Christology christology

General Information 一般資料

Although it is true that there was a basic difference between Jesus' message of the kingdom and the post Easter church's message of him as the saving act of God, all of Jesus' words and work imply a Christology.雖然這是事實存在的一個基本差別,為耶穌訊息的王國和郵政復活節教會的訊息,他為拯救上帝的旨意,所有的耶穌的話和工作意味著christology 。 Thus the critical quest for the historical Jesus yields a sufficient basis for the message of the post Easter church and is therefore necessary to legitimate it.因此,批判追求歷史的耶穌產量足夠的基礎信息,該職位的復活節教堂,並因此有必要將它合法化。

Message of the Post Easter Church信息郵政復活節教堂

The Christology of the earliest Palestinian Christian community apparently had two focuses. It looked backward to the earthly life of Jesus as prophet and servant of God and forward to his final return as Messiah (Acts 3:21). Meanwhile Jesus was thought of as waiting inactively in heaven, to which he was believed to have ascended after the resurrection (Acts 1:9).該christology的最早的巴勒斯坦基督徒社區顯然有兩個重點, 它期待倒退到俗世生活的耶穌為先知和僕人的上帝和著他的最後回報,因為彌賽亞(使徒3時21分) ,同時,耶穌被思想作為等待inactively在天堂,因為他被認為是有登基後復活(使徒行1時09分) 。

Soon their experience of the Holy Spirit, whose descent is recorded in Acts 2, led the early Christians to think in terms of a two stage Christology: the first stage was the earthly ministry and the second stage his active ruling in heaven.很快,他們的經驗,聖靈,他們的後裔,是記錄在行為2 ,領導早期基督徒認為,在職權分兩個階段christology :第一階段是俗世部和第二個階段,他積極執政黨在天上。 This two stage Christology, in which Jesus is exalted as Messiah, Lord, and Son of God (Acts 2:36; Romans 1:4), is often called adoptionist.這兩個階段christology ,其中耶穌是開天闢地作為彌賽亞,主啊,上帝的兒子(使徒2時36分;羅馬書1:4 ) ,通常被稱為adoptionist 。 It is not the Adoptionism of later heresy, however, for it thinks in terms of function rather than being.這是不是adoptionism後來異端,然而,因為它認為,無論在功能,而不是被。 At his exaltation to heaven Jesus began to function as he had not previously.在他的提升,以耶穌升天開始發揮作用,因為他以前沒有。 Another primitive Christological affirmation associates the birth of Jesus with his Davidic descent, thus qualifying him for the messianic office at his exaltation (for example, Romans 1:3).另一種原始的基督論誓詞同夥耶穌誕生的,與他的davidic後裔,因此他有資格為救世主的辦公室在他的提升(例如,羅馬書1:3 ) 。 This introduced the birth of Jesus as a Christologically significant moment.這個介紹了耶穌誕生的,作為christologically重要時刻。

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As Christianity spread to the Greek speaking world between AD 35 and 50, further Christological perspectives were developed.作為基督教蔓延至希臘來說世界之間的專案35和50 ,進一步基督論視角的開發工作。 The sending - of - the - Son pattern was one of them.派遣-- -兒子模式是其中之一。 This pattern is threefold: (1) God sent (2) his Son (3) in order to.這種格局是三個方面: ( 1 )神派( 2 ) ,他的兒子( 3 )為了。 . . (with a statement of the saving purpose - for example, Galatians 4:4 - 5). (同一份聲明中的儲蓄目的-例如,加拉太4點0 4分- 5) 。 The birth narratives of Matthew and Luke combine the Davidic descent with the sending - of - the - Son Christology.誕生的敘述馬修和盧克結合davidic後裔與派遣-- -兒子c hr istology。 Another major development of this period is the identification of Jesus as the incarnation of the heavenly wisdom of Jewish speculation (Prov. 8:22 - 31; Sir. 24:1 - 12; Wisd. 7:24 - 30).另一項重大的發展,這一時期是確定的,因為耶穌的化身,天上的智慧猶太投機( prov. 8時22 -3 1條;主席。 2 4:1- 12歲; w i sd。7時2 4 -3 0) 。

Hence a three stage Christology emerges: the preexistent wisdom or Logos (Word), who was the agent of creation and of general revelation and also of the special revelation of Israel, becomes incarnate in the life and death of Jesus of Nazareth, and then in the resurrection and exaltation returns to heaven (Php. 2:6 - 11; Col. 1:15 - 20; Heb. 1:1 - 3; John 1:1 - 14).因此,三個階段christology出現: preexistent智慧或標誌(字) ,他是代理人的創作與一般的啟示,也特別啟示以色列,成為肉身在生和死的拿撒勒的耶穌,然後在復活和提升效益上天堂( php. 2時06 -1 1;上校1 :15-第2 0條;以弗所書1 : 1-3 ;約翰1 :1 -14 )。 With this three stage Christology there is a shift from purely functional interpretation to the question of the being or person of Jesus.與這三個階段christology有一個轉變,由單純的功能解釋上述問題的還是人的耶穌。 Thus the later phases of the New Testament lay the ground for the Christological controversies of the Patristic Age.因此,以後各階段的新約全書奠定了地面,為基督論爭論的教父的年齡。

Christological Controversies of the Patristic Age基督論爭論的教父年齡

The rise of Gnosticism as a Christian deviation began in the 2d century and led to the development of Docetism, the view that the humanity of Jesus was apparent rather than real.崛起靈知身為基督徒的偏差開始在二維世紀,並導致發展docetism ,認為人類的耶穌明顯,而不是真實的。 Catholic Christianity insisted on his true humanity - hence the statement in the Apostles' Creed, "conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary."天主教,基督教堅持他的真實人性-因此,聲明在使徒們的信條, "概念是由聖靈出生的聖母瑪利亞" 。

In the 3d and 4th centuries there were some who continued to question the full humanity of Jesus and others who questioned his full deity.在3D和第四世紀以來,有一些人不斷質疑充滿人性的耶穌等人質疑他的充滿神。 When Arius (Arianism) denied that the preexistent Son, or Word, was fully God, the Council of Nicea (325) formulated a creed (the Nicene Creed) containing the phrases "of one substance with the Father" and "was made man."當arius ( arianism )否認這種說法。 preexistent兒子,或字,是完全為神,會nicea ( 325 )制定了信條(尼西亞) ,其中載有三句"的一種物質與父親" , "取得了男子。 " Next, Apollinarius, anxious to assert the Son's deity, taught that the Logos replaced the human spirit in the earthly Jesus (Apollinarianism).接下來, apollinarius ,急於斷言兒子的神,專門教授表示,標識取代了人的精神在俗世的耶穌(亞波里拿留派) 。 This teaching was condemned at the Council of Constantinople (381).這種教學,是譴責在安理會的君士坦丁堡( 381 ) 。

Next, the theologians of the School of Antioch were so anxious to maintain the reality of Jesus' humanity that they seemed to compromise his deity.其次,神學家的學校安提如此渴望能夠維持的現實,耶穌的人性,他們似乎是妥協,他的神像。 Thus Theodore of Mopsuestia and his pupil Nestorius separated the deity from the humanity almost to the point of denying the unity of his person.因此西奧多的摩普綏提亞和他的瞳孔nestorius失散神,從人類幾乎一點不可否認的團結,他的人。 To preserve this unity the Council of Ephesus (431) affirmed that Mary was the "God bearer" (Theotokos, later popularly rendered as "Mother of God").為了維護這種團結理事會以弗所( 431 )證實,瑪麗是"上帝的旗手" ( theotokos ,後來普遍為"上帝之母" ) 。 Eutyches from the Alexandrian school then claimed that the two natures of Christ were, at the incarnation, fused into one.歐迪奇從亞歷山大學校,然後聲稱這兩個性質基督的人,在化身,融合成一個。 This view was ruled out at the Council of Chalcedon (451), which insisted that Christ was one person in two natures (divine and human) "without confusion, without change, without division and without separation."這種觀點被排除在安理會的chalcedon ( 451 ) ,它堅持說,基督是一個人在兩個性質(神和人) "紛亂,沒有改變,沒有分裂也不會分離" 。

Modern Christologies generally start "from below" rather than "from above," finding Jesus first to be truly human, and then discovering his divinity in and through his humanity: "God was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself" (2 Cor. 5:19).現代christologies普遍展開, "從下面" ,而不是"從上述情況, "尋找耶穌,首先要真正的人,然後發現了他的神性,並通過了他的人性: "上帝在基督裡,調和了世界,以自己的" ( 2肺心病。 5時19分) 。

Bibliography 參考書目
RH Fuller, The Foundations of New Testament Christology (1965); F Hahn, The Titles of Jesus in Christology (1969).銠更充分,基礎新約聖經christology ( 1965 ) ,女哈恩,職稱耶穌在christology ( 1969 ) 。


Christology christology

Advanced Information 先進的信息

NT Christology新台幣christology

In the NT the writers indicate who Jesus is by describing the significance of the work he came to do and the office he came to fulfill.在新台幣作家表明誰耶穌是描述了工作的意義,他來到做辦公室,他來完成。 Amidst the varied descriptions of his work and office, always mainly in terms of the OT, there is a unified blending of one aspect with another, and a development that means an enrichment, without any cancellation of earlier tradition.由於不同的描述,他的工作和辦公室,始終主要是按職能治療,是一個統一的融合的一個方面,另一個,也是一個發展即富集,但無任何取消先前的傳統。

Jesus in the Gospels耶穌在福音

His humanity is taken for granted in the Synoptic Gospels, as if it could not possibly occur to anyone to question it.他的人性是視為理所當然的,在天氣福音,因為如果它是不可能發生的,以任何人質疑它。 We see him lying in the cradle, growing, leaning, subject to hunger, anxiety, doubt, disappointment, and surprise (Luke 2:40; Mark 2:15; 14:33; 15:34; Luke 7:9), and finally to death and burial.我們看到他躺在搖籃,成長,學習,受飢餓,焦慮,懷疑,失望,和令人驚訝(路加福音2時40分;馬克2時15分; 14:33 ; 15:34 ;盧克7時09分) ,並最後的死亡和埋葬。 But elsewhere his true humanity is specifically witnessed to, as if it might be called in question (Gal. 4:4; John 1:14), or its significance neglected (Heb. 2:9, 17; 4:15; 5:7 - 8; 12:2).但在其他地方,他的真實人性,是專門目睹到,因為如果它可能會被質疑( gal. 4時04分;約翰1:14 ) ,或其意義被忽視(希伯來書2時09分, 17名; 4:15 ; 5 : 7 -8 ; 1 2:2) 。

Besides this emphasis on his true humanity, there is nevertheless always an emphasis on the fact that even in his humanity he is sinless and also utterly different from other men and that his significance must not be sought by ranking him alongside the greatest or wisest or holiest of all other men.除了這種強調他的真實人性,卻是始終是一個側重於這樣一個事實,即使在他的人性,他是罪孽,也完全不同於其他男人,並認為他的意義絕不能試圖通過他的排名並列最大或最明智的,或神聖所有其他男人。 The virgin birth and the resurrection are signs that here we have something unique in the realm of humanity.維爾京誕生和復活跡象表明,在這裡,我們有一些獨特的境界人性。 Who or what he is can be discovered only by contrasting him with others, and it shines out most clearly when all others are against him.誰或者什麼,他是可以被發現,只有通過對比,他與其他人,它閃耀出最清楚的時候,所有其他人都反對他。 The event of his coming to suffer and triumph as man in our midst is absolutely decisive for every individual he encounters and for the destiny of the whole world (John 3:16 - 18; 10:27 - 28;12:31; 16:11; 1 John 3:8).一旦他來受苦,凱旋,由於人在我們中間,是絕對決定性的每一個人,他遇到了和命運也符合整個世界的(約翰3:16 -1 8歲; 1 0:27- 28 ;1 2 :31;1 6日: 11 ;約翰3點08分) 。

In his coming the kingdom of God has come (Mark 1:15).在他到來神的國度來(標記1:15 ) 。 His miracles are signs that this is so (Luke 11:20).他的神蹟種種跡象表明,這是使(路加福音11:20 ) 。 Woe, therefore, to those who misinterpret them (Mark 3:22 - 29).災,因此,對那些被誤以為他們(馬克3時22 -2 9) 。 He acts and speaks with heavenly regal authority.他的行為和發言,是合乎天理富豪權威。 He can challenge men to lay down their lives for his own sake (Matt. 10:39).他可以挑戰男子放下了自己的生命,他自己的利益。 ( 10時39分) 。 The kingdom is indeed his own kingdom (Matt. 16:28; Luke 22:30).王國的確是他自己的王國。 ( 16時28分;路加福音22:30 ) 。 He is the One who, in uttering what is simply his own mind, at the same time utters the eternal and decisive word of God (Matt. 5:22, 28; 24:35).他是一個人,表達出什麼,只是他自己的心目中,在同一時間內什麼話,永恆的和決定性的上帝的話。 ( 5時22分, 28個; 24:35 ) 。 His word effects what it proclaims (Matt. 8:3; Mark 11:21) as God's word does.他所說的話的影響是什麼,它宣告。 ( 8時03分;大關11:21 ) ,作為上帝的話語是否。 He has the authority and power even to forgive sins (Mark 2:1 - 12).他的權威和權力,甚至原諒的罪過(馬克2:1 -1 2) 。

Christ基督

His true significance can be understood only when his relationship to the people in whose midst he was born is understood.他的真正意義是可以理解的,只有當他的關係人,其中他出生點可以理解。 In the events that are set motion in his earthly career God's purpose and covenant with Israel is fulfilled.在事件載議案在他的塵世生涯上帝的宗旨和內容與以色列正在履行。 He is the One who comes to do what neither the people of the OT nor their anointed representatives, the prophets, priests, and kings, could do.他是一個人來做什麼,無論是人的城市旅遊局或其選定的代表,是先知,教士,和國王,可以做的。 But they had been promised that One who would rise up in their own midst would yet make good what all of them had utterly failed to make good.但他們已承諾的人會重新崛起,在他們自己中間,將尚未好好什麼他們都已經完全不能好好。 In this sense Jesus of Nazareth is the One anointed with the Spirit and power (Acts 10:38) to be the true Messiah or Christ (John 1:41; Rom. 9:5) of his people.在這個意義上拿撒勒的耶穌是一個不信任與精神力量(使徒行10:38 ) ,以成為真正的彌賽亞或基督(約翰1時41分;光盤。 9時05分) ,他的人民。 He is the true prophet (Mark 9:7; Luke 13:33; John 1:21; 6:14), priest (John 17; Heb.), and king (Matt. 2:2; 21:5; 27:11), as, eg, his baptism (Matt. 3:13ff.) and his use of Isa.他是真正的先知(馬克9時07分;盧克13時33分;約翰1時21分; 6時14分) ,牧師(約翰17個;以弗所書) ,和景。 ( 2:2 ; 21時05分; 27 : 11 ) ,因為,例如,他的洗禮。 ( 3時13分幾段) ,並使用他的伊薩。 61 (Luke 4:16 - 22) indicate. 61 (路加福音4時16分-2 2)的結果表明。

In receiving this anointing and fulfilling this messianic purpose, he receives from his contemporaries the titles Christ (Mark 8:29) and Son of David (Matt. 9:27; 12:23; 15:22; cf. Luke 1:32; Rom. 1:3; Rev. 5:5).在接受本anointing和履行這一救世主為此,他收到來自他同時代的標題基督(馬克8時29分)和兒子大衛。 ( 9時27分; 12:23 ; 15:22 ;比照路加福音1:32 ;光碟1:3 ;牧師5:5 ) 。

But he gives himself and receives also many other titles which help to illuminate the office he fulfilled and which are even more decisive in indicating who he is.但他自首,並接收也有許多其他遊戲幫助,照亮一處,他完成了,哪些是更果斷,在顯示他是誰。 A comparison of the current messianic ideas of Judaism with both the teaching of Jesus himself and the witness of the NT shows that Jesus selected certain features of messianic tradition which he emphasized and allowed to crystallize round his own person.比較目前的救世主思想猶太教與基督的教導自己的見證新台幣表明耶穌選定某些功能的救世主式的傳統,他強調,並獲准結晶輪他自己的人。 Certain messianic titles are used by him and of him in preference to others, and are themselves reinterpreted in the use he makes of them and in the relationship he gives them to himself and to one another.某些救世主式的標題用的,他和他的喜好,以他人的,是自己重新在利用他,使他們在關係他給他們自己和另外一個人。 This is partly the reason for his "messianic reserve" (Matt. 8:4; 16:20; John 10:24; etc.).這部分原因是他的"救世主儲備" 。 ( 8時04分; 16:20 ;約翰10:24等) 。

Son of Man人子

Jesus used the title "Son of man" of himself more than any other.耶穌使用的題目是"人子"的自己比任何其他。 There are passages in the OT where the phrase means simply "man" (eg, Ps. 8:5), and at times Jesus' use of it corresponds to this meaning (cf. Matt. 8:20).有機票,在酒店當這句話意味著簡單的"好男人" (如聚苯乙烯。 8時05分) ,並在耶穌時代'的使用,它相當於這個意思(參見馬特。 8:20 ) 。 But the majority of contexts indicate that in using this title Jesus is thinking of Dan.但大多數人的背景表明,在使用這個稱號耶穌是思想的丹。 7:13, where the "Son of man" is a heavenly figure, both an individual and at the same time the ideal representative of the people of God. 7時13分,當"人子"是一個天朝的數字,無論是個人,並在同一時間內的理想地代表人民的上帝。 In the Jewish apocalyptic tradition this Son of man is regarded as a preexistent one who will come at the end of the ages as judge and as a light to the Gentiles (cf. Mark 14:62).在猶太世界末日的傳統,這人子被視為preexistent一莫屬,他會在去年底的年齡作為判斷和作為一盞燈,外邦人(參見馬克14:62 ) 。

Jesus sometimes uses this title when he emphasizes his authority and power (Mark 2:10; 2:28; Luke 12:19).耶穌有時會使用這個名稱時,他強調,他的權威和權力(馬克2時10分; 2時28分;路加福音12:19 ) 。 At other times he uses it when he is emphasizing his humility and incognito (Mark 10:45; 14:21; Luke 19:10; 9:58).在其他時候,他使用它時,他強調,他的謙遜和記(馬克10:45 ; 14時21分;路加福音19:10 ; 9時58分) 。 In the Gospel of John the title is used in contexts which emphasize his preexistence, his descent into the world in a humiliation which both conceals and manifests his glory (John 3:13 - 14; 6:62 - 63; 8:6ff.), his role of uniting heaven and earth (John 1:51), his coming to judge men and hold the messianic banquet (John 5:27; 6:27).在福音的約翰標題中使用背景,強調他的preexistence ,他的後裔融入世界中的屈辱,這既掩蓋了,體現了他的榮耀(約翰3點13分-1 4; 6 :62- 63 ;8時0 6分幾段) ,他的作用是團結天地(約翰1時51分) ,他來判斷男子,並舉行救世主宴會(約翰5點27分; 6時27分) 。

Though "Son of man" is used only by Jesus of himself, what it signified is otherwise expressed, especially in Rom.雖然"人子" ,是用只有耶穌他自己,什麼它標誌著以其他方式表達,尤其是在光盤。 5 and 1 Cor. 5和1肺心病。 15, where Christ is described as the "man from heaven" or the "second Adam." 15 ,而基督是被稱為"男子從天上"或"第二亞當" 。 Paul here takes up hints in the Synoptic Gospels that in the coming of Christ there is a new creation (Matt. 19:38) in which his part is to be related to and contrasted with that of Adam in the first creation (cf., eg, Mark 1:13; Luke 3:38).保羅在這裡佔據了暗示,在天氣福音,在未來的基督有一個新的創造。 ( 19時38分) ,其中的一部分,他是要連系,並對比與亞當在首創作(參見,例如,馬克1:13 ;路加3時38分) 。 Both Adam and Christ have the representative relationship to the whole of mankind that is involved in the conception "Son of man."無論亞當與基督有代表性關係到整個人類社會就是在立意"人子" 。 But Christ is regarded as One whose identification with all mankind is far more deep and complete that of Adam.但基督是被視為1 ,其識別與全人類的,是更為深刻和完整的亞當。 In his redeeming action salvation is provided for all mankind.在他的挽救行動,救恩是為所有人類。 By faith in him all men can participate in a salvation already accomplished in him.由他的信任,所有官兵都能參加一項救贖已經完成了他的。 He is also the image and glory of God (2 Cor. 4:4, 6; Col. 1:15) which man was made to reflect (1 Cor. 11:7) and which Christians are meant to put on in participating in the new creation (Col. 3:10).他亦是香港的形象和神的榮耀( 2肺心病。 4時04分, 6條;上校1:15 ) ,其中男子項目以反映( 1肺心病。 11時07分)和基督信徒,是為了把在參與新的創作(上校下午3點10分) 。

Servant僕人

Jesus' self identification with men is brought out in passages that recall the suffering servant of Isaiah (Matt. 12:18; Mark 10:45; Luke 24:26).耶穌的自我識別與男子帶出,在段落記得苦難的僕人以賽亞。 ( 12時18分;大關10:45 ;路加福音24:26 ) 。 It is in his baptismal experience that he enters this role (cf. Matt. 3:17 and Isa. 42:1) of suffering as the One in whom all his people are represented and who is offered for the sins of the world (John 1:29; Isa. 53).這是在他受洗的經驗說,他進入這個角色(參見馬特。 3時17分和ISA 。 42:1 )的痛苦,因為一個人,在他所有的人都是代表,並在所提供的是為罪惡的世界(約翰。 1時29分;伊薩53段) 。 Jesus is explicitly called the "servant" in the early preaching of the church (Acts 3:13, 26; 4:27, 30), and the thought of him as such was also in Paul's mind (cf. Rom. 4:25; 5:19; 2 Cor. 5:21).耶穌是明確所謂"僕人" ,在早期傳教的教會(使徒3時13分, 26個; 4時27分, 30 ) ,並以為他的這種作為,也保羅的心靈(參見光盤。四時二十五分; 5時19分, 2肺心病。 5時21分) 。

In the humiliation of his self identification with our humanity (Heb. 2:17; 4:15; 5:7; 2:9; 12:2) he fulfills the part not only of victim, but also of high priest, offering himself once for all (Heb 7:27; 9:12; 10:10) in a self offering that brings about forever a new relationship between God and man.在羞辱他的自我認同,我們的人性(希伯來書2:17 ; 4:15 ; 5時07分; 2時09分; 12:2 ) ,他滿足了一部分,不只是受害者,而且還高神父,讓自己一旦為所有(希伯來書7時27分; 9時12分; 10:10 )在自我提供帶來永遠是一個新的人與上帝的關係。 His "baptism," the fulfillment of which he accomplishes in his early career culminating in his cross (cf. Luke 12:50), is his self sanctification to his eternal priesthood, and in and through this self sanctification his people are sanctified forever (John 17:19; Heb. 10:14).他的"洗禮" ,完成,其中他在他的早期生涯中,最終在他的十字架(參見路加福音12:50 ) ,是他的自我成聖,以他永恆的神職人員,並在並通過這種自我成聖他的人是永遠聖潔(約翰17時19分;以弗所書10時14分) 。

Son of God上帝的兒子

The title "Son of God" is not used by Jesus himself to the same extent as "Son of man" (though cf., eg, Mark 12:6), but it is the name given to him (cf. Luke 1:35) by the heavenly voice at his baptism and transfiguration (Mark 1:11; 9:7), by Peter in his moment of illumination (Matt. 16:16), by the demons (Mark 5:7) and the centurion (Mark 15:39).題目是"上帝的兒子" ,是不是用耶穌自己,在相同的程度"人子" (雖然比照,如馬克12時06分) ,但它的名字給他的(參見路加福音1 : 35 ) ,由天上的聲音,在他的洗禮和變形(馬克1時11分; 9時07分) ,由彼得在他的時刻照明。 ( 16:16 ) ,由魔(馬克5:7 ) ,以及百人(馬克15:39 ) 。

This title "Son of God" is messianic.這個題目是"上帝的兒子" ,是救世主。 In the OT, Israel is the "son" (Exod. 4:22; Hos. 11:1).在城市旅遊局,以色列是"兒子" ( exod. 4時22分;居者有其屋。 11時01分) 。 The king (Ps. 2:7; 2 Sam. 7:14) and possibly the priests (Mal. 1:6) are also given this title.國王(雅歌2時07分, 2薩姆。 7時14分) ,並可能祭司( mal. 1時06分) ,也給出了這個名稱。 Jesus, therefore, in using and acknowledging this title is assuming the name of One in whom the true destiny of Israel is to be fulfilled.耶穌,因此,在使用和承認這個稱號,是假設一個名字的人的真實命運,是以色列必須履行。

But the title also reflects the unique filial consciousness of Jesus in the midst of such a messianic task (cf. Matt. 11:27; Mark 13:32; 14:36; Ps. 2:7).但標題也反映了獨特的孝道意識耶穌在一片這樣一個救世主的任務(參見馬特。 11:27 ;馬克13時32分; 14:36 ;聚苯乙烯。 2時07分) 。 This has the profoundest Christological implications.這有深切的基督論的影響。 He is not simply a son but the Son (John 20:17).他不單純是一個兒子,但兒子(約翰20時17分) 。 This consciousness, which is revealed at high points in the Synoptic Gospels, is regarded in John as forming the continuous conscious background of Jesus' life.這種意識,這是暴露在高點,在天氣福音,是在約翰為形成連續的自覺背景的耶穌的生活。 The Son and the Father are one (John 5:19, 30; 16:32) in will (4:34; 6:38; 7:28; 8:42; 13:3) and activity (14:10) and in giving eternal life (10:30).兒子與父原為一(約翰5點19分, 30 ; 16時32分)在會( 4時34分; 6時38分; 7時28分; 8時42分; 13時03分)和活動( 14:10 )在給永生( 10:30 ) 。 The Son is in the Father and the Father in the son (10:38; 14:10).兒子是在父親及父親在兒子( 10:38 ; 14:10 ) 。 The Son, like the Father, has life and quickening power in himself (5:26).兒子,像父親,有生命,並加快電力在自己( 5時26分) 。 The Father loves the Son (3:35; 10:17; 17:23 - 24) and commits all things into his hands (5:35), giving him authority to judge (5:22).父親愛兒子( 3時35分; 10時17分; 17時23分-2 4) ,並承諾所有的東西到他的手( 5 :35) ,讓他的權力來判斷( 5時2 2分) 。 The title also implies a unity of being and nature with the Father, uniqueness of origin and preexistence (John 3:16; Heb. 1:2).標題也意味著團結與自然,與父親,獨特性的起源和preexistence (約翰3:16 ;以弗所書1:2 ) 。

Lord

Though Paul also uses the title "Son of God," he most frequently refers to Jesus as "Lord," This term did not originate with Paul.雖然保羅還利用授予的"上帝的兒子" ,他最常提到耶穌為"主" ,這個名詞並非源於與保羅。 Jesus is addressed and referred to in the Gospels as Lord (Matt. 7:21; Mark 11:3; Luke 6:46).耶穌是處理,並提到在福音,因為主。 ( 7時21分;馬克11時03分;盧克6時46分) 。 Here the title can refer primarily to his teaching authority (Luke 11:1; 12:41), but it can also have a deeper significance (Matt. 8:25; Luke 5:8).這裡的標題可以參考,主要是他的教學管理局(盧克11時01分; 12時41分) ,但它也可以有一個更深層的意義。 ( 8時25分;盧克5時08分) 。 Though it is most frequently given to him after his exaltation he himself quoted Ps.雖然這是最經常給他後,他的提升,他本人所引述的PS 。 110:1 and prepared for this use (Mark 12:35; 14:62). 110:1這個準備使用(馬克12:35 ; 14:62 ) 。

His lordship extends over the course of history and all the powers of evil (Col. 2:15; 1 Cor. 2:6 - 8; 8:5; 15:24) and must be the ruling concern in the life of the church (Eph. 6:7; 1 Cor. 7:10, 25).他lordship延伸到歷史過程中,一切權力的邪惡(上校2時15分, 1肺心病。 2時06 -8 ; 8時0 5分; 1 5時2 4分) ,必須執政黨關心,在教會生活(以弗所書6時07分, 1肺心病。 7時10分, 25 ) 。 2:6 - 8; 8:5; 15:24) and must be the ruling concern in the life of the church (Eph. 6:7; 1 Cor. 7:10, 25). 2點06分-8 ; 8時0 5分; 1 5時2 4分) ,必須執政黨關心,在教會生活中(以弗所書6時0 7分, 1肺心病。 7時1 0分, 2 5) 。 As Lord he will come to judge (2 Thess. 1:7).作為主,他將要來審判( 2帖1時07分) 。

Though his work in his humiliation is also the exercise of lordship, it was after the resurrection and ascension that the title of Lord was most spontaneously conferred on Jesus (Acts 2:32ff.; Phil. 2:1 - 11) by the early church.雖然他的工作,在他的侮辱,也是行使lordship ,這是復活之後和阿森松該標題的上帝是最自發賦予耶穌(使徒2點32法郎;菲爾。 2:1 -1 1) ,由初期教會。 They prayed to him as they would pray to God (Acts 7:59 - 60; 1 Cor. 1:2; cf. Rev. 9:14, 21; 22:16).他們祈禱,以他的,因為他們會向上帝祈禱(使徒7點59分-6 01肺心病。 1 :2比照牧師9時1 4分, 2 1個; 2 2時1 6分) 。 His name as Lord is linked in the closest association with that of God himself (1 Cor. 1:3; 2 Cor. 1:2; cf. Rev. 17:14; 19:16; and Deut. 10:17).他的名字作為主是掛在最親密的聯繫,即上帝( 1肺心病。 1:3 ; 2 ,肺心病。 1:2比照牧師17時14分; 19時16分; deut 。 10時17分) 。 To him are referred the promises and attributes of the "Lord" God (Kyrios, LXX) in the OT (cf. Acts 2:21 and 38; Rom. 10:3 and Joel 2:32; 1 Thess. 5:2 and Amos 5:18; Phil. 2:10 - 11 and Isa. 45:23).向他轉交的承諾和屬性的"主"上帝( kyrios , lxx )在催產素(參見行為2時21分和38個;光碟。 10時03分和Joel 2時32分,一帖5時02分和阿莫斯5時18分;菲爾。 2時10 -1 1和I SA。 4 5:23) 。 To him are freely applied the language and formulas which are used of God himself, so that it is difficult to decide in a passage like Rom.他是自由地運用語言和公式,其中使用的上帝,所以這是很難決定在一個通道像光盤。 9:5 whether it is the Father or the Son to whom reference is made. 9時05分,無論是父親或兒子,其中提到了。 In John 1:1, 18; 20:28; 2 Thess.在約翰1:1 , 18歲; 20時28分, 2帖。 1:12; 1 Tim. 1:12 ,一添。 3:16; Titus 2:13; and 2 Pet. 3:16 ;弟兄2時13分;和2寵物。 1:1, Jesus is confessed as "God." 1:1 ,耶穌是供述為"上帝" 。

Word

The statement, "The Word became flesh" (John 1:14), relates Jesus both to the Wisdom of God in the OT (which has a personal character, Prov. 8) and to the law of God (Deut. 30:11 - 14; Isa. 2:3) as these are revealed and declared in the going forth of the Word by which God creates, reveals himself, and fulfills his will in history (Ps. 33:6; Isa. 55:10 - 11; 11:4; Rev. 1:16).聲明說, "這個詞成了肉身" (約翰福音1:14 ) ,均與耶穌都以上帝的智慧,在催產素(其中有人格,省八) ,並以法律的上帝(申命記30:11 -1 4個;伊薩。 2 :3) ,因為這些發現,並聲稱在前往出來的字,其中神造的,揭示了自己,並滿足他的意願在歷史上(詩篇3 3:6;伊薩。 5 5:10- 11 ; 11時04分;牧師1:16 ) 。 There is here a close relationship between word and event.有此密切的關係Word和活動。 In the NT it becomes clearer that the Word is not merely a message proclaimed but is Christ himself (cf. Eph. 3:17 and Col. 3:16; 1 Pet. 1:3 and 23; John 8:31 and 15:17).在新台幣變得更清楚這個詞不單單是一個訊息宣布,但就是基督本人(見以弗所書, 3點17分和上校3:16 ,一寵物。 1:3和23 ;約翰8時31分和15 : 17 ) 。 What Paul expresses in Col. 1, John expresses in his prologue.什麼是保羅表示,在上校1 ,約翰表示,在他的開場白。 In both passages (and in Heb. 1:1 - 14) the place of Christ as the One who in the beginning was the agent of God's creative activity is asserted.在這兩個通道(在以弗所書1:1 -1 4)的地方,以基督為中心的人在開始時被代理人的上帝的創造活力,是斷言。 In bearing witness to these aspects of Jesus Christ it is inevitable that the NT should witness to his preexistence.在見證這些方面的耶穌基督,這是無可避免新台幣應見證他的preexistence 。 He was "in the beginning" (John 1:1 - 3; Heb. 1:2 - 10).他是"一開始" (約翰福音1:1 -3 ;以弗所書1 :2- 10 )。

His very coming (Luke 12:49; Mark 1:24; 2:17) involves him in deep self abasement (2 Cor. 8:9; Phil. 2:5 - 7) in fulfillment of a purpose ordained for him from the foundation of the world (Rev. 13:8).他十分未來(路加福音12:49 ;馬克1:24 ; 2:17 ) ,涉及他在深自自卑( 2肺心病。 8時09分;菲爾。 2時05 -7 ) ,以實現一個目的受戒,為他從立黨之本,世界(啟示錄13時08分) 。 In the Gospel of John he gives this testimony in his own words (John 8:58; 17:5, 24).在福音的約翰,讓他這個證詞,在他自己的話說(約翰8時58分; 17時05分, 24 ) 。

Yet while his coming from the Father involves diminution of his Godhead, there is nevertheless a subordination of the incarnate Son to the Father in the relationship of love and equality which subsists between the Father and the Son (John 14:28).但是,儘管他的到來,從父親牽涉的縮減他的神的源頭,卻是從屬的肉身的兒子向父親的關係,愛和平等subsists之間,父親和兒子(約翰14時28分) 。 For it is the Father who sends and the Son who is sent (John 10:36), the Father who gives and the Son who receives (John 5:26), the Father who ordains and the Son who fulfills (John 10:18).因為它是父親派和兒子誰是發送(約翰福音10:36 ) ,父親是誰給的和兒子接到(約翰5點26分) ,父親ordains和兒子履行(約翰10時18分) 。 Christ belongs to God who is the Head (1 Cor. 3:23; 11:13) and in the end will subject all things to him (1 Cor. 15:28).基督,天主的歸天主誰是一家之主( 1肺心病。 3時23分; 11時13分) ,並在年底前將所有的東西給他( 1西科15:28 ) 。

Patristic Christology教父christology

In the period immediately following the NT, the apostolic fathers (AD 90 - 140) can speak highly of Christ.在這段期間後立即新台幣,使徒父親(公元90 -1 40)都可以發言,高度評價基督。 We have a sermon beginning: "Brethren, we ought so to think of Jesus Christ, as of God, as the Judge of the quick and the dead" (2 Clement).我們有一個開始講道: "弟兄們,我們應該這麼認為耶穌基督的,因為神的存在,因為法官的死人和活人" ( 2克萊門特) 。 Ignatius with his emphasis on both the true deity and humanity of Christ can refer to the "blood of God."伊格他強調雙方真正的天神和人類的基督,可參照"血神" 。 Even if their witness falls short of this, there is a real attempt to combat both Ebionitism, which looked on Christ as a man born naturally, on whom the Holy Spirit came at his baptism, and also docetism, which asserted that the humanity and sufferings of Christ were apparent rather than real.即使他們的證人達不到這一點,是一個真正的企圖打擊ebionitism ,看上去就以基督為一名出生自然,對人的聖靈來,在他的洗禮,也docetism ,其中宣稱,人類與痛苦基督的人明顯的,而不是真實的。

The apologists of the next generation (eg, Justin, c. 100 - 165, and Theophilus of Antioch) sought to commend the gospel to the educated and to defend it in face of attacks by pagans and Jews.該辯護士的下一代(如賈斯汀,長100 -1 65,並西奧菲勒斯安提)旨在表彰福音給受教育者,並捍衛它在面對攻擊異教徒和猶太人。 Their conception of the place of Christ was determined, however, rather by current philosophical ideas of the logos than by the historic revelation given in the gospel, and for them Christianity tends to become a new law or philosophy and Christ another God inferior to the highest God.其構想的地方,基督的決心,不過,而不是由目前的哲學理念的標識比由歷史給予的啟示,在福音,並為他們基督教趨於一項新的法律,或哲學與基督上帝的另一個劣勢,以最高神。

Melito of Sardis at this time, however, spoke clearly of Christ as both God and man, and Irenaeus, in meeting the challenge of Gnosticism, returned also to a more biblical standpoint, viewing the person of Christ always in close connection with his work of redemption and revelation, in fulfillment of which "he became what we are, in order that he might make us to become even what he is himself." melito的sardis在這個時候,然而,以明確的基督既是人與上帝和愛任紐,在迎接挑戰的靈知,又回到一個更聖經的角度看,看的人的基督始終是緊密結合自己的工作贖回及啟示,在完成,其中"他成為我們現在所,為他有可能使我們成為什麼,甚至他自己" 。 He thus became the new Head of our race and recovered what had been lost in Adam, saving us through a process of "recapitulation."因此,他成為新的主管我們的種族,並追回了什麼掉在了亞當,來拯救我們經歷一個過程的"重演" 。 In thus identifying himself with us he is both true God and true man.因此,在確定自己和我們,他既是真實的上帝和真正的人。 Tertullian also made his contribution to Christology in combating Gnosticism and the various forms of what came to be known as monarchianism (dynamism, modalism, Sabellianism), which has reacted in different ways against the apparent worship of Christ as a second God beside the Father.戴爾都良也作了他的貢獻christology打擊靈知和各種形式的什麼後來被稱為monarchianism (活力,模態說, sabellianism ) ,其中已反應在以不同的方式對表觀崇拜的基督作為第二神旁邊的父親。 He was the first to teach that the Father and Son are of "one substance," and spoke of three persons in the Godhead.他是第一個教導說,父親和兒子是"一種物質" ,並談到了三個人在神的源頭。

Origen had a decisive influence in the development of Christology in the East.淵源起了決定性的影響力,在發展christology在東部地區。 He taught the eternal generation of the Son from the Father and used the term homoousios.他教會了永恆的一代人的兒子從父親和使用的術語homoousios 。 Yet at the same time his complicated doctrine included a view of Christ as an intermediate being, spanning the distance between the utterly transcendent being of God and this created world.然而,在同一時間,其複雜的理論,包括鑑於基督作為一個中介,橫跨之間的距離,完全超越被上帝創造了這個世界。 Both sides in the later Arian controversy, which began c.雙方在後來的阿里安引起爭議的事件,開始長 318, show influences which may be traced to Origen. 318 ,顯示的影響,這可追溯到淵源。

Arius denied the possibility of any divine emanation, or contact with the world, or of any distinction within the Godhead. arius否認可能發生的任何神射,或接觸到世界上的,或任何區別,在神的源頭。 Therefore the Word is made out of nothing before time.因此,這個詞是出於什麼時間之前。 Though called God, he is not very God.雖然所謂的上帝,他是不是很神。 Arius denied to Christ a human soul. arius否認基督一個人的靈魂。 The Council of Nicaea (325) condemned Arius by insisting that the Son was not simply the "first born of all creation" but was indeed "of one essence with the Father."理事會的尼西亞( 325 )譴責arius ,堅持認為兒子是不是簡單的"先出生的所有的創造物" ,但的確是"一個本質上與父親" 。 In his long struggle against Arianism, Athanasius sought to uphold the unity of essence of the Father and Son by basing his argument not on a philosophical doctrine of the nature of the Logos, but on the nature of the redemption accomplished by the Word in the flesh.在他漫長的鬥爭arianism , athanasius力求維護團結的實質,父親和兒子依據他的說法不能相題並論的哲學學說的性質標識,但對大自然的贖回所完成字,在肉體。 Only God himself, taking on human flesh and dying and rising in our flesh, can effect a redemption that consists in being saved from sin and corruption and death, and in being raised to share the nature of God himself.只有上帝自己,同時對人類肉體和垂死和崛起,在我們的血肉,可以贖回構成,在被免於罪惡和腐敗和死刑,並在被提出來分享天主的本性自己。

After Nicaea the question was raised: If Jesus Christ be truly God, how can he be at the same time truly man?之後的尼西亞提出的一個問題是:如果耶穌基督的真正上帝,為什麼他能夠在同一時間,真正的男人嗎? Apollinaris tried to safeguard the unity of the person of the God - man by denying that he had complete manhood.亞坡理納試圖以維護團結的人的上帝-男子否認說,他完全氣概。 He assumed that man was composed of three parts: body, irrational or animal soul, and rational soul or intellect (nous).他就任後,該名男子組成,可分為三部分:身體,不合理或動物的靈魂,理性靈魂或心智(理性) 。 In Jesus the human nous was displaced by the divine Logos.在耶穌的人的理性是流離失所的神聖標誌。 But this denied the true reality of Christ's humanity and indeed of the incarnation itself and therefore of the salvation.不過,這剝奪了真正的現實,基督的人性和事實上的化身本身,因此該救贖。 The most cogent objection to it was expressed by Gregory of Nazianzus: "The unassumed is the unhealed."最有說服力的反對,它表達了格雷戈里的nazianzus : " unassumed是平復" 。 Christ must be true man as well as true God.基督必須真正的人,以及真正的上帝。 Apollinaris was condemned at Constantinople in 381.亞坡理納被譴責在君士坦丁堡,在381名。

How, then, can God and man be united in one person?那麼,如何才能神和人團結在一個人嗎? The controversy became focused on Nestorius, Bishop of Constantinople, who refused to approve the use of the phrase "mother of God" (Theotokos) as applied to Mary, who, he asserted, bore not the Godhead but "a man who was the organ of the Godhead."爭議成為重點放在nestorius主教,君士坦丁堡,他們拒絕批准使用的"上帝之母" ( theotokos )適用於瑪麗,衛生組織,他斷言,口徑不是神的源頭,但"一個人的器官對神的源頭" 。 In spite of the fact that Nestorius clearly asserted that the Godman was one person, he seemed to think of the two natures as existing side by side and so sharply distinguished that the suffering of the humanity could not be attributed to the Godhead.儘管事實上這nestorius明確宣稱該godman是一個人,他似乎認為,上述兩個性質的,因為現有的並排等尖銳地說,傑出的苦難,人類不能歸咎於神的源頭。 This separation was condemned, and Nestorius's deposition at the Council of Ephesus (431) was brought about largely by the influence of Cyril in reasserting a unity of the two natures in Cyril in reasserting a unity of the two natures in Christ's person so complete that the impassible Word can be said to have suffered death.這一分離是譴責,並nestorius的沉積在安理會的以弗所( 431 )所帶來的,主要是由影響西里爾在重新統一了兩個性質西里爾在重新統一了兩個性質,在基督的人,所以完全說impassible字,可以說是遭受了死刑。 Cyril sought to avoid Apollinarianism by asserting that the humanity of Christ was complete and entire but had no independent subsistence (anhypostasis).西里爾試圖避免亞波里拿留派所宣稱人類的基督是完整整,但還沒有獨立生活標準( anhypostasis ) 。

A controversy arose over one of Cyril's followers, Eutyches, who asserted that in the incarnate Christ the two natures coalesced in one.爭議出現了一個西里爾的追隨者,歐迪奇,曾斷言,在肉身的基督兩個性質合併在一。 This implied a docetic view of Christ's human nature and called in question his consubstantiality with us.這意味著docetic鑑於基督的人性,並呼籲有問題,他consubstantiality我們。 Eutychianism and Nestorianism were finally condemned at the Council of Chalcedon (451), which taught one Christ in two natures united in one person or hypostasis, yet remaining" without confusion, without conversion, without division, without separation." eutychianism和景教終於譴責在安理會的chalcedon ( 451 ) ,其中教授一基督在兩個性質,在美國一個人或合,但剩下的"紛亂,沒有轉換,沒有分裂,經分離" 。

Further controversies were yet to arise before the mind of the church could be made up as to how the human nature could indeed retain its complete humanity and yet be without independent subsistence.進一步爭議,尚未出現之前,心中的教會可以彌補至於如何將人性中確實可以保持其完整的人類和現在還沒有獨立生存。 It was Leontius of Byzantium who advanced the formula that enabled the majority to agree on an interpretation of the Chalcedonian formula.這是leontius的拜占庭人的先進配方,使多數人同意就解釋該chalcedonian公式。 The human nature of Christ, he taught, was not an independent hypostasis (anhypostatic), but it was enhypostatic, ie, it had its subsistence in and through the Logos.人的本質的基督裡,他教,是不是一個獨立的本質( anhypostatic ) ,但它enhypostatic ,也就是說,它有它的生存,並通過該標識。

A further controversy arose as to whether two natures meant that Christ had two wills or centers of volition.進一步的爭議便產生了是否兩個性質意味著基督有兩個遺囑或中心的意願。 A formula was first devised to suit the monothelites, who asserted that the God - man, though in two natures, worked by one divine - human energy.計算公式是第一次制訂,以適應monothelites ,曾斷言,上帝-人,但在兩個性質,工作,由同一個神-人的能量。 But finally, in spite of the preference of Honorius, Bishop of Rome, for a formula asserting "one will" in Christ, the Western church in 649 decreed that there were "two natural wills" in Christ, and this was made the decision of the whole church at the sixth ecumenical council at Constantinople in 680, the views of Pope Honorius I being condemned as heresy.但最後,儘管偏愛honorius ,羅馬的主教,為一個公式斷言, "一會" ,在基督裡,西方教會在649頒布有"兩個自然遺囑" ,在基督裡,這是作出上述決定的整個教會在第六次全基督教會在君士坦丁堡在680 ,意見教宗挪留一世被譴責為異端。

Further Development進一步發展

The theologians of the Middle Ages accepted the authority of patristic Christology and allowed their thought and experience to be enriched by Augustine's stress on the real humanity of Christ in his atoning work, on his important as our example in humility, and on mystical experience.該神學的中世紀公認的權威教父christology ,並允許他們的思路和經驗,從而得到豐富和奧古斯丁的應力對真實人性的基督在他的atoning工作,對他的重要,因為我們的例子中,謙遜的態度,和對神秘經驗。 But this emphasis on the humanity of Christ tended to be made only when he was presented in his passion as the One who mediates between man and a distant and terrible God.不過,這是側重於人類的基督傾向於作出只當他是在他的激情,作為一個人介之間的男子和一個遙遠而可怕的上帝。 In their more abstract discussion of the person of Christ there was a tendency to present One who has little share in our real humanity.他們更抽象的討論的人的基督,有一個傾向是,以目前一人已經很少份額,在我們真正的人性。 The humanity of Jesus, however, became the focus of mystical devotion in Bernard of Clairvaux, who stressed the union of the soul with the Bridegroom.人性的耶穌,但也成為了焦點,神秘的努力,在伯納德的克萊爾沃,他強調了聯盟的靈魂與新郎。

At the Reformation, Luther's Christology was based on Christ as true God and true man in inseparable unity.在宗教改革路德的christology是基於基督真上帝和真正的男人,在不可分割的統一。 He spoke of the "wondrous exchange" by which, through the union of Christ with human nature, his righteousness becomes ours, and our sins become his.他談到, "奇妙交流" ,其中,通過聯盟的基督與人的本性,他的正義,可以成為我們的,和我們的罪過,反倒成了他的。

He refused to tolerate any thinking that might lead to speculation about the God - man divorced either from the historical person of Jesus himself or from the work he came to do and the office he came to fulfill in redeeming us.他拒絕容忍任何人的思維,可能導致市場揣測神-男子離婚無論是從歷史的人…本人或由工作他來到做辦公室,他來履行挽救我們。 But Luther taught that the doctrine of the "communication of attributes" (communicatio idiomatum) meant that there was a mutual transference of qualities or attributes between the divine and human natures in Christ, and developed this to mean a mutual interpenetration of divine and human qualities or properties, verging on the very commingling of natures which Chalcedonian Christology had avoided.但路德教導說中庸"通訊屬性" (通信idiomatum ) ,是指有一個相互劃轉的特質或屬性之間的神和人的天性,在基督,並擬訂了,這意味著相互滲透的神和人的素質或財產,瀕臨非常commingling的性質,其中chalcedonian christology避免了。 In Lutheran orthodoxy this led to a later controversy as to how far the manhood of the Son of God shared in and exercised such attributes of divine majesty, how far it was capable of doing so, and how far Jesus used or renounced these attributes during his human life.在路德派的正統,這導致了後來的爭議,因為在多大程度上男子氣概的上帝的兒子共同在行使這一屬性的神聖陛下究竟能夠走多遠,它是有能力這樣做,而且有多遠耶穌使用或放棄這些特質,在他的人的生命。

Calvin also approved of the orthodox Christological statements of the church councils.卡爾文還批准的東正教基督論報表的教會議會。 He taught that when the Word became incarnate he did not suspend nor alter his normal function of upholding the universe.他告訴我們,當聖言成了肉身,他並沒有中止,也沒有改變他的正常功能,維護宇宙。 He found the extreme statements of Lutheran Christology guilty of a tendency toward the heresy of Eutyches, and insisted that the two natures in Christ are distinct though never separate.他發現極端報表路德christology有罪的傾向邪說歐迪奇,並堅持認為這兩個性質在基督裡是截然不同的,雖然從來沒有分開。 Yet in the unity of person in Christ, one nature is so closely involved in the activities and events which concern the other that the human nature can be spoken of as if it partook of divine attributes.然而,在團結的人,在基督裡,其中一個自然是如此密切地參與各項活動和事件的關注,另一方面人的本質可以發言的,因為如果它partook神聖的屬性。 Salvation is accomplished not only by the divine nature working through the human but is indeed the accomplishment of the human Jesus, who worked out a perfect obedience and sanctification for all men in his own person (the humanity being not only the instrument but the "material cause" of salvation).救恩是成就不僅是由神性工作,通過人力,但確實是素養的人耶穌,制定了一個完美的服從性和成聖為所有男人在他自己的人(人性,不只是文書,但"材料事業"救贖) 。 This salvation is worked out in fulfillment of the threefold office of prophet, priest, and king.這救恩是出在完成了三倍辦公室先知,牧師,和景。

There is here a divergence between the Lutheran and Reformed teaching.有此分歧,路德會,改革教學。 The Lutherans laid the stress upon a union of two natures in a communion in which the human nature is assumed into the divine nature.該lutherans奠定強調了聯盟的兩個性質,在共融中,人的本質是假定進入神性。 The Reformed theologians refused to think of an assumption of the human nature into the divine, but rather of an assumption of the human nature into the divine person of the Son, in whom there was a direct union between the two natures.改革後的神學家拒絕考慮一個假設的人性成為神聖的,而是一個假設的人性成為神聖的人的兒子,其中有一個直接的聯盟之間的兩個性質。 Thus, while keeping to the patristic conception of the communicatio idiomatum, they developed the concept of the communicatio operationum (ie, that the properties of the two natures coincide in the one person) in order to speak of an active communion between the natures without teaching a doctrine of mutual interpenetration.因此,雖然堅持教父概念的通信idiomatum ,他們研製的這個概念的通信operationum (即該物業的兩個性質相吻合,在一人) ,以講一個活躍的共融關係的性質,沒有教學一種理論的相互滲透。

The importance of the communicatio operationum (which also came to be taken up by Lutherans) is that it corrects the rather static way of speaking of the hypostatic union in patristic theology, by seeing the person and the work of Christ in inseparable unity, and so asserts a dynamic communion between the divine and human natures of Christ in terms of his atoning and reconciling work.重要的是通信operationum (其中還來到將由lutherans ) ,是它糾正,而不是靜態的方式談到了本質的聯盟在教父神學中,看到了人與工作的基督教分不開的團結,等等斷言一個動態的共融與神和人的天性的基督而言,他atoning和協調工作。 It stresses the union of two natures for his mediatorial operation in such a way that this work proceeds from the one person of the God - man by the distinctive effectiveness of both natures.它強調該聯盟的兩個性質,為他mediatorial行動中,以這樣一種方式使這項工作從一人的神-人所特有的成效,既天性。 In this light the hypostatic union is seen as the ontological side of the dynamic action of reconciliation, and so incarnation and atonement are essentially complementary.在此,揭示了本質的聯盟被視為是本體論方面的動態行動的和解,所以化身和贖罪基本上是相輔相成的。

Since the early nineteenth century the tendency has been to try to depart from the Chalcedonian doctrine of the two natures on the ground that this could not be related to the human Jesus portrayed in the Gospels, and that it made use of terms which were alien both to Holy Scripture and to current modes of expression.自從十九世紀初的傾向一直試圖偏離chalcedonian學說的兩個性質,所持理由是,這不可能涉及到人類描繪耶穌在福音,而且它使用的條款,其中外國人兩為了神聖的經文,並以當前的方式來表達。 Schleiermacher built up a Christology on the basis of finding in Christ a unique and archetypal consciousness of utter filial dependence on the Father.施萊爾馬赫建立了christology在此基礎上尋求在基督裡一個獨特和典型的意識非常孝順依賴於父親。 In Lutheran Christology there was a further important development, the attributes of the humanity of Jesus being regarded as limiting those of his deity, according to the "kenotic" theory of Thomasius.在路德christology有一個進一步發展的重要,屬性人性的耶穌被視為限制那些對他的神性,要按照" kenotic , "統合論thomasius 。 On this view, the Word, in the incarnation, deprived himself of his "external" attributes of omnipotence, omnipresence, and omniscience, yet still retained the "essential" moral attributes.對這種觀點,總之,在化身,剝奪了自己的"外部"的屬性萬能,無處不在,無所不知,但仍保留了"必要"的道德屬性。 Though always remaining God, he ceased to exist in the form of God.雖然總是剩下的上帝,他不再是形式存在上帝。 Even his self consciousness as God was absorbed in the single awakening and growing consciousness of the God - man.連他的自我意識,因為神是沉醉於單一的覺醒和成長意識的上帝-男子。

Ritschl, too, stressed the importance of the ethical attributes of the person of Christ and of refusing to speculate beyond the revelation of God found in the historic Jesus, who must have for us the value of God and whose perfect moral nature is both human and divine.里奇爾,過於強調,重要的是道德屬性的人的基督,並拒絕猜測之外的啟示上帝發現,在歷史性的耶穌,他們必須對我們的價值,神的,其完美的道德本質,是人類和神聖的。 Early in the twentieth century modern conceptions of personality and scientific and philosophical doctrines of evolution enabled theologians to produce further variations in the development of nineteenth century Christology.早在二十世紀的現代觀念的人格和科學的哲學學說的演進,使神學產生進一步變化,在發展19世紀christology 。

The middle years of the twentieth century saw a return to the use of the Chalcedonian doctrine of the two natures, particularly as interpreted in the Reformed tradition, and a realization that this apparently paradoxical formula is meant to point toward the mystery of the unique relationship of grace set up here between the divine and human in the person and work of the God - man.中東多年的二十世紀裡,返回使用該chalcedonian學說的兩個性質,尤其是作為解釋,在經過改革的傳統,並實現這顯然是自相矛盾的公式,是為了一點對神秘的獨特的關係寬限期設立在這裡與神和人類在人與工作的上帝-男子。 This mystery must not be thought of apart from atonement, for it is perfected and worked out in history through the whole work of Christ crucified and risen and ascended.這個奧秘,絕不能想到除了贖罪,因為這是完善和制定了在歷史上通過的全部工作的耶穌被釘十字架和復活,並登上了。 To share in this mystery of the new unity of God and man in Christ in some measure is also given to the church through the Spirit.分享這個奧秘的新的統一,人與上帝在基督裡在一定程度上也是給教會透過精神。 This means that our Christology is decisive in determining our doctrine of the church and of the work of sacraments as used in the church.這就意味著,我國christology是果斷,在決定我們的學說的教會和工作的聖禮,因為用在教會裡。 Our Christology must indeed indicate the direction in which we seek to solve all theological problems where we are dealing with the relation of a human event or reality to the grace of God in Christ.我們christology必須確實表明了方向,在我們設法解決所有的神學問題,而我們正在處理的關係,人類活動或現實,以天主的恩典,在基督。 In this Christological pattern the whole of our theological system should find its coherence and unity.在這個基督論模式,我們整個神學系統應找到它的連貫性和統一性。

Nor must this mystery be thought of in abstraction from the person of Jesus shown to us in the Gospels in the historical context of the life of Israel.也不能這個奧秘,被認為是抽象,從人的耶穌表明,我們在福音書,在歷史的背景下生活的以色列。 The human life and teaching of the historical Jesus have to be given full place in his saving work as essential and not incidental or merely instrumental in his atoning reconciliation.人的生活和教學的歷史耶穌要給予充分的地方,在他的挽救工作,是必要而不是偶然的,抑或只是在他的atoning和解。 Here we must give due weight to modern biblical study in helping us to realize both what kind of a man Jesus was and yet also to see this Jesus of history as the Christ of faith, the Lord, the Son of God.在這裡,我們必須給予應有的重視,以現代聖經研究,在幫助我們實現這兩個是什麼樣的人耶穌,但也看到這個耶穌的歷史,因為基督信仰的上帝,上帝的兒子。 Through the study of his office and work we come to understand how his humanity is not only truly individual but is also truly representative.通過學習,他的辦公室和工作,我們終於了解如何了他的人性是不是唯一真正的個人,而且是真正具有代表性。

Modern theological discussion continues to be a witness to the centrality of Jesus Christ himself in matters of faith and is dominated by the two closely related questions: "Who is Jesus Christ?"現代神學的討論仍然是一個見證的中心耶穌基督自己在信仰方面,是佔主導地位的是兩個密切相關的問題: "誰是耶穌" ? and "What has he done for the world?" "什麼,他所做的,為世界" ? The context in which these questions are raised has, however, changed.上下文中提出這些問題,但是,改變了。 In the nineteenth century many of the radical restatements of Christological belief were often felt to imply a rejection of orthodox faith, and were argued for as such.在十九世紀,許多激進的重述的基督信仰的人往往覺得意味著排斥東正教信仰的,並主張這種看法。 It is often claimed today, however, that restatements of this type, if they arise from a sincere response to Jesus, deserve to be regarded as valid modern interpretations of the same truth to which the older statements bore witness in their day.它經常聲稱然而今天,即重述這種類型的,如果它們產生於真誠回應耶穌,值得被視為有效的現代詮釋同一事實真相,其中年紀較大的聲明證明了他們的一天。 Those who formulated the earlier creeds, it is held, were expressing in their statements simply their own contemporary experience of being redeemed by Jesus.那些制定較早的信條,它是舉行,分別表達了他們在發言中簡單自己的當代經驗被救贖的,由耶穌。 Their statements need not be interpreted literally in order to be confessed truly, even if their language continues to be occasionally used.他們的發言不必作字面解釋,以得到真正的供認,即使他們的語言仍然會偶爾使用。

It is held, moreover, that modern man with his secular and scientific outlook cannot possibly be asked seriously to think of the universe as providing the background necessary to give credibility to talk of a preexistent Son of God descending into our midst from heaven and finally ascending.它是舉行此外,現代男子與他的世俗和科學的世界觀,不可能要求認真思考的宇宙,並提供必要的背景下,讓信譽,講一個preexistent上帝的兒子降到我們的行列,從天上,最後升序。 The early church, when it affirmed such things of Jesus, was simply using the pictures given by current religious myths of the time in order to give expression to the new liberty and self understanding given to them as they found themselves addressed by God as Jesus, especially in the proclamation of his cross.早期教會時,它肯定了這些事的耶穌,是簡單地用圖畫鑑於目前的宗教神話的時候,為了體現新的自由和自治的理解給他們,因為他們發現自己處理的上帝,因為耶穌,尤其是在宣布他的十字架。 Some church theologians believe that what the early witnesses meant by their statements can today be adequately reexpressed without recourse even to talk of an incarnation.有些教會的神學家認為,對於早期證人指其表述,可今天得到充分reexpressed無追索權,甚至談的一個化身。 Discontent continues to be expressed, exactly as it was in last century, with words like "essence," "substance," and "nature."不滿繼續表示,正是因為它是在上個世紀中,在文字上一樣, "本質" , "物質"與"自然" 。 It is claimed that these are now mere dictionary terms of no current use in making meaningful statements.據稱,這些都是現在僅僅是字典的條款目前還沒有使用在作出有意義的報表。

In the midst of such desire to express the meaning of Christ in new ways, Jesus is often spoken of simply as an agent through whose mediation and example we are enabled to find authentic self expression and new being, and enter into a meaningful experience of reality and the world.在一片這樣的意願表達的意思基督教新路子,耶穌是經常發言的不僅僅是作為代理商,其調解和例子中,我們都可以找到真實的自我表達和新的作為,並進入一個有意義的經驗,從實際出發和世界。 Doubt is raised about our need for his continuing work and ministry.懷疑的是,提出了,我們需要他繼續工作,並部。 Even when we are directed to his person, it is as if to One who is symbolic of something else, and who points entirely beyond himself.甚至當我們向他的人,這就好像一個人,是具有象徵意義的東西,否則,是誰點完全超越自己。 We seem at times to be confronted by an Arianism content to affirm that the Son is simply "of like substance" with the Father, at times with a docetism for which the reality of the human nature is of little importance.我們似乎有時候會面臨一種arianism內容,以肯定地說,兒子是單純地"的實質一樣, "與父親,有時一個docetism為現實的人性,是沒有多大意義。

Much recent NT study has, however, been undertaken in the belief that the Gospels do provide us with sufficient historical detail about Jesus to give us a reliable picture of the kind of man he actually was.近來新台幣的研究,但是,一直在信念,即福音向我們提供充分的歷史,詳細了解耶穌給我們一個可靠的照片什麼樣的人,他實際上是對的。 The importance of regaining such a genuine understanding of his humanity as a basis for our Christology has been stressed.的重要性,重新奪回了這樣一個真正了解他的人性為依據,對我國christology一直強調的。 Wolfhart Pannenberg has criticized Karl Barth and others who have followed him for beginning their Christological thought from the standpoint of God himself: ie, by first assuming the Trinity and the incarnation, and then arguing downward, viewing the humanity of Jesus against this transcendent background.代表人物潘內伯格曾批評卡爾巴特等人都跟隨他,一開始他們的基督論思想,從站在上帝:即,首先假設三一和化身,然後爭論向下,看人類的耶穌對這個超然的背景。 Pannenberg himself believes that such initial presupposition of the divinity of Jesus will involve us inevitably in a Christology marked by disjunction and paradox, and will pose insoluble problems in relation to the unity of his person. pannenberg本人認為,這種最初預設的神性的耶穌會涉及我們不可避免地在一個christology標誌的脫節和矛盾現象,並會造成無法解決的問題關係到團結,他的人。 Moreover, it will obscure our understanding of his true humanity.此外,它會掩蓋我們了解他的真實人性。

Pannenberg seeks to form a "Christology from below," moving upward from Jesus' life and death toward his transformation in his resurrection and exaltation through the grace of God. pannenberg旨在形成一個" christology從下面, "向上提升,從耶穌的生和死對他的改造,在他的復活和提升,透過上帝的恩典。 Pannenberg believes that there are legendary elements in the Gospel history (eg, the virgin birth). pannenberg認為,有傳奇色彩元素的福音史(例如,維爾京出生) 。 He stresses the need to interpret Jesus and his death from the standpoint of our own experience of history as well as from the standpoint of the OT.他強調有必要去解釋耶穌和他的死因的立場來看我們自己的歷史經驗,以及從該角度對城市旅遊局。 Karl Rahner, on the Roman Catholic side, also pursues a Christology beginning with the humanity of Jesus and based on anthropology.卡爾拉內,對羅馬天主教方面,也奉行christology開始與人類的耶穌,並根據人類學。

We have to question whether the NT accounts of Jesus allow us to make such a one sided approach and to follow such a method.我們不得不質疑新台幣帳戶的耶穌,使我們能夠作出這樣的一個片面的方式,並遵循這樣的一種方法。 Consistently Jesus is presented in the Gospels as one who is both truly man and truly God.始終是耶穌在福音,因為一個人,既是真正的人與真正的上帝。 The first witnesses did not try to present him to us in a manhood existing apart from the mystery of his unique union with God.第一證人沒有嘗試,目前他使我們處於一個男子漢氣概現有除了從神秘的,他獨特的聯盟與上帝。 It does not seem possible, therefore, that we ourselves should have access to the reality to which they are pointing unless we try to gasp him in the strange interpenetration of these two aspects that seems to mark their accounts of him.它似乎並不可能,因此,我們自己應獲得的現實使他們指出,除非我們設法讚歎他在陌生的相互滲透的這兩個方面,這似乎是為了紀念他們的帳目。 That the "Word became flesh" seems to imply that we cannot have the flesh apart from the Word nor the Word apart from the flesh.認為"字成了血肉" ,似乎暗示我們不能有肉,除了這個詞,也沒有這個詞,除了血和肉。

What the Gospel writers intended to give us in their witness must therefore determine both our own approach and the method we adopt in our investigation.什麼福音作者的意圖,讓我們在他們的見證,因此必須確定我們自己的方式和方法,我們採取我們的調查。 Hans Frei has more recently produced a study in Christology in which he attempts to face the problems of our approach to the Gospel narratives.漢斯弗雷多日前研製出一種學習christology其中他試圖要面對的問題,我們的做法,以福音的敘述。 He insists that Jesus Christ is known to the Christian believer in a manner that includes personal knowledge but also at the same time surpasses it mysteriously.他堅持認為,耶穌基督是眾所周知的基督教信徒的方式,其中包括個人的知識,而且要在同一時間內超越了它神秘。 Moreover, "we can no longer think of God except as we think of Jesus at the same time nor of Jesus except in reference to God."此外, "我們再也不能相信上帝的除外,因為我們認為耶穌在同一時間,也不是耶穌,除參考上帝" 。 Frei also insists that while we can think of other people rightly without them being present, we cannot properly think of Jesus as not being present.弗雷還堅持認為,雖然我們可以考慮其他的人是正確的,沒有他們在場,我們不能妥善認為耶穌是不出席。 We cannot indeed know his identity without being in his presence.我們不能確實知道他的身份,而不在他的存在。

RS Wallace盧比華萊士
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
HR Mackintosh, The Person of Christ; DM Baillie, God Was in Christ; O Cullmann, The Christology of the NT; E Brunner, The Mediator; LB Smedes, The Incarnation, Trends in Modern Anglican Thought; H Relton, A Study in Christology; K Barth, Church Dogmatics; RGG , I; H Vogel, Gott in Christo and Christologie; M Fonyas, The Person of Jesus Christ in the Decisions of the Ecumenical Councils; W Pannenberg, Jesus, God and Man; HW Frei, The Identity of Jesus Christ; E Schillebeeckx, Christ, Jesus, and Jesus and Christ; RA Norris, The Christological Controversy; JA Dorner, History of the Development of the Doctrine of the Person of Christ.人力資源麥金托希,該人的基督;馬克baillie ,上帝在基督裡; o cullmann , christology的新台幣;電子布蘭,調解員;磅孟迪斯,化身,趨勢在現代聖公會思想; h relton ,一項研究christology ; k巴特,教會dogmatics ; rgg ,我; h傅高義, gott在christo和christologie ;米fonyas ,該人的耶穌基督的決定合一議會;瓦特pannenberg ,耶穌,上帝和人;華文弗雷,身份耶穌基督;電子施雷貝克,基督耶穌,耶穌和基督;類風濕性關節炎諾里斯,基督論的爭議; JA部dorner ,發展的歷史,教義的人的喊聲。


Christology christology

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ. christology是部分神學,其中涉及我們的主耶穌基督。 In its full extent it comprises the doctrines concerning both the person of Christ and His works; but in the present article we shall limit ourselves to a consideration of the person of Christ.在其充分程度,它包含了有關教義都人的基督和他的作品,但在目前的文章,我們將僅限於考慮該人的喊聲。 Here again we shall not infringe on the domain of the historian and Old-Testament theologian, who present their respective contributions under the headings JESUS CHRIST, and MESSIAS; hence the theology of the Person of Jesus Christ, considered in the light of the New Testament or from the Christian point of view, is the proper subject of the present article.在這裡我們再次不得侵犯域名的歷史學家和陳舊的遺囑神學家,他們目前各自的貢獻標題下耶穌基督,並messias ,因此神學的人,耶穌基督,在考慮根據新約聖經還是從基督教的角度來看,是正確的主題本文章。

The person of Jesus Christ is the Second Person of the Most Holy Trinity, the Son or the Word of the Father, Who "was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary and was made man."人的耶穌基督是第二人的最神聖的三一,兒子或字的父親,他的"肉身是由聖靈的聖母瑪利亞,並取得了男子" 。 These mysteries, though foretold in the Old Testament, were fully revealed in the New, and clearly developed in Christian Tradition and theology.這些謎,雖然預言在舊約中,充分揭示了在新的,並明確制定了在基督教傳統和神學。 Hence we shall have to study our subject under the triple aspect of the Old Testament, the New Testament, and Christian Tradition.因此,我們必須為我們的研究課題下,三聯方面的舊約,新約聖經和基督教的傳統。

OLD TESTAMENT舊約

From what has been said we understand that the Old Testament is not considered here from the viewpoint of the Jewish scribe, but of the Christian theologian.從已表示,據我們了解,舊約是沒有考慮到這裡,從觀點的猶太抄寫的,而是由基督教神學家。 Jesus Christ Himself was the first to use it in this way by His repeated appeal to the Messianic passages of the prophetic writings.耶穌基督自己是第一次使用它,這樣他的再三呼籲,以救世主的通道的先知性著作。 The Apostles saw in these prophecies many arguments in favour of the claims and the teachings of Jesus Christ; the Evangelists, too, are familiar with them, though they appeal less frequently to them than the patristic writers do.使徒們所看到的這些預言很多爭論,贊成的債權和教義耶穌基督;福音,也有熟悉他們,但他們的上訴少,頻頻向他們比教父作家做的。 Even the Fathers either state the prophetic argument only in general terms or they quote single prophecies; but they thus prepare the way for the deeper insight into the historical perspective of the Messianic predictions which began to prevail in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.即使是父親或者國務院預言的說法,只有在一般條款或引用單一預言,但他們因此準備,就是為更深刻的理念融入歷史的角度來看的救世主的預言開始佔上風,在十八世紀和十九世紀。 Leaving the statement of the historical development of the Messianic prophecies to the writer of the article MESSIAS, we shall briefly call attention to the prophetic predictions of the genealogy of Christ, of His birth, His infancy, His names, His offices, His public life, His sufferings, and His glory.離開的聲明歷史發展的救世主的預言,以作家的文章messias ,我們將簡要地提醒人們注意預言預言的族譜基督的,其出生時,他的起步階段,他的名字,他的辦公室,他的公共生活,他的苦難,和他的榮耀。

(1) References to the human genealogy of the Messias are quite numerous in the Old Testament: He is represented as the seed of the woman, the son of Sem, the son of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the son of David, the prince of pastors, the offspring of the marrow of the high cedar (Genesis 3:1-19; 9:18-27; 12:1-9; 17:1-9; 18:17-19; 22:16-18; 26:1-5; 27:1-15; Numbers 24:15-19; 2 Samuel 7:1-16; 1 Chronicles 17:1-17; Jeremiah 23:1-8; 33:14-26; Ezekiel 17). ( 1 )參照人類族譜的messias相當眾多,在舊約:他是代表作為種子的女人,兒子的教育統籌局局長,兒子亞伯拉罕,以撒,雅各,兒子大衛,王子的牧師,子代骨髓的高雪松(創3:1-19 ; 9:18-27 ; 12:1-9 ; 17:1-9 ; 18:17-19 ; 22:16-18 ; 26:1-5 ; 27:1-15 ;號碼24:15-19 ; 2 ,塞繆爾7:1-16 ;歷代志上17:1-17 ;耶利米23:1-8 ; 33:14-26 ;以西結書17 ) 。 The Royal Psalmist extols the Divine genealogy of the future Messias in the words: "The Lord hath said to me: Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee" (Ps. ii, 7).皇家詩人頌揚神的譜系未來messias在話: "主對我說:祢是我的兒子,在這一天我有造物主祢" (雅歌二, 7 ) 。

(2) The Prophets frequently speak of the birth of the expected Christ. ( 2 )先知們經常談論的誕生,預計基督。 They locate its place in Bethlehem of Juda (Micah 5:2-14), they determine its time by the passing of the sceptre from Juda (Genesis 49:8-12), by the seventy weeks of Daniel (ix, 22-27), and by the "little while" mentioned in the Book of Aggeus (ii, 1-10).他們找到其位置在伯利恆的juda (彌迦5:2-14 ) ,但它們也決定了其時間由合格的權杖,由juda (創49:8-12 ) ,由70個星期的丹尼爾(九大22-27 ) ,以及由"過了一會兒" ,在提到這本書的aggeus (二1-10 ) 。 The Old-Testament seers know also that the Messias will be born of a Virgin Mother (Isaiah 7:1-17), and that His appearance, at least His public appearance, will be preceded by a precursor (Isaiah 40:1-11; Malachi 4:5-6).老式的遺囑seers也知道該messias將出生在日本一個童貞的母親(以賽亞書7:1-17 ) ,和他的外貌,至少在他的公開露面時,將先前奏(以賽亞書40:1-11 ;瑪拉基書4:5-6 ) 。

(3) Certain events connected with the infancy of the Messias have been deemed important enough to be the subject of prophetic prediction. ( 3 )某些事件與嬰兒的messias已被視為重要的,足以讓主題的預言性的預測。 Among these are the adoration of the Magi (Ps. lxxxi, 1-17), the slaughter of the innocents (Jeremiah 31:15-26), and the flight into Egypt (Hosea 11:1-7).其中有崇拜的賢士(雅歌lxxxi , 1-17 ) ,殘殺無辜(耶利米31:15-26 ) ,其飛行到埃及(何西阿11:1-7 ) 。 It is true that in the case of these prophecies, as it happens in the case of many others, their fulfilment is their clearest commentary; but this does not undo the fact that the events were really predicted.這是事實,在案件這些預言,因為它發生在案件很多其他人一樣,其實現是他們最清楚的解說,但是這並不挽回的事實,這些活動都是真的預言。

(4) Perhaps there is less need of insisting on the predictions of the better known Messianic names and titles, seeing that they involve less obscurity. ( 4 )也許有那麼需要堅持的預言越好稱為救世主的姓名和職銜,看到它們涉及較少不了了之。 Thus in the prophecies of Zacharias the Messias is called the Orient, or, according to the Hebrew text, the "bud" (iii; vi, 9-15), in the Book of Daniel He is the Son of Man (vii), in the Prophecy of Malachias He is the Angel of the Testament (ii, 17; iii, 6), in the writings of Isaias He is the Saviour (li, 1; lii, 12; lxii), the Servant of the Lord (xlix, 1), the Emmanuel (viii, 1-10), the Prince of peace (ix, 1-7).因此,在讖撒迦利亞該messias是所謂的東方,或據以希伯來文中, "芽" (三,六, 9-15 ) ,在這本書的丹尼爾是他的兒子文(七) ,在預言的瑪拉基亞亞他是天使的遺囑(第二組, 17 ;三, 6 ) ,在著作伊薩亞斯羅他是救世主(李, 1 ;第五十二, 12歲; lxii ) ,僕人,主第85 ( XLIX , 1 ) ,靈光(第八1-10 ) ,和平王子(第九1-7 ) 。

(5) The Messianic offices are considered in a general way in the latter part of Isaias (lxi); in particular, the Messias is considered as prophet in the Book of Deuteronomy (xviii, 9-22); as king in the Canticle of Anna (1 Samuel 2:1-10) and in the royal song of the Psalmist (xliv); as priest in the sacerdotal type Melchisedech (Genesis 14:14-20) and in the Psalmist's words "a priest forever" (cix); as Goel, or Avenger, in the second part of Isaias (lxiii, 1-6); as mediator of the New Testament, under the form of a covenant of the people (Isaiah 42:1; 43:13), and of the light of the Gentiles (Isaiah 49). (五)救世主辦事處被認為是在一般的方式,在後者的一部分伊薩亞斯羅( LXI的) ,尤其是, messias被視為先知,在這本書的申命記(十八, 9月22日) ;正如國王在canticle的安娜( 1塞繆爾2:1-10 ) ,並在皇家宋的詩人(四十四) ;正如牧師在sacerdotal型melchisedech (創14:14-20 ) ,並在詩人的話: "永遠的神父" ( cix ) ;作為goel ,或復仇者,在第二部分的伊薩亞斯羅( lxiii , 1-6 ) ,作為調停人的新約聖經,根據形式的盟約的人(以賽亞書42:1 ; 43:13 ) ,以及鑑於外邦人(以賽亞書49 ) 。

(6) As to the public life of the Messias, Isaias gives us a general idea of the fulness of the Spirit investing the Anointed (xi, 1-16), and of the Messianic work (Iv). ( 6 )為給市民生活的messias ,伊薩亞斯羅給我們提出了總體思路的fulness的精神,在投資中選定(十一, 1-16 ) ,和救世主的工作(四) 。 The Psalmist presents a picture of the Good Shepherd (xxii); Isaias summarizes the Messianic miracles (xxxv); Zacharias exclaims, "Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Sion", thus predicting Christ's solemn entrance into Jerusalem; the Psalmist refers to this same event when he mentions the praise out of the mouth of infants (viii).詩人呈現一幅好牧人( 22 ) ;伊薩亞斯羅總結了救世主的奇蹟(三十五) ;撒迦利亞exclaims , "而憂,大大啊,女兒的錫永" ,因此預測基督的嚴正進入耶路撒冷;詩人指這同一事件當他提到讚美口中出來的嬰兒(八) 。 To return once more to the Book of Isaias, the prophet foretells the rejection of the Messias through a league with death (xxvii); the Psalmist alludes to the same mystery where he speaks of the stone which the builders rejected (cxvii).返回再次向這本書的伊薩亞斯羅,先知預示排斥反應的messias通過聯賽犯被判死刑(二十七) ;詩人提到同樣神秘的地方,他說話的石頭,其中鐵路建設者駁回( cxvii ) 。

(7) Need we say that the sufferings of the Messias were fully predicted by the prophets of the Old Testament? (七)需要我們說,痛苦的messias被完全預言,先知們的舊約? The general idea of the Messianic victim is presented in the context of the words "sacrifice and oblation thou wouldst not" (Ps. xxxix); in the passage beginning with the resolve "Let us put wood on his bread" (Jeremiah 11), and in the sacrifice described by the prophet Malachias (i).總體思路就是救世主的受害者是語境中的話: "犧牲和oblationあ不是" (詩篇三十九) ,在開始時通過與決心, "讓我們把木材對他的麵包" (耶利米11 ) ,而在犧牲描述由先知瑪拉基亞亞(一) 。 Besides, the series of the particular events which constitute the history of Christ's Passion has been described by the prophets with a remarkable minuteness: the Psalmist refers to His betrayal in the words "the man of my peace . . . supplanted me" (xl), and Zacharias knows of the "thirty pieces of silver" (xi); the Psalmist praying in the anguish of his soul, is a type of Christ in His agony (Ps. liv); His capture is foretold in the words "pursue and take him" and "they will hunt after the soul of the just" (Ps. lxx; xciii); His trial with its false witnesses may be found represented in the words "unjust witnesses have risen up against me, and iniquity hath lied to itself" (Ps. xxvi); His flagellation is portrayed in the description of the man of sorrows (Isaiah 52:13; 53:12) and the words "scourges were gathered together upon me" (Ps. xxxiv); the betrayer's evil lot is pictured in the imprecations of Psalm 108; the crucifixion is referred to in the passages "What are these wounds in the midst of thy hands?"此外,一系列的特別活動,構成了歷史上的基督受難,被形容是由先知一個了不起的微小:詩人是指他背叛,在加上"該名男子的我的平安… … 。 supplanted我" (四十) ,撒迦利亞眾所周知的" 30枚銀牌" (十一) ;詩人祈禱,在痛苦的他的靈魂,是一種基督在他的痛苦(詩篇54 ) ;他的被捕是預言中的話: "追求和他的"和"他們將追捕後,靈魂的正義" (詩篇lxx ; xciii ) ,對他的審判與虛假證人有可能發現有代表在說話"不公正的證人都起來攻擊我,不公平祂所騙本身" (詩篇26 ) ;他flagellation描繪的是在描述該名男子的辛酸(以賽亞書52:13 ; 53:12 ) ,並在"洪水猛獸人糾合在一起後,我的" (詩篇三十四) ;背叛者的邪惡很多照片是在imprecations的詩篇108個;受難日是指在通道" ,這些是什麼傷口在一片你的手" ? (Zechariah 13), "Let us condemn him to a most shameful death" (Wisdom 2), and "They have dug my hands and my feet" (Ps. xxi); the miraculous darkness occurs in Amos 8; the gall and vinegar are spoken of in Psalm 68; the pierced heart of Christ is foreshadowed in Zach., xii. ( zechariah 13 ) , "讓我們譴責他的一個最可恥的死" (智慧2 ) , "他們已經挖我的手和我的腳" (詩篇21 ) ;奇蹟般黑暗出現在阿莫斯8 ;膽和醋正在發言的,在詩篇68人;射穿心臟的基督是預示了在開拓者隊,十二。 The sacrifice of Isaac (Genesis 21:1-14), the scapegoat (Leviticus 16:1-28), the ashes of purification (Numbers 19:1-10), and the brazen serpent (Numbers 21:4-9) hold a prominent place among the types prefiguring the suffering Messias.犧牲艾薩克(創21:1-14 ) ,替罪羊(利未記16:1-28 ) ,骨灰淨化(號碼19:1-10 ) ,以及赤裸裸的蛇(號碼21:4-9 )舉行一個突出的地方,各類型prefiguring痛苦messias 。 The third chapter of Lamentations is justly considered as the dirge of our buried Redeemer.第三章悲嘆是理直氣壯地視為哀歌我們埋救贖。

(8) Finally, the glory of the Messias has been foretold by the Prophets of the Old Testament. ( 8 )最後,榮耀的messias已經預言由先知的舊約。 The context of such phrases as "I have risen because the Lord hath protected me" (Psalm 3), "My flesh shall rest in hope (Psalm 15), "On the third day he will raise us up" (Hosea 5:15, 6:3), "O death, I will be thy death" (Hosea 13:6-15a), and "I know that my Redeemer liveth" (Job 19:23-27) referred the devout Jewish worshipper to something more than a merely earthly restoration, the fulfilment of which began to be realized in the Resurrection of Christ. This mystery is also implied, at least typically, in the first fruits of the harvest (Leviticus 23:9-14) and the delivery of Jonas from the belly of the fish (Jonah 2). Nor is the Resurrection of the Messias the only element of Christ's glory predicted by the Prophets. Psalm 67 refers to the Ascension; Joel, ii, 28-32, to the coming of the Paraclete; Is., Ix, to the call of the Gentiles; Mich., iv, 1-7, to the conversion of the Synagogue; Dan., ii, 27-47, to the kingdom of the Messias as compared with the kingdom of the world. Other characteristics of the Messianic kingdom are typified by the tabernacle (Exodus 25:8-9; 29:43; 40:33-36; Numbers 9:15-23), the mercy-seat (Exodus 25:17-22; Psalm 79:1), Aaron the high priest (Exodus 28:1; 30:1; 10; Numbers 16:39-40), the manna (Exodus 16:1-15; Psalm 77:24-25), and the rock of Horeb (Exodus 17:5-7; Numbers 20:10-11; Psalm 104:41). A Canticle of thanksgiving for the Messianic benefits is found in Is., xii.背景等短語, "我有上升,因為主保護我" (詩篇3 ) , "我的肉體應休息的希望(詩篇15 ) , "就在第三天,他將提高我們的工作" (何西阿下午5時15 , 6:3 ) , "噢死亡,我會在你死" (何西阿13時06分-15甲) ,和"我知道我的救贖主liveth " (就業19:23-27 )提到了虔誠的猶太信徒,以更比只是一個俗世的修復工作,履行開始得以實現,在復活的基督,這是個謎,還意味著,至少在通常情況下,在第一批的收成(利未記23:9-14 ) ,並交付的Jonas從腹魚(約拿2 ) ,也就是復活的messias唯一要素基督的榮耀預言由先知。詩篇67指以阿森松;的Joel ,二, 28-32 ,以未來的paraclete ;是,第九,以號召的外邦人;密歇根州,四, 1-7 ,以轉換猶太教堂;丹。第一,二, 27-47 ,向英國的messias相比王國世界上的其他特點救世主英國是典型的帳幕(出埃及記25:8-9 ; 29:43 ; 40:33-36 ;號碼9:15-23 ) ,慈悲議席(出埃及記25:17 - 22 ;詩篇79:1 ) ,亞倫最高祭司(出埃及記28:1 ; 30:1 ; 10 ;號碼16:39-40 ) ,甘露(出埃及記16:1-15 ;詩篇77:24-25 )與岩體的何烈(出埃及記17:5-7 ;號碼20:10-11 ;詩篇104:41 ) 。 canticle感恩為救世主的好處是發現是,十二。

The Books of the Old Testament are not the only source from which the Christian theologian may learn the Messianic ideas of pre-Christian Jewry.帳簿舊約不是唯一的來源,從基督教神學家可借鑒救世主的思路前基督教猶太人。 The Sibylline oracles, the Book of Enoch, the Book of Jubilees, the Psalms of Solomon, the Ascensio Moysis, the Revelation of Baruch, the Fourth Book of Esdras, and several Talmudic and Rabbinic writings are rich depositories of pre-Christian views concerning the expected Messias.該知未來的簽,這本書的伊諾克,這本書的jubilees ,詩篇的索羅門,阿森西奧moysis ,啟示baruch ,第四本書的埃斯德拉斯,和幾個talmudic和rabbinic著作豐富,託管機構的前基督教的看法有關預計messias 。 Not that all of these works were written before the coming of Christ; but, though partially post-Christian in their authorship, they preserve a picture of the Jewish world of thought, dating back, at least in its outline, centuries before the coming of Christ.並不是所有的這些作品是寫在未來的基督;不過,雖然部分後的基督徒在他們的著述,它們保存圖片的猶太世界的思想,可追溯到的,至少在其大綱,幾百年前的到來基督。

NEW TESTAMENT新約全書

Some modern writers tell us that there are two Christs, as it were, the Messias of faith and the Jesus of history.一些現代作家告訴我們,有兩個基督,因為它被, messias的信仰和耶穌的歷史。 They regard the Lord and Christ, Whom God exalted by raising Him from the dead, as the subject of Christian faith; and Jesus of Nazareth, the preacher and worker of miracles, as the theme of the historian.他們把上帝和基督,其中神開天闢地,提高他從死裡復活,為題材的基督教信仰;拿撒勒的耶穌,傳道者和工人的奇蹟,為主題的歷史學家。 They assure us that it is quite impossible to persuade even the least experienced critic that Jesus taught, in formal terms and at one and the same time, the Christology of Paul, that of John, and the doctrines of Nicæa, of Ephesus, and of Chalcedon.他們向我們保證,這是相當不可能的,以說服即使是最不經歷評論家說,耶穌教導,在正式條款,並在同一個時間, christology的保羅,約翰和學說nicæa ,伸出手,和chalcedon 。 Otherwise the history of the first Christian centuries appears to these writers to be quite inconceivable.否則,歷史上的第一個基督教百年看來這些作家是相當不可思議的。 The Fourth Gospel is said to lack the data which underlie the definitions of the first ecumenical councils and to supply testimony that is not a supplement, but a corrective, of the portrait of Jesus drawn by the Synoptics.第四個福音,是說,缺乏數據背後的定義,第一合一議會和供應的證詞中說,是不是一種補充,而是一種矯正,畫像耶穌取用由synoptics 。 These two accounts of the Christ are represented as mutually exclusive: if Jesus spoke and acted as He speaks and acts in the Synoptic Gospels, then He cannot have spoken and acted as He is reported by St. John.這兩個帳戶的基督的代表,作為相互排斥的:如果耶穌發言,並擔任他的說話和行為,在天氣福音,那麼他不能發言,並擔任他的報導,由聖約翰。 We shall here briefly review the Christology of St. Paul, of the Catholic Epistles, of the Fourth Gospel, and the Synoptics.我們將在這裡簡要回顧一下christology聖保羅,天主教教會中,第四福音,並synoptics 。 Thus we shall give the reader a complete Christology of the New Testament and at the same time the data necessary to control the contentions of the Modernists.因此,我們應給讀者一個完整的christology的新約聖經,並在同一時間內所必需的數據,以控制爭論的現代派。 The Christology will not, however, be complete in the sense that it extends to all the details concerning Jesus Christ taught in the New Testament, but in the sense that it gives His essential characteristics taught in the whole of the New Testament.該christology不會考慮,不過,完成這個意義上講,它延伸到所有的細節,有關耶穌基督的教導,在新約聖經,但在這個意義上講,它賦予他的基本特徵教在整個的新約聖經。

(1) Pauline Christology ( 1 )寶蓮christology

St. Paul insists on the truth of Christ's real humanity and Divinity, in spite of the fact that at first sight the reader is confronted with three objects in the Apostle's writings: God, the human world, and the Mediator.聖保祿堅持真理,基督的真正人性和神性,儘管這一事實,即在初看讀者面臨著三個物體在使徒保羅的著作:上帝,人類的世界,和調停者。 But then the latter is both Divine and human, both God and man.但是,則後者既是神和人,無論是人與上帝。

(a) Christ's Humanity in the Pauline Epistles (一)基督的人性在寶蓮書信

The expressions "form of a servant", "in habit found as a man", "in the likeness of sinful flesh" (Philippians 2:7; Romans 8:3) may seem to impair the real humanity of Christ in the Pauline teaching.一再提到"形式的僕人" , "中的習慣,發現一名男子" , "在相似的罪孽深重,肉中刺" ( philippians 2時07分;羅馬書8時03分) ,可似乎損害人類真正的基督在寶蓮教學。 But in reality they only describe a mode of being or hint at the presence of a higher nature in Christ not seen by the senses, or they contrast Christ's human nature with the nature of that sinful race to which it belongs.但在現實中,他們只描述一個模式,正在或暗示存在一個更高的性質,在基督都不是由感官的,或者他們對比基督的人性與自然的說,罪孽深重的比賽中,它屬於。 On the other hand the Apostle plainly speaks of Our Lord manifested in the flesh (1 Timothy 3:16), as possessing a body of flesh (Colossians 1:22), as being "made of a woman" (Galatians 4:4), as being born of the seed of David according to the flesh (Romans 1:3), as belonging according to the flesh to the race of Israel (Romans 9:5).在另一方面,使徒保羅赤裸裸地談到了我們的主體現在肉體( 1提摩太後3:16 ) ,擁有一個機構的血肉他們( 1:22 ) ,其為"作出的一個女人" (加拉太4時04分)作為橫空出世的種子,朱據,肉中刺(羅1:3 ) ,為屬於據肉中刺,以賽事的以色列(羅馬9時05分) 。 As a Jew, Jesus Christ was born under the Law (Galatians 4:4).作為一個猶太人,耶穌基督的誕生,根據法例(加拉太4時04分) 。 The Apostle dwells with emphasis on Our Lord's real share in our physical human weakness (2 Corinthians 13:4), on His life of suffering (Hebrews 5:8) reaching its climax in the Passion (ibid., 1:5; Philippians 3:10; Colossians 1:24).使徒整篇重點是我們的主的真實分享我們人類身體虛弱(哥林多後書13:4 ) ,對他的生活中的苦難(希伯來5時08分)達到高潮,在激情(同上, 1:5 ; philippians三日: 10歲;歌羅西書1:24 ) 。 Only in two respects did Our Lord's humanity differ from the rest of men: first in its entire sinlessness (2 Corinthians 5:21; Galatians 2:17; Romans 7:3); secondly, in the fact that Our Lord was the second Adam, representing the whole human race (Romans 5:12-21; 1 Corinthians 15:45-49).只有在兩方面做我們的主的人類不同於其餘官兵:第一,在其整個清白(哥林多5時21分;加拉太2:17 ;羅馬書7:3 ) ;其次,在事實,即我們的主是世界上第二個亞當代表全人類(羅馬書5:12-21 ;哥林多前書15:45-49 ) 。

(b) Christ's Divinity in the Pauline Epistles (二)耶穌的神性,在寶蓮書信

According to St. Paul, the superiority of the Christian revelation over all other Divine manifestations, and the perfection of the New Covenant with its sacrifice and priesthood, are derived from the fact that Christ is the Son of God (Hebrews 1:1 sq.; 5:5 sq.; 2:5 sq.; Romans 1:3; Galatians 4:4; Ephesians 4:13; Colossians 1:12 sq.; 2:9 sq.; etc.).據聖保羅,優勢基督教啟示超過所有其他的神的表現,就與完善新的內容與它的犧牲和神職人員,是來自一個事實,即耶穌是上帝的兒子(希伯來書1:1平方米; 5:5平方米; 2點05平方米;羅馬書1:3 ;加拉太4時04分;以弗所4點13分;歌羅西書1:12平方米; 2時09平方等) 。 The Apostle understands by the expression "Son of God" not a merely moral dignity, or a merely external relation to God which began in time, but an eternal and immanent relation of Christ to the Father.使徒理解所表達的"神的兒子" ,而不是僅僅是道義上的尊嚴,或者僅僅是外部關係,以上帝的開始時間,但一個永恆的和內在的關係基督的父親。 He contrasts Christ with, and finds Him superior to, Aaron and his successors, Moses and the Prophets (Hebrews 5:4; 10:11; 7:1-22; 3:1-6; 1:1).他反差基督,並認定他的上級,亞倫和他的繼任者,摩西和先知(希伯來5時04分; 10:11 ; 7:1-22 ; 3:1-6 ; 1:1 ) 。 He raises Christ above the choirs of angels, and makes Him their Lord and Master (Hebrews 1:3; 14; 2:2-3), and seats Him as heir of all things at the right hand of the Father (Hebrews 1:2-3; Galatians 4:14; Ephesians 1:20-21).他提出基督以上合唱團的天使,使他成為自己的主(希伯來書1:3 ; 14 ; 2:2-3 ) ,和座椅他作為繼承人的一切事物,在右手的父親(希伯來1 : 2-3 ;加拉太4時14分;以弗所1:20-21 ) 。 If St. Paul is obliged to use the terms "form of God", "image of God", when he speaks of Christ's Divinity, in order to show the personal distinction between the Eternal Father and the Divine Son (Philippians 2:6; Colossians 1:15), Christ is not merely the image and glory of God (1 Corinthians 11:7), but also the first-born before any created beings (Colossians 1:15), in Whom, and by Whom, and for Whom all things were made (Colossians 1:16), in Whom the fulness of the Godhead resides with that actual reality which we attach to the presence of the material bodies perceptible and measurable through the organs of our senses (Colossians 2:9), in a word, "who is over all things, God blessed for ever" (Romans 9:5).如果聖保祿是不得不使用的字眼"的形式,以神之名" , "形象上帝" ,當他談到了基督的神性,以凸顯個人的區分永恆的父親和神的兒子( philippians 2時06分;歌羅西書1:15 ) ,基督不僅是形象與神的榮耀(哥林多前書11時07分) ,而且還第一次出生之前,任何人創造了他們( 1:15 ) ,在其中,由誰來做,並為其中所有的東西發了言:他們( 1:16 ) ,在其中fulness的神的源頭居住在一起的,實際的現實,我們高度重視存在的物質機構可感知和可衡量的是通過機關理智,他們( 2時09分) ,總的來說, "誰是超過一切的事情,上帝祝福永遠" (羅馬書9時05分) 。

(2) Christology of the Catholic Epistles ( 2 ) christology的天主教教會

The Epistles of St. John will be considered together with the other writings of the same Apostle in the next paragraph.教會中的聖約翰將一併審議,與其他著作一樣,使徒保羅在未來一段。 Under the present heading we shall briefly indicate the views concerning Christ held by the Apostles St. James, St. Peter, and St. Jude.根據目前的標題,我們將簡要說明看法基督舉行,由使徒聖雅各福群會,聖彼得和聖裘德。

(a) The Epistle of St. James (一)書信的聖雅各福群會

The mainly practical scope of the Epistle of St. James does not lead us to expect that Our Lord's Divinity would be formally expressed in it as a doctrine of faith.這項主要的實際範圍,該墳墓的聖雅各福群會不會導致我們期望我們的主神將正式表示,在它作為一個學說的信仰。 This doctrine is, however, implied in the language of the inspired writer.這種學說,但隱含在語言的啟發作家。 He professes to stand in the same relation to Jesus Christ as to God, being the servant of both (i, 1): he applies the same term to the God of the Old Testament as to Jesus Christ (passim).他自稱站在同一關係,以耶穌基督為上帝,身為公僕都(一,一) :他所適用的同一用語來神舊約,以耶穌基督(各處) 。 Jesus Christ is both the sovereign judge and independent lawgiver, who can save and can destroy (iv, 12); the faith in Jesus Christ is faith in the lord of Glory (ii, 1).耶穌基督是中英兩國在法官和獨立lawgiver ,誰可以挽救和能摧毀(四, 12 ) ;信仰耶穌基督是信仰上帝的榮耀(二, 1 ) 。 The language of St. James would be exaggerated and overstrained on any other supposition than the writer's firm belief in the Divinity of Jesus Christ.語文的聖雅各福群會被誇大不勝負荷,以及其他任何假設,比作家的堅定信念,在神的耶穌基督。

(b) Belief of St. Peter (二)信仰的聖彼得

St. Peter presents himself as the servant and the apostle of Jesus Christ (1 Peter 1:1; 2 Peter 1:1), who was predicted by the Prophets of the Old Testament in such a way that the Prophets themselves were Christ's own servants, heralds, and organs (1 Peter 1:10-11).聖彼得提出了自己的僕人和使徒耶穌基督( 1彼得1:1 2彼得1:1 ) ,他是預言由先知的舊約這樣一種方式先知們自己的基督耶穌自己的公務員,則預示著,機關( 1彼得1:10 ) 。 It is the pre-existent Christ who moulds the utterances of Israel's Prophets to proclaim their anticipations of His advent.它是預先存在的基督模具的言論對以色列的先知們宣告,他們預期他的到來。 St. Peter had witnessed the glory of Jesus in the Transfiguration (2 Peter 1:16); he appears to take pleasure in multiplying His titles: Jesus Our Lord (2 Peter 1:2), our Lord Jesus Christ (ibid., i, 14, 16), the Lord and Saviour (ibid., iii, 2), our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ (ibid., i, 1), Whose power is Divine (ibid., i, 3), through whose promises Christians are made partakers of the nature of God (ibid., i, 4).聖彼得曾目睹的榮耀,耶穌在變形( 2彼得1:16 ) ,他似乎很高興再乘以他的職稱:耶穌我們的主( 2彼得1:2 ) ,我們的主耶穌基督(同上,我, 14 , 16 ) ,主及救主(同上,第III , 2 ) ,我們的主及救主耶穌基督(同上,我, 1 ) ,其權力是神聖的(同上,我1,3 ) ,通過其諾言基督徒是partakers的天主的本性(同上,我, 4 ) 。 Throughout his Epistle, therefore, St. Peter feels, as it were, and implies the Divinity of Jesus Christ.在他的書信,因此,聖彼得的感覺,因為它成功了,意味著神的耶穌基督。

(c) Epistle of St. Jude (三)墳墓的聖猶大書

St. Jude, too, introduces himself as the servant of Jesus Christ, through union with whom Christians are kept in a life of faith and holiness (1); Christ is our only Lord and Saviour (4), Who punished Israel in the wilderness and the rebel angels (5), Who will come to judgment surrounded by myriads of saints (14), and to Whom Christians look for the mercy which He will show them at His coming (21), the issue of which will be life everlasting.聖猶大書,也介紹了自己為公僕耶穌基督,通過聯盟與誰基督徒都保存在一個生命的信仰和聖潔( 1 ) ;基督是我們唯一的上帝和救世主( 4 ) ,誰受罰以色列在曠野和反叛天使( 5 ) ,他們會來判斷周圍不斷湧現,聖人( 14 ) ,以及向誰基督徒尋找最慈悲,他會告訴他們,在他到來( 21 ) ,這個問題,其中將有生命永恆。 Can a merely human Christ be the subject of this language?可以只是一個人的基督會受到這種語言嗎?

(3) Johannean Christology ( 3 ) johannean christology

If there were nothing else in the New Testament to prove the Divinity of Christ, the first fourteen verses in the Fourth Gospel would suffice to convince a believer in the Bible of that dogma.如果有什麼都沒有了,在新約聖經,以證明基督的神, 14首詩詞在第四福音,將足以說服信奉聖經這一教條。 Now the doctrine of this prologue is the fundamental idea of the whole Johannean theology.現在中庸的序幕,這是最根本的想法,整個johannean神學。 The Word made flesh is the same with the Word Who was in the beginning, on the one hand, and with the man Jesus Christ, the subject of the Fourth Gospel on the other.字肉身是相同的,與字的人是在開始時,一方面,並與人耶穌基督的主題第四福音的影響。 The whole Gospel is a history of the Eternal Word dwelling in human nature among men.整個福音的歷史,就是一部永恆的字住在人的本性中的男子。

The teaching of the Fourth Gospel is also found in the Johannean Epistles.教學中的第四個福音,也發現在johannean書信。 In his very opening words the writer tells his readers that the Word of life has become manifest and that the Apostles had seen and heard and handled the Word incarnate.在他的非常開放的話,作者告訴讀者,這個詞的生活已成為明顯的,並且認為使徒所見所聞和處理肉身。 The denial of the Son implies the loss of the Father (1 John 2:23), and "whosoever shall confess that Jesus is the Son of God, God abideth in him and he in God" (ibid., iv, 15).剝奪了兒子就意味著失去了父親( 1約翰2時23分) , "凡應坦白地說,耶穌是上帝的兒子,上帝abideth在他和他的上帝" (同上,第IV , 15 ) 。 Towards the end of the Epistle the writer is still more emphatic: "And we know that the Son of God is come: and he hath given us understanding that we may know the true God, and may be in his true Son. This is the true God and life eternal" (ibid., v, 20).接近年底時的書信的作者是更加強調說: "我們知道,上帝的兒子,是來:和祂所給我們的理解是,我們可能知道的真神,並且可能會在他的真正的兒子,這是真正的上帝和永恆的生命" (同上,五, 20 ) 。

According to the Apocalypse, Christ is the first and the last, the alpha and the omega, the eternal and the almighty (i, 8; xxi, 6; xxii, 13).據啟示,基督是第一次和最後一次, Alpha及歐米茄,永恆和萬能(一, 8名;二十一, 6 ; 22 , 13 ) 。 He is the king of kings and lord of lords (xix, 16), the lord of the unseen world (xii, 10; xiii, 8), the centre of the court of heaven (v, 6); He receives the adoration of the highest angels (v, 8), and as the object of that uninterrupted worship (v, 12), He is associated with the Father (v, 13; xvii, 14).他是王中之王,並主之主( 19 , 16 ) ,主的看不見的世界(十二, 10歲;十三, 8 ) ,該中心的法院的天堂(五,六) ;他得到朝拜最高天使(五,八) ,並作為對象表示,不間斷地崇拜(五, 12 ) ,他是與父親(五, 13歲;十七, 14 ) 。

(4) Christology of the Synoptists ( 4 ) christology的synoptists

There is a real difference between the first three Evangelists and St. John in their respective representations of our Lord.有一個真實的區別,首三個福音和聖約翰在各自的交涉,因為我們的上帝。 The truth presented by these writers may be the same, but they view it from different standpoints.真相由這些作家可能相同,但他們認為,從不同的立場。 The three Synoptists set forth the humanity of Christ in its obedience to the law, in its power over nature, and in its tenderness for the weak and afflicted; the fourth Gospel sets forth the life of Christ not in any of the aspects which belong to it as human, but as being the adequate expression of the glory of the Divine Person, manifested to men under a visible form.三個synoptists闡明了人類的基督在其服從法律,在其權力性質,並在其壓痛為弱者和折磨;第四福音闡述了生命的基督不是在任何一個方面,其中屬於它作為人,但被認為有足夠表達的光榮,神聖的人,表現出男性的一個有形的形式。 But in spite of this difference, the Synoptists by their suggestive implication practically anticipate the teaching of the Fourth Gospel.但儘管有此差異, synoptists其暗示的含意幾乎預料教學的第四個福音。 This suggestion is implied, first, in the Synoptic use of the title Son of God as applied to Jesus Christ.這項建議是隱含的,首先,在天氣使用的標題是神的兒子適用於耶穌基督。 Jesus is the Son of God, not merely in an ethical or theocratic sense, not merely as one among many sons, but He is the only, the well-beloved Son of the Father, so that His son-ship is unshared by any other, and is absolutely unique (Matthew 3:17, 17:5; 22:41; cf. 4:3, 6; Luke 4:3, 9); it is derived from the fact that the Holy Ghost was to come upon Mary, and the power of the Most High was to overshadow her (Luke 1:35).耶穌是上帝的兒子,而不是僅僅在一個道德或神權意義上說,不只是因為其中有很多兒子,但他是唯一的,行之有效的心愛的兒子,父親,讓他的兒子艦是unshared任何其他,是絕對獨一無二的(馬太3時17分, 17時05分; 22時41分;比照4:3 , 6 ;路加4:3 , 9 ) ,它是來自一個事實,就是聖靈,是來後,瑪麗。 ,和電力的最高級是為了掩蓋她(路加福音1時35分) 。 Again, the Synoptists imply Christ's Divinity in their history of His nativity and its accompanying circumstances; He is conceived of the Holy Ghost (Luke, 1, 35), and His mother knows that all generations shall call her blessed, because the mighty one had done great things unto her (Luke 1:48).再次, synoptists暗示耶穌的神性,在其歷史上的他nativity及其陪同的情況下,他設想的聖靈(路,一, 35歲) ,和他的母親知道,所有後代應稱呼她有福了,因為偉大的人做了偉大的事不欲,她(路加福音1時48分) 。 Elisabeth calls Mary blessed among women, blesses the fruit of her womb, and marvels that she herself should be visited by the mother of her Lord (Luke 1:42-43).伊麗莎白呼籲瑪麗有福婦女中,祝福的果實,她的子宮,與奇蹟,她本人應探視母親,她的主(路1:42-43 ) 。 Gabriel greets Our Lady as full of grace, and blessed among women; her Son will be great, He will be called the Son of the Most High, and of His kingdom there will be no end (Luke 1:28, 32).加布里埃爾電賀我國夫人擔任全職的恩典,並祝福女性,她的兒子將是巨大的,他將被稱為兒子的最高級,以及他在英國將沒有結束(路加福音1時28分, 32 ) 。 As new-born infant, Christ is adored by the shepherds and the Magi, representatives of the Jewish and the Gentile world.作為新出生的嬰兒,基督是崇拜,由牧羊人和賢士,代表猶太人和gentile世界。 Simeon sees in the child his Lord's salvation, the light of the Gentiles, and the pride and glory of his people Israel (Luke 2:30-32).西蒙認為,在兒童主的救恩,輕便的外邦人,並自豪和榮耀了他的人民以色列(路加福音2:30-32 ) 。 These accounts hardly fit in with the limits of a merely human child, but they become intelligible in the light of the Fourth Gospel.這些帳目難以適應與限制的只是一個人的孩子,但他們成為理解,在根據第四福音。

The Synoptists agree with the teaching of the Fourth Gospel concerning the person of Jesus Christ not merely in their use of the term Son of God and in their accounts of Christ's birth with its surrounding details, but also in their narratives of Our Lord's doctrine, life, and work.該synoptists同意與教學的第四個福音關於人的耶穌基督,而不只是在其使用的術語是神的兒子,並在其戶口基督的誕生與周圍的細節,但也因為它們說明我們的主的教義,人生,和工作環境。 The very term Son of Man, which they often apply to Christ, is used in such a way that it shows in Jesus Christ a self-consciousness for which the human element is not something primary, but something secondary and superinduced.非常長遠的人子,而他們往往適用於基督,是用這樣一種方式,因為它顯示出在耶穌基督的自我意識,而人的因素並不是主要的,但一些中學和superinduced 。 Often Christ is simply called Son (Matthew 11:27; 28:20), and correspondingly He never calls the Father "our" Father, but "my" Father (Matthew 18:10, 19, 35; 20:23; 26:53).往往基督只是所謂的兒子(馬太11:27 ; 28:20 ) ,並相應地,他從來沒有要求父親: "我們的"爸爸,但"我"的父親(馬太18:10 ,第19 ,第35條; 20時23分; 26日: 53 ) 。 At His baptism and transfiguration He receives witness from heaven to His Divine Son-ship; the Prophets of the Old Testament are not rivals, but servants in comparison with Him (Matthew 21:34); hence the title Son of Man implies a nature to which Christ's humanity was an accessory.在他的洗禮和變形他接到證人從天上向他的神之子-船舶;先知們的舊約不是競爭者,但公務員相比,與他(馬太21時34分) ,因此標題人子意味著性質基督的人性是從犯。 Again, Christ claims the power to forgive sins and supports His claim by miracles (Matthew 9:2-6; Luke 5:20, 24); He insists on faith in Himself (Matthew 16:16, 17), He inserts His name in the baptismal formula between that of the Father and the Holy Ghost (Matthew 28:19), He alone knows the Father and is known by the Father alone (Matthew 11:27), He institutes the sacrament of the Holy Eucharist (Matthew 26:26; Mark 14:22; Luke 22:19), He suffers and dies only to rise again the third day (Matthew 20:19; Mark 10:34; Luke 18:33) He ascends into Heaven, but declares that He will be among us till the end of the world (Matthew 28:20).再次,基督聲稱有權寬恕罪孽,並支持其索賠的奇蹟(馬太9:2-6 ;盧克5點20 , 24 ) ;他堅持信念,在自己(馬太16:16 , 17 ) ,他插入他的名字在洗禮公式之間的父親和聖靈(馬太28:19 ) ,他僅知道父親是享譽由父親獨自(馬太11:27 ) ,他學會了聖體聖體聖事(馬太26 : 26馬克14時22分;盧克22時19分) ,他患有模具只能再次崛起的第三天(馬太20時19分;馬克10時34分;盧克18時33分) ,他升入天堂,但宣稱他將在我們中間,直到世界的末了(馬太28:20 ) 。

Need we add that Christ's claims to the most exalted dignity of His person are unmistakably clear in the eschatological discourses of the Synoptists?我們是否有需要補充的是基督的債權,以最崇高的尊嚴,他的人都清楚無誤地在eschatological話語的synoptists ? He is the Lord of the material and moral universe; as supreme lawgiver He revises all other legislation; as final judge He determines the fate of all.他是耶和華的物質和道義上的宇宙;最高人民法院lawgiver他修改的所有其他法規;作為最終判斷決定了他的命運。 Blot the Fourth Gospel out of the Canon of the New Testament, and you still have in the Synoptic Gospels the identical doctrine concerning the person of Jesus Christ which we now draw out of the Four Gospels; some points of the doctrine might be less clearly stated than they are now, but they would remain substantially the same.印跡第四福音出了佳能的新約聖經,你還有在天氣福音相同的教義有關的人的耶穌基督,我們現在總結出的4個福音;幾點學說可能不太清楚說明比他們現在的,但它們仍將是大致相同。

CHRISTIAN TRADITION基督教傳統

Biblical Christology shows that one and the same Jesus Christ is both God and man.聖經christology表明,同一個耶穌基督是神人。 While Christian tradition has always maintained this triple thesis that Jesus Christ is truly man, that He is truly God, and that the Godman, Jesus Christ, is one and the same person the heretical or erroneous tenets of various religious leaders have forced the Church to insist more expressly now on the one, now on another element of her Christology.而基督教傳統始終堅持了這一三重論文說,耶穌基督是真正的男子說,他是真正的上帝,並認為godman ,耶穌基督,是一個與同一人邪教的還是錯誤的原理,不同的宗教領袖,迫使教會堅持更加明確,現在就一個,現在就另一項重要元素,她的christology 。 A classified list of the principal errors and of the subsequent ecclesiastical utterances will show the historical development of the Church's doctrine with sufficient clearness.一份機密名單上的主要錯誤,及隨後的教會的言論將會呈現出歷史的發展,教會的教義有足夠的晴空。 The reader will find a more lengthy account of the principal heresies and councils under their respective headings.讀者會發現一個更漫長帳戶的主要異端邪說和議會根據各自的標題。

(1) Humanity of Christ ( 1 )人類的基督

The true humanity of Jesus Christ was denied even in the earliest ages of the Church.真實人性的耶穌基督被拒絕,即使在最早年齡的教堂。 The Docetist Marcion and the Priscillianists grant to Jesus only an apparent body; the Valentinians, a body brought down from Heaven.該docetist marcion和priscillianists補助金,以耶穌不僅是一個明顯的身體; valentinians一個機構,擊落了從天堂。 The followers of Apollinaris deny either that Jesus had any human soul at all, or that He possessed the higher part of the human soul, they maintain that the Word supplies either the whole soul in Christ, or at least its higher faculties.信徒亞坡理納否認,要么耶穌有任何人的靈魂,一切還是說,他具備了較高的一部分人的靈魂,他們認為這個詞用品要么整個靈魂在基督裡,或者至少是它更高的院系。 In more recent times it is not so much Christ's true humanity as His real manhood that is denied.在近期的話並不是那麼基督的真實人性,因為他真正的男子漢氣概是無可否認的。 According to Kant the Christian creed deals with the ideal, not with the historical Jesus; according to Jacobi, it worships Jesus not as an historical person, but as a religious ideal; according to Fichte there exists an absolute unity between God and man, and Jesus was the first to see and teach it; according to Schelling, the incarnation is an eternal fact, which happened to reach in Jesus its highest point, according to Hegel, Christ is not the actual incarnation of God in Jesus of Nazareth but the symbol of God's incarnation in humanity at large.據康德基督教信仰與理想,而不是與歷史的耶穌;根據雅可比,它崇拜耶穌不是作為一個歷史的人,而是作為一個宗教理想;據費希特存在一個絕對的統一,人與上帝和耶穌是第一個看到的,並教它要按照謝林的化身,是一個永恆的,其實,這正好達到在耶穌的最高點,根據黑格爾,基督是不實際的化身,上帝在拿撒勒的耶穌,但象徵上帝的化身,在人類在逃。 Finally, certain recent Catholic writers distinguish between the Christ of history and the Christ of faith, thus destroying in the Christ of faith His historical reality.最後,最近發生的一些天主教作家區分基督的歷史與基督信仰的,從而破壞了在基督信仰他的歷史現實。 The New Syllabus (Proposit, 29 sq.) and the Encyclical "Pascendi dominici gregis" may be consulted on these errors.新的教學大綱( proposit , 29平方) ,並通諭" pascendi收聽廣播節目和收看" ,可以徵求這些錯誤。

(2) The Divinity of Christ ( 2 )基督的神

Even in Apostolic times the Church regarded a denial of Christ's Divinity as eminently anti-Christian (1 John 2:22-23; 4:3; 2 John 7).即使在使徒時代的教會視為否定基督的神性,因為遙不可及,反基督教( 1約翰2:22-23 ; 4:3 ; 2約翰7 ) 。 The early martyrs, the most ancient Fathers, and the first ecclesiastical liturgies agree in their profession of Christ's Divinity.早期烈士,其中最古老的父親,和第一次教會liturgies同意,在其專業的基督的神性。 Still, the Ebionites, the Theodotians, the Artemonites, and the Photinians looked upon Christ either as a mere man, though singularly enlightened by Divine wisdom, or as the appearance of an æon emanating from the Divine Being according to the Gnostic theory; or again as a manifestation of the Divine Being such as the Theistic and Pantheistic Sabellians and Patripassians admitted; or, finally, as the incarnate Word indeed, but the Word conceived after the Arian manner as a creature mediating between God and the world, at least not essentially identical with the Father and the Holy Ghost.儘管如此, ebionites , theodotians , artemonites和photinians期待基督後,無論是作為一個純粹的男子,雖然奇啟發智慧的,或者作為未來出現一個永旺源自神正在根據該諾斯替理論;或再次作為體現了神州正如有神論和pantheistic sabellians和patripassians承認;或者,最後,由於肉身字確實的,但這個詞的構思後,阿里安地作為受造物調停神和世界之間,至少不是本質完全相同的,與父親和聖靈。 Though the definitions of Nice and of the subsequent councils, especially of the Fourth Lateran, deal directly with the doctrine concerning the Most Holy Trinity, still they also teach that the Word is consubstantial with the Father and the Holy Ghost, and thus establish the Divinity of Jesus Christ, the Word incarnate.雖然定義尼斯及隨後的議會,特別是聯合國第四次lateran ,直接與有關學說中最神聖的三一,他們仍然還教這個詞是consubstantial與父親及聖靈,從而樹立神耶穌基督,肉身。 In more recent times, our earliest Rationalists endeavoured to avoid the problem of Jesus Christ; they had little to say of him, while they made St. Paul the founder of the Church.在近期,我國最早的理性努力避免問題的耶穌基督,他們幾乎沒有說他的,雖然他們取得了聖保祿的創始人教會。 But the historical Christ was too impressive a figure to be long neglected.但歷史基督是太令人印象深刻的數字,將長久以來被忽略的。 It is all the more to be regretted that in recent times a practical denial of Christ's Divinity is not confined to the Socinians and such writers as Ewald and Schleiermacher.更是有目共睹,以令人遺憾的是,最近一個時期實際否定基督的神性,是不局限於向socinians和等作家為埃瓦爾德和施萊爾馬赫。 Others who profess to be believing Christians see in Christ the perfect revelation of God, the true head and lord of the human race, but, after all, they end with Pilate's words, "Behold, the man".另一些人聲言要相信基督信徒看到,在基督完美的啟示上帝的,真正的頭部及主的人的種族,不過,畢竟,他們在結束與比拉多的話說,是"看哪,這名男子" 。

(3) Hypostatic Union ( 3 )本質聯盟

His human nature and His Divine nature are in Jesus Christ united hypostatically, ie united in the hypostasis or the person of the Word.他的人性和他的神性是在耶穌基督美國hypostatically ,即美國在本質或該人的字。 This dogma too has found bitter opponents from the earliest times of the Church.這種教條,也找到了痛苦的對手,從最早的時候的教會。 Nestorius and his followers admitted in Christ one moral person, as a human society forms one moral person; but this moral person results from the union of two physical persons, just as there are two natures in Christ. nestorius和他的追隨者承認,在基督裡的一個道德的人,作為一個人類社會的形式之一,道德的人,但這種道德的人的結果,從聯盟的兩個人的身體一樣,有兩種性質的基督。 These two persons are united, not physically, but morally, by means of grace.這兩個人都是美國,而不是肉體,但在道義上,即通過恩典。 The heresy of Nestorius was condemned by Celestine I in the Roman Synod of AD 430 and by the Council of Ephesus, AD 431, the Catholic doctrine was again insisted on in the Council of Chalcedon and the second Council of Constantinople.邪說nestorius譴責天青石我在羅馬主教的專案430個,並經理事會的伸出手,專案431 ,天主教教義又堅持在安理會中的chalcedon和第二屆理事會君士坦丁堡。 It follows that the Divine and the human nature are physically united in Christ.這意味著神和人的本質是身體美在基督裡。 The Monophysites, therefore, believed that in this physical union either the human nature was absorbed by the Divine, according to the views of Eutyches; or that the Divine nature was absorbed by the human; or, again, that out of the physical union of the two resulted a third nature by a kind of physical mixture, as it were, or at least by means of their physical composition.該monophysites ,因此相信在這個物理聯盟無論是人的本質是由神的,根據他們的意見歐迪奇;或者說神性是由人類,或再次,出於身體聯盟這兩個導致第三大自然的一種物理混合物,因為它都是,或者至少透過他們的身體組成。 The true Catholic doctrine was upheld by Pope Leo the Great, the Council of Chalcedon, and the Fifth Ecumenical Council, AD 553.真正的天主教教義,是堅持由羅馬教皇利奧偉大,安理會的chalcedon ,而第五基督教會,專案553個。 The twelfth canon of the last-named council excludes also the view that Christ's moral life developed gradually, attaining its completion only after the Resurrection.第十二屆佳能的最後一局點名排除也有意見認為基督的道德生活的發展,逐步實現其完成後,才復活。 The Adoptionists renewed Nestorianism in part because they considered the Word as the natural Son of God, and the man Christ as a servant or an adopted son of God, thus granting its own personality to Christ's human nature.該adoptionists續約景教,部分是因為他們認為這個詞作為自然神的兒子,而該男子以基督為中心的僱員或領養的上帝的兒子,因此給予其自己的個性,以基督的人性。 This opinion was rejected by Pope Adrian I, the Synod of Ratisbon, AD 782, the Council of Frankfort (794), and by Leo III in the Roman Synod (799).這項意見被否決教皇阿德里安,我走過的拉蒂斯邦,公元782 ,安理會的法蘭克福( 794 ) ,以及由利奧三,在羅馬主教( 799 ) 。 There is no need to point out that the human nature of Christ is not united with the Word, according to the Socinian and rationalistic views.有沒有需要指出的是,人性的基督是不團結,同一句話,據該socinian和理性的看法。 Dorner shows how widespread among Protestants these views are, since there is hardly a Protestant theologian of note who refuses its own personality to the human nature of Christ. dorner說明如何普遍新教徒這些意見是,既然有難以一名基督教神學家的注意,他們拒絕自己的個性,以人性的基督。 Among Catholics, Berruyer and Günther reintroduced a modified Nestorianism; but they were censured by the Congregation of the Index (17 April, 1755) and by Pope Pius IX (15 Jan., 1857).其中天主教徒,貝呂耶和吻重新提出了一項修改景教,但他們譴責聚集指數( 1755年4月17日)和由教宗比約九( 1857年1月15日) 。 The Monophysite heresy was renewed by the Monothelites, admitting only one will in Christ and thus contradicting the teaching of Popes Martin I and Agatho and of the Sixth Ecumenical Council.該monophysite異端續約由monothelites ,承認只有一個,將在基督裡,從而違背了教學的教皇馬丁,我和agatho和第六合一。 Both the schismatic Greeks and the Reformers of the sixteenth century wished to retain the traditional doctrine concerning the Word Incarnate; but even the earliest followers of the Reformers fell into errors involving both the Nestorian and the Monophysite heresies.無論schismatic希臘人和改革者的16世紀希望保留傳統學說有關肉身,但即使是最早的追隨者改革者陷入錯誤都景教和monophysite異端邪說。 The Ubiquitarians, for example, find the essence of the Incarnation not in the assumption of human nature by the Word, but in the divinization of human nature by sharing the properties of the Divine nature.該ubiquitarians ,舉例來說,找到本質的化身,而不是在假設人性一詞,但在divinization人性分享性質的神性。 The subsequent Protestant theologians drifted away farther still from the views of Christian tradition; Christ for them was the sage of Nazareth, perhaps even the greatest of the Prophets, whose Biblical record, half myth and half history, is nothing but the expression of a popular idea of human perfection.隨後的新教神學家疏遠仍遠從意見的基督教傳統;基督為他們是賢者的拿撒勒,甚至最偉大的先知,他們的聖經記錄,其中一半神話,一半的歷史,不過是表達民意理念的人力和完善。 The Catholic writers whose views were derogatory either to the historical character of the Biblical account of the life of Christ or to his prerogatives as the God-man have been censured in the new Syllabus and the Encyclical "Pascendi dorninici gregis".天主教作家,他們的意見被貶無論對歷史人物的聖經到生命的基督或以他的特權,因為神人被公開譴責,在新的教學大綱和通諭" pascendi dorninici收聽廣播節目和收看" 。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息所作的AJ馬斯。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯j.波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.奉獻給聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. nihil obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

For Christology consult the following:為christology徵詢以下內容:

Patristic Works: ATHANASIUS, GREGORY NAZIANZUS, GREGORY OF NYSSA, BASIL, EPIPHANIUS wrote especially against the followers of Arius and Apollinaris; CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA, PROCLUS, LEONTIUS BYZANTINUS, ANASTASIUS SINAITA, EULOGIUS OF ALEXANDRIA, PETER CHRYSOLOGUS, FULGENTIUS, opposing the Nestorians and Monophysites; SOPHRONIUS, MAXIMUS, JOHN DAMASCENE, the Monothelites; PAULINUS OF AQUILEIA, ETHERIUS, ALCUIN, AGOBARDUS, the Adoptionists.教父的作品: athanasius ,格雷戈里nazianzus ,格雷戈里的nyssa ,羅勒, epiphanius寫道尤其是對信徒的arius和亞坡理納;西里爾的亞歷山德里亞, proclus , leontius byzantinus , anastasius sinaita , eulogius的亞歷山德里亞,彼得chrysologus ,傅箴修中,反對和nestorians monophysites ; sophronius ,鮃,約翰大馬士革, monothelites ; paulinus的阿奎萊亞, etherius ,阿爾昆, agobardus , adoptionists 。 See PG and PL Scholastic writers: ST. 415-359-2454和特等獎學金作者:聖。 THOMAS, Summa theol., III, QQ.托馬斯,總結theol ,三, QQ的。 I-lix; IDEM, Summa contra gentes, IV, xxvii-lv; In III Sentent.; De veritate, QQ.一lix ;同上,總結矛盾gentes ,四,二十七律,在三sentent ;德veritate , QQ的。 xx, xxix; Compend, theol., QQ. XX條,二十九; compend , theol , QQ的。 cxcix-ccxlii; Opusc., 2; etc.; BONAVENTURE, Breviloquium, 1, 4; In III Sentent.; BELLARMINE, De Christo capite totius ecclesioe controvers., I, col. cxcix - ccxlii ; opusc , 2 ,等等;文德, breviloquium , 1日, 4日,在三sentent ; bellarmine ,德christo capite totius ecclesioe controvers 。來說,我和中校。 1619; SUAREZ, De Incarn., opp. 1619年;蘇亞雷斯,德incarn , OPP的。 XIV, XV; LUGO, De lncarn., op.十四,十五;盧戈,德lncarn 。作品。 III.三。 Positive Theologians: PETAVIUS, Theol.積極神學家: petavius , theol 。 dogmat., IV, 1-2; THOMASSIN, De Incarn., dogm. dogmat ,四, 1-2 ; thomassin ,德incarn , dogm 。 theol., III, IV. theol ,三,四卷。

Recent Writers:最近作家:

FRANZELIN, De Verbo Incarn. franzelin ,德動詞incarn 。 (Rome, 1874); KLEUTGEN, Theologie der Vorzeit, III (Münster, 1873); JUNGMANN, De Verbo incarnato (Ratisbon, 1872); HURTER, Theologia dogmatica, II, tract. (羅馬, 1874年) ; kleutgen , theologie明鏡vorzeit ,三(明斯特, 1873年) ; jungmann ,德動詞因卡爾納托(拉蒂斯邦, 1872年) ; hurter , theologia dogmatica ,二,呼吸道。 vii (Innsbruck, 1882); STENTRUP, Proelectiones dogmaticoe de Verbo incarnato (2 vols., Innsbruck, 1882); LIDDON, The Divinity of Our Lord (London, 1885); MAAS, Christ in Type and Prophecy (2 vols., New York, 1893-96); LEPIN, Jésus Messie et Fils de Dieu (Paris, 1904).第七章(因斯布魯克, 1882年) ; stentrup , proelectiones dogmaticoe德動詞因卡爾納托( 2卷,因斯布魯克, 1882年) ;利登,神我們的主(倫敦, 1885年) ;馬斯,基督教式,並預言( 2卷,新紐約, 1893年至1896年) ;瘦素, jésus messie等費爾德Part - Dieu (巴黎, 1904年) 。

See also recent works on the life of Christ, and the principal commentaries on the Biblical passages cited in this article.也見近期的作品對生活的基督,與主評聖經段落引用在這篇文章中。 For all other parts of dogmatic theology see bibliography at the end of this section (I.).對於其他所有零部件的教條式的神學見書目在本月底第(一) 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Jesus 耶穌
Christ 基督
God 上帝
Bible 聖經
Christianity 基督教
The Arising of Jesus 產生的耶穌

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