred women, "married wives of the Irish".天主教凱爾特人其中蒙特羅斯主導無疑犯下的暴行,特別是針對他們個人的敵人了campbells ,在冬季運動的inverlochy (帕特里克戈登britane的distemper ,第95 sqq ) ,但受制於蒙特羅斯,他們從來沒有犯下這種背信棄義的作為盟約後philiphaugh ,屠宰稅300女, "嫁妻子的愛爾蘭人" 。 Montrose's success and the fact that he was a leader of Scoto-Irish lashed the hatred of the preachers into fury.蒙特羅斯的成就和事實,即他是一個領導者的斯科托-愛爾蘭抨擊仇恨的傳教士到暴跳如雷。 They raved for the blood of the Malignants.他們妄言,為血的malignants 。 The preachers, with a fanaticism revoltingly blasphemous, and as ferocious as that of Islam, believed that more blood must be shed to propitiate the Deity (Balfour, Annals, III, 311).在宣講員,與狂熱revoltingly褻瀆,並作為兇惡的,因為伊斯蘭教的,相信會有更多的血液必須棚,以propitiate神(鮑爾弗,縣志,三, 311 ) 。

The victory of Philiphaugh (13 Sept., 1645), removed the immediate danger to the Covenanters and likewise extinguished the last glimmer of hope for the Royalist cause, which had suffered irreparable defeat a few weeks earlier at Naseby.勝利philiphaugh ( 1645年9月13日) ,去掉了即時的危險,向盟約,並同樣熄滅的最後一線希望保皇黨的事業,曾遭受了不可彌補的失敗,幾個星期前在naseby 。 But the very triumph of the Parliamentary forces in England was fatal to the cause of the Solemn League and Covenant.但非常凱旋的國會勢力在英國是致命的原因莊嚴聯賽和盟約。 The victory had been gained by the army which was not Presbyterian but independent, and capable now of resisting the infliction of an intolerant and tyrannical church government upon itself and upon England.勝利已經獲得了由陸軍,因為這是不長老,但是獨立,有能力,現在的抵制造成一種不寬容和專制教堂時,政府本身並經英國。 When, therefore, the Scottish army recrossed the Tweed, February, 1647, it was with its main purpose unfulfilled.當,因此,蘇格蘭軍隊recrossed了花呢, 2月, 1647年,它與它的主要目的沒有實現。 England had not been thoroughly reformed; heresy, especially in the army, was still rampant.英格蘭沒有得到徹底改革;異端,特別是在軍隊,仍十分猖獗。 The Solemn League and Covenant had been a failure, and the Scots had fought in vain.莊嚴聯賽和盟約已經失敗的,蘇格蘭人打白費。 Worse than this, the Covenanters themselves were divided.不如對此,盟約本身不一。 The success of the Covenant had been due to the alliance between the Kirk and the nobility.成功的盟約已因該聯盟之間的柯克和貴族。 The latter had joined the cause from jealousy of the authority of the bishops and from fear of the loss of their estates by the Act of Revocation.後者加入了由事業妒忌權威的主教和免於恐懼的損失,其遺產的行為撤銷。 But now, bishops there were none, and the nobility were still in the possession of their estates.但是,現在的主教,什麼都沒有,和貴族仍處於藏其屋。 Since the causes for further cooperation were thus wanting, the feudal instincts of the nobility, love of monarchical government, contempt for the lower orders to which the majority of the Kirk belonged, naturally reasserted themselves.由於成因,為進一步拓展合作,因此無用的,封建主義的本能,貴族,愛的君權政府,蔑視下訂單,其中大部分的柯克屬於自然重新樹立自己。 To this must be added their intense jealousy of Argyll, who owed his influence to the support he gave the Kirk.這還必須加上其激烈嫉妒的阿蓋爾,誰欠他的影響力來支持他,給柯克。 a Royalist part began thus to be formed among the Covenanters.一保皇部分開始,從而形成之間的盟約。 The cleavage in their ranks was shown in the dispute over the question of the surrender of Charles I to the Parliament (1646).卵裂在他們的行列,是表現在爭執的問題,移交查爾斯向議會提出( 1646 ) 。 Hamilton had pressed the Estates to give the king honour and shelter in Scotland, but Argyll, backed by the preachers, opposed him.漢密爾頓曾經催促屋給國王的榮譽和住房在蘇格蘭,但阿蓋爾,背後是傳教士,反對他。 There must be no uncovenanted king in Scotland.決不能搞uncovenanted國王在蘇格蘭。 The breach was widened when Charles fell into the hands of the heretical army.違反擴闊當查爾斯落入手中的異端軍隊。 To many, it now seemed best to support the king, for if the army should prove successful, Presbyterianism would be lost.很多,但它現在似乎是最好地支持國王,因為如果軍隊要證明是成功的, presbyterianism會喪失。 Accordingly Scottish commissioners Loudoun, Lanark, and Lauderdale visited Charles at Carisbrooke and signed the hopeless and foolish "Engagement" (27 Dec. 1647).因此蘇格蘭專員勞頓,拉納克, Lauderdale的訪問查爾斯在卡里斯布魯克並簽署了絕望和愚蠢的"接觸" ( 1647年12月27日) 。 In Scotland the Engagers had a large following, and a majority in the Estates.在蘇格蘭, engagers有大量以下,並且大多數在屋。 In the Parliament the Hamiltonian party could carry all before it and was ready to take immediate action for the king.在議會哈密頓黨可以攜帶所有面前,並準備立即採取行動,為國王。 But the Kirk, with Argyll and some ten nobles, remained immovably on the other side.但柯克,與阿蓋爾大約十年貴族,仍然immovably在另一邊。 They would not defile themselves by making common cause with the uncovenanted.他們不會強姦自己所作出的共同事業與uncovenanted 。 The preachers cursed and thundered against the Engagers and the levies that were being raised for an invasion of England.講道詛咒和響徹對engagers和徵費說,目前正在為提出一項入侵英格蘭。 Scotland thus divided against itself had not much chance against the veterans of Cromwell and Lambert.蘇格蘭既分化對本身並沒有多少機會對退伍軍人的克倫威爾和蘭伯特。 After Preston, Wigan, and Warrington (17-19 Aug., 1648) the Scottish Royalist forces were no more.經過Preston表示,威根,並warrington ( 8月17日至19日, 1648 )蘇格蘭保皇勢力,沒有更多。 The destruction of Hamilton's force was a triumph for the Kirk and the anti-Engagers.銷毀漢密爾頓的力量是一大勝利,為柯克和反腐敗鬥爭engagers 。 But an event now occurred that once more divided the nation.但事件發生後,更加分裂國家。 On 30 January, 1649, Charles I was executed.對1649年1月30日,查爾斯被處死。 Scotchmen of whatever party looked upon the deed as a crime and as a national insult. scotchmen無論黨看契約作為一種罪行,並作為國家的侮辱。 The day after the news reached Scotland, they proclaimed Charles II king, not only of Scotland, but of England and Ireland.第二天,消息傳到蘇格蘭,他們宣布查爾斯二世國王,而不是只有蘇格蘭,但英國和愛爾蘭。 The acceptance of Charles II, however, had been saddled with the condition that he should pledge himself to the two Covenants.接受查爾斯二世,但已經負擔的情況下,他應該保證自己該兩公約的締約國。 After some hesitation, and after the failure of all his hopes to use Ireland as the basis of an invasion of England Charles II swore to the Covenants, 11 June, 1650.經過一番猶豫,失敗後,他的所有希望以愛爾蘭為基礎的侵華戰爭,英格蘭查爾斯二世宣誓,成為各項國際公約, 1650年6月11日。

To the more extreme portion of the Covenanters, this agreement with the king seemed hypocrisy, an insult to Heaven.向更極端部分的盟約,這項協議與國王似乎虛偽,是一種侮辱天堂。 They knew he was no true convert to the Covenants, that he had no intention of keeping them, that he had perjured himself, and they refused to have dealings with the king.他們知道他是不會有真正轉換成為各項國際公約,他無意向他們通報說,他已perjured自己的,他們拒絕打交道的國王。 Argyll with the more moderate wing, still anxious to avoid a definite rupture with the extremists, had perforce to make concessions to these feelings; he made the unfortunate prince walk through the very depths of humiliation (Peterkin, Records, p. 599).阿蓋爾與較溫和的翼,仍急於避免一個明確的破裂,與極端分子,曾perforce作出讓步,以人與人之間的感情,他作出了不幸王子穿越非常深度的羞辱( peterkin ,唱片,頁599 ) 。 This split was to prove fatal.這種分裂被證明是致命的。 Only a united Scotland could have defeated Cromwell.只有一個團結的蘇格蘭可以打敗克倫威爾。 Instead, to propitiate the Deity, Charles was kept apart from the army, and while every available man was wanted to meet the soldiers of Cromwell, the fanatics were "purging" the army of all Royalists and Malignants (op cit. p. 623).相反,以propitiate神,查爾斯被關除了軍隊,而在每一個男子被通緝,以滿足官兵的克倫威爾,痴迷者的"淨化"軍隊的所有保皇malignants (同前。頁623 ) 。 To allow them to fight would be to court disaster.讓他們爭取將到法院災難。 How could Jehovah give victory to the children of Israel, if they fought side by side with the idolatrous Amalekites?怎麼能耶和華讓勝利走向勝利的子女以色列,如果他們並肩戰鬥,同idolatrous amalekites ? The purgings of the army went merrily on daily, and the preachers promised in God's name a victory over the erroneous and blasphemous sectaries.該purgings的軍隊前往高高興興日常運行和傳教士承諾,在上帝的名義戰勝錯誤的和褻瀆sectaries 。 Like the Scots Cromwell also looked upon war as an appeal to the god of battle, and the judgment was delivered at Dunbar, 3 Sept., 1650.像蘇格蘭人克倫威爾還期待戰爭後,作為一個上訴到神的戰鬥中,且判決書發表鄧巴, 1650年9月3日。 "Surely it's probable the Kirk had done their do. I believe their king will set up upon his own score now." "很顯然,它的可能的柯克做了,他們這樣做,我相信他們的國王會成立後,他自己的分數,現在" 。 This was Cromwell's comment upon his victory, and he was right.這是克倫威爾的評論後,他的勝利,他是正確的。 The route of Dunbar destroyed the ascendancy of the Covenanters.該航線的鄧巴摧毀了向上提升的盟約。 The preachers had promised victory, but Jehovah had sent them defeat.該傳教士曾許諾的勝利,但耶和華派遣了他們的失敗。 The extremists, under such leaders as Johnston of Warristoun, James Guthrie, and Patrick Gillespie, attributing their defeat to the unholy alliance with the Malignants grew in vehemence and presented to the Committee of the Estates (30 Oct., 1650) a "Remonstrance" arraigning the whole policy of Argyll's government and refusing to accept Charles as their king "till he should give satisfactory evidence of his real change" (ibid.).極端分子,在這樣的領袖作為約翰斯頓warristoun ,詹姆斯伽絲瑞,帕特里克葛拉斯彼,歸因於他們的失敗,給非神聖同盟與malignants增長,在激烈的,並提交給該委員會的屋( 1650年10月30日)一個"諫" arraigning整個政策的阿蓋爾的政府,並拒絕接受查爾斯為王" ,直至他應該給令人滿意的證據,證明他真正的變化" (同上) 。 Seeing his power gone with the "Remonstrants" or "Protesters", Argyll determined definitely to go over to the king; Malignant and Covenanter had joined hands.看到他的權力去" remonstrants "或"抗議" ,阿蓋爾決心一定去給國王;惡性腫瘤和covenanter已加入的手中。 In answer to the Remonstrance, the Committee of Estates passed, 25 November, a resolution con demning it and resolved to crown Charles at Scone.在回答有關諫,委員會的屋苑通過, 11月25日,一項決議情況demning它,並決心官查爾斯在種馬場。 On 1 January, 1651, the coronation took place.對1651年1月1日,加冕發生。 Cromwell's answer was the battle or Worcester, 3 September, 1651.克倫威爾的答案是戰鬥或伍斯特, 1651年9月3日。 For nine years Scotland was a conquered country kept under by the military saints.九年來蘇格蘭是一個被征服的國家保存下,由軍事聖人。 It was a sad time for the Presbyterians.這是一個悲傷的時候,為presbyterians 。 The English soldiers allowed all Protestants, as long as they did not disturb the peace, to worship in their own way.英文士兵允許所有基督徒,只要他們不擾亂和平,以供奉在走自己的路。 In October, 1651, Monk forbade the preachers to impose oaths and covenants on the lieges, and prohibited civil magistrates from molesting excommunicated persons, or seizing their goods, or boycotting them.在10月, 1651年,和尚不准講道施加宣誓和盟約就lieges ,並禁止民間裁判騷擾驅逐的人,或沒收其貨物,或抵制他們。 Lest the Remonstrants or the Revolutioners, who all the while with increasing bitterness quarrelled as to who was the true inheritor of the Covenants, should cause trouble to the commonwealth, the General Assembly was broken up (July, 1653), and all such assemblies forbidden for the future (Kirkton, Secret and True History of the Church of Scotland, p. 54).以免remonstrants或revolutioners ,誰所有,而隨著越來越多的辛酸爭吵,至於誰是真正的繼承者的公約,應當引起麻煩,英聯邦,大會被打破了(七月, 1653 ) ,以及所有此類禁止集會對於未來( kirkton ,秘密和真實的歷史的教堂,蘇格蘭,第54頁) 。

Dunbar, Worcester, and the Cromwellian domination destroyed the ascendancy of the Covenanters.鄧巴,伍斯特,並cromwellian統治摧毀了向上提升的盟約。 But not on that account did the extreme wing, the Remonstrants, abate a jot of their pretensions; they still believed in the eternally binding force of the two Covenants.但不能因此就沒有戶口的極端右翼, remonstrants ,消減一記自己的偽裝,他們仍然相信,在大智拘束力這兩項公約的。 On the other hand, neither had the king fully learned the lesson from his father's fate.在另一方面,也沒有國王,充分汲取了教訓,從他父親的命運。 Like him he considered it his right to force his ecclesiastical views upon his people.像他一樣,他認為這是他的權利,迫使他的教會的意見後,他的人民。 Episcopacy was restored, but without the prayerbook, and the meetings of the synods were forbidden.之恢復了,但沒有prayerbook ,以及會議的主教會議的人被禁止的。 Partly because he had the support of the nobility and gentry, partly because even many Presbyterians had wearied of the strife, and party because of his dishonesty Charles succeeded in gaining his ends, but at the cost of straining to the utmost his relations with his subjects.部分原因是因為他曾經支持的貴族士紳,部分原因是連不少presbyterians有疲乏的爭鬥,和黨,因為他的不誠實,查爾斯成功贏得他的兩端,但在成本緊張,以最大的,他與他的課題。 It only required the attempt of James II to introduce hated Catholicism into the country to sweep the Stuarts forever from the throne of Scotland.它不僅需要企圖詹姆斯二世引進憎恨天主教傳入該國打掃斯圖爾特永遠從寶座的蘇格蘭。 The history of the Covenanters from the Restoration to the Revolution is a history of fierce persecution varied with occasional milder treatment to win the weaker members to the moderate side.歷史上的盟約,從恢復到革命的歷史,就是一部激烈的迫害不同,偶爾溫和治療,以贏得較弱的成員,以溫和的一面。 As the Covenanters would no longer meet in the churches, they began to meet in their own homes and have private conventicles.作為盟約派將不再滿足於教會,他們就開始以應付在自己家中和私人conventicles 。 Against these proceedings an act was passed (1663) declaring preaching by "ousted" ministers seditious, and it was rigorously enforced by quartering soldiers under Sir James Turner in the houses of recusants.對這些訴訟的一個法案通過( 1663 )宣告鼓吹的"淘汰"部長煽動性,它是嚴格執行設營兵爵士特納在房子的recusants 。 (For Turner's methods, see Lauderdale papers, II, 82.) Driven from their homes the Covenanters took to holding their gatherings in the open air, in distant glens, known as field-meetings, or conventicles. ( Turner的方法,見Lauderdale的論文,二, 82 ) 。趕出自己的家園了盟約走上舉行集會,在露天進行,在遙遠的峽谷,被稱為外地開會,或conventicles 。 The Pentland Rising (1666) was the result of these measures and proved to the Government that its severities had been unsuccessful.該pentland崛起( 1666 )是由於這些措施,並證實向政府表示,其嚴重程度已不成功的。 On the advice of Lauderdale, Charles issued Letters of Indulgence, June, 1669, and again in August, 1672, allowing such "ousted ministers as had lived peaceably and orderly to return to their livings" (Woodrow, Hist. of the Sufferings, etc. II, 130).在聽取Lauderdale的查爾斯發出函件的放縱, 6月, 1669年,又在8月, 1672年,讓這樣的"前部長曾經生活在和平和有秩序地返回他們的生計" ( Woodrow的,歷史的。苦難等第二節, 130 ) 。 These indulgences were disastrous to the Conventiclers, for many of the ministers yielded and conformed.這些indulgences被災難性向conventiclers ,對於許多的部長們屈服,並符合。 Stung by the secessions the remnant became more irreconcilable; their sermons were simply political party orations denunciatory of kings and bishops.由於受到2000年那一secessions殘餘變得更加不可調和的,它們的說教,只是政黨的演說辭denunciatory國王和主教。 They were especially wroth against the indulged ministers; they broke into their houses; bullied and tortured them to force them to swear that they would cease from their ministrations.他們怒意,尤其是對沉迷部長;他們闖進他們的家裡;欺凌和折磨他們,強迫他們發誓,他們將停止從其ministrations 。 These Lauderdale determined to crush by a persecution of utmost severity.這些Lauderdale的決心粉碎由一名受迫害最為嚴重。 Soldiers were quartered in the disaffected districts (the West and South-West), ministers were imprisoned, and finally, as conventicles still increased, a band of half-savage highlanders, "The Highland Host" (Lauderdale Papers, III, 93 sqq.) was let loose on the wretched inhabitants of the Western Lowlands, where they marauded and plundered at will.士兵駐紮在那些心懷不滿的地區(西部和南部地區) ,部長們被監禁,最後,由於conventicles仍有所增加,樂隊的半野蠻人高地, "高原香港好客之道" ( Lauderdale的論文,三, 93 sqq 。 ) ,讓鬆散就倒霉的居民中的西部低地,他們marauded和掠奪,在意志。

The Covenanters now became reckless and wild, for again torn asunder by the "cess" controversy (a dispute arose as to whether it was lawful to pay the tax or "cess" raised for an unlawful object, the carrying on of a Government persecuting the true Kirk) they were but a remnant of the once powerful Kirk, and every year became less capable of effective resistance.該盟約,現在成了鹵莽和野生動物,為再次四分五裂,由"稅"的爭議(爭議發生至於是否是合法繳稅或"稅" ,提出了為一個非法的對象,進行一國政府迫害真正的柯克)他們,但殘存的一次強有力的柯克,並在其後每年減少,能夠有效抵抗。 They patrolled the country in arms protecting conventicles; and their leaders, Welsh, Cameron and others, went about as "soldiers of Christ", organizing rebellion, even murdering the soldiers of Claverhouse, who was engaged in dispersing the conventicles.他們巡弋國家在武器保護conventicles ;及其領導人,威爾士語,金馬倫等人,前往大約為兵"基督受難記" ,組織叛亂,甚至謀殺的士兵claverhouse ,誰是從事驅散conventicles 。 The murder of Archbishop Sharpe (2 May, 1679), regarded by them as a glorious action and inspired by the spirit of God, was the signal for a general rising in the Western Lowlands.被謀殺的大主教夏普( 1679年5月2日) ,把它們作為一個光榮的行動和精神的鼓舞下神,是信號一般崛起,在西部低地。 In Rutherglen they publicly burnt the Acts of the Government which had overthrown the Covenants, and at Louden Hill, or Drumclog, defeated the troops under Claverhouse.在rutherglen她們公開燒毀了政府的行為已經推翻了盟約,並在louden山,或drumclog ,打敗了部隊claverhouse 。 It was therefore deemed necessary to send a strong force under Monmouth to suppress the rebellion.因此,與會者認為有必要派遣一支強大力量下monmouth鎮壓叛亂。 At Bothwell Bridge (22 June, 1679) the insurgents were utterly defeated.在Bothwell公司橋( 1679年6月22日)武裝分子被徹底打敗了。 There followed a third Act of Indulgence which again cut deep into the rank of the Covenanters.隨後,第三幕的放縱,其中再次剪斷,深入到基層的盟約。 But in spite of persecutions and secessions a minority continued faithful to the Covenant and the fundamental principles of Presbyterianism.但儘管迫害secessions少數繼續忠實於公約和基本原則presbyterianism 。 Under the leadership of Richard Cameron and Donald Cargill, and styling themselves the "Society People", they continued to defy the royal authority.的領導下,理查德馬倫和Donald嘉吉,造型本身的"社會人"的話,他們繼續違抗王室權威。 At Sanquhar they published a declaration, 22 June 1680, (Wodrow, III, 213) disowning the king on the ground of his "perjury and breach of covenant to God and his Kirk".在sanquhar他們發表了一份聲明, 1680年6月22日, (伍德羅,三, 213 ) disowning國王在地面上的他的"偽證和違反公約,以上帝和他的柯克" 。 At a conventicle held at Torwood (1680) Cargill solemnly excommunicated the king, the Duke of York, Monmouth, and others (ibid, III, 219).在conventicle舉行torwood ( 1680 )嘉吉公司鄭重驅逐國王,約克公爵, monmouth ,以及其他(同上,第III , 219 ) 。 These proceedings served no further purpose than to embitter parties and make the Government all the more determined to extirpate the sect.這些訴訟沒有任何進一步的目的是為了embitter當事人,使政府都更堅決剷除邪教。 But what roused the Government more than anything else was the "Apologetical Declaration" (ibid, IV, 148) of October, 1684, inspired by Renwick who had taken up the standard of Cameron.但是,是什麼驚醒了,政府比任何事情都重要,是" apologetical宣言" (同上,第IV , 148 ) 10 , 1639 ,靈感任威克,他們已經採取了標準的卡梅倫。 The document threatened that anyone connected with the Government, if caught, would be judged and punished according to his offenses.文件中威脅說,任何與政府,如果被抓到,將被審判並遭到懲罰根據他的犯罪行為。 These threats were carried out by the Cameronians or Renwickites; they attacked and slew dragoons, and punished such of the conformist ministers as they could get hold of.這些威脅所進行的cameronians或renwickites ;它們攻擊和轉換dragoons到底,嚴懲不貸,如對一致性部長,因為他們可以掌握。 It was at this period that the "killing time" properly began.正是在這一時期, "殺時間" ,妥善開始了。 Courts of justice were dispensed with and officers having commissions from the Council were empowered to execute anyone who refused to take the oath of abjuration of the Declaration.法院的司法豁免及警員委員會由安理會授權執行的人拒絕採取宣誓abjuration的宣言。 With the accession of James II to the English throne the persecution waxed fiercer.隨著加入的詹姆斯二世向英語寶座迫害waxed激烈。 An act was passed which made attendance at field-coventicles a capital offense.一項法案通過而作出出席實地coventicles資本罪。 Claverhouse carried out his instructions faithfully, may were summarily executed, while many more were shipped off to the American plantations. claverhouse繼承了他的指示,忠實,可能遭到即決處決,而許多更被運到美國的種植園。 The last victim for the Covenant was James Renwick (Jan., 1688).最後受害者為盟約是詹姆斯任威克( 1月, 1688年) 。 His followers kept to their principles and even at the Revolution they refused to accept an uncovenanted king; one last brief day of triumph and vengeance they had, when they "rabbled" the conformist curates.他的追隨者保持自己的原則,甚至在革命,他們拒不接受一個uncovenanted景;最後一項簡短一天的凱旋門和復仇,他們已當他們" rabbled "一致性curates 。 The day of the Covenants had long since passed.當天,該公約已久以來通過。 How much the ancient spirit of Presbyterianism was broken was clearly seen by the subservient letter in which James was thanked for the Indulgence of 1687, for allowing all "to serve God after their own way and manner" (Wodrow, IV, 428, note).多少古人的精神presbyterianism被打破是看得很清楚,由從屬的信中,詹姆斯感謝為放縱自己的1687年,讓所有" ,以服務上帝後,他們以自己的方式和方法" (伍德羅,四, 428注) 。 The majority had learned to submit to compromise, and thus at the Revolution the Scottish nation forgot the Covenants and was allowed to retain Presbyterianism.大多數人已經學會了服從的妥協,因此,在革命的蘇格蘭民族忘記了盟約,並獲准保留presbyterianism 。 The strife of a century between Kirk and State had come to an end.爭鬥的一個世紀之間的柯克和國家已經走到了盡頭。 Both sides in the struggle had in fact won and lost.雙方在鬥爭實際上已獲得和丟失。 The king had been defeated in his attempt to dictate the religion of his subjects; Presbyterianism became the established religion.國王已被打敗,在他企圖主宰的宗教,他的科目; presbyterianism成為既定的宗教。 But it had been equally proved that the subjugation of the State to the Church, the supremacy, political as well as ecclesiastical, of the Kirk, was an impossibility.但它同樣證明了征服的國家教會,至上,政治以及教會,對柯克,是一個不可能的事。 In this the Covenants had failed.在這盟約已經失敗。

Publication information Written by Noel J. Campbell.出版信息劇本作者Noel j.坎貝爾。 Transcribed by M. Donahue.轉錄由M. Donahue ) 。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.天主教百科全書,第四卷。 Published 1908. 1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat. nihil obstat 。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

Lang, A History of Scotland (Edinburgh and London, 1904), vol.郎咸平,一個歷史的蘇格蘭(愛丁堡和倫敦, 1904年) ,第二卷。 III; Hume Brown, History of Scotland (Cambridge, 1905), vol II; Burton, History of Scotland (Edinburgh and London, 1870), vols.三;休姆布朗,歷史上的蘇格蘭(劍橋, 1905年) ,第二卷第二;伯頓,歷史上的蘇格蘭(愛丁堡和倫敦, 1870年) ,第一卷。 VI and VII; Mathieson, Politics and Religion in Scotland (Glasgow, 1902); Steven, History of the Scottish Church (Edinburgh, 1894-96).第六和第七; mathieson ,政治和宗教自由在蘇格蘭(格拉斯哥, 1902年) ;潘國,歷史上的蘇格蘭教會(愛丁堡, 1894年至1896年) 。 - Contemporary authorities: Row, History of the Kirk of Scotland (1558-1637) (Wodrow Society, 1841); Balfour, Annals of Scotland (to 1652) (Edinburgh, 1824); Baillie, Letters and Journal s (1637-1662) (Bannatyne Club, Edinburgh, 1828-29); Gordon, History of Scots Affairs from 1637 to 1641 (Spaulding Club, Aberdeen, 1841); Peterkin, Records of the Kirk of Scotland (from 1638) (Edinburgh, 1837); Wodrow, The History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland from the Restoration to the Revolution (Glasgow, 1830); Kirkton, The Secret and True History of the Church of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1837); Lauderdale Papers (1639-1679) (Camden Society, London, 1884-85). -當代當局:行,歷史的柯克蘇格蘭( 1 558年至1 637年) (伍德羅社會, 1 841年) ;鮑爾弗,史冊蘇格蘭( 1 652) (愛丁堡, 1 824年) ; b aillie,信件和雜誌( 1 637年至1 662年) ( bannatyne俱樂部,愛丁堡, 1828年至1829年) ;戈登,歷史上的蘇格蘭事務,從1637年至1641年(斯波爾丁俱樂部,香港仔, 1841年) ; peterkin ,記錄了柯克的蘇格蘭( 1638 ) (愛丁堡, 1837年) ;伍德羅,歷史上的苦難教會的,由蘇格蘭恢復前往革命(格拉斯哥, 1830年) ; kirkton ,秘密與真實的歷史的教堂,蘇格蘭(愛丁堡, 1837年) ; Lauderdale的論文( 1639年至1679年) (卡姆登社會,倫敦, 1884年至1885年) 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Dispensationalism dispensationalism
Ultradispensationalism ultradispensationalism
Progressive Dispensationalism 漸進dispensationalism
Covenant Theology 盟約神學

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