Congregationalism公理

General Information 一般資料

Congregationalism, a form of Protestant church organization based on the autonomy of each congregation, emerged as part of the liberal wing of Puritanism in the English Reformation.公理,一種形式的新教教會組織的基礎上,自主性的每一堂,出現了一部分自由翼清教在英格蘭宗教改革。 By 1600, many clergymen were calling for reform in the Church of England, arguing that the key to adequate change was to grant local congregations autonomy.由1600名,許多神職人員被呼喚改革,在英國教會有關,但認為關鍵足夠改變是給予地方教會自治。 These congregationalists opposed Presbyterians, who wished to manage churches by means of district assemblies, and Anglicans, who wanted bishops for the same purpose.這些稱為"公理派"反對presbyterians ,他們希望教會的管理方式,縣議會,和英國聖公會教徒,他們想要主教為同一目的。

Those who agreed on the democratic principle of congregational self government, however, differed among themselves about what to do.那些同意對民主原則的堂會自律,但政府各不相同自己怎樣做。 Some were called Separatists because they refused to associate with the national church; a notable example was the Pilgrim group, which established (1620) the Plymouth Colony in North America.有些人所謂的分離主義者,因為他們拒絕與之交往,全國教會的一個顯著的例子是朝聖者組,它成立( 1620年)普利茅斯殖民地,在北美地區。 Although others, the non Separatists, did not openly break with the Church of England, increasing persecution led many to emigrate to New England under the auspices of the Massachusetts Bay Company.雖然其他人,非分離主義者,沒有公開決裂英國教會,越來越多的迫害,導致許多移民到新英格蘭的主持下,美國麻省理工灣公司。 The Separatists who remained in England, where they were called Independents, achieved substantial political influence in the period following the English Civil War (the Commonwealth and Protectorate).分裂主義者仍然留在英格蘭,他們將在那裡所謂獨立人士,取得了不少實質性的政治影響力,在之後的一段時間裡英語內戰(英聯邦和被保護國) 。 The Restoration in 1660 brought renewed repression, but the Toleration Act of 1689 allowed freedom of worship.恢復1660帶來了新的鎮壓,但暫準法的1689年允許宗教信仰自由。

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In New England, Congregationalist churches worked so closely with civil governments in every colony except Rhode Island that no other type of church was allowed in the area until 1690, when English authorities forced them to tolerate other religious groups.在新英格蘭, congregationalist教會如此密切地與民間,政府在每一個殖民地,除羅得島,沒有其他類型的教會被允許在該地區,直到1690年,當英國當局強迫他們容忍其他宗教群體。 This relationship is often called theocracy, a situation in which ministers interpreted biblical laws related to general human conduct and town officials enforced them through police power.這種關係往往被稱為神,有一種情況在部長解釋聖經有關的法律一般人的行為與城市官員強迫他們通過警察權力。 State government support for Congregationalist churches did not end until 1818 in Connecticut and not until 1834 in Massachusetts.州政府支持congregationalist教會並沒有結束,直到1818年,在康涅狄格州和直到1834年在馬薩諸塞州。

In 1790, Congregationalists formed the largest, strongest church in America. 1790年,稱為"公理派" ,形成了規模最大,最強的教會在美國。 In the 19th century, however, the church failed to grow proportionately with national expansion.在19世紀,不過,教會並沒有按比例增長,與全國擴張。 In the 20th century, Congregationalist churches in the United States, Britain, and elsewhere have contributed to the Ecumenical Movement.在剛剛過去的二十世紀裡, congregationalist教會,在美國,英國和其他地方的貢獻,使基督信仰合一運動。 In 1957 the US Congregationalists merged with the Evangelical and Reformed Church to form a single denomination, the United Church of Christ, which in the late 1980s had 1.67 million members.在1957年美國稱為"公理派"合併與福音和教會的改革,形成一個單一的面額,美國的基督教會,而在20世紀80年代末已經有167萬成員。

Henry Warner Bowden亨利華納鮑登

Bibliography 參考書目
P Miller, Errand into the Wilderness (1956); G Nuttall, Visible Saints: The Congregational Way 1640 - 1660 (1957); E Routley, The Story of Congregationalism (1961); H Stout, The New England Soul (1988). p米勒,差事到曠野( 1956 ) 100 nuttall ,可見聖人:堂單程1640 -1 660( 1 957) ;電子勞特利,故事的公理( 1 961年) ; h粗壯,新英格蘭靈魂( 1 988) 。


Congregation - (old meaning)眾-(舊的意思)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Congregation, (Heb. kahal), the Hebrew people collectively as a holy community (Num. 15:15).眾, (希伯來書kahal ) ,在希伯來人統稱為一個神聖的共同體( num. 15:15 ) 。 Every circumcised Hebrew from twenty years old and upward was a member of the congregation.每過包皮希伯來語從二十年歲向上的是一個會員的會眾。 Strangers resident in the land, if circumcised, were, with certain exceptions (Ex. 12:19; Num. 9:14; Deut. 23:1-3), admitted to the privileges of citizenship, and spoken of as members of the congregation (Ex. 12:19; Num. 9:14; 15:15).陌生人駐地在土地,如果包皮的人,某些例外(如: 12:19 ;序號。 9時14分; deut 。 23:1-3 ) ,承認特權的公民身份,並講述了該協會成為會員眾(例如: 12:19 ;序號。 9時14分; 15:15 ) 。 The congregation were summonded together by the sound of two silver trumpets, and they met at the door of the tabernacle (Num. 10:3]) These assemblies were convened for the purpose of engaging in solemn religious services (Ex. 12:27; Num. 25:6; Joel 2:15), or of receiving new commandments (Ex. 19:7, 8).眾被summonded一起由聲兩銀小號的,他們今天下午在大門的帳幕( num. 10時03分] ) ,這些集會者為此召開的從事莊嚴的宗教事務(例如: 12時27分;序號。 25:6 ;的Joel 2時15分) ,或接受新的命令(如: 19時07分, 8 ) 。 The elders, who were summonded by the sound of one trumpet (Num. 10:4), represented on various occasions the whole congregation (Ex. 3:16; 12:21; 17:5; 24:1).長老們,他們summonded由健全的一個小號( num. 10:4 ) ,代表在各種場合,整個聚集(如3:16 ; 12時21分; 17時05分; 24:1 ) 。

After the conquest of Canaan, the people were assembled only on occasions of the highest national importance (Judg. 20; 2 Chr. 30:5; 34:29; 1 Sam. 10:17; 2 Sam. 5:1-5; 1 Kings 12:20; 2 Kings 11:19; 21:24; 23:30).之後,征服迦南上,人們只組裝場合的最高的國家的重要性( judg. 20 2人權中心。 30:5 ; 34:29 1薩姆。 10時17分, 2薩姆。 5:1-5 ;一日國王12:20 2國王11時19分; 21時24分; 23:30 ) 。 In subsequent times the congregation was represented by the Sanhedrim; and the name synagogue, applied in the Septuagint version exclusively to the congregation, came to be used to denote the places of worship established by the Jews.在以後的時代眾派公會及名稱猶太教會堂,適用於septuagint版專向會眾,後來被用來指宗教活動場所設立的猶太人。 (See Church.) In Acts 13:43, where alone it occurs in the New Testament, it is the same word as that rendered "synagogue" (qv) in ver. (見教會) ,在行為13:43那裡獨自出現在新約聖經,它是同一個詞,因為這提供了"猶太教" (請參閱) ,在檢視。 42, and is so rendered in ver. 42 ,是這樣,使中查看。 43 in RV 43 ,在右心室

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Congregationalism公理

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

The retention by the Anglican State Church of the prelatical form of government and of many Catholic rites and ceremonies offensive to genuine Protestants resulted in the formation of innumerable Puritan factions, with varying degrees of radicalism.保留由聖公會國家教會的prelatical形式的政府以及許多天主教儀式和慶典進攻,以真正的新教徒,導致在形成無數清教派別,在不同程度上的激進主義。 The violent measures adopted by Elizabeth and the Stuarts to enforce conformity caused the more timid and moderate of the Puritans to remain in communion with the State Church, though keeping up to the present day an incessant protest against "popish tendencies"; but the more advanced and daring of their leaders began to perceive that there was no place for them in a Church governed by a hierarchy and enslaved to the civil power.暴力所採取的措施,黃錢其濂和斯圖爾特執行整合造成更多的怯懦和溫和的清教徒留在共融與國家教會,雖然飼養至目前為止,每天不斷抗議" popish傾向" ,但同時,越是先進和氣魄,他們的領導人,開始感覺到不存在的地方,他們在一所教堂由一個層次,被奴役的,以民間力量。 To many of them, Geneva was the realization of Christ's kingdom on earth, and, influenced by the example of neighbouring Scotland, they began to form churches on the model of Presbyterianism.以他們中的許多人,日內瓦是實現基督的王國在地球上,並受例如鄰近蘇格蘭後,他們開始形成教會的模式presbyterianism 。 Many, however, who had withdrawn from the "tyranny" of the episcopate, were loath to submit to the dominion of presbyteries and formed themselves into religious communities acknowledging "no head, priest, prophet or king save Christ".很多,但是,世衛組織已退出"暴政"的主教,不願意向統治presbyteries和建制投身宗教社團承認" ,沒有頭,牧師,先知或國王挽救基督" 。 These dissenters were known as "Independents" and in spite of fines, imprisonments, and the execution of at least five of their leaders, they increased steadily in numbers and influence, until they played a conspicuous part in the revolution that cost Charles I his crown and life.這些持不同政見者被稱為"獨立人士" ,並不顧罰款,監禁,並處決至少有五個自己的領袖,他們則穩步上升,在數量和影響力,直到他們發揮了突出參加革命,即成本查爾斯他冠和人生觀。 The earliest literary exponent of Independence was Robert Brown, from whom the dissenters were nicknamed Brownists.最早的文學指數獨立是羅伯特布朗,從人的持不同政見者被暱稱為brownists 。 Brown was born in 1550, of a good family, in Rutlandshire, and studied at Cambridge.布朗出生於1550年,一個良好的家庭,在rutlandshire ,並考察了在劍橋。 About 1580 he began to circulate pamphlets in which the State Church was denounced in unmeasured terms and the duty was inculcated of separating from communion with it.大約1580年,他開始分發傳單,其中國家教會譴責不可測條件和職責是灌輸的分離與共融。 The godly were not to look to the State for the reform of the Church; they must set about it themselves on the Apostolic model.在神聖不指望國家,為改革的教會,他們必須訂定它自己對使徒模式。 Brown defines the Church as a "company or number of Christians or believers, who, by a willing covenant made with their God, are under the government of God and Christ, and keep his laws in one holy communion".布朗界定教會作為一個"公司或有多少基督徒或信徒,他們中,一個願意公約與他們的神,是根據政府的上帝和耶穌,並保住自己的法律,在一個聖餐" 。 This new gospel attracted numerous adherents.這一新的福音,吸引了眾多的追隨者。 A congregation was formed in Norwich which grew rapidly.聚集形成於諾維奇,其中增長較快。 Summoned before the bishop's court, Brown escaped the consequences of his zeal through the intervention of his powerful relation, Lord Burghley, and, with his followers, migrated to Holland, the common refuge of the persecuted reformers of all Europe.召見前輔理主教的法院,布朗逃脫的後果他一心通過干預他的強有力的關係,主burghley ,帶著他的信徒,移居荷蘭,共同避難的迫害改革者的所有歐洲。 The Netherlands were soon flooded with refugees from England, and large congregations were established in the principal cities.荷蘭很快就充斥著難民從英格蘭和大型畢業典禮設立於主要城市。 The most flourishing Independent Church was that of Leyden under the direction of John Robinson.最繁榮的獨立教會是萊登的領導下,約翰魯賓遜。 It was to this congregation that the "Pilgrim Fathers" belonged, who in 1620 set sail in the Mayflower for the New World.正是出於這一眾認為, "朝聖者的父親"屬於人,在1620年啟航,在五月花為新的世界。

The successful establishment of the New England colonies was an event of the utmost importance in the development of Congregationalism, a term preferred by the American Puritans to Independency and gradually adopted by their coreligionists in Great Britain.成功地建立了新英格蘭殖民地,是一件極其重要的發展公理,任期為首選,由美國清教徒,以獨立性,並逐步通過其coreligionists在英國進修。 Not only was a safe haven now opened to the fugitives from persecution, but the example of orderly communities based entirely on congregational principles, "without pope, prelate, presbytery, prince or parliament", was a complete refutation of the charge advanced by Anglicans and Presbyterians that Independency meant anarchy and chaos, civil and religious.不僅是一個安全的避風港,現在開放給逃犯以免遭迫害,但例子有序的社區完全基於公理原則, "沒有教宗,主教,長老,太子或國會" ,是一個完整的駁費提前聖公會和presbyterians即獨立性意味著無政府狀態和混亂,民間和宗教團體。 In the Massachusetts settlements, "the New England way", as it was termed, developed, not indeed without strifes and dissensions, but without external molestation.在美國馬薩諸塞州的定居點, "新英格蘭條道路" ,因為它是被稱為開發,而不是實在沒有strifes和糾紛,但在沒有外來騷擾。 They formed, from the Puritan standpoint, the veritable kingdom of the saints; and the slightest expression of dissent from the Gospel was punished by the ministers was punished with scourging, exile, and even death.他們成立了,從清教徒的觀點來看,真正的英國的聖徒,並沒有絲毫的異議福音被處以部長們被處以scourging ,流放,甚至死亡。 The importance of stamping out Nonconformity in the American colonies did not escape the vigilance of Archbishop Laud; he had concerted measures with Charles I for imposing the episcopacy upon them, when war broke out between the king and the Parliament.的重要性,杜絕不符合的,在美洲殖民地,沒有逃生的警惕大主教讚揚,他曾採取協調一致的措施,與查爾斯對我來說,實行之時,當戰爭爆發之間的國王和議會。 During the Civil War in England, though few in number compared with the Presbyterians, they grew in importance through the ability of their leaders, notably of Oliver Cromwell who gained for them the ascendency in the army and the Commonwealth.在內戰期間,在英格蘭,儘管數量很少,比較符合presbyterians ,他們在成長的重要性,通過能力的領導人,特別是奧利弗克倫威爾的人獲得了對他們來說ascendency在軍隊和英聯邦。 In the Westminster Assembly convened by the Long Parliament in 1643, Independency was ably represented by five ministers, Thomas Goodwin, Philip Nye, Jeremiah Burroughs, William Bridge and Sidrach Simpson, known as "The Five Dissenting Brethren", and ten or eleven laymen.在西敏寺議會召開了由長期議會在1643年,獨立性是幹練派5名部長,托馬斯古德溫,弘奈伊耶利米的嬰兒,校,威廉橋樑和sidrach辛普森,被稱為"五持異議的弟兄" , 10或11個外行。 They all took a prominent part in the debates of the Assembly, pleading strongly for toleration at the hands of the Presbyterian majority.他們都採取了突出部分,在辯論大會,懇求強烈的耐受性,在掌握在長老會的大多數。 They adopted the doctrinal articles of the Westminster Confession with slight modifications; but as there could be no basis of agreement between them and the Presbyterians regarding church government, a meeting of "elders and messengers" of "the Congregational churches" was held at the Savoy in 1658 and drew up the famous "Savoy Declaration", which was also accepted in New England and long remained as authoritative as such a document could be in a denomination which, theoretically, rejected all authority.他們採取理論文章的西敏寺自白與稍作修改,但由於不可能有任何依據雙方之間的協議以及presbyterians關於教會政府,召開了"長老和傳話人"的"堂會教堂"舉行薩沃在1658年制定了著名的" 。 Savoy宣言" ,也被接受,在新英格蘭和長期仍然具有權威性,因為這樣的文件可以在一個面額,其中,從理論上說,拒絕一切權威。 From this Declaration we obtain a clear idea of the Congregationalist notion of the Church.從這個宣言,我們得到一個清晰的概念了congregationalist概念的教會。

The elect are called individually by the Lord, but "those thus called (through the ministry of the word by His Spirit) he commandeth to walk together in particular Societies or Churches, for their mutual edification and the due performance of that Public Worship which He requireth of them in this world".獲選的是所謂單獨由主,但"那些所謂的,因此(通過教育部詞,他的精神) ,他commandeth走在一起,尤其是社團或教堂,為他們相互啟迪和應有的表現,公共崇拜他requireth他們在這個世界上" 。 Each of these particular churches is the Church in the full sense of the term and is not subject to any outside jurisdiction.每個這些教會,尤其是教會在充分意義上來說,並沒有受到任何外界管轄權。 The officers of the church, pastors, teachers, elders, and deacons, are "chosen by the common suffrage of the church itself, and solemnly set apart by fasting and prayer, with imposition of hands of the eldership of that church, if there be any before constituted therein"; the essence of the call consists in election by the Church.海關人員的教會,牧師,教師,長老,執事,是"所選擇的共同普選的教會本身,並鄭重提出,除了通過禁食和祈禱,強加掌握在長老的教會,如果有任何以前構成" ;精髓號召組成,在選舉中所教堂。 To preserve harmony, no person ought to be added to the Church without the consent of the Church itself.維護和諧,沒有任何人都應加入教會未經他們同意,教會本身。 The Church has power to admonish and excommunicate disorderly members, but this power of censure "is to be exercised only towards particular members of each church as such".教會有權力告誡和excommunicate無序議員,但這項權力的責難" ,是為了行使,只對特定的成員,每個教堂等" 。 "In case of difficulties or differences, either in point of doctrine or administration, wherein either the churches in general are concerned, or any one church, in their peace, union, and edification, or any member or members of any church are injured in or by any proceeding in censures not agreeable to truth and order, it is according to the mind of Christ that many churches holding one communion together do by their messengers meet in a Synod or Council to consider and give their advice in or about that matter in difference, to be reported to all the churches concerned: Howbeit, these Synods so assembled are not entrusted with any church power properly so called, or with any jurisdiction over the churches themselves, to exercise any censures, either over any churches or persons, or to impose their determination on the churches or officers." "若遇上困難或分歧,無論是在點的學說或行政機關,其中,要么教會普遍關注,或任何一個教會,在他們的和平,聯盟和啟迪,或任何會員或會員的任何教會的人受傷或通過任何法律程序責難不贊成真理和秩序,這是根據基督的心,許多教堂舉行一個共融在一起做自己的使者見面,在主教會議或理事會審議,並提出意見或對這件事差異,將正式提報的所有教會關注: howbeit ,這些主教會議的,所以組裝沒有委託任何教會的權力,妥善所謂的,或與任何管轄權,教會本身,行使任何責難,無論在任何教會或個人,或強加給他們的決心,對教會或軍官法" 。 If any person, for specified reasons, be dissatisfied with his church, "he, consulting with the church, or the officer or officers thereof, may peaceably depart from the communion of the church wherewith he hath so walked, to join himself to some other church".如果任何人,為特定原因,不滿意他的教會"的時候,諮詢與教會,或官或人員的反應,或許和平共處偏離共融的教會裡祂所這麼走,加入自己的一些其他教會" 。 Finally it is stated that "churches gathered and walking according to the mind of Christ, judging other churches (though less pure) to be true churches, may receive unto occasional communion with them such members of these churches as are credibly testified to be godly and to live without offense".最後,它是說: "教會聚會和散步根據基督的心,從其他教會(雖然少純)是真實的教堂,可以得到所不欲,偶爾共融與他們這些成員,這些教會都令人信服地證明了被神聖和住在沒有進攻" 。

Such are the main principles of Congregationalism regarding the constitution of the church; in doctrine the Congregational teachers were, for the most part, strictly Calvinistic.這些都是主要原則公理關於憲法的教會在教義堂老師,在大多數情況下,嚴格calvinistic 。 Independent ascendency came to an abrupt close at the death of Cromwell and the restoration of Charles II.獨立ascendency來到突然關閉,在死亡的克倫威爾和恢復查爾斯二世。 The Presbyterians, who had seated the Stuart on his throne, might hope for his favour; there was slight prospect that he would tolerate the democratic tenets of Congregationalism.該presbyterians ,曾坐在了斯圖爾特對他的王位,可能是希望為他的人贊成;有輕微的前景,他會容忍民主原理的公理。 As a matter of fact Charles and his servile parliament persecuted both forms of dissent.作為一個問題,事實上,查爾斯和他的奴性議會迫害兩種形式的持不同政見者。 A succession of severe edicts, the Corporation Act, 1661, the Act of Uniformity, 1662, the Conventicle Act, 1663, renewed, 1670, the Five-Mile Act, 1665, and the Test Act, 1673, made existence almost impossible to Nonconformists of all shades of belief.一連串的嚴厲法令後,該公司的行為, 1661年,該法的統一性, 1662年, conventicle行為, 1663年,展期, 1670年, 35英里的行為, 1665年,研究與試驗法, 1673年,取得了生存幾乎是不可能的nonconformists對形形色色的信念。 Yet in spite of persecution, they held out until the eighteenth century brought toleration and finally freedom.然而,儘管被迫害,他們舉行了出來,直到十八世紀帶來的容忍和最後的自由。 It is characteristic of the Puritans that, notwithstanding the sufferings they had undergone they spurned the indulgence offered by James II, because it tolerated popery; in fact, they were more zealous than the rest of the nation in driving James from the throne.它的特點是清教徒認為,儘管他們的苦難經歷,他們唾棄的放縱所提供的詹姆斯二世,因為它不能容忍popery ;事實上,他們更熱心比其他民族在駕駛詹姆斯從寶座。 The exclusion of Dissenters from the British universities created a serious problem for the Congregationalists as well as for the Catholics; to the sacrifices which these and other denominations out of communion with the State Church made for the maintenance of academies and colleges conducted according to their respective principles, England, like America, owes that great boon so essential to the well-being of civilized nations, freedom of education.排除異議,由英國大學帶來了很大的問題,為稱為"公理派" ,以及為天主教徒;犧牲,而這些和其他教派出來的共融與國家教會的經費用於維修的院校和高校進行了根據各自原則,英格蘭,像美國,歸功於帶來極大的好處,所以有必要福祉的文明國家,自由的教育。 During the eighteenth century, while the clergy of the Established Church, educated and maintained by the State, were notoriously incapable and apathetic, whatever there was of spiritual energy in the nation emanated from the denominational colleges.在十八世紀,而神職人員所建立的教會,受教育者和維持由國家,是眾所周知的無能和冷感,因此無論是精神能量,在全國產生了由教會學院。

Congregational Unions堂工會

The Congregational churches were at their best while the pressure of persecution served to cement them; this removed, the absence of organization left them an easy prey to the inroads of rationalism and infidelity.堂教堂,在他們最好的,而壓力的迫害送達,以水泥;這移走的,但缺乏組織,給他們留下了一個很容易向進出的理性主義和對伴侶不忠。 Before the end of the eighteenth century many of them lapsed into Unitarianism, alike in England and America.年底前, 18世紀他們中的許多人陷入unitarianism ,無論是在英國和美國。 A new problem was thus forced upon them, viz.一個新的問題,因此被迫對他們的,即 how to maintain the unity of the denomination without consciously violating their fundamental doctrine of the entire independence of each particular church.如何保持統一的面額,沒有自覺地侵犯了他們的基本教義,整個獨立每個特定的教會。 "A Congregational Union of England and Wales", formed in 1833 and revised in 1871, issued a "Declaration of the Faith, Church Order, and Discipline of the Congregational or Independent Dissenters", and provided for annual meetings and a president who should hold office for a year. "堂會聯盟的英格蘭和威爾士" ,成立於1833年和修改, 1871年,發表了一份"聲明的信仰,教會秩序,有紀律的堂會或獨立的持不同政見者" ,並規定了年度會議,並任命了總統的人應持有辦了一年。 American Congregationalism has always been of a more organic character.美國公理一直是一個更有機的性格。 While persisting in emphasizing the complete independence of particular churches, it has made ample provision, at the expense of consistency, for holding the denomination together.在堅持強調完全獨立的,尤其是教堂,它已經作了大量的規定,在犧牲的連貫性,為持有面額在一起。 No minister is admitted except upon approval of the clerical "association" to which he must belong.沒有部長承認,除經批准的該文書上的"協會" ,因為他必須屬於。 To be acknowledged as Congregationalist, a new community must be received into fellowship by the churches of its district.我們必須承認,作為congregationalist ,一個新的社區必須收到成金所教堂的,其區。 Should a church fall into serious error, or tolerate and uphold notorious scandals, the other churches may withdraw their fellowship, and it ceases to be recognized as Congregationalist.應教會陷入嚴重的錯誤,或容忍,並堅持臭名昭著的醜聞後,其他教堂可以撤回其金,並不再被承認為congregationalist 。 If a minister is found guilty of gross heresy or evil life, a council summoned to examine his case may, if necessary, withdraw from him the fellowship of the churches.如果一名部長被發現犯有嚴重異端或邪惡的生活,會傳喚審查他的案件,如有必要,退出他團契的教會。 The statements of Henry M. Dexter, DD, the historian of his sect ("American Encyclopedia", sv "Congregationalism"), prove that there is a marked contrast between Congregational theory and practice.聲明亨利米右,副署長,歷史學家對他的教派( "美國百科全書" , sv "公理" ) ,證明存在著明顯的反差堂理論與實踐結合起來。 The Congregationalists have been very active in home and foreign mission work and possess eight theological seminaries in the United States viz.這項稱為"公理派"也一直相當活躍,在家庭和外國使團的工作,並擁有八所神學院的神學在美國落成。 Andover, Massachusetts; Atlanta, Georgia; Bangor, Maine; New Haven and Hartford, Connecticut; Oberlin, Ohio; Chicago, Illinois; and the Pacific, Berkeley, California. andover ,馬薩諸塞;佐治亞州亞特蘭大;緬因州的班;新的避風港和康涅狄格州哈特福德;奧伯林,俄亥俄;伊利諾斯州芝加哥和太平洋伯克利分校,加利福尼亞州。 Since 1871 national councils, composed of delegates from all the States of the Union, are convened every third year.自1871年國家議會組成的代表來自所有國家的聯盟將召開會議,每3年。 "The Congregational Handbook for 1907" gives the following statistics of the denomination in America: Churches 5931; ministers 5933; members 668,736. "堂本手冊,為1907年" ,作出以下統計面額在美國:教會5931年;部長會議5933年;委員668736 。 Included in this count are Cuba with 6 ministers and 636 members and Porto Rico with 3 ministers and 50 members.包括在本指望是古巴6個部長和636個成員和波多黎各3個部長和50名議員。 In England and Wales the statistics for 1907 were: sittings 1,801,447; communicants 498,953; ministers 3197; local preachers 5603.在英格蘭和威爾士的統計數字, 1907年分別為:開庭1801447 ; communicants 498953 ;部長會議3197年在當地傳教士5603 。 The efforts made in recent years to find a basis for some kind of corporate union between the Congregationalists, the Methodist Protestants, and the United Brethren in Christ have not been successful.在近年來的努力,以找到一個基礎,為某種形式的企業聯盟之間的稱為"公理派" ,循道衛理新教徒,而美國弟兄,在基督裡都沒有取得成功。

Publication information Written by JF Loughlin.出版信息書面由JF loughlin 。 Transcribed by Robert H. Sarkissian.轉錄羅伯特每小時薩爾基相。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.天主教百科全書,第四卷。 Published 1908. 1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat. nihil obstat 。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

Walker, A History of the Congregational Churches in the United States (New York, 1894); Idem, The Creeds and Platforms of Congregationalism (ibid., 1893); Dexter, The Congregationalism of the last 300 years, as seen in its Literature (ibid., 1880).沃克,歷史堂教會,在美國(紐約, 1894年) ;同上,信條及政綱的公理(同上, 1893年) ;右,公理的過去300年,由於看到其文學(同上, 1880年) 。 Each of these works contains a good bibliography.每個這些作品包含了一個很好的書目。


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