Conversion轉換

General Information 一般資料

Conversion is the turning of a sinner to God (Acts 15:3). 轉換是轉折的一個罪人向上帝 (使徒15時03分) 。 In a general sense the heathen are said to be "converted" when they abandon heathenism and embrace the Christian faith; and in a more special sense men are converted when, by the influence of divine grace in their souls, their whole life is changed, old things pass away, and all things become new (Acts 26:18).在一般意義上的異教徒都被"改裝"當他們放棄heathenism擁抱基督教信仰,並以一種更加特殊的意義上的男子被轉換時,受神的恩典,在自己的靈魂,他們的整個生活的改變而改變,舊事物的去世,和一切事物成為新的(使徒行26:18 ) 。 Thus we speak of the conversion of the Philippian jailer (16:19-34), of Paul (9:1-22), of the Ethiopian treasurer (8:26-40), of Cornelius (10), of Lydia (16:13-15), and others.因此,我們講的轉換的philippian看守( 16:19-34 ) ,保羅( 9:1-22 ) ,埃塞俄比亞庫( 8:26-40 ) ,科尼利厄斯( 10 ) ,鄧蓮( 16 :13 - 15 ) ,及其他。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Conversion轉換

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Conversion is an integral concept in the Bible, though it does not always appear under this name in English translations.轉換是一個完整的概念,在聖經中,儘管它並不總是出現在這個名字在英語翻譯。 In the OT it is directly related to the Hebrew sub, the twelfth most frequently used verb, which signifies to turn back, go back, come back, or return.在城市旅遊局,它直接關係到希伯來語分,第十二屆最常用的動詞,這標誌著回頭,回去,回來時,或返回。 It is also associated with the Hebrew niham, which means to be sorry or to regret.它也是與希伯來語niham ,這意味著要後悔或遺憾。 In the NT the two principal words indicating "to turn" are episstrepho and metanoeo.在新台幣兩主詞" ,把" episstrepho和metanoeo 。 The latter and its cognates indicate a renewal of mind and heart, heartfelt repentance.後者及其cognates顯示重建的心態和心,衷心悔改之意。 A key passage in the Synoptic Gospels is Matt.一個關鍵通道,在天氣福音是馬特。 18:3: "Except ye be converted, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven" (AV). 18:3 : "除葉轉換,並成為老吾老以及人之老,幼吾幼以及人之幼,葉不得進入天國" (影音) 。 In the Neb the first part reads, "Unless you turn around...."在這個陣營的第一部分內容是: "除非你回過頭來… … 。

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In the developing Catholic tradition conversion was more and more associated with the sacraments of baptism, penance, and confirmation.在發展中國家,天主教會傳統的轉化越來越多的聯繫與聖禮的洗禮,懺悔,並確認。 It was said that in baptism one receives the remission of sins, but for sins committed after baptism one must have recourse to the sacrament of penance, which entails confession of sins, absolution by the priest, and acts of penitence, which mitigate the severity of the temporal consequences of sin.有人說,在洗禮,一得到緩解的罪過,但對於罪孽的洗禮後,其中一個必須訴諸聖事的懺悔,這就不打自招的罪孽,赦免,由牧師,行為懺悔,減輕嚴重性顳後果的罪過。

As mysticism penetrated Catholic spirituality, conversion came to be associated with the first stage of the mystical way, purgation, which, it was hoped, would lead to illumination and finally to contemplative union.作為神秘主義侵入天主教靈修,改建來到被認為是與第一階段的神秘方式,通便,其中,它希望這將導致光照最後contemplative聯盟。 The beginning of the illuminative way was often marked by what was called a second conversion.開始時的照明方式往往是標誌是什麼所謂的第二次轉換。

Monastic spirituality, heavily influenced by mysticism, saw a twofold blessing of the Spirit: in baptism and in monastic dedication.寺院的靈性,有重大影響的神秘主義,看到一個雙重的祝福,精神:在洗禮,並在寺院的奉獻。 The latter was frequently referred to as both a second baptism and a second conversion.後者經常被稱為雙方第二次洗禮和第二次轉換。 It was regarded as a new empowering of the Spirit for vocation.它被視為一種新的賦權的精神為天職。 Conversion in this context means retiring from the world, commitment to the religious life.轉換在這種情況意味著退出世界,致力宗教生活。

In Reformation theology conversion was understood as the human response to regeneration, the infusion of new life into the soul.在改革神學轉換被理解為人類作出回應振興,為注入新的生命溶入靈魂。 Conversion was held to be dependent on grace; it was seen as an act empowered and directed by divine grace.換算舉行了只能依靠恩典,它被看作是一種授權行為,並指示由神的恩典。 Calvinism was inclined to portray this grace irresistible, with the result that conversion became a virtually spontaneous turning of the one who was elected to receive grace.加爾文傾向以塑造這個恩典不可抗拒的,其結果是轉化成了幾乎自發轉折的一個人被選為接受恩典。 Luther believed that conversion could be aborted and that one could fall away from one's conversion.路德認為,轉換,可中斷,並表示,其中一個可能落入離開一個人的轉換。 Both Calvin and Luther envisaged the whole Christian life as a life of conversion.雙方卡爾文和路德設想整個基督徒生活的作為一個終身的轉換。

Among the later evangelicals conversion came to be associated with a crisis experience that inaugurates the new life in Christ. 其中稍後新教徒轉換來到被認為是與危機的經驗,開闢了新的生命,在基督。 In some circles it was regarded as an event involving total transformation. 在某些圈子裡,它被看作是一個事件,涉及的總轉型。 In the Holiness Movement conversion was seen as the initiation of Christian life and entire sanctification as the fulfillment of Christian life. 在成聖運動轉換被視為啟動的基督信徒生活和整個成聖作為履行基督徒的生活。

Karl Barth in the twentieth century has portrayed conversion (Umkehr) as the pivotal event in history, the liberation and renewal of the world in Jesus Christ.卡爾巴特在二十世紀描繪轉換( umkehr )作為關鍵的歷史大事,解放和重建整個世界的耶穌基督。 The awakenings to the reality of this event can be described as conversion (Bekehrung) in a secondary sense.該awakenings到實際這一事件,可以說是轉換( bekehrung )在一所中學常識。

In an evangelical theology that seeks to be true to Scripture and the Reformation, conversion has two sides, divine and human. It represents the incursion of divine grace into human life, the resurrection from spiritual death to eternal life. It is commonly said that we are active in conversion just as we are passive in regeneration, but this must not be understood synergistically.在一個基督教神學旨在必須真實的經文和改革,轉換有兩方面,神和人的, 它代表著入侵神的恩典到人的生命,復活從精神上的死亡,以永恆的生命,這是常見的說,我們活躍在轉換正如我們是被動的,在再生的,但是這絕不能被理解協同。 We are active only on the basis of grace, only through the power of grace.我們正積極的,只有在此基礎上的恩典,只有透過恩典的力量。 We do not procure salvation, but we decide for salvation once our inward eyes are opened to its reality. Conversion is the sign but not the condition of our justification, whose sole source is the free, unconditional grace of God.我們不採購救贖,但我們決定為救亡一旦外來的目光都開到現實情況。 轉換標誌,而不是我國國情的理由,其唯一來源是免費的,無條件的天主的恩典。

Conversion is both an event and a process. It signifies the action of the Holy Spirit upon us by which we are moved to respond to Jesus Christ in faith. 轉換既是一項活動是一個過程 ,它標誌著行動的聖靈降臨後,我們的,我們提出回應耶穌基督的信仰。 It also includes the continuing work of the Holy Spirit within us purifying us of discord and contumacy, remolding us in the image of Christ.它也包括持續進行的工作,聖靈在我們心裡,純潔我們的齟齬和contumacy ,改造我們的形象基督。 This work of purification is accomplished as we repent and cling to Christ anew.這項工作的淨化是完成了,因為我們有悔改表現,並抱以基督重新註冊。

Again, conversion is both personal and social.再次,轉換,是個人和社會。 While it basically connotes a change in our relationship with God, it indicates at the same time an alternation in our attitudes toward our fellow human beings.同時,它基本上是蘊含改變我們與天主的關係,它表明在同一時間,一個輪崗,在我們的態度對待我們人類同胞。 Conversion is a spiritual event with far reaching social implications.皈依是一種精神活動,影響深遠的社會影響。 It entails accepting Christ not only as Savior from sin but also as Lord of all of life.它意味著接受基督不僅是救世主,從單,而且所有的人的主的生活方式。

Finally, conversion must be seen as the beginning of our ascent to Christian perfection.最後,轉換必須被看作是一開始我們的圓滿,基督教和完善。 What is needed is not a second conversion by which such perfection is secured but the continuing and maintaining of a conversion that is never completed in this life.所需要的是沒有第二次的轉換,使這種完美的,是有擔保,但持續和維持一個轉換,就是一直沒能完成,在此生活。 Evangelical theology in the tradition of the Reformation contends that we can make progress toward perfection, but we can never attain it as a realized goal.福音派神學在傳統的改革爭辯說,我們能夠取得進展,走向完美,但我們絕不能達到它作為實現的目標。 Even the converted need to repent, even the sanctified need to turn again to Christ and be cleansed anew (cf. Ps. 51:10 - 12; Luke 17:3 - 4; 22:32; Rom. 13:14; Eph. 4:22 - 24; Rev. 2:4 - 5, 16; 3:19).即使轉換需要思悔改,甚至神聖化,需要再次轉談基督,並重新清洗(參見聚苯乙烯。 51:10 -1 2歲;路加福音1 7:3- 42 2時3 2分;光碟。1 3時1 4分;厄。 4時22分-2 4條;牧師2點0 4分- 5,第1 6條; 3 : 19)。

We cannot be converted through our own power, but we can repent and turn to Christ through the power of his Spirit.我們不能被轉換通過自己的權力,但我們可以有悔改表現,並反過來以透過基督的力量,他的精神。 We cannot maintain our walk with Christ on the basis of our own resources, but we can maintain this walk with the aid of his Spirit.我們不能夠維持我們的步行與基督同在此基礎上我們自己的資源,但我們能夠維持這種走路的幫助下,他的精神。 Conversion entails the promise of sanctification just as it reveals the gift of justification.轉換帶來的承諾成聖正如它揭示了禮品的理由。

DG Bloesch危險品bloesch
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
DG Bloesch, The Christian Life and Salvation, The Crisis of Piety, and Essentials of Evangelical Theology, II; J Baillie, Baptism and Conversion; AB Crabtree, The Restored Relationship; K Rahner, The Christian Commitment; B Citron, New Birth; JH Grestner, Steps to Salvation; A Koeberle, The Quest for Holiness; WGT Shedd, Dogmatic Theology, II; H Schmid, The Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church; E Routley, The Gift of Conversion; K Barth, Church Dogmatics; J Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion 2.危險品bloesch ,基督徒生活和救贖,這次危機的虔誠,與要領的福音派神學,二; j baillie ,洗禮和成果轉化;抗體克萊伯崔,已修復關係; k拉內,基督教的承諾, B期柚子,新的誕生; JH的grestner ,步驟,以救贖; koeberle ,追求聖潔; wgt謝德,教條式的神學,二; h施密德,教義神學的基督教香港信義會;電子勞特利,禮品的轉換; k巴特,教會dogmatics ; j卡爾文各研究所,基督教2 。 2.3.14; PS Watson, The Concept of Grace; PT Forsyth, The Work of Christ. 2.3.14 ;常任沃森,這一概念的寬限期;鉑佛塞斯,這項工作的喊聲。


Convert, Conversion (verb)轉換,轉換(動詞)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

"to turn about, turn towards" (epi, "towards" and No. 1), is used transitively, and so rendered "convert" (of causing a person to turn) in Jas. "把約,轉向" (計劃免疫, "迎"和第1號) ,是用來傳遞的,所以提供的"轉換" (造成一人轉) ,在1990年。 5:19-20. 5:19-20 。 Elsewhere, where the KJV translates this verb, either in the middle voice and intransitive use, or the passive, the RV adheres to the middle voice significance, and translates by "turn again," Matt.在其他地方,如kjv翻譯這個動詞,無論是在中東的發言權和intransitive使用,或被動,風疹病毒,堅持以中等語音意義,並轉化為"再次, "馬特。 13:15; Mark 4:12; Luke 22:32; Acts 3:19; 28:27. 13:15 ;馬克4時12分;盧克22時32分;行徑3時19分; 28:27 。


Convert, Conversion (noun)轉換,轉換(名詞)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

akin to A, No. 2, "a turning about, or round, conversion," is found in Acts 15:3.類似,第2號, "一個轉折,或圓形,轉換, "是發現行為15時03分。 The word implies "a turning from and a turning to"; corresponding to these are repentance and faith; cf.這個詞意味著"一個轉折和一個契機,以" ;相應的,這些都是悔罪和信念;比照。 "turned to God from idols" (1 Thess. 1:9). "把上帝從偶像" ( 1帖1時09分) 。 Divine grace is the efficient cause, human agency the responding effect.神的恩典是有效率的原因,人類代理應訴效果。


Conversion轉換

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

(From the classical Latin converto, depon. convertor, whence conversio, change, etc.). (從古典拉丁語converto , depon 。轉換,何時轉換,變更等) 。

In the Latin Vulgate (Acts 15:3), in patristic (St. Augustine, Civ. Dei, VIII, xxiv), and in later ecclesiastical Latin, conversion refers to a moral change, a turning or returning to God and to the true religion, in which sense it has passed into our modern languages.在拉丁語vulgate (使徒15時03分) ,在教父(聖奧古斯丁, civ 。 dei ,第八條, 24條) ,並在以後的教會拉丁語,轉換指的是一個道義上的變化,轉折性或回給上帝,並真實宗教,在這個意義上,它通過成為我國現代語文。 (For example, the "conversions" of St. Paul, of Constantine the Great, and of St. Augustine.) In the Middle Ages the word conversion was often used in the sense of forsaking the world to enter the religious state. (舉例來說, "轉換"的聖保祿,君士坦丁大,聖奧古斯丁) ,在中世紀字轉換通常用來在意義上的好感,世界進入了宗教的國家。 Thus St. Bernard speaks of his conversion.因此,聖伯納德談到他的轉化。 The return of the sinner to a life of virtue is also called a conversion.返回的千古罪人,以生命的美德,也稱為轉換。 More commonly do we speak of the conversion of an infidel to the true religion, and most commonly of the conversion of a schismatic or heretic to the Catholic Church.更普遍的做,我們講的轉換是一個異教徒,以真正的宗教,最常見的轉換的schismatic或異教徒,以天主教會。

Every man is bound by the natural law to seek the true religion, embrace it when found, and conform his life to its principles and precepts.每一個男人是受自然法則,以尋求真正的宗教,擁抱它被發現時,也符合他的生命,以自己的原則和信條。 And it is a dogma of the Church defined by the Vatican Council that man is able by the natural light of reason to arrive at the certain knowledge of the existence of the one true God.這是一個教條的教會是由梵蒂岡委員會,人是可以通過自然光線的原因,得出了一定的知識,所存在的一個真正的上帝。 our Creator and Lord.我們的創造者和主。 The same council teaches that faith is a gift of God necessary for salvation, that it is an act of the intellect commanded by the will, and that it is a supernatural act.同時會教導我們,信仰是神的恩賜,有必要為救贖的,它是一種行為,智力指揮的意願,並認為這是超自然的行為。 The act of faith then is an act of the understanding, whereby we firmly hold as true whatever God has revealed, not because of its intrinsic truth perceived by the natural light of reason, but because God, who can neither deceive nor be deceived, has revealed it.該法的信仰則是一個法的理解,讓我們牢牢把握,因為真正的,無論上帝透露,到目前為止,並沒有因為它的內在真理所察覺到自然光的原因,而是因為上帝的人,既不能欺騙,也沒有被欺騙,有發現它。 It is in itself an act of the understanding, but it requires the influence of the will which moves the intellect to assent.它是在自己行為的理解,但它需要的影響以及將哪些動作,智力基礎。 For many of the truths of revelation, being mysteries, are to some extent obscure.許多真理的啟示,正在奧秘,是在一定程度上掩蓋。 Yet, it is not a blind act, since the fact that God has spoken is not merely probable but certain.然而,它不是一個盲目的行為,因為一個事實,即上帝發言,這不僅是可能的,但肯定的。 The evidences for the fact of revelation are not, however.證據為事實的啟示是,但不能。 the motive of faith; they are the grounds which render revelation credible, that is to say, they make it certain that God has spoken.動機的信仰,他們的理由,令啟示可信的,這就是說,它們使某些上帝發言。 And since faith is necessary for salvation, that we may comply with the duty of embracing the true Faith and persevering in it, God by His only-begotten Son has instituted the Church and has adorned it with obvious marks so that it may be known by all men as the guardian and teacher of revealed truth.既然信仰是必要的救恩,我們可以遵守的義務擁抱真正的信仰,並堅持它,上帝由他的獨子已對教堂,並飾以明顯的標誌,以便它可以被稱為是由所有男性為監護人和老師透露真相。 These marks (or notes) of credibility belong to the Catholic Church alone.這些標記(或債券)的公信力,屬於天主教會。 Nay, the Church itself by its admirable propagation, sublime sanctity, and inexhaustible fecundity, by its Catholic unity and invincible stability, is a great and perpetual motive of credibility and irrefragable testimony of its Divine mission (see Conc. Vatic., De Fide, cap. 3).不僅如此,教會本身,由它令人欽佩的繁殖,崇高的神聖性,和取之不盡,用之不竭的繁殖力,其天主教的團結和穩定,立於不敗之地,是一個偉大的和永恆的動機的可信性和不可爭辯的證明了它的神聖使命(見結論。 vatic ,德有誠意,第3款) 。

The first step, therefore, in the normal process of conversion is the investigation and examination of the credentials of the Church, which often is a painful labor lasting for years.第一步,因此,在正常的過程中的轉化,是調查和研究有關證書的教會,因為這往往是一個痛苦的勞動,歷時多年。 The external grace which draws a man's attention to the Church and causes him to begin his inquiry is as various and manifold as there are individual inquirers.外部的寬限期,其中提請一名男子的注意,教會和原因,他開始對他的調查是為各種形由於有個別查詢。 It may even be something to one's temporal advantage, which was the case with Henry IV of France.它甚至有可能有些人的時間優勢,這是個案,與亨利第四的法國。 It may be the interest aroused in a great historical personage, such as Innocent III, in the case of Friedrich von Hurter.這可能是引起興趣,在一個偉大的歷史人物,如無辜第三,在案件弗里德里希馮hurter 。 Whatever may have been the initial motive.無論可能已被初步動機。 if the study be pursued with an open mind, we hold that it will lead to the knowledge of the true Church, ie to this certain conclusion: The Catholic Church is the true Church.如果研究繼續以開明的態度,我們認為這將導致知識的真教會,即在這個某些結論:天主教教會是真實的。 This intellectual conviction.這種智力的信念。 however, is not yet the act of faith.但是,也還不是信任的行動。 One may hesitate, or refuse to take the next step, which is the "good will to believe" (pius credulitatis affectus).可以毫不猶豫地,或拒絕採取下一個步驟,這是"良好意願,相信" (比約credulitatis affectus ) 。 And this leads to the third and final act, the act of faith itself: I believe what the Church teaches because God has revealed it.而這導致了第三次也是最後法,該法的信仰本身:我相信什麼教會的教導,因為上帝已經發現它。 These three acts, especially the last, are, in accordance with Catholic teaching, supernatural acts.這三項行為,尤其是最後,是,根據天主教的教學,超自然的行為。 Then follows baptism by which the believer is formally received into the body of the Church.然後如下洗禮,其中信奉的是正式接受進入身體的教會。 (See BAPTISM, VII, VIII.) Since the duty of embracing the true religion is of natural and positive Divine right, it is evident that no civil law can forbid the fulfilling of this duty, nor should any temporal considerations be allowed to interfere with a duty on which depends the soul's salvation. (見洗禮,七,八)自稅擁抱真正的宗教是自然而積極的神聖權利,這是顯而易見的是,沒有民事法律可以禁止在履行這一職責時,也不應該有任何的時間考慮,也不允許干預與責任取決於靈魂的救贖。 And because all are bound to enter the Church, it follows that the Church has a right to receive all who apply for reception, of whatever age, sex, or condition they may be.由於全部必將走進教堂,這意味著教會有權利接受所有申請者的接待,不論其年齡,性別,或條件,他們可能。 Nay, in virtue of the Divine command to preach the Gospel to every creature, the Church is strictly bound to receive them, and no earthly authority can forbid the exercise of this duty.不僅如此,借助神的命令來傳福音,以每頭動物,教會是有嚴格的約束,以接收他們,也沒有俗世的權力,可以禁止行使這一職責。 To the Church alone it belongs to lay down the conditions for reception and to inquire into the interior dispositions of him who presents himself for admission into her bosom.送到教堂,它僅屬於放下條件,接待,並查究內部處分權的,他介紹了自己的入學到她的胸懷。 The conditions are, knowledge and profession of the Catholic Faith and the resolve to live in accordance with it.具備條件的,知識和專業的天主教信仰和決心住在按照它。 The right to admit converts into the Church belongs strictly speaking to the bishop.有權承認轉化為教會屬於嚴格地說向主教。 Usually all priests exercising the sacred ministry receive faculties for reconciling heretics.通常所有神職人員行使神聖部接收院系為調和異端。 When conditional baptism is administered, sacramental confession is also required from the convert.當有條件的洗禮,是管理,對聖供認還需要從轉換。 It is the law clearly laid down in the Acts of the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore.這是該法明確訂定,在行為的第二次全體會議,會議的巴爾的摩。 The order of proceedings is as follows:該命令的程序是如下:

first, abjuration of heresy or profession of faith;首先, abjuration的異端或專業的信念;

second, conditional baptism;第二,有條件的洗禮;

third, sacramental confession and conditional absolution.第三,聖供述和有條件的赦免。 (Tit. V, Cap. II, n. 240.) ( tit.第五章第二節, 12月31日240 ) 。

Force, violence, or fraud may not be employed to bring about the conversion of an unbeliever.武力,暴力,欺詐或不得僱用實現轉換的一個異教徒。 Such means would be sinful.這種手段將是罪孽深重。 The natural law, the law of Christ, the nature of faith, the teaching and practice of the Church forbid such means.自然法,法律的基督,但其性質,信仰,教學與實踐的教會禁止這種手段。 Credere voluntatis est, to believe depends upon the free will, says St. Thomas (II-II:10:8), and the minister of baptism, before administering the sacrament, is obliged to ask the question, "Wilt thou be baptized"? credere voluntatis預測,相信與否,主要取決於自由意志說,聖托馬斯(二-二: 10時08分)和財政部長的洗禮,才治聖餐,是不得不發問, "祢受洗" ? And only after having received the answer, "I will", may he proceed with the sacred rite.及後,才收到答案, "我會" ,可他進行神聖的儀式。 The Church also forbids the baptism of children of unbaptized parents without the consent of the latter, unless the children have been cast away by their parents, or are in imminent danger of death.教會亦禁止洗禮的孩子unbaptized未經家長同意後,除非孩子被拋棄,由他們的家長,或者是岌岌可危的死因。 For the Church has no jurisdiction over the unbaptized, nor does the State possess the power of using temporal means in spiritual things.對於教會無權管轄該unbaptized ,也沒有國家擁有的權力,利用顳手段,在精神上的東西。 The punishments formerly decreed against apostates were not intended to coerce men to accept outwardly what they did not believe in their hearts, but to atone for a crime (see the article of St. Thomas, loc. cit.).該處罰以前頒布的對叛教者並不打算強迫男子接受外表是什麼,他們不相信在他們心中,但為了贖罪,為犯罪(見文章的聖托馬斯,如上) 。 The medieval legislation, both ecclesiastical and secular, clearly distinguished between the punishment to be inflicted for the crime of apostasy and the means of instruction to be used in order to bring about the resipiscence of the apostate.中世紀的法律,無論是教會和世俗,明確區分了處罰必須對所犯罪行的叛教和手段的指示使用,以實現該resipiscence的叛教者。 As Bishop von Ketteler says, "The punishment inflicted by the Church upon heretics in comparatively few cases was not based upon the false principle that conviction could be forced upon the mind by external means, but upon the truth that by baptism the Christian has assumed obligations the fulfillment of which could be insisted upon. This punishment was only inflicted in particular cases and upon public and formal heretics."作為主教馮ketteler說, "懲罰由教會後,異教徒在相對少數情況下是沒有根據的虛假原則,即定罪可能被迫當銘記由外部手段,但經真理的洗禮,由基督教承擔義務完成的,可堅持的,這處罰是只對在特殊情況下,經公開和正式的異端" 。 Convert parents like other Catholics are obliged to have their children baptized and educated in the Catholic religion.轉換父母像其他天主教徒有責任讓他們的孩子洗禮和教育,在天主教的宗教。

The Constitution of the United States of America proclaims complete separation of Church and State and guarantees full liberty of conscience.憲法美利堅合眾國宣布完全分離的教會與國家,並保證充分自由的良知。 In consequence the laws of these States place no hindrance whatever in the way of conversions.在後果的法律,這些國家發生的任何障礙,無論在方法的轉換。 It may also be said that on the whole the American people are socially tolerant towards converts.它也可以說,就整體而言,美國人民是社會寬容態度的轉換。 No wonder that in this country's conversions are comparatively more numerous than in most others.無怪乎在這個國家的轉換是比較眾多,比其他大多數國家。 In the British Empire too, since the days of Catholic Emancipation in 1829, liberty of conscience prevails in theory as well as in practice, although there exists both in England and Scotland an established Church.在大英帝國,也因為天的天主教解放, 1829年,自由,良心普遍存在的理論,以及在實踐中,儘管存在無論是在英格蘭和蘇格蘭的一個既定的教堂。 Catholic disabilities have been almost entirely removed.天主教殘疾人已幾乎完全消除。

Catholics are only excluded from the throne and from a few of the highest offices of the State.天主教徒只有被排除在王位和由數的最高處的國家。 In Germany after the Reformation the tyrannical principle cujus regio, illius religio was proclaimed, in virtue of which the sovereign for the time being could impose his religion upon his subjects.在德國之後,改造了暴虐的原則cujus區選, illius religio宣布以來,在憑藉其中宗主國的時候,可以被強加給他的宗教後,他的科目。 He exercised the power both to forbid conversions to the Catholic Church, and to compel apostasy from it.他行使的權力,都不准轉換天主教教會,並迫使叛教從它。 In present-day Germany, liberty of conscience is the law of the land.在今天的德國,自由的良心是法律的土地。 And although some union of Church and State exists, conversion does not involve any disabilities or the loss of any civil or political rights.雖然有些聯盟的教會與國家存在,轉換,並不涉及任何殘疾或喪失任何公民和政治權利。 Formerly, however, most of the states prescribed the age before which conversions were not lawful, which was either fourteen or sixteen, or even eighteen.從前,但是,大多數國家指定的年齡之前,改建工程不合法,而不是14個或16個,甚至18個。 In Saxony, Brunswick, and Mecklenburg, the public exercise of the Catholic religion historically was subjected to vexatious interference.在薩克森州,布倫瑞克和梅克倫堡,市民行使的天主教宗教在歷史上遭受了無理取鬧的干擾。 In Russia the Orthodox Church is the State religion.在俄羅斯東正教是國教。 Other denominations are only tolerated.其他面額的,只是不能容忍的。 Under the czars, conversion from the Orthodox Church to Catholicism was followed by grievous disabilities.根據尊重民主,轉換,由東正教教會天主教其次是造成嚴重殘疾。 By the ukase of 1905 certain rights and liberties were granted to other denominations.由ukase 1905年的某些權利和自由,分別給予其他教派。 The publication of the ukase was immediately followed by the return to the Catholic Church of many Eastern Catholics who had been forced into schism by persecution.發表該ukase緊接著恢復天主教教會的許多東部天主教徒,他們已被迫進入裂教所迫害。 The Scandinavian countries were very intolerant till about the middle of the nineteenth century.斯堪的納維亞國家的人很寬容到對十九世紀中葉。 Denmark gave liberty to the Catholic Church in 1849, Sweden and Norway in 1860.丹麥了人身自由,以天主教1849年,瑞典和挪威於1860年。

Publication information Written by B. Guldner.出版信息寫乙居爾德內。 Transcribed by Charles Sweeney, SJ.轉錄由查爾斯Sweeney ) ,律政司司長。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.天主教百科全書,第四卷。 Published 1908. 1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat. nihil obstat 。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約


Also, see:此外,見:
Sanctification 成聖
Justification 理由
Confession 自白
Salvation 救贖
Various Attitudes 不同態度
Supralapsarianism supralapsarianism
Infralapsarianism infralapsarianism
Amyraldianism amyraldianism
Arminianism arminianism

This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


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