Christian基督教

General Information 一般資料

Christian is the name given by the Greeks or Romans, probably in reproach, to the followers of Jesus.基督教是名字由希臘人或羅馬人,有可能是在責備,曾經追隨耶穌。 It was first used at Antioch.這是首次用在安提。 The names by which the disciples were known among themselves were " brethren, " " the faithful, " " elect, " " saints, " " believers. "姓名,其中弟子被稱為它們之間的" 兄弟 " " 忠誠 " " 選舉 " " 聖人 " " 信徒 " But as distinguishing them from the multitude without, the name "Christian" came into use, and was universally accepted.但作為區分它們從千頭萬緒,如果沒有,將名稱改為"基督教"投入使用,並獲得普遍接受的。 This name occurs but three times in the New Testament (Acts 11:26; 26:28; 1 Pet. 4:16).這個名字出現,但3次,在新約聖經(使徒行11:26 ; 26:28 ;一日寵物。 4時16分) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Christianity基督教

General Information 一般資料

Christianity is the religion of about a billion people whose belief system centers on the person and teachings of Jesus Christ.基督教是宗教的大約10億人的信仰體系的核心內容是人的教導耶穌基督。 To Christians, Jesus of Nazareth was and is the Messiah or Christ promised by God in the prophecies of the Old Testament (the Hebrew Bible); by His life, death, and Resurrection He freed those who believe in Him from their sinful state and made them recipients of God's saving Grace. Many also await the Second Coming of Christ, which they believe will complete God's plan of salvation.以基督教徒, 拿撒勒的耶穌過去和現在都是彌賽亞或基督的許諾由上帝的預言,舊約 (希伯來聖經) , 由他的生命,死亡,與復活,他釋放了那些相信他,從他們罪孽深重的國家,並提出他們接受上帝的恩典節省不少也在等待耶穌第二次來,因為他們相信這會完成上帝的救恩計劃。 The Christian Bible, or Holy Scripture, includes the Old Testament and also the New Testament, a collection of early Christian writings proclaiming Jesus as lord and savior.基督教聖經,或聖經,包括舊約,也是新約全書,收錄了早期基督教著作宣告耶穌是上帝和救世主。 Arising in the Jewish milieu of 1st century Palestine, Christianity quickly spread through the Mediterranean world and in the 4th century became the official religion of the Roman Empire.在所產生的猶太氛圍的1世紀巴勒斯坦,基督教很快傳遍地中海世界,並在4世紀成為官方宗教的羅馬帝國。

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Christians have tended to separate into rival groups, but the main body of the Christian Church was united under the Roman emperors.基督徒都趨向獨立成為敵對團體,但主體的基督教教堂是美國根據羅馬帝王。 During the Middle Ages, when all of Europe became Christianized, this main church was divided into a Latin (Western European) and a Greek (Byzantine or Orthodox) branch.在中世紀,當所有的歐洲成為christianized ,這主要教會分為拉丁語(西歐)和希臘(拜占庭或東正教)分行。 The Western church was in turn divided by the Reformation of the 16th century into the Roman Catholic church and a large number of smaller Protestant churches: Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist), Anglican, and sectarian.西方教會是反過來除以改造16世紀成為羅馬天主教會以及一大批規模較小的新教教堂:路德教,改革後( calvinist ) ,英國國教,和宗派。 These divisions have continued and multiplied, but in the 20th century many Christians joined in the Ecumenical Movement to work for church unity.這些分歧繼續成倍增加,但在剛剛過去的二十世紀,許多基督教徒也加入了基督信仰合一運動,以工作為教會的團結。 This resulted in the formation of the World Council of Churches.這導致在形成世界基督教協進會。 Christianity, a strongly proselytizing religion, exists in all parts of the world.基督教,極力勸誘宗教,存在於世界所有地區。

Beliefs信仰

Certain basic doctrines drawn from Scripture (especially from the Gospels and the letters of Saint Paul), interpreted by the Fathers of the Church and the first four ecumenical councils, historically have been accepted by all three of the major traditions.某些基本教義取自聖經(尤其是來自福音書和意向書,聖保羅) ,詮釋教會的神父和頭4合一議會,在歷史上已為大家所接受的三大傳統。 According to this body of teaching, the original human beings rebelled against God, and from that time until the coming of Christ the world was ruled by Sin.根據這個機構的教學,原來人類反抗上帝,而從這個時候才來的基督世界的統治單。 The hope of a final reconciliation was kept alive by God's Covenant with the Jews, the chosen people from whom the savior sprang.希望達成最終和解是維持生命上帝的盟約與猶太人所選定的人,從誰的救世主興起。 This savior, Jesus Christ, partly vanquished sin and Satan.這救主耶穌基督,這部分是戰敗國罪惡和撒旦。 Jesus, born of the Virgin Mary by the power of the Holy Spirit, preached the coming of God's Kingdom but was rejected by the Jewish leaders, who delivered Him to the Romans to be crucified.耶穌出生的聖母瑪利亞由電力的聖靈,鼓吹未來的上帝的王國,但被拒絕了猶太領導人,他們替羅馬人被釘在十字架上。 On the third day after His death God raised Him up again.至於在第三天後,其死因上帝對他所提出的重新崛起。 He appeared to His disciples, commanding them to spread the good news of salvation from sin and death to all people.他似乎是他的弟子,指揮他們把好消息的救恩,從罪惡和死亡給所有的人。 This, according to Christian belief, is the mission of Christ's church.對此,據基督教信仰,是使命,基督的教會。

Christians are monotheists (believers in one God).基督徒monotheists (信徒在一上帝) 。 The early church, however, developed the characteristic Christian doctrine of the Trinity, in which God is thought of as Creator (Father), Redeemer (Son), and Sustainer (Holy Spirit), but one God in essence.早期教會,然而,發達國家的特點,基督教教義的三位一體,其中,神是思想作為創造者(父親) ,救世主(兒子) ,並sustainer (聖靈) ,但其中一個上帝的本質。

Christianity inherited and modified the Jewish belief that the world would be transformed by the coming of the Reign of God.基督教繼承和改良猶太人相信世界將轉化未來的統治神。 The Christians held that the bodies of those who had died would rise again, reanimated, and that the righteous would be triumphant, the wicked punished.基督徒認為,機構的死難者,將再次攀升, reanimated ,並認為正義會勝利,邪惡的懲罰。 This belief, along with Jesus' promise of "eternal life," developed into a doctrine of eternal rewards (heaven) and punishments (hell) after death.這個信念,隨著耶穌'承諾的"永恆的生命" ,發展成為一個中庸的永恆獎勵(天堂)和懲罰(地獄)後死亡。 A source of doctrinal uncertainty was whether salvation depended on God's election in advance of a believer's faith, or even in a decision of God before the disobedience and fall of the first man and woman (Predestination).一個來源的理論不確定是否救贖取決於上帝的大選提前信徒的信仰,甚至在決定神的面前抗命和秋季的第一男人和女人(宿命) 。

Although Christians today tend to emphasize what unites them rather than what divides them, substantial differences in faith exist among the various churches.雖然今天的基督徒傾向於強調團結,而不是使他們分裂的,重大的差異,在信仰中存在的各教會。 Those in the Protestant tradition insist on Scripture as the sole source of God's Revelation. The Roman Catholics and Orthodox give greater importance to the tradition of the church in defining the content of faith, believing it to be divinely guided in its understanding of scriptural revelation.在新教傳統,堅持經文作為唯一的來源,上帝的啟示。羅馬天主教徒和東正教徒更加重視傳統的教會在界定內容的信念,認為它是神聖的引導下,在其了解聖經的啟示。 They stress the role of ecumenical councils in the formulation of doctrine, and in Roman Catholicism the pope, or bishop of Rome, is regarded as the final authority in matters of belief.他們強調的角色合一議會在制定學說,在羅馬天主教教宗,或者羅馬的主教,被視為是最終的權力事項的信念。

Practice實踐

Christian societies have exhibited great variety in ethos, from mutual love, acceptance, and pacifism on the one hand, to strict authoritarianism and forcible repression of dissent on the other.基督教社會正呈現出豐富多彩的校風,從互愛,接受,並就和平主義,一方面要嚴格威權和武力鎮壓不同政見的影響。 Justification for all of these has been found in various passages in the Bible.理由,所有這些已發現的各個通道,在聖經中。 A prominent feature of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches is Monasticism.一個突出的特點,羅馬天主教會與東正教會是修道。

Christians also vary widely in worship.基督徒也有很大差別崇拜。 Early Christian worship centered on two principal rites or Sacraments: Baptism, a ceremonial washing that initiated converts into the church; and the Eucharist, a sacred meal preceded by prayers, chants, and Scripture readings, in which the participants were mysteriously united with Christ.早期基督教崇拜圍繞著兩個主要儀軌或聖禮:洗禮儀式洗滌發起轉化為教會和聖體聖事,一個神聖的餐之前祈禱,呼喊,並經文讀,其中與會者分別長出了美國與基督。 As time went on, the Eucharist, or Mass, became surrounded by an increasingly elaborate ritual in the Latin, the Greek, and other Eastern churches, and in the Middle Ages Christians came to venerate saints - especially the Virgin Mary - and holy images.隨著時間的推移,聖體聖事的,還是集體,成為環繞一個越來越細儀式在拉丁語,希臘語和其他東歐教會,並在中世紀基督徒來到尊崇的聖人-尤其是聖母瑪利亞-聖潔形象。 In the West, seven sacraments were recognized.在西方,七個聖禮得到了承認。 The Protestant reformers retained 2 sacraments - baptism and the Eucharist - rejecting the others, along with devotion to saints and images, as unscriptural.新教改革者保留2條聖禮-洗禮和聖體聖事-拒絕別人,隨著獻身的聖徒和圖像,作為un scriptural。 They simplified worship and emphasized preaching.他們簡化禮拜,並強調說教。

Since the 19th century there has been a certain amount of reconvergence in worship among ecumenically minded Protestants and Roman Catholics, with each side adopting some of the other's practices.自十九世紀以來出現了一定數額的reconvergence在崇拜ecumenically志同道合的新教徒和天主教徒,雙方互相採取一些其他的做法。 For example, the Catholic Mass is now in the vernacular.舉例來說,天主教彌撒正處於白話。 Among other groups in both traditions, however, the divergence remains great.其他群體在這兩個傳統,然而,分歧依然很大。 In most Christian churches Sunday, the day of Christ's resurrection, is observed as a time of rest and worship.在大多數基督教教會週日,那天是基督的復活,是觀察一段時間的休息和禮拜。 The resurrection is more particularly commemorated at Easter, a festival in the early spring.復活的是更多的特別紀念復活節,在節日慶典上,在初春。 Another major Christian festival is Christmas, which commemorates the birth of Jesus.另一項主要的基督教節日是聖誕節,這是紀念耶穌誕生的。

Polity政體

Most churches make a distinction between the clergy - those specially ordained to perform spiritual functions - and ordinary believers, or lay people.最教會加以區分神職人員-那些專門受戒履行職能的精神-和普通信徒,或停工的人。 The Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches have an all male threefold ministry of bishops, priests, deacons, and several minor orders.羅馬天主教會與東正教會擁有所有男性的三倍部主教,神父,執事,和幾個小型訂單。 The Roman Catholic church is headed by the pope, who governs through a centralized bureaucracy (the Papacy) in consultation with his fellow bishops.羅馬天主教教會為首的是由教宗,誰管理,通過一個集中的官僚作風(教宗)在徵詢他的同胞主教。 In the Orthodox churches and those of the Anglican Communion (which retain the threefold ministry) lay influence is somewhat greater; major decisions are made by the bishops acting as a group with lay consultation, sometimes with votes.在東正教教堂和那些英國聖公會(即保留了三倍部) ,奠定的影響力,是有點大,重大決策都是由主教代理作為一個集團與業外人士協商,有時票。 Church government among Lutherans, Reformed, and other Protestants generally involves the laity even more fully, policy being determined either by local congregations or by regional assemblies composed of both clergy and lay people.教會政府之間lutherans ,改革了,和其他新教徒普遍涉及俗人得更加充分,政策確定要么是由地方教會或由區域議會組成,其中兼有神職人員和信徒。 Most Protestant churches, including some provinces of the Anglican Communion, now permit the ordination of women.大多數新教教會,其中包括一些省的聖公會,現在允許統籌婦女地位的提高。

During its early history the Christian church remained independent of any political regime.在它的早期歷史,基督教教會仍然是獨立於任何政治制度。 From the 4th century to the 18th century, however, churches accepted the protection of emperors, kings, and princes and became closely allied with secular governments.從4世紀至18世紀,然而,教會接受保護的皇帝,國王,王子,並成為親密的結盟與世俗政府。 In some cases monarchs became the leaders of their own national churches.在某些情況下,君主成為領導本國教堂。 In the 19th and 20th centuries the trend has once again been in the direction of separation of Church and State, sometimes amicably achieved, sometimes otherwise.在19和20世紀的趨勢再次得到在方向分離的教會與國家,有時心平氣和地實現了,有時候相反。

History of the Early Church歷史上的早期教會

The age of Christian antiquity extends from the beginning of the Christian era (dated from the approximate time of Jesus' birth) through the fall of the western half of the Roman Empire in the 5th century.年齡基督教古物延伸,從一開始的基督教時代(日期從近似的時候,耶穌的誕生) ,到秋季西部的大半個羅馬帝國在公元5世紀。

After Jesus was crucified, his followers, strengthened by the conviction that he had risen from the dead and that they were filled with the power of the Holy Spirit, formed the first Christian community in Jerusalem.之後,耶穌被釘在十字架上,他的追隨者,加強信念,即他從死裡復活,並說,他們充滿了力量,聖靈,形成了第一個基督教社區在耶路撒冷。 By the middle of the 1st century, missionaries were spreading the new religion among the peoples of Egypt, Syria, Anatolia, Greece, and Italy.由中間的1世紀,傳教士散佈新的宗教人民之間的埃及,敘利亞,安納托利亞,希臘和意大利。 Chief among these was Saint Paul, who laid the foundations of Christian theology and played a key role in the transformation of Christianity from a Jewish sect to a world religion.其中最主要的是聖保羅,奠定了基礎,基督教神學發揮了關鍵的作用,在轉型的基督教從一個猶太人節,以一個世界宗教。 The original Christians, being Jews, observed the dietary and ritualistic laws of the Torah and required non Jewish converts to do the same.原來基督徒,猶太人被觀察到的飲食和走過場法律的律法,並要求非猶太人皈依也能這樣做。 Paul and others favored eliminating obligation, thus making Christianity more attractive to Gentiles.保羅和其他人的最惠國待遇,消除義務,從而使基督教吸引更多的外邦人。 The separation from Judaism was completed by the destruction of the church of Jerusalem by the Romans during the Jewish Revolt of 66 - 70 AD.分離猶太教完成摧毀教會的耶路撒冷由羅馬人在猶太人起義66 -7 0式廣告。

After that Christianity took on a predominantly Gentile character and began to develop in a number of different forms.此後基督教了一個主要gentile性格,並開始發展,在許多不同的形式。 At first the Christian community looked forward to the imminent return of Christ in glory and the establishment of the Kingdom.首先,基督教社會期待著即將回歸基督的榮耀,並建立王國。 This hope carried on in the 2d century by Montanism, an ascetic movement emphasizing the action of the Holy Spirit.這個希望就進行了在二維世紀montanism ,苦行運動,強調行動的聖靈。 Gnosticism, which rose to prominence about the same time, also stressed the Spirit, but it disparaged the Old Testament and interpreted the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus in a spiritual sense.靈知,而上升到突出位置,大約同一時間,還強調了精神,但它貶舊約和解釋受難日和復活的耶穌在精神意義。 The main body of the church condemned these movements as heretical and, when the Second Coming failed to occur, organized itself as a permanent institution under the leadership of its bishops.主體教會譴責這些運動作為異端,並在第二次來沒有發生時,有組織本身作為一個常設機構的領導下,它的主教。

Because of their refusal to recognize the divinity of the Roman emperor or pay homage to any god except their own, the Christians were subjected to a number of persecutions by the Roman authorities.因為他們拒絕承認神的羅馬皇帝或頂禮膜拜,任何神除了他們自己,基督教徒遭受了一些迫害,由羅馬當局。 The most savage of these were the one under Emperor Decius (249 - 51) and that instigated by Diocletian (303 - 13).最野蠻的,這些都是一個皇帝下decius ( 249 -5 1) ,並慫恿d iocletian( 3 03- 13 )。 Many Christians welcomed martyrdom as an opportunity to share in the sufferings of Christ, and Christianity continued to grow despite all attempts to suppress it.許多基督教徒歡迎殉難作為一個機會來分享這個苦難的基督和基督教繼續增長,儘管所有企圖鎮壓。 Out of the experience of persecution a controversy grew over whether those who had denied their faith under pressure could be readmitted to communion, and whether the sacraments could be administered validly by clerics who had apostacized.出於經驗的迫害爭議的增長速度超過了人是否已否認他們的信念壓力下,可以重新參加共融,以及是否聖禮,可以有效管理,由教士曾apostacized 。 In opposition to the Novatianists and Donatists, the larger church replied affirmatively to both questions.在反對以novatianists和donatists ,較大教會了肯定的回答這兩個問題。

The principal theme of early Christian theological development was the interpretation of the faith in terms of concepts drawn from Greek philosophical thought.主要議題早期基督教神學思想建設的發展是詮釋信仰在概念取自希臘哲學思想。 This process was begun by Saint Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Origen, and other apologists of the 2d and 3d centuries.這個過程是由開始的Justin聖烈士,戴爾都良,淵源,以及其他支持者的二維和三維幾個世紀。 Following the recognition of Christianity by Emperor Constantine I in the early 4th century, it was continued in a lengthy controversy about the person of Christ.繼承認基督教皇帝君士坦丁I在早期4世紀,它是繼續在冗長爭論的人的喊聲。 The problem was to defend Christian monotheism against the charge that the church also worshiped Christ as Lord and the Holy Spirit of God promised by Christ.問題是要捍衛基督教一神論對主管說,教會也崇拜耶穌為主和上帝的聖靈所承諾的基督。 In one solution, Monarchianism, God the creator was supreme but shared his power with Christ, the Logos or Word.一個解決方案中, monarchianism ,上帝造物是最高法院,但認同他的權力與基督,標識或文字。 Another, Modalism, held that the three persons of the Trinity were modes or aspects of the same God.另外,模態說,與會人士認為3人的三一人模式或範疇,同時上帝。 A third, Arianism, like Monarchianism, taught that the Son was inferior to the Father.第三, arianism ,像monarchianism ,專門教授說,兒子是不亞於父親。

These doctrines were rejected by the councils of Nicaea (325) and Constantinople (381), which, following the lead of Saint Athanasius, affirmed the equality of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, declaring them to be separate persons but of one substance.這些學說被拒絕的,由校董會的尼西亞( 325 )和君士坦丁堡( 381 ) ,其中,繼率先聖athanasius ,肯定了平等的父親,兒子,聖靈,宣稱他們分開的人,而是一種物質。 The Council of Ephesus (431) condemned Nestorianism, which denied that Mary was the mother of God, and the Council of Chalcedon (451) repudiated Monophysitism, which emphasized the divinity of Christ over his humanity.安理會的以弗所( 431 )譴責景教,而否認瑪利亞是天主之母,以及安理會的chalcedon ( 451 )推翻monophysitism ,其中強調基督的神超過了他的人性。

The condemnation of Monophysitism alienated the churches of Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Armenia, creating dissention in the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and lessening its ability to withstand the Islamic invasion in the 7th century.譴責monophysitism疏遠了教會的埃及,敘利亞,美索不達米亞,亞美尼亞,造成離心的,在東羅馬(拜占庭)帝國,並減少它有能力抵禦伊斯蘭入侵,在公元7世紀。 The empire, thereafter confined to Anatolia and the Balkans, remained the center of Orthodox Christianity until its demise in the 15th century.帝國,此後限於安納托利亞和巴爾幹地區,仍然是中心的東正教,直到其消亡,在15世紀。

In the West, where Roman rule was ended by the Germanic invasions of the 5th century, the church, strengthened by the guidance of such able leaders as Saint Augustine and Pope Gregory I, survived to become the main civilizing influence in Europe during the Middle Ages.在西方,而羅馬統治結束,由日耳曼入侵公元5世紀,教會,加強指導,這種領導人能象聖奧古斯丁和羅馬教皇格雷戈里,我倖存,成為主要的文明在歐洲的影響力,在中世紀。

George H Williams喬治h威廉姆斯

Bibliography 參考書目
O Chadwick, ed., The Pelican History of the Church (1960 - 70); WHC Frend, The Earth Church (1966); KS Latourette, A History of Christianity (1975); J Pelikan, The Christian Tradition (1971 - 83). o查德威克版,鵜鴣教會的歷史( 1960年-7 0) ;西隧f rend,地球教會( 1 966) ;棨森l atourette,一個是基督教歷史上( 1 975年) ; j p elikan,基督教傳統( 1 971年- 83 ) 。


Christian基督教

Advanced Information 先進的信息

"Christian," a word formed after the Roman style, signifying an adherent of Jesus, was first applied to such by the Gentiles and is found in Acts 11:26; 26:28; 1 Pet. "基督教"一詞後所形成的古羅馬風格,以表揚他們一個堅持耶穌,是第一個適用於這類由外邦人,是在發現行為11:26 ; 26:28 ;一日寵物。 4:16. 4時16分。 Though the word rendered "were called" in Acts 11:26 might be used of a name adopted by oneself or given by others, the "Christians" do not seem to have adopted it for themselves in the times of the apostles.雖然這個詞,使" ,被稱為"行為11:26有可能被利用的一個名字通過自己或給別人, "基督徒"似乎並不都採用這種制度,為自己在時代的使徒。 In 1 Pet. 1寵物。 4:16, the apostle is speaking from the point of view of the persecutor; cf. 4時16分,使徒是從的角度來看,該persecutor ;比照。 "as a thief," "as a murderer." "作為一個小偷" , "作為一名殺人犯" 。 Nor is it likely that the appellation was given by Jews.它也不是很有可能的稱謂是由猶太人。 As applied by Gentiles there was no doubt an implication of scorn, as in Agrippa's statement in Acts 26:28.適用外邦人有毫無疑問是蘊涵的鄙視,因為在agrippa的陳述行為26:28 。 Tacitus, writing near the end of the first century, says, "The vulgar call them Christians. The author or origin of this denomination, Christus, had, in the reign of Tiberius, been executed by the procurator, Pontius Pilate" (Annals xv. 44).塔西佗,寫作接近尾聲的第一個世紀裡,說: "庸俗稱他們為基督徒。作者或原籍本面額,基督,曾在腥風血雨的台比留,被處決的,由檢察長,祂比拉多" (縣志第十五44段) 。 From the second century onward the term was accepted by believers as a title of honor.從公元二世紀起,任期接受信徒視為所有權的榮譽稱號。


Christianity in its Relation to Judaism基督教及其與猶太教

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

Christianity is the system of religious truth based upon the belief that Jesus of Nazareth was the expected Messiah, or Christ, and that in him all the hopes and prophecies of Israel concerning the future have been fulfilled.基督教是制度的宗教的真理後,相信拿撒勒的耶穌是預期的彌賽亞,或基督,並在他所有的希望和預言以色列對於未來已經得到履行。 While comprising creeds which differ widely from one another in doctrine and in practise, Christianity as a whole rests upon the belief in the God of Israel and in the Hebrew Scriptures as the word of God; but it claims that these Scriptures, which it calls the Old Testament, receive their true meaning and interpretation from the New Testament, taken to be the written testimonies of the Apostles that Jesus appeared as the end and fulfilment of all Hebrew prophecy.而組成的信條,其中有很大的出入,彼此在理論和實踐,基督教作為一個整體,取決於信仰的神,以色列,並在希伯來語聖經中上帝的話,但它聲稱這些經文,它呼喚舊約中,接受他們的真實含義和解釋新約聖經,採取予以書面證詞的門徒,耶穌出現了,因為年底和履行各項希伯來語的預言。 It furthermore claims that Jesus, its Christ, was and is a son of God in a higher and an essentially different sense than any other human being, sharing in His divine nature, a cosmic principle destined to counteract the principle of evil embodied in Satan; that, therefore, the death of the crucified Christ was designed by God to be the means of atonement for the sin inherited by the human race through the fall of Adam, the first man; and, consequently, that without belief in Jesus, in whom the Old Testament sacrifice is typified, there is no salvation.另外,它聲稱耶穌,它的救世主,過去和現在都是上帝的兒子,在一個更高的一個本質不同的意義比任何其他人,分享他的神性,宇宙的原則,注定了反制的原則,邪惡的體現在撒旦; ,因此,死刑的被釘十字架的基督的設計是由上帝要手段贖罪,為單繼承人類通過亞當的墮落,第一個民及,因此,如果沒有信仰耶穌,在其中舊約中的犧牲是典型的,是沒有救贖。 Finally, Christianity, as a world-power, claims that it represents the highest form of civilization, inasmuch as, having made its appearance when the nations of antiquity had run their course and mankind longed for a higher and deeper religious life, it regenerated the human race while uniting Hebrew and Greek to become the heir to both; and because it has since become the ruling power of history, influencing the life of all nations and races to such an extent that all other creeds and systems of thought must recede and pale before it.最後,基督教,作為一個世界的權力,聲稱,它代表了最高的文明形態,因為,有了它的出現,當國家文物遇到了自己的歷程和人類渴望能夠有一個更高和更深的宗教生活,它的再生人類種族而團結希伯來語和希臘語成為王位繼承人都和,因為它已經成為了執政的歷史,並影響了生活的所有國家和種族到如此地步,所有其他信條和系統的思路,必須後退和蒼白在它的前面。

These three claims of Christianity, which have frequently been asserted in such a manner as directlyor implicitly to deny to Judaism, its mother religion, the purpose, if not the very right of its continued existence, will be examined from a historical point of view under three heads: (1) the New Testament claim as to the Christship of Jesus; (2) the Church's claim as to the dogmatic truths of Christianity, whether Trinitarian or Unitarian; and (3) the claim of Christianity to be the great power of civilization.這三項要求是基督教,其中經常被斷言,在這種方式directlyor含蓄地否定了猶太教,其母親宗教,其目的,如果不是非常的權利,它的繼續存在,政府都會加以研究,從歷史的角度來看,根據三國元首: ( 1 )新約聖經的說法是向christship耶穌; ( 2 )教會所主張的作為向教條式的真理是基督教,是否三位一體或統一; ( 3 )索賠的基督教成為大國的文明。 The attitude taken by Jews toward Christianity in public debates and in literary controversies will be treated under Polemics and Polemical Literature; while the New Testament as literature and the personality of Jesus of Nazareth will also be discussed in separate articles.所採取的態度對待猶太人,基督教在公開辯論,並在文學的爭議,將被下論戰和論辯文學,而新約聖經文學與性格拿撒勒的耶穌會也將討論在不同的文章。

The Messianic Movement.救世主的運動。

I. It is a matter of extreme significance that the Talmudic literature, which is based on tradition at least a century older than Christianity, has not even a specific name for the Christian belief or doctrine, but mentions it only occasionally under the general category of "Minim" (literally, "distinctive species of belief"), heresies, or Gnostic sects.一,它是一個極其重要者,就是talmudic文學,它是以傳統至少一個世紀的年紀比基督教,甚至還沒有一個具體的名字,為基督教的信仰或教義,但提到它只是偶爾根據一般類"微量" (從字面上來看, "獨特的物種的信仰" ) ,異端邪說,或諾斯替教派。 As one of these it could only be regarded in the second century, when Christianity was in danger of being entirely absorbed by Gnosticism.作為其中的,它只能被認為是在公元二世紀時,基督教是在冒被完全吸納的靈知。 At first it was viewed by the Jews simply as one of the numerous Messianic movements which, aimed against Roman rule, ended tragically for their instigators, and from which it differed only in one singular fact; viz., that the death of the leader, far from crushing the movement, gave, on the contrary, rise to a new faith which gradually, both in principle and in attitude, antagonized as none other the parent faith, and came to manifest the greatest hostility to it.起初,它被認為是由猶太人只是其中的眾多救世主運動,旨在反對羅馬統治,結束了悲慘的,為他們的煽動者,並從它不同於只在一個奇異的事實,即,即死刑的領導者,到目前為止,從破碎的運動,給予,與此相反,上升到一個新的信仰漸漸地,雙方在原則上和態度,拮抗由於沒有其他家長信念,來表現出最大的敵視。 There is no indication in Jewish literature that the appearance of Jesus, either as a teacher or as a social or political leader, made at the time a deep or lasting impression on the Jewish people in general.目前並無跡象顯示,在猶太文學即出現耶穌,無論是作為一名教師,還是作為社會或政治領導人,在當時深或持久的印象,對猶太人民的一般問題。 Outside of Galilee he was scarcely known.外面的加利利,他幾乎眾所周知的。 This at least seems to be the only explanation of the fact that the Talmudic passages, some of which are old, confound Jesus, on the one hand, with Ben Sṭada, who was tried in Lydda-probably identical with Theudas "the magician," the pseudo-Messiah who appeared in 44 (Josephus, "Ant." xx. 5, § 1; Acts v. 36)-and, on the other, with the Egyptian "false prophet" who created a Messianic revolt a few years later ("Ant." xx. 8, § 6; idem, "BJ" ii. 13, § 5; Acts xxi. 38; see Tosef., Sanh. x. 11; Sanh. 67a, 107b; Shab. 104b; Soṭah 47a; compare Matt. xxiv. 11 and 24).這至少似乎是唯一的解釋的事實,那就是talmudic通道,其中有一些是老,混淆耶穌,一方面,隨著本sṭada ,他們是試圖在lydda -可能是完全相同的塞烏達斯"魔術師"偽彌賽亞的人出現在44 (約瑟夫, "螞蟻"第XX 5條第1款;行為訴36 ) ,另一方面,與埃及的"假先知" ,他們創造了一個救世主式的反抗,數年後( "螞蟻"第XX 8 ,第6條;同上, " BJ的"二13 ,第5條;行為21 。 38 ;見tosef , sanh 。十, 11人; sanh 。第67A , 107b ;沙巴。 104 B條; soṭah 47A條;比較馬特。二十四, 11日和24日) 。 As to Jesus ben Pandera, or Jesus the pupil of R. Joshua ben Peraḥyah, see Jesus in Jewish Legend.至於耶穌賁潘特羅,或耶穌瞳孔R的約書亞賁peraḥyah ,見耶穌在猶太傳說。

The only reference to Jesus in contemporary Jewish literature is found in Josephus, "Antiquities" xviii.唯一提到耶穌在當代猶太文學是發現約瑟夫, "古物"十八。 3, § 3, a passage which has been interpolated by Christian copyists, but appears to have originally contained the following words (see Theodore Reinach, in "Rev. Etudes Juives," xxxv. 1-18; A. v. Gutschmid, "Kleine Schriften," 1893, iv. 352): "There was about that time [a certain] Jesus, a wise man; for he was a worker of miracles, a teacher of men eager to receive [new (revolutionary) tidings], and he drew over to him many Jews and also many of the Hellenic world. He was [proclaimed] Christ; and when, on denunciation by the principal men amongst us, Pilate condemned him to be crucified, those that were first [captivated] by him did not cease to adhere to him; and the tribe of Christians, so named after him, is not extinct at this day." 3 ,第3款的規定,通過已插由基督教copyists ,但似乎已本來就包含以下字樣(見西奧多雷納克,在"牧師練習曲juives , "三十五。 1-18 ;甲訴gutschmid "奧地利schriften " , 1893年,四352 )說: "有那時間[一定]耶穌,智者;他是一個工人的奇蹟,教師的男性渴望受到[新(革命)的消息] ,他提請給他許多猶太人,也有很多的希臘世界,他是[宣布]基督的時候,就退出,由校長男人在我們中間,比拉多譴責他被釘在十字架上,那些被第一[著迷]他並沒有因此而停止,以堅持他和部落的基督徒,所以他的名字命名,是不是滅絕,在這一天" 。

John the Baptist.施洗約翰。

The Gospel records agree upon one essential point confirmed by Josephus (lc 5, § 2; compare Matt. iii. 1-13; Mark i. 2-9; Luke iii. 1-21; John iii. 22 et seq.; Acts xiii. 24); viz., that the main impulse to the Christian movement was given by John the Baptist, an Essene saint, who-among the many that, by penitence, fasting, and baptisms, prepared themselves for the coming of the Messiah (Luke ii. 25, 36 et seq.; Mark xv. 43; compare ib. ii. 18; Matt. ix. 14, xi. 18; compare Pesiḳ R. xxxiii., xxxiv.; Josephus, "Vita," § 2)-stood forth as the preacher of repentance and "good tidings," causing the people to flock to the Jordan to wash themselves clean of their sins in expectation of the Messianic kingdom.福音記錄同意後,其中重要的一點,證實了約瑟夫(立法會5 , § 2 ;比較馬特。三, 1-13 ;馬克一2-9 ;路加三1-21 ;約翰三, 22段及以下各段;行為十三, 24 ) ;即,這樣做主要衝動基督教運動是由施洗約翰, essene聖,是誰在眾多的,通過懺悔,齋戒,並受洗儀式,準備為自己未來的彌賽亞(路加福音二25 , 36段及以下各段;馬克十五, 43 ;比較興業。二, 18歲;馬特九14 ,十一, 18歲;比較pesiḳ傳譯三十三,三十四;約瑟夫, "履歷表" , § 2 ) -站出來,作為佈道者的悔過書和"喜訊" ,引起群眾聚集到約旦洗乾淨自己的罪孽,他們在期待救世主的王國。 Some of his followers were known afterward as a class of Baptists under the name "Disciples of John" (Acts viii. 25; xix. 3, 4), and seem partly to have joined the Mandæaus (Brandt, "Die Mandäische Religion," pp. 137 et seq., 218 et seq., 228; see also Hemerobaptists).他的一些追隨者被稱為事後作為一類浸信會的名義下, "弟子約翰" (使徒八。 25 ;十九, 3日, 4日) ,似乎是,部分已加入mandæaus (勃蘭特,在"死mandäische宗教, "第137頁起, 218頁起, 228人,還見hemerobaptists ) 。 Jesus, however, being one of John's disciples, the moment the latter had been put in prison stepped to the front as a preacher of the "Kingdom of Heaven" in the very language of his master (Matt. iv. 12 et seq., xiv. 3-5; Mark i. 14).耶穌,不過,作為一個約翰的門徒,目前後者已在監獄加緊向前方作為一個佈道者"天國" ,在很語言的他的主人。 (四12段及以下各段,十四, 3-5 ;馬克一14 ) 。 Still, to the very last he had to admit in his argument with the elders (Matt. xx. 26; Mark xi. 32; compare ib. viii. 28) that John was universally acknowledged prophet, while he was not.但是,到最後,他不得不承認他的論點與長老。 (二十, 26人;馬克席。 32 ;比較興業八。二十八日)表示,約翰是舉世公認的先知,而他不是。 Indeed, Herod Antipas, upon learning of Jesus' miraculous performances, expressed the belief that John the Baptist had risen from the dead (Matt. xiv. 2, xvi. 14; Mark vi. 14).事實上,希律antipas ,得知後,耶穌的奇蹟般的表演,表示相信,施洗約翰曾從死裡復活。 (十四。 2 ,十六, 14票;馬克六14 ) 。 Nor did Jesus himself, according to the older records, lay claim to any title other than that of a prophet or worker by the Holy Spirit, like any other Essene saint (Matt. xiii. 57; xxi. 11, 46; Luke vii. 16, 39; xiii. 33; xxiv. 19; John iv. 19, 44; compare Josephus, "BJ" i. 3, § 5; ii. 8, § 12; idem, "Ant." xiii. 10, § 7; Luke ii. 25, 36).也沒有耶穌本人,據老一輩的紀錄,聲稱任何所有權以外的先知或工人受聖靈,如同任何其他essene聖。 (十三57 21 11 46 ;路加七。 16 , 39歲;十三, 33個;二十四。 19 ;約翰四19 , 44 ;比較約瑟夫, " BJ的"一,三,第5條;二, 8 ,第12名;同上, "螞蟻" 。十三。 10 , § 7 ;路加福音二, 25 , 36 ) 。 Gradually, however, the fame of Jesus as "healer" and "helper" of those stricken with disease so eclipsed that of John, at least in Galilean circles, that the latter was declared to have been only the forerunner of the one destined to subdue the whole kingdom of Satan-that is, the Elijah of the Messianic kingdom-and a declaration to this effect was finally put into the mouth of John as though made by him at the very start (Mark i. 2, ix. 13, xi. 2-19; Luke i. 17).漸漸地,不過,成名的耶穌為"醫治"和"幫手" ,對那些受災疾病,使已經超過了約翰,至少在伽利略界,後者被宣布為本來只是前身的一個注定要制服整個英國的撒旦-那就是,以利亞的救世主英國和這樣的一項聲明,最後被放進口中的約翰彷彿發了言,他在一開始(馬克一2 ,九,十三,十一。 2月19日;路加福音一17 ) 。

Jesus as a Man of the People.耶穌作為一個男人的人。

Jesus, as a man of the people, deviated from the practise of the Essenes and Pharisees in not shunning contact with the sinners, the Publicans and the despised 'Amha-areẒ, as contaminating, and in endeavoring to elevate them; following the maxim, "They that are whole need not a physician, but they that are sick" (Matt. ix. 12, and parallels; compare Antisthenes, in Diogenes Laertius, vi. 6).耶穌,因為一名男子的人,脫離了實踐的essenes和法利賽在不迴避與罪人, publicans和鄙視' amha - areẓ ,由於污染,並在努力提高他們;以下格言"他們說是整個不需要醫生,但他們認為是病態" 。 (九12 ,以及平行線;比較antisthenes ,在第歐根尼laertius ,第六章6節) 。 He felt the calling to preach the gospel to the poor (Luke iv. 16 et seq., after Isa. lxi. 1 et seq.), and truly became the redeemer of the lower classes, who were not slow to lift him to thestation of the Messiah.他覺得這次通話,以傳福音給窮人(路加福音四, 16段及以下各段後,伊薩。 LXI的1等等) ,真正成為救贖的低下階層,他們不是緩慢把他舉起來thestation的彌賽亞。 Still, he apparently made no such claim before his entrance into Jerusalem, as is evidenced by the warning given to the disciples and to the spirits of the possessed not to disclose the secret of his being the Son of David (Matt. xii. 16, xvi. 20; Mark i. 24, iii. 12, viii. 30; Luke iv. 41).不過,他顯然沒有這樣的要求之前,他進入耶路撒冷,就是明證警告給門徒及靈魂的擁有,不可透露的秘密,而他的兒子大衛。 (十二16 ,十六,第20條;馬克一24 ,三12 ,八30 ;路加福音四41 ) 。 His reference to himself as the "Son of man," after the manner of Dan.他提到自己為"人子"後,地丹。 vii.七。 13, and Enoch, xlvi. 13 ,和伊諾克,四十六。 2 et seq., in Matt.第2段及以下各段,在馬特。 xx.二十。 18, and Mark x. 18 ,和馬克十。 33, has no historical value; whereas in Mark ii. 33 ,沒有任何歷史價值,而在馬克二。 28 and Matt. 28日和馬特。 viii.八。 20 "Son of man" stands for "man" or "myself." 20 "人子" ,主張"人"或"我自己" 。 While the eschatological predictions in Matt.而eschatological預言,在馬特。 xxiv., xxv.; Luke xvii.二十四,二十五;路加十七。 22 et seq., and elsewhere have been taken over literally from Jewish apocalypses and put into the mouth of Jesus, the teachings and doings of Jesus betray, on closer analysis, rather an intense longing after the Messianic time than joy and satisfaction over its arrival. 22段及以下各段,和其他地方已接管了,從字面上來看猶太啟示,並放進口中的耶穌,教義和所作所為耶穌的背叛,就細細分析,而不是激烈的嚮往後救世主時間較喜悅和滿意,它的到來。 And as the so-called "Lord's Prayer"-an exquisite compilation of Ḥasidic prayer formulas (Luke xi. 1-13; Matt. vi. 9-13; see Charles Taylor, "Sayings of the Jewish Fathers," 1901, p. 176)-is, like the Ḳaddish, a petition rather than a thanksgiving for the Messianic kingdom, so is the entire code of ethics laid down by Jesus for his disciples in the Sermon on the Mount (Matt. v.-vii., x.; Luke vi. 20, xi.-xii., and elsewhere) not a law of conduct for a world rejoicing in a redeemer that has come, but a guide for a few of the elect and saintly ones who wait for the immediate downfall of this world and the rise of another (Matt. x. 23, xix. 28, xxiv. 34-37).正如我們所謂的"主禱文" -精緻彙編ḥasidic祈禱公式(路加福音十一1-13 ;馬特六。 9-13 ;見查爾斯泰勒, "熟語的猶太父親" , 1901年,頁176 ) ,就像ḳaddish一份請願書,而不是一個感恩節,為救世主的英國,所以是整個倫理守則所訂下的耶穌為他的弟子們在山上寶訓。 (五-七,第十。 ;路加六20 , xi. -十二,和其他地方的)不是法律的行為為世界的大喜日子,在救世主,即來了,而是一個引導了幾年的選舉和聖潔的人,等待立即下台這個世界上的崛起另一個。 (十, 23 , 19 28 ,第24條34-37段) 。 Only later events caused the allusion to the "Son of man" in these sayings to be referred to Jesus.只是後來事件造成的典故,以"人子"在這些說法被稱為耶穌。 As a matter of fact, a spirit of great anxiety and unrest permeates the sayings of Jesus and the entire New Testament epoch, as is indicated by such utterances as "Watch, therefore; for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come" (Matt. xxiv. 42, xxv. 13); "The kingdom of God cometh not with observation [that is, calculation], but suddenly, imperceptibly it is among you" (Luke xvii. 20, 21); compare the rabbinical saying: "The Messiah cometh [when least expected], like a thief in the night" (Sanh. 97a, b).因為事實上,很多事情的精神,偉大的焦慮和不安的情緒貫穿熟語的耶穌和整個新約聖經時代,為的是表示,這種言論是"手錶,因此;曄不知道什麼時間你的主doth回來" (馬特。 24 。 42 ,二十五13 ) , "神的國度時勢不與觀察[即是計算] ,但突然間,在潛移默化中,它是你" (路十七20 , 21 ) ;比較希伯來語說: "彌賽亞時勢[時,至少預期] ,像一個小偷在深夜" ( sanh. 97A條,乙) 。 See, further, Matt.看到的,另外,馬特。 xxiv.二十四。 43; I Thess. 43 ,我帖。 v. 2; II Peter iii.五, 2 ;二,彼得三世。 10; Rev. iii.第10條;牧師三。 3. 3 。 A number of sayings allude to the sword, to contention, and to violence, which do not altogether harmonize with the gentle and submissive character assigned generally to Jesus.一些熟語暗示刀劍,爭論,並以暴力,它不完全協調與溫柔順從的字一般以耶穌。 Such are the following: "Think not that I came to send peace on the earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword" (Matt. x. 34, RV); "Suppose ye that I am come to give peace on earth? I tell you, Nay; but rather division. . . . The father shall be divided against the son, and the son against the father," etc. (Luke xii. 51-53); "From the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, and the violent take it by force" (Matt. xi. 12)-words hardly reconcilable with the concluding sentences of the chapter: "Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden. . . . Take my yoke upon you . . . and ye shall find rest" (lc xi. 28-30).例如有以下幾方面: "想一想,我不是說我來送和平對地球:我來到不得派遣和平,而是劍" 。 (十, 34 , RV )的; : "假如你們認為我是來給和平論地球呢?我告訴你,不僅如此,而是社會分工… … 。父親應分成對兒子,兒子對父親" ,等(路加福音十二51-53 ) ; " ,從天的約翰浸會到現在為止,天國的suffereth暴力,而暴力是否可以使用武力" 。 (十一12 ) -換句話說,難以調和與總結服刑的章說: "來,我所不欲,所有曄表示,勞動和重型載貨… … 。把我的枷鎖後,你… … 。你們會發現休息" (立法會十一, 28-30 ) 。 The advice given by Jesus to his disciples to provide themselves each with a sword (Luke xxii. 36; compare ib. verse 49; John xix. 10, though disavowed in Matt. xxvi. 52, 53); the allusion by Simeon the saint to the sword and to the strife as resulting from Jesus' birth (Luke ii. 34, 35); and the disappointment voiced by Cleopas, "We trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel" (Luke xxiv. 21; compare Matt. i. 21, where Jesus is explained as , Joshua, who shall "save his people from sin")-all these point to some action which gave cause for his being handed over to Pontius Pilate as one who was "perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Cæsar" (Luke xxiii. 2); though the charge was refuted by the saying, "Render unto Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's" (Matt. xxii. 21; Mark xii. 17; Luke xx. 25, RV).所提出的意見,以耶穌的門徒,以提供自己的每一個劍(路加福音二十二, 36 ;比較興業。韻文49 ;約翰十九。 10 ,雖然否定在馬特。 26 。 52 , 53 ) ;典故,由西麥聖以劍和向內亂造成的,因為從耶穌的誕生(路二34 , 35 ) ,以及令人失望的聲音cleopas , "我們相信,它實際上已被他本來應該贖回以色列" (路加福音二十四。 21 ;比較馬特一, 21 ,而耶穌是解釋為,約書亞,他們應是"挽救他的人,從單" ) -所有這些點向一些行動,這引起了他被移交給祂比拉多一個人是"貪贓枉法全國,並禁止給予表揚cæsar " (路加福音二十三。 2 ) ,雖然沒有受到指控,反駁說, "使祂cæsar事情都是cæsar的" 。 ( 22 。 21 ;馬克十二。 17 ;路加福音二十。 25 , RV )的。 He was tried and crucified as "King of the Jews" or "Messiah"; and all the alleged charges of blasphemy, in that he called himself "Son of God" in the Messianic sense, or announced the destruction of the Temple, prove, in the light of the ancient Jewish law, to be later inventions (Matt. xxvi. 63-65; Mark xiv. 58; Luke xxii. 70).他受審與被釘十字架為"國王的猶太人"或"彌賽亞" ,以及所有被指控的罪名褻瀆,在他自稱"上帝的兒子" ,在救世主的感覺,或宣布摧毀廟宇,證明,在參照古老的猶太法律規定,被後來的發明。 (二十六。 63-65 ;標誌十四。 58 ;路加福音二十二, 70 ) 。 See Crucifixion of Jesus.看到十字架上的耶穌。

The Risen Christ.復活的基督。

That the movement did not end with the crucifixion, but gave birth to that belief in the risen Christ which brought the scattered adherents together and founded Christianity, is due to two psychic forces that never before had come so strongly into play: (1) the great personality of Jesus, which had so impressed itself upon the simple people of Galilee as to become a living power to them even after his death; and (2) the transcendentalism, or other-worldliness, in which those penance doing, saintly men and women of the common classes, in their longing for godliness, lived.這項運動並沒有結束,與受難日,但生下這個信念,在復活的基督,使分散的信徒們一起,創立了基督教,是基於兩個精神力量,還從來沒有如此強烈地發揮作用: ( 1 )偉大人格的耶穌,其中有這麼深刻的印象本身後,簡單的人,加利利人,以成為生活的權力,他們甚至在他死後,以及( 2 )超驗,或其他-世俗性,在這些懺悔做時,德雷克男婦女的共同課,在他們的期盼,虔誠的信徒,生活。 In entranced visions they beheld their crucified Messiah expounding the Scriptures for them, or breaking the bread for them at their love-feasts, or even assisting them when they were out on the lake fishing (Luke xxiv. 15, 30, 31, 36; John xx. 19, xxi.).在加進了視野,他們看到自己釘在十字架上的救世主闡述經文對他們來說,還是打破麵包為他們自己的愛宴,甚至協助他們,當他們被列於湖中釣魚(路加福音二十四。 15 ,第30 ,第31 ,第36條;約翰二十, 19 , 21 ) 。 In an atmosphere of such perfect naïveté the miracle of the Resurrection seemed as natural as had been the miracle of the healing of the sick.在氣氛如此完美naïveté奇蹟復活似乎更自然已奇蹟癒合的病人。 Memory and vision combined to weave the stories of Jesus walking on the water (compare Matt. xiv. 25, Mark vi. 49, and John vi. 19 with John xxi. 1-14), of the transfiguration on the Mount (compare Matt. xvii. 1-13, Mark ix. 2-13, and Luke ix. 29-36 with Matt. xxviii. 16 et seq.), and of his moving through the air to be near the divine throne, served by the angels and the holy (not "wild") beasts ("ḥayyot"), and holding Scriptural combats with Satan (Mark i. 12, 13; Matt. iv. 1-11; compare with Acts vii. 15, vii. 55).記憶和視覺結合編織的故事耶穌行走於水(比較馬特。十四, 25日,馬克六, 49 ,約翰六, 19日與約翰二十一1-14 ) ,該變形對摩(比較馬特十七, 1-13 ,馬克九2-13 ,和路加九29-36與馬特。二十八, 16頁起) ,以及他正在通過空中接近神的寶座,服務天使與聖座(而不是"野生" ) ,野獸( " ḥayyot " ) ,並持有聖經的戰鬥與撒旦(馬克一12年, 13年;馬特四。 1-11 ;比較行為七, 15日,第七章55條) 。 The Messiahship of Jesus having once become an axiomatic truth to the "believers," as they called themselves, his whole life was reconstructed and woven together out of Messianic passages of the Scriptures.該messiahship耶穌有一次,成為一個不言自明的真理,以"信徒" ,因為他們自稱,他的整個生活是重建並交織在一起出救世主的通道會念經。 In him all the Testament prophecies had "to be fulfilled" (Matt. i. 22; ii. 5, 15, 17; iii. 3; iv. 14; viii. 17; xii. 17; xiii. 14, 35; xx. 14; xxvi. 56; xxvii. 19; John xii. 38; xiii. 18; xv. 25; xvii. 12; xviii. 9; xix. 24, 36).在他所有的遺囑預言了" ,以實現" 。 (一, 22 ;二,五, 15 , 17 ;三, 3 ;四, 14票;八, 17人;十二, 17人;十三, 14 , 35條;某某。 14 ; 26 56 ;二十七。 19 ;約翰十二, 38歲;十三, 18歲;十五,第25條;十七, 12歲;十八,九日;十九。 24 , 36 ) 。 Thus, according to the Jewish view, shared by many Christian theologians, there grew up, through a sort of Messianic Midrash, the myths of Jesus' birth from a virgin (after Isa. vii. 14), in Bethlehem, the city of David (after Micah v. 1 et seq.; there was a town of Bethlehem also in Galilee, which Grätz identifies with Nazareth; see "Monatsschrift," xxix. 481); the genealogies in Luke iii.因此,根據猶太人的看法,共享許多基督教神學家,有長大的,是通過一種救世主midrash ,傳說耶穌的誕生,從維爾京(後伊薩七。 14 ) ,在伯利恆,市的大衛(彌迦後,五一段及以下各段;有一個城市伯利恆也加利利人,其中grätz認同拿撒勒;見" monatsschrift , "二十九, 481 ) ;族譜在路加三。 23-38 andin Matt. 23-38 andin馬特。 i.一。 1-17, with the singular stress laid upon Tamar, Rahab, and Ruth, the converted sinners and heathens, as mothers of the elect one (compare Gen. R. ii.; Hor. 10b; Nazir 23b; Meg. 14b); likewise the story of Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem riding upon a young ass (after Zech. ix. 9), and of his being hailed by the people's "Hosanna" (after Ps. cxviii. 26; compare Midr. Teh. to the passage; also Matt. xxi. 1-11, and parallels). 1-17 ,與奇異應力奠定添馬艦後, rahab ,羅思,換算後的罪人和heathens ,作為母親的互選一人(比較將軍傳譯二;激素。指明的標準;納齊爾23B條;梅格。第14B ) ;同樣,耶穌的故事'凱旋進入耶路撒冷騎後,一個年輕的驢(後撒加利亞九, 9 ) ,以及他在被認為是由人的" hosanna " (後的PS 。 cxviii 26 ;比較midr 。 。向通過,也馬特。二十一, 1-11 ,和平行線) 。

Similarly, his healing powers were made proofs of his Messiahship (after Isa. xxxv. 5, 6; compare Gen. R. xcv. and Midr. Teh. cxlviii.), also his death on the cross was taken, with reference to Isa.同樣地,他的癒合權力作了證明他的messiahship (後伊薩。三十五, 5日, 6日;比較將軍傳譯xcv和midr 。了。 cxlviii件) ,也是他的逝世對兩岸關係是採取參考伊薩。 liii. liii 。 and old Essene tradition of the suffering Messiah (Pesiḳ. R. xxxiv.-xxxvii.), to be the atoning sacrifice of the Lamb of God slain for man's sin (John i. 29; Acts viii. 32. Rev. xiii. 8; compare Enoch xc. 8), and his resurrection the beginning of a new life (after Zech. xiv. 5: I Chron. iii. 24; Sibyllines, ii. 242; Matt. xxiv. 30; I Thess. iv. 16).老essene傳統的苦難彌賽亞( pesiḳ.傳譯xxxiv. -三十七件) ,成為atoning犧牲的羔羊上帝的遇害人的罪過(約翰一29 ;行為八, 32件十三。八日;比較伊諾克越野8 ) ,以及他的復活進入了新的生活(後撒加利亞十四,五日:我慢性三。 24 ; sibyllines ,二242間;馬特。 24 。 30 ,我帖前四16 ) 。 Men held their love-feasts in his memory-turned into paschal feasts of the new covenant (Matt. xxvi. 28, and parallels; John xix. 33 et seq.)-and led lives of voluntary poverty and of partial celibacy (Acts ii. 44; Matt. xix. 12).男子舉行愛宴,在他的記憶變成逾越節宴的新的盟約。 ( 26 。 28 ,和平行線;約翰十九, 33段及以下各段) ,並導致生命的自願貧困和局部的獨身(使徒二。 44 ;馬特。十九, 12 ) 。

Jesus' Teachings.耶穌的教義。

Out of these elements arose the life-picture of Jesus, shaped after later events and to a great extent reflecting the hostile sentiments entertained against the Jewish people by the new sect when, in the final struggle with Rome, the latter no longer shared the views and destinies of the former.出於這些因素產生了終身圖片的耶穌,形後,後來的事件,並在相當程度上反映了敵對情緒,受理對猶太人民的,由新教派的時候,在最後的鬥爭中,與羅馬,後者不再是贊同他的意見和命運的選擇前者。 Many antinomistic views put into the mouth of Jesus have their origin in Pauline-ie, anti-Judean-circles.許多antinomistic意見放進口中的耶穌,其原產地在寶蓮-即,反朱迪亞同心圓。 Thus the saying, "Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man; but that which cometh out of the mouth, this defileth a man" (Matt. xv. 11, and parallels), is irreconcilable with Peter's action and vision in Acts xi.所以說, "這不是說哪阿蒙到口defileth一名男子,但那些人來了口中出來的,這defileth一名男子" 。 ( 15 。 11 ,和平行線) ,是不可調和與Peter的行動和遠見的行為十一。 1-10. 1-10 。 What Jesus actually said and did is difficult to determine.耶穌居然說和做的,是難以確定。 Many of his teachings can be traced to rabbinical sayings current in the Pharisaic schools; and many sentences, if not entire chapters, have been taken over from Essene writings (see Didascalia; Essenes; Golden Rule; Jesus of Nazareth; Matthew).他的許多教誨,可以追溯到猶太教的說法目前在pharisaic學校,並有很多句子,如果不是整個章節,已接管了essene著作(見didascalia ; essenes ;金科玉律;拿撒勒的耶穌;馬太) 。

On the other hand, there are utterances of striking originality and wondrous power which denote great genius.在另一方面,有言論引人注目的原創性和令人驚奇的權力象徵偉大的天才。 He certainly had a message to bring to the forlorn, to "the lost sheep of the house of Israel" (Matt. x. 6, xv. 24), to the outcast, to the lower classes, to the "'am ha-areẓ," to the sinners, and to the publicans.他肯定了一個信息,要提請遙不可及的,以"亡羊的以色列家" 。 (十,六,十五, 24 ) ,給棄兒,為低下階層,以" '時,房委會- areẓ " ,以罪人,並給publicans 。 And whether the whole life-picture is reality or poetic imagination, in him the Essene ideal reached its culmination.是否整個生命圖片是現實還是詩意的想像,在他essene理想,達到了頂點。 But it is not correct to speak, as Christian theologians do, of a possible recognition or an actual rejection of Jesus' Christship by the Jews.但它是不正確的發言,作為基督教神學家做的,一種可能的承認或實際拒絕耶穌' christship由猶太人。 Whatever his greatness as teacher or as friend of the people, this could not establish his claim to the Messianic title; and whether his Galilean followers were justified in according it to him, or the authorities at Jerusalem in denying it and in denouncing him to the Roman prefect-probably more from fear than from spite (John xix. 15)-is not a matter that can be decided from the scanty records (compare Matt. xxvi. 5; Luke xiii. 31; xix. 47, 48; xx. 19; xxiii. 43 with Matt. xxvii. 25-28; Mark xv. 14; Luke xxiii. 23 (see Crucifixion). The vehement language of Jesus, in denouncing Sadducean misrule and the hypocrisy and narrowness of the Pharisaic leaders, was not altogether new and unheard of: it was the privilege of the Essene preachers, the popular Haggadists (See Pharisee and Sadducees). Most of his teachings, a great number of which echo rabbinical sayings, and have been misunderstood or misapplied altogether by the late Gospel compilers (see Gospels, The Four), were addressed to a circle of men who lived in a world of their own, far away from the centers of commerce and industry. His attitude toward Judaism is defined by the words: "Think not that I am come to destroy the law or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil" (Matt. v. 17). The rejection of the Law by Christianity, therefore, was a departure from its Christ, all the New Testament statements to the contrary notwithstanding. He himself declined even the title of "good master," because he wanted to reserve this epithet for God alone ("Matt. xix. 17): Christianity, contrary to all his teaching, turned him into a God.無論自己的偉大,因為教師或為朋友的人來說,這不能確定他所說的,以救世主的標題;是否他的伽利略追隨者被有理由根據它給他,或有關當局在耶路撒冷否認,並譴責他去羅馬紀-也許更免於恐懼的,比從儘管如此(約翰十九1 5) -是不是單方面的事,可以從一開始就決定僅存記錄(比較馬特。二十六。五日;路加福音十三, 3 1人;十九。 4 7, 4 8;二十。 19 ;二十三, 43與馬特。二十七。 25-28 ;馬克十五, 14個;路加福音二十三, 23條(見釘死在十字架上) 。壯懷激烈語言的耶穌,在聲討sadducean暴政和虛偽性和狹隘的pharisaic領導人,是不是完全新的和聞所未聞的:它是特權的essene傳教士,大眾haggadists (見pharisee和撒都該人) ,他大部份的教誨,一位偉大的,其中一些迴聲猶太教熟語,並已被誤解或誤用完全由已故的福音編譯器(見福音,為四年) ,是針對一個圓形的男子,他們住在一個世界的自己,遠離中心的商業和工業,他的態度是猶太教所界定的話: "想,我不是說我上午來破壞法律或先知們:我不是來毀滅,而是為了履行" 。 (五17 ) 。排斥法律,由基督教,因此,是一種偏離基督,所有的新約全書相反的聲明,儘管他自己甚至拒絕評為"好師傅" ,因為他想保留這個修飾語為上帝( "馬特。十九, 17 ) :基督教,相反,他的所有教學,使他成為一個神。

Paul's Antinomistic and Gnostic Views.保羅的antinomistic和諾斯替意見。

II.二。 This radical change was brought about by Saul of Tarsus or Paul, the real founder of the Christian Church, though Peter formed the first community of the risen Christ (Matt. xvi. 16; Acts i. 15; I Cor. xv. 5).這種徹底的轉變所帶來的娑羅雙樹的瞼板或保外,真正的創始人之一,基督教的教堂,雖然彼得形成了第一個社區的復活。 (十六, 16歲;行為,一15 ,我肺心病。十五, 5 ) 。 Having, under the influence of a vision, turned from an earnest persecutor of the new sect into its vigorous champion (Acts ix. 1-14, xxii. 3-16, xxvi. 9-18; I Cor. ix. 1, xv. 8 et seq.; Gal. i. 16), he construed the belief in the atoning death of Christ held by the rest into a system altogether antagonistic to Judaism and its Law, claiming to have received the apostleship to the heathen world from the Christ he beheld in his visions.具有的影響下,一個遠景,從語重心長persecutor的新教派納入其大力冠軍(使徒九1-14 ,二十二, 3-16 ,二十六9-18 ,我肺心病。九,一,十五8頁起;加爾一16 ) ,他詮釋了信仰是在atoning死亡的基督舉行,由休息到制度完全對立的猶太教和它的法律,聲稱已收到apostleship向異教徒世界,從基督他看到在他的願景。 Operating with certain Gnostic ideas, which rendered the Messiah as Son of God a cosmic power, like Philo's "logos," aiding in the world's creation and mediating between God and man, he saw both in the Crucifixion and in the Incarnation acts of divine self-humiliation suffered for the sake of redeeming a world polluted and doomed by sin since the fall of Adam.經營與某些諾斯替思想,而有意圖彌賽亞作為上帝的兒子宇宙力量,如斐洛的"標識, "協助,在世界上的創造和調停人與上帝的,他認為無論是在曠野裡,並在化身行為的神聖自我-蒙受屈辱,為挽救一個世界污染注定由單自亞當的墮落。 Faith alone in Christ should save man, baptism being the seal of the belief in God's redeeming love.僅信仰基督要救世人,洗禮被密封的信仰上帝的救贖愛。 It meant dying with Christ to sin which is inherited from Adam, and rising again with Christ to put on the new Adam (Rom. vi. 1-4; I Cor. xv.; Gal. iii.-iv.).它意味著死亡與基督同罪,這是繼承了從亞當,並再次上升,與基督穿上了新的亞當(羅馬書六1-4 ,我肺心病。十五;加爾。 iii.-iv. ) 。 See Baptism.見的洗禮。

On the other hand, Paul taught, the law of Moses, the seal of which was Circumcision, failed to redeem man, because it made sin unavoidable.在另一方面,保羅教導,摩西的律法,蓋章的是包皮環切術,未能挽回男子,因為這使單不可避免的。 By a course of reasoning he discarded the Law as being under the curse (Gal. iii. 10 et seq.), declaring only those who believed in Christ as the Son of God to be free from all bondage (Gal. iv.).通過一個療程的推理,他摒棄了依法受到詛咒( gal.三, 10頁起) ,宣稱只有那些信奉基督為上帝的兒子,以免受各種枷鎖( gal.四) 。 In opposition to those who distinguished between full Proselytes and "proselytes of the gate," who only accepted the Noachidian laws (Acts xv. 20), he abrogated the whole Law; claiming God to be the god of the heathen as well as of the Jews (Rom. iii. 29).在反對那些區分充分proselytes和" proselytes的大門, "誰只接受noachidian法律(使徒十五20 ) ,他廢除了整個法;聲稱上帝是上帝的異教徒,以及作為該猶太人(羅馬書三29 ) 。 Yet in enunciating this seemingly liberal doctrine he deprived faith, as typified by Abraham (Gen. xv. 6; Rom. iv. 3), of its naturalness, and forged theshackles of the Christian dogma, with its terrors of damnation and hell for the unbeliever.然而,在闡明了這個看似自由學說,他被剝奪信仰,為典型的亞伯拉罕(創十五,六日;光碟四。 3 ) ,其自然度,並建立theshackles的基督教教義,其恐怖的damnation與地獄為異教徒。 God, as Father and the just Ruler, was pushed into the background; and the Christ-who in the Gospels as well as in the Jewish apocalyptic literature figured as judge of the souls under God's sovereignty (Matt. xvi. 27, xxv. 31-33; compare Enoch, iv. xiv. et seq.; II Esd. vii. 33 with Rom. xiv. 10; II Cor. v. 10)-was rendered the central figure, because he, as head and glory of the divine kingdom, has, like Bel of Babylonian mythology fighting with the dragon, to combat Satan and his kingdom of evil, sin, and death.神的存在,因為父親和正義的統治者,被人推到背景中;基督-誰在福音以及在猶太人世界末日文學揣摩法官的亡靈,以神的主權。 (十六27 ,二十五31 -33 ;比較伊諾克,四,十四段及以下各段;二,公共服務電子化。七, 33光碟。十四, 10歲;二,肺心病。五, 10 ) -是有意圖的核心人物,因為他,因為頭部和榮耀的神聖的英國,已像比利時的巴比倫神話中的戰鬥與巨龍等,以打擊魔鬼和他的王國,邪惡,罪惡和死亡。 While thus opening wide the door to admit the pagan world, Paul caused the influx of the entire pagan mythology in the guise of Gnostic and anti-Gnostic names and formulas.而因此敞開大門,接納異教徒的世界,保羅造成的大量湧入,整個異教神話中,在花樣翻新的諾斯替與反諾斯替名稱和公式。 No wonder if he was frequently assailed and beaten by the officials of the synagogue: he used this very synagogue, which during many centuries had been made the center of Jewish propaganda also among the heathen for the pure monotheistic faith of Abraham and the law of Moses, as the starting-point of his antinomistic and anti-Judean agitations (Acts xiii. 14, xiv. 1, xvii. 1 et seq., xxi. 27).也難怪,如果他頻頻抨擊和毆打官員的猶太教堂:他利用這個非常猶太教堂,在許多世紀以來已經取得了該中心的猶太宣傳也屬於異教徒,為純粹的一神教信仰,亞伯拉罕和摩西的律法,作為工作的出發點,他antinomistic和反朱迪亞工潮頻(使徒十三,十四,十四,一,第十七章: 1段及以下各段, 21 27段) 。

Early Christianity a Jewish Sect.早期基督教的一個猶太節。

For a long time Christianity regarded itself as part of Judaism.在相當長的時間基督教視為自己的一部分猶太教。 It had its center in Jerusalem (Irenæus, "Adversus Hæreses, i. 26); its first fifteen bishops were circumcised Jews, they observed the Law and were rather unfriendly to heathenism (Sulpicius Severus, "Historia Sacra," ii. 31; Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." iv. 5; compare Matt. xv. 26), while they held friendly intercourse with the leaders of the synagogue (see Grätz, "Gesch. der Juden," iv. 373 et seq.; and Ebionites, Minim, and Nazarenes). Many a halakic and haggadic discussion is recorded in the Talmud as having taken place between the Christians and the Rabbis (see Jacob the Gnostic). Probably the Christian Congregation, or Church of the Saints, did not distinguish itself in outward form from the "Ḳehala Ḳaddisha" at Jerusalem, under which name the Essene community survived the downfall of the Temple (Ber. 9b; compare Eccl. R. ix. 9: 'Edah Ḳedoshah). Of course, the destruction of the Temple and of the Judean state and the cessation of sacrifice could not but promote the cause of Christianity (see Justin, "Dial. cum Tryph." xi.); and under the impression of these important events the Gospels were written and accordingly colored. Still, Jew and Christian looked in common for the erection of the kingdom of heaven by the Messiah either soon to appear or to reappear (see Joël, "Blicke in die Religionsgesch." i. 32 et seq.). It was during the last struggle with Rome in the days of Bar Kokba and Akiba that, amidst denunciations on the part of the Christians and execrations on the part of the Jewish leaders, those hostilities began which separated Church and Synagogue forever, and made the former an ally of the arch-enemy. Pauline Christianity greatly aided in the Romanizing of the Church. It gravitated toward Rome as toward the great world-empire, and soon the Church became in the eyes of the Jew heir to Edom (Gen. xxvii. 40). The emperor Constantine completed what Paul had begun-a world hostile to the faith in which Jesus had lived and died. The Council of Nice in 325 determined that Church and Synagogue should have nothing in common, and that whatever smacked of the unity of God and of the freedom of man, or offered a Jewish aspect of worship, must be eliminated from Catholic Christendom.它有中心,在耶路撒冷( irenæus , "相反hæreses ,一26 ) ;首15個主教被包皮的猶太人,他們守法,並都相當不友好heathenism ( sulpicius塞維魯, "歷史骶, "二, 31人;尤西比烏斯"的歷史。 eccl " 。四,五日;比較馬特。十五, 26 ) ,而他們進行了友好的交往與各位領導人的猶太教堂(見grätz , " gesch 。明鏡juden , "四, 373頁起。 ; ebionites ,微量,並nazarenes ) 。很多halakic和haggadic討論的是記錄在猶太法典作為考慮地方之間的基督教徒和猶太教士(見雅各布的諾斯替) 。大概是基督教會眾,或教會的聖徒,並沒有區分本身在離港形式,從" ḳehala ḳaddisha "在耶路撒冷,根據姓名的essene社區倖存的滅亡廟( ber. 9B條;比較eccl 。傳譯九, 9 : ' edah ḳedoshah ) 。當然,毀了廟和朱迪亞國家,並停止犧牲,怎能不推動事業的基督教(見賈斯汀, "撥號。暨tryph "十一) ;下的印象,這些重要事件福音寫的,並據此色。但是,猶太人和基督教的期待,在共同為豎立天國的,由彌賽亞或是即將出現或再現(見若埃爾阿" blicke在模具religionsgesch "一, 32頁起) ,它是在上同他們的鬥爭,在羅馬的日子裡酒吧kokba和秋葉說,在譴責,對部分的基督徒和execrations對部分猶太領袖,這些敵對行動開始分居,其中教會和猶太教堂永遠的,並作出了前盟友的拱形-敵人。寶蓮基督教大大計算機輔助在romanizing的教堂,它gravitated對羅馬城內,作為對偉大的世界帝國,並很快成為教會在眼裡,猶太人繼承人,益登(創二十七40 ) 。皇帝君士坦丁完成什麼是保羅已經開始-世界敵視信仰耶穌曾經生活和死亡。安理會尼斯在3 25確定,教會和猶太教堂應該有什麼共通之處,並表示,無論用桿子打的團結和上帝的自由的人,或者提出一個猶太方面的崇拜,因此必須予以消除,從天主教基督教。

Paganism Predominant. paganism突出。

Three causes seem to have been at work in making the Pauline system dominant in the Church.三個原因似乎已經在工作中作出寶蓮系統優勢,在教會。 First, the pagan world, particularly its lower classes, having lost faith in its old gods, yearned for a redeemer, a manlike god, and, on the other hand, was captivated by that work of redeeming love which the Christian communities practised, in the name of Jesus, in pursuance of the ancient Essene ideals (see Charity).第一,異教的世界,特別是它的低下層市民,失去了信心,在其舊神,渴望救世主, manlike神,並且,在另一方面,被傾倒了這一工作的挽救愛情而基督教社區的做法,在耶穌的名字,按照古代essene理想(見慈善事業) 。 Secondly, the blending of Jewish, Oriental, and Hellenic thought created those strange mystic or Gnostic systems which fascinated and bewildered the minds of the more educated classes, and seemed to lend a deeper meaning to the old beliefs and superstitions.其次,是結合了猶太人,東方和希臘思想創造的那些怪異的神秘或諾斯替系統,嚮往和迷惘的心中越是受過教育的階級,而且似乎借給更深的含義,以舊信仰和迷信。

Woman's Part in the Early Church.女子的一部分,在早期教會的使命。

Thirdly, woman appeared on the scene as a new factor of Church life.第三,女子出現在現場,作為一個新的因素的教會生活。 While the women of Syria and of Rome were on the whole attracted by the brightness and purity of Jewish home life, women in the New Testament, and most of all in Paul's life and letters, are prominent in other directions.而婦女的敘利亞和羅馬就整體而言所吸引,其亮度和純度的猶太家庭生活中,婦女在新約聖經,而且大部分都在保羅的生命和信件,都是知名的,在其他方向。 Aside from those visions of Mary Magdalene which lent support to the belief in the Resurrection (Matt. xxviii. 1, and parallels), there was an undisguised tendency on the part of some women of these circles, such as Salome; Thecla, the friend of Paul; and others (see "Gospel of the Egyptians," in Clement, "Stromata," iii. 964; Conybeare, "Apology and Acts of Apollonius and Other Monuments of Early Christianity," pp. 24, 183, 284), to free themselves from the trammels of those principles upon which the sanctity of home rested (see Eccl. R. vii. 26).除了這些願景的抹大拉的馬利亞,其中借給支持,使他們以為在復活。 (二十八。 1 ,平行線) ,有一種是赤裸裸的傾向,對部分有些婦女在這些圈子,如莎樂美; thecla ,朋友保羅及其他(見"福音的埃及人, "克萊門特" ,基質, "三, 964 ;科尼比爾, "道歉和行為apollonius和其他古蹟的早期基督教的"頁24 , 183 , 284 )為了從根本上擺脫羈絆,這些原則後,其中的神聖在家休息(見eccl 。傳譯七, 26 ) 。 A morbid emotionalism, prizing love as "the greatest of all things" in place of truth and justice, and a pagan view of holiness which tended to make life oscillate between austere asceticism (demanding virginity and eunuchism) on the one side, and licentiousness on the other (see Matt. xix. 12; Sulpicius Severus, "Dialogi Duo," i. 9, 13, 15; Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." vi. 8; Clement, lc iii. 4; Cyprian, Ep. iv.; Rev. ii. 14), went hand in hand with Gnosticism.畸型的情,愛撬過的"最大的事情"來代替真理,正義和對異教的看法成聖這往往使生活之間振盪過緊禁慾主義(要求貞操和eunuchism )為一方,就licentiousness其他(見馬特。十九, 12歲; sulpicius塞維魯, " dialogi鐸, "一,第9 ,第13 , 15人;尤西比烏斯"的歷史。 eccl "六,八;克萊門特,立法會三,四;塞浦路斯,歐洲議會第四節。 ;牧師二14 ) ,攜手並進,與靈知。 Against this exaggeration of the divine attribute of love and the neglect of that of justice, the Rabbis in the ancient Mishnah seem to utter their warning (Meg. iv. 9; Yer. Ber. i. 3).針對這種誇張的神聖屬性的愛和忽視的是,司法部,拉比在古代mishnah似乎說出他們的警告( meg.四,九;也門里亞爾。誤碼率一3 ) 。 When, finally, the reaction set in, and Gnosticism both as an intellectual and as a sexual degeneracy (compare Sifre on Num. xv. 39) was checked by a strong counter-movement in favor of positive Christianity, two principles of extraordinary character were laid down by the framers of the Church: (1) the Trinitarian dogma with all its corollaries; and (2) a double code of morality, one for the world-fleeing monks and nuns and the clergy-called the really religious ones-and another for the laity, the men of the world.當最後,反應集,並靈知既作為一個知識分子,作為性,拒腐防變(比較sifre上序號。十五, 39 )得到遏制,由一個強有力的反運動,有利於積極的基督教,有兩個原則,有著非同尋常的性格被訂下制定的教會: ( 1 )三位一體的教義及其所有推論;及( 2 )雙重代碼的思想道德體系,一本是關於世界-逃離僧尼和信教群眾和神職人員所謂真正的宗教和另一種為俗人,男人的世界。

Trinitarianism. trinitarianism 。

The Trinitarian formula first occurs in Matthew (xxviii. 19, RV) in the words spoken by the risen Christ to the disciples in Galilee: "Go ye therefore,and make disciples of all the [heathen] nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost"; but it appears to have been still unknown to Paul (I Cor. vi. 11; Acts ii. 38).三位一體的公式,首先是發生在馬修( xxviii. 19 , RV )的,在發言的話,由復活的基督的門徒在加利利說: "你們要去,因此,使弟子的一切[異教徒]聯合國洗禮,在他們的名字父親和兒子,以及聖靈" ,但它似乎一直仍是未知之以保羅(林前六。 11 ;行徑二38 ) 。

It is quite significant for the historian to observe that, while in the older Gospel (Mark xii. 29) Jesus began reciting the first commandment with the Jewish confession, "Hear, O Israel; the Lord our God, the Lord is one," this verse is omitted in Matt.它有非常重大的意義,為歷史學家觀察到,而在老年人的福音(馬克十二29 )耶穌開始背誦第一誡與猶太供述, "聽啊,以色列;耶和華我們的神,主是其中之一, "這首詩是遺漏了馬特。 xxii.二十二。 37. 37 。 Christ, the preexistent Messiah (Gen. R. i.), being either identified with the Shekinah or divine glory (Rom. ix. 4; Col. i. 27; see Mayor, "Epistle of James," p. 75, notes), or with the "Memra" or "Logos," Philo's second god ("Fragments," ed. Mangey, ii. 625; compare "De Somniis," i. 39-41, ed. Mangey, i. 655 et seq.), was raised by Paul to the rank of a god and placed alongside of God the Father (I Cor. viii. 6, xii. 3; Titus ii. 13; compare I John v. 20); and in II Cor.基督, preexistent彌賽亞(創傳譯一) ,要么被確定與舍吉拿或神的榮耀(羅馬書九,四;上校一,第27條;見市長" ,也是人類的詹姆斯, "第75頁,注) ,或與"為門拉"或"標識, "斐洛的第二上帝( "碎片" ,教育署。 mangey ,二625 ;比較"德somniis , "一, 39-41 ,教育署。 mangey ,一655頁起) ,是由保羅,以職級的神放在一起上帝的父親(林前八。六,十二,三;弟兄二, 13歲;比較約翰五20 ) ,而且在二,肺心病。 xiii.十三。 14 the Trinity is almost complete. 14三一已接近完成階段。 In vain did the early Christians protest against the deification of Jesus ("Clementine Homilies," xvi. 15).妄圖做早期基督徒抗議神化耶穌( "克萊門泰頌歌, "十六, 15 ) 。 He is in Paul's system the image of God the Father (II Cor. iv. 4; compare I Cor. viii. 6); and, being opposed "to Satan, the god of this world," his title "God of the world to come" is assured.他是在保祿的系統的形象,上帝的父親(二肺心病。四, 4 ;比較林前八。 6 ) ,以及作為反對"撒旦,上帝的這個世界上, "他的題目是"上帝的世界來" ,是有保證的。 However repugnant expressions such as "the blood," "the suffering," and "the death of God" (Ignatius, "Ad Romanos," iii., v. 13; idem, "Ad Ephesios," i. 1; Tertullian, "Ad Praxeam") must have been to the still monotheistic sentiment of many, the opponents of Jesus' deification were defeated as Jewish heretics (Tertullian, lc 30; see Arianism and Monarchians).然而令人反感的詞句,如"血液" , "痛苦" , "上帝之死" (伊格"專案romanos , "三,五, 13歲;同上, "專案ephesios , "一,一;戴爾都良, "專案praxeam " )必須已到仍一神教情緒的許多人來說,對手的耶穌的神化被挫敗,因為猶太異教徒(戴爾都良,立法會30個;見arianism和monarchians ) 。 The idea of a Trinity, which, since the Council of Nice, and especially through Basil the Great (370), had become the Catholic dogma, is of course regarded by Jews as antagonistic to their monotheistic faith and as due to the paganistic tendency of the Church; God the Father and God the Son, together with "the Holy Ghost ["Ruaḥ ha-Ḳodesh"] conceived of as a female being," having their parallels in all the heathen mythologies, as has been shown by many Christian scholars, such as Zimmern, in his "Vater, Sohn, und Fürsprecher," 1896, and in Schrader's "KAT" 1902, p.的思想,三位一體,其中,因為安理會的尼斯,特別是通過羅勒大( 370 ) ,已成為天主教教條,這當然是把猶太人作為對立的,他們一神教信仰和作為因應paganistic趨勢教會;上帝和上帝的兒子,再加上"聖靈[ " ruaḥ夏ḳodesh " ]構思的,作為一名女性, "有其相似之處,在所有異教徒神話,已被證明是由許多基督徒學者如zimmern ,在他的"乏特氏,道知事, und fürsprecher " , 1896年,並在schrader的"吉" , 1902年,頁 377; Ebers, in his "Sinnbildliches: die Koptische Kunst," 1892, p. 377 ;的EBERs ,在他的" sinnbildliches :模具koptische藝術" , 1892年,頁 10; and others.第10條;等。

Persecution of Unitarians.迫害unitarians 。

There was a time when the Demiurgos, as a second god, threatened to becloud Jewish monotheism (see Gnosticism and Elisha ben Abuyah): but this was at once checked, and the absolute unity of God became the impregnable bulwark of Judaism.曾經有一段時間,當demiurgos ,作為第二上帝,揚言要becloud猶太一神教(見靈知和艾莉莎賁阿布亞) :不過,這是在一次核對,絕對團結的上帝成為堅不可摧的堡壘的猶太教。 "If a man says: 'I am God,' he lies, and if 'Son of man,' he will repent," was the bold interpretation of Num. "如果一個男人說: '我是上帝,他所在,如果'人子,他將思悔改" ,是大膽的詮釋序號。 xxiii.二十三。 18, given by R. Abbahu with reference to Christianity (Yer. Ta'an. ii. 1, 65b). 18 ,鑑於由R. abbahu參考基督教( yer. ta'an二。一日, 65 B條) 。 "When Nebuchadnezzar spoke of the 'Son of God' (Dan. iii. 25), an angel came and smote him on the face," saying: "Hath God a son?" "當nebuchadnezzar談到了'上帝的兒子' ( dan.三, 25 ) ,天使來到smote他就變臉" ,他說: "歸服上帝的兒子" ? (Yer. Shab. vi. 8d). ( yer.沙巴六。為8 D ) 。 In the Church, Unitarianism was suppressed and persecuted whenever it endeavored to assert its birthright to reason; and it is owing chiefly to Justinian's fanatic persecution of the Syrian Unitarians that Islam, with its insistence on pure monotheism, triumphed over the Eastern Church.在教會裡, unitarianism被鎮壓和迫害的時候,竭力維護其生來講道理;這是由於主要以justinian的狂熱分子迫害敘利亞unitarians ,伊斯蘭教與它堅持純神,戰勝了東部教會。 Henceforth Moslem and Jewish philosophy stood together for the absolute unity of God, not allowing any predicate of the Deity which might endanger this principle (see Attributes); whereas Christian philosophers, from Augustine to Hegel successively, attempted to overcome the metaphysical difficulties involved in the conception of a Trinity (see David Friedrich Strauss, "Glaubenslehre," i. 425-490).從此穆斯林和猶太哲學站在一起,為絕對團結的上帝,不容許任何始發的天神可能危及這一原則(見屬性) ,而基督教哲學家,從奧古斯丁到黑格爾相繼出台,試圖克服形而上學的困難,在觀三位一體(見David弗里德里希施特勞斯, " glaubenslehre , "一, 425-490 ) 。

The next radical deviation from Judaism was the worship of the Virgin Mary as the mother of God; the canonical and, still more, the apocryphal writings of the New Testament offering the welcome points of support to justify such a cult.下一個激進偏離猶太教是崇拜聖母瑪利亞為天主之母;典型,還有更重要的是,猜測著作的新約聖經提供,歡迎各點的支持理由作出這樣的邪教本質。 The Jew could only abhor the medieval adoration of Mary, which seemed to differ little from the worship of Isis and her son Horus, Isthar and Tammuz, Frig and Balder.猶太人只能厭惡中世紀朝拜聖母瑪利亞,這似乎差別不大,從崇拜ISIS和她的兒子horus , isthar和tammuz , frig和balder 。 Yet this was but part of the humanization of the Deity and deification of man instituted in the Church in the shape of image-worship, despite synods and imperial decrees, prohibitions and iconoclasm.然而,這只不過是部分的人性化的神和神化的男子在該教堂形狀的圖像崇拜,儘管主教會議和帝國法令,禁止和iconoclasm 。 The cross, the lamb, and the fish, as symbols of the new faith, failed to satisfy the heathen minds; in the terms of John of Damascus, they demanded "to see the image of God, while God the Father was hidden from sight"; and consequently the second commandment had to give way (see "Image-Worship," in Schaff-Herzog, "Encyc.").十字架,羊肉和魚,象徵新的信仰,不能滿足異教徒頭腦中的條款約翰大馬士革後,他們要求"看上帝的畫像,而上帝的父親是隱藏的視線" ,並因此第二誡已退讓(見"的形象崇拜" ,在schaff -赫爾佐克, " encyc " ) 。 It is no wonder, then, that the Jews beheld idolatry in all this, and felt constrained to apply the law, "Make no mention of the name of other gods" (Ex. xxiii. 13; Mek. to the passage and Sanh. 63b), also to Jesus; so that the name of one of the best and truest of Jewish teachers was shunned by the medieval Jew.這也難怪,當時,猶太人看到偶像崇拜,在所有這一切,並認為約束,以正確適用法律,做到"不提的名字別的神" (例如:二十三, 13人; MEK的,要通過和sanh 。 63 B ) ,也以耶穌,所以說,同一個名字的最好和最真實的猶太教師被拒絕於中世紀的猶太人。 Still, the Jewish code of law offered some toleration to the Christian Trinity, in that it permitted semi-proselytes ("ger toshab") to worship other divine powers together with the One God (Tosef., Sanh. 63b; Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 156, Moses Isserles' note).但是,猶太法典法提供了一些嚴懲不貸,以基督教三位一體的,因為它允許半proselytes ( "毛入學率toshab " ) ,以供奉其他神的權力,再加上一個神( tosef. , sanh 。 63 B ; shulḥan ' aruk , oraḥ ḥayyim , 156 ,摩西伊塞萊斯'注) 。

Medieval Image-Worship.中世紀的形象崇拜。

It was, indeed, no easy matter for the Jew to distinguish between pagan idolatry and Christian image-worship (Shulḥan 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, 141).據,事實上,沒有一件容易的事,為猶太人區分異教偶像崇拜與基督教圖像崇拜( shulḥan ' aruk , yoreh de'ah , 141 ) 。 Moreover, image-worship went hand in hand with relic-worship and saint-worship; and so the door was opened wide to admit in the guise of saints the various deities of paganism, the policy of the medieval Church being to create a large pantheon of saints, apostles, and angels alongside of the Trinity in order to facilitate the conquest of heathen nations.此外,圖像崇拜到牽手舍利子崇拜和聖崇拜;等門被打開的廣泛承認,在花樣翻新的聖人各種神靈的paganism ,該政策的中世紀教堂正在創造一個大型神殿聖人,使徒,和天使一起的三位一體,以便利征服異教徒國家。 In contrast to the uncompromising attitude of Judaism, the Church was ever ready for compromise to win the great multitudes.相反,以不妥協的態度,猶太教教堂是隨時都願意妥協,以贏得大眾多。 It was this spirit of polytheism which led to all those abuses the opposition to which was the chief factor of the Reformation-whose aim and purpose were a return to Pauline Christianity and the New Testament with the help of a deeper study of the Old Testament at the hand of Jewish scholarship (see Luther; Reformation; Reuchlin).正是這種精神,多神教,而導致所有這些虐待行為的反對,這是行政因素的改造,其目的和宗旨,是一個回寶蓮,基督教和新約聖經與幫助下更深的研究舊約在手猶太獎學金(見路德;改造; reuchlin ) 。

Mediatorship of Christ. mediatorship的喊聲。

But the Trinitarian dogma rested mainly upon Paul's conception of the mediatorship of Christ.但三位一體的教條,主要是休息後,保羅的觀念的mediatorship的喊聲。 For no sooner was the idea of the atoning powerof the death of the righteous (Isa. liii. 4-10; see Atonement) applied to Jesus (Matt. xx. 28; Luke xxii. 37; Acts viii. 32) than Christ became the necessary mediator, "delivering man from the power of Satan and the last enemy-death" (I Tim. ii. 5; Col. i. 13; I Cor. xv. 26).對於沒有遲早是理念的atoning powerof死亡正義(以賽亞liii 。 4-10 ;見贖罪)適用於耶穌。 (二十, 28日;路加福音二十二。 37 ;行為八, 32歲) ,比基督成了必要的調停人, "交付男子從權力的撒旦,以及最後的敵人展開殊死" (一添二。五日;上校一13 ,我肺心病。十五, 26 ) 。 While Judaism has no room for dualism, since God spoke through the seer, "I formed the light and created the darkness: I make peace and create evil" (Isa. xlv. 7); and while the divine attributes of justice and love, punitive wrath and forgiving mercy, are only contrasted (, Ber. 7a; Philo, "Quis Rerum Divinarum Heres Sit," xxxiv.; Siegfried, "Philo," pp. 213 et seq.), but never divided into separate powers, the world of Satan and the world of Christ are arrayed against each other, and an at-one-ment by the blood of the cross is necessitated in the Pauline system (Col. i. 20; Rom. iii. 25).而猶太教已沒有空間二元論,因為上帝以通過預言者" ,我就形成了輕,並創造了黑暗:我使和平與創造之惡" (以賽亞書四十五7 ) ;而神聖屬性的公義和愛,懲罰性的憤怒和寬恕憐憫,只對比( ,誤碼率。 7 A款;斐洛, "什麼rerum divinarum這裡的靜坐, "三十四。 ;和解決方案, "斐洛"頁213頁起) ,但從來沒有分為單獨的權力,世界撒旦和世界基督的陣列針對對方,並在一ment由血液輸送的十字架,是需要在寶蓮系統(歌一20 ;光碟。三, 25 ) 。

God had to reconcile the world to Himself through the death of Jesus (II Cor. v. 18) and render "the children of wrath" children of His grace (Ephes. ii. 3; Rom. iii. 25, v. 10).上帝要協調世界各國通過自己的死亡耶穌(二肺心病訴18 ) ,使"孩子們的憤怒的孩子" ,他的恩典( ephes.二,三;光碟。三, 25 ,五10 ) 。 "The love of God required the sacrifice of his own begotten Son" (John iii. 16). "上帝的愛,需要犧牲自己的造物主的兒子" (約翰福音三16 ) 。 This view is regarded as repugnant by the pure monotheistic sentiment of the Jew, itself grounded upon the spirituality and holiness of God, and was opposed by R. Akiba when he, with direct reference to the Christian doctrine, said: "Happy are ye, Israelites! Before whom do ye purify yourselves, and who is the one who purifieth you but your Father in heaven, for it is said: 'Israel's hope ["miḳweh," also interpreted as "source of purification"] is God'" (Jer. xvii. 13; Mishnah Yoma, end).這一觀點被視為是令人憎惡的,由純粹的一神教情緒的猶太人,本身停飛後,靈性和純潔的上帝,並反對由R.秋葉時,直接提及基督教教義,說: "快樂是葉,以色列人!之前誰葉淨化自己,誰是誰purifieth你,但你父親在九泉之下,應該這樣說: '以色列的希望[ " miḳweh " ,也解釋為"源頭淨化" ]就是上帝' " (張哲。十七, 13歲; mishnah yoma ,全文完) But the whole dogma of Jesus' incarnation and crucifixion has for its background a world of sin and death ruled by Satan and his hosts of demons (II Cor. iv. 4; Ephes. ii. 1, vi. 12 et seq.; II Tim. ii. 26).但整個教條的耶穌的化身,並在十字架上有其背景的世界罪惡和死亡的統治撒旦和他的東道主的魔鬼(二肺心病四。四日; ephes二。 1 ,六12段及以下各段;二添二。 26 ) 。 In fact, the whole coming of Christ is viewed in the New Testament as a battle with Satan (see Matt. iv. 1 et seq., xii. 29; Luke x. 18; John xii. 31; John iii. 8).事實上,在整個未來的基督被認為是在新約聖經為一場戰役與撒旦(見馬特第四節1段及以下各段,十二, 29個;路加十, 18歲;約翰十二, 31人;約翰三8 ) 。 The story of Adam's fall, which caused the Book of Wisdom to say (ii. 24) that "through the envy of the devil death came into the world" (compare Ecclus. [Sirach] xxv. 24), was made by Paul (compare II Esdras iii. 7, 21, and Apoc. Baruch, xvii. 3) the keynote of the entire human history (Rom. v. 12).故事中的亞當的下降,從而使這本書的智慧說( ii.二十四日)表示: "透過羨慕的魔鬼死亡進入世界" (比較ecclus [西拉奇]二十五。二十四日) ,是由保羅(比較二埃斯德拉斯三。 7 ,第21 ,和載脂蛋白C 。 baruch ,十七3 )基調,在整個人類歷史上(羅馬書五12 ) 。 For those of the Rabbis who accepted this view the Law was an antidote against "the venom of the Serpent"-that is, the germ or the inclination to sin ('Ab. Zarah, 22b; Shab. 146a); to Paul, who antagonized the Law, the "breath of the serpent" became a power of sin and everlasting doom of such a nature that none but God Himself, through Christ His son, could overcome it.對於拉比,他們採納了這一意見,法律是一種解藥針對"毒液的蛇" -這就是說,胚芽或傾向單仲偕( '抗體。 z arah, 2 2B條;沙巴。 1 46a) ,以確鑿的證據,拮抗法, "呼氣的毒蛇" ,成為權力的罪孽和永恆的毀滅的這樣一種性質,沒有,但上帝,基督透過他的兒子,可以克服它。

The Doctrine of Original Sin.該學說的原罪。

In adopting this view as the doctrine of Original Sin the Church deprived man of both his moral and his intellectual birthright as the child of God (Tertullian, "De Anima," xvi., xl.; Augustine, "De Nuptiis et Concupiscentiis," i. 24, ii. 34; Strauss, "Glaubenslehre," ii. 43 et seq.), and declared all the generations of man to have been born in sin-a belief accepted also by the Lutherans in the Augsburg Confession and by Calvin ("Institutes," II. i. 6-8; Strauss, lc ii. 49).在採用這一觀點作為理論的原罪教堂被剝奪的人,他的道義和他的智力生來為兒童的神(戴爾都良, "德動物" ,十六,四十;奧古斯丁, "德nuptiis等concupiscentiis "一24 ,二34 ; Strauss表示, " glaubenslehre , "二, 43頁起) ,並宣布所有世代的男子已被出生在善的信念,也接受由lutherans在奧格斯堡懺悔與由卡爾文( "機構, "二一6-8 ; Strauss表示,立法會二49 ) 。 In vain did Pelagius, Socinus, and the Arminians protest against a view which deprived man of his prerogative as a free, responsible person (Strauss, lcp 53).白費沒有pelagius ,索西努和arminians抗議,以期在這名男子剝奪他的特權,作為一個自由,負責人( Strauss表示,液晶高分子53 ) 。 No longer could the Christian recite the ancient prayer of the Synagogue: "My God, the soul which Thou gavest unto me is pure" (Ber. 60b).不再能基督教朗誦祈禱古老的猶太教堂說: "我的上帝,靈魂,對這些人了我們所不欲,我是純粹的" ( ber. 60b ) 。 And while, in all Hellenistic or pre-Christian writings, Enoch, Methuselah, Job, and other Gentiles of old were viewed as prototypes of humanity, the prevailing opinion of the Rabbis being that "the righteous among the heathen have a share in the world to come" (Tosef., Sanh. xiii. 2; Sanh. 105a; see all the passages and the views of a dissenting minority in Zunz, "ZG" pp. 373-385), the Church, Catholic and Protestant alike, consigns without exception all those who do not believe in Jesus to the eternal doom of hell (Strauss, lc ii. 686, 687).同時,在所有古希臘或前基督教著作,伊諾克, methuselah ,工作,和其他外邦人歲被視為原型人類的,普遍的意見認為該拉比正說, "正義之間的異教徒有一個份額,在世界上來" ( tosef. , sanh 。十三。 2 ; sanh 。 105a ;見到所有通道的意見和持反對意見的少數,在聰茨, "志廣"頁373-385 ) ,教會,天主教和基督教,都consigns無例外地都那些不相信耶穌,以永恆的毀滅的地獄( Strauss表示,立法會二, 686 , 687 ) 。 Christ's descent into hell to liberate his own soul from the pangs of eternal doom became, therefore, one of the fundamentals of the Apostolic creed, after I Peter iii.基督的後裔變成地獄來解放自己的靈魂,從陣痛的永恆厄運成了,因此,其中的基本面的使徒信條,當我彼得三世。 18, iv. 18 ,四。 6 (see Schaff-Herzog, "Encyc." art. "Hell, Christ's Descent into"). 6 (見schaff -赫爾佐克, " encyc "藝術"地獄,基督的後裔成為" ) 。 It is obvious that this view of God could not well inculcate kindly feelings toward Jews and heretics; and the tragic fate of the medieval Jew, the persecutions he suffered, and the hatred he experienced, must be chiefly attributed to this doctrine.這是顯而易見的,這種看法的上帝不會好灌輸善意的情感,猶太人和異教徒和悲慘的命運所中世紀的猶太人,迫害,他遭受了,和仇恨,他有經驗,必須主要歸因於這種學說。

Faith and Reason.信仰與理性。

Paul's depreciation of the Law and his laudation of faith (in Christ) as the only saving power for Jew and Gentile (Rom. iii. 28, x. 4; Gal. iii. 7 et seq.) had, in the Middle Ages, an injurious effect upon the mental progress of man.保羅的折舊的法律,其laudation的信仰(基督)由於不僅省電,為猶太人和gentile (羅馬書三28 ,十4 ;加爾第三節7頁起) ,在中世紀,一個傷的影響,心理的進展男子。 Faith, as exhibited by Abraham and as demanded of the people in the Old Testament and rabbinical writings, is a simple, childlike trust in God; and accordingly "littleness of faith"-that is, want of perfect confidence in the divine goodness-is declared by Jesus as well as by the Rabbis in the Talmud as unworthy of the true servant and son of God (Gen. xv. 6; Ex. xiv. 31; Num. xiv. 11, xx. 12; Hab. ii. 4; II Chron. xx. 20; Mek. to Ex. xiv. 31; Matt. vi. 30; Soṭah 48b).信仰,作為展示和亞伯拉罕,因為要求的人,在舊約聖經猶太教著作,是一個簡單的,一個小孩子的信任,在上帝和相應的" littleness的信仰" -這就是,要完美的信心,在神的善良,正申報的耶穌,以及由拉比在猶太法典作為辜負了真正的僕人和神的兒子(創十五,六日;特惠。十四, 31人;序號。十四,十一,二十, 12歲;民政事務局二。四日;二,慢性第二十20段; MEK的。單方面第十四31條;馬特。六, 30條; soṭah 48b ) 。 Paul's theology made faith a meritorious act of saving quality (Rom. i. 16); and the more meritorious it is the less is it in harmony with the wisdom of the wise, appearing rather as "foolishness" (I Cor. i. 18-31).保羅的神學信仰真正有立功表現的行為節能質量(羅馬書一16 ) ,以及更多的功勳,這是少一點,它在和諧與智慧的智者,出庭,而應視為"愚蠢" (林前一18 -31 ) 。 From this it was but one step to Tertullian's perfect surrender of reason, as expressed in, "Credo quia absurdum," or, more correctly, "Credibile quia ineptum; certum est quia impossibile est" (To be believed because it is foolish; certain because impossible"; "De Carne Christi," v.). Blind faith, which renders the impossible possible (Mark ix. 23, 24), produced a credulity throughout Christendom which became indifferent to the laws of nature and which deprecated learning, as was shown by Draper ("History of the Conflict between Science and Religion") and by White ("History of the Warfare of Science with Theology"). A craving for the miraculous and supernatural created ever new superstitions, or sanctioned, under the form of relic-worship, old pagan forms of belief. In the name of the Christian faith reason and research were condemned, Greek philosophy and literature were exterminated, and free thinking was suppressed. Whereas Judaismmade the study of the Law, or rather of the Torah-which is learning, and included science and philosophy as well as religion-the foremost duty of each member of the household (Deut. vi. 7, xi. 19; Josephus, "Contra Ap." ii. §§ 18, 26, 41), medieval Christianity tended to find bliss in ignorance, because knowledge and belief seemed incompatible (Lecky, "History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne," ii. 203-210; idem, "History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe," i. 1-201).從這個它只是一個步驟,戴爾都良的完美投降的理由,正如表示, "信條quia戲" ,或更正確, " credibile quia ineptum ; certum預測quia impossibile預測" (擬相信,因為它是愚蠢;某種因為不可能" , "德肉基督教, "訴) 。迷信,使不可能的可能(馬克九。 23 , 24 ) ,製作了一套輕信整個基督教成為漠不關心的法律性質及在已廢棄的學習,作為結果表明,由德拉佩( "衝突的歷史,科學與宗教之間" )和白( "歷史上的戰爭,科學與神學" ) 。渴求神奇和超自然創造了前所未有的新的迷信思想,或制裁,根據形式的舍利子拜金主義,老異教形式的信仰,在名稱的基督教信仰的理由和譴責,希臘哲學和文學被剿滅,與思想自由被鎮壓,而在judaismmade研究的法律,或者更確切地說,對律法-這是學習,並列入科學與哲學以及宗教的首要職責,每一個家庭成員(申命記六,七,十一, 19個;約瑟夫, "合同鴨" 。二。 § § 18 , 26 , 41 ) ,中世紀基督教傾向於尋找布利斯在無知,因為知識和信仰似乎格格不入( lecky , "歷史的歐洲道德,從奧古斯都到查理曼, "二。 203-210 ;同上, "歷史上的崛起和影響力的精神理性主義在歐洲, "一1-201 ) 。

It was the resuscitated pagan thinkers, it was the Mohammedan and the Jew, who kept the lamps of knowledge and science burning; and to them in large measure the revival of learning, through scholastic philosophy in the Catholic cloisters and afterward in western Europe in general, is due.這是恢復異教思想家,它是穆罕默德和猶太人,他整燈的知識和科學的燃燒,以及它們在很大程度上復甦的學習,通過士林哲學在天主教迴廊及此後在西歐一般,是因。 Not merely the burning of witches and heretics, but the charges, raised by priests and mobs against the Jews, of having poisoned the wells, pierced the consecrated host, and slain innocent children in order to use their blood, can mainly be traced to that stupor of the mind which beholds in every intellectual feat the working of Satanic powers, alliance with which was believed to be bought with blood.不只是燃燒的巫婆和異教徒,但收費時,所提出的司鐸和暴民反對猶太人,有毒害井,射穿了consecrated東道主,殺害無辜的兒童,以便利用他們的血液,主要可以追查到這昏迷的心哪beholds在每一個智力壯舉工作的撒旦的權力,結盟與它被認為是買了血。 On the other hand, the Church was ever busy infusing into the popular mind the belief that those rites which served as symbolic expressions of the faith were endowed with supernatural powers, "sacrament" being the Latin word used for "mysterion," the name given to forms which had a certain magic spell for the believer.在另一方面,教會是以往任何時候都忙注入到流行心態,相信這些儀軌,其中擔任象徵性的表達信仰均擁有超自然力, "聖事"作為拉丁詞用作" mysterion "的名字,鑑於以表格,其中有一定的緊箍咒,為信徒。 Both baptism and the eucharist were regarded as miracle-working powers of the Christian faith, on participation in which the salvation of the soul depended, and exclusion from which meant eternal damnation (see the literature in Schaff-Herzog, "Encyc." sv "Sacrament").雙方的洗禮和聖體聖事的,被視為奇蹟,工作的權力,基督教信仰,對參與其中的救恩的靈魂依賴,並排除這意味著永恆damnation (見文學schaff -赫爾佐克, " encyc " sv "聖餐" ) 。

Asceticism in the Monasteries.禁慾主義在寺院。

The expectation by early Christianity of a speedy regeneration of the world by the reappearance of Jesus exerted a strange influence also on the whole moral and social state of humanity.期望通過早期基督教的迅速復興,為世界的再現耶穌施加了一個奇怪的影響,也對整個道德和社會狀態的人類。 The entire Christian life being a preparation for the world to come (and this change being expected to take place soon; Matt. x. 23; I Cor. i. 7; I Peter i. 13), only those that renounced the joys of the flesh were certain of entering the latter.整個基督徒生活的作為一個為籌備世界來(和這個轉變正在可望很快發生;馬特。十, 23日,我肺心病:一, 7項;彼得一13 ) ,只是那些放棄樂趣肉中刺一定的進入了後者。 This view gave rise to asceticism in the monasteries, for which genuine religiosity was claimed; while marriage, home, and state, and all earthly comforts, were only concessions to the flesh.這一觀點引起了禁慾主義,在寺廟,而真正的宗教是聲稱,而婚姻,家庭,國家,對世間的一切舒適,也祗有優惠,以血和肉。 Henceforth the ideal life for the priest and recluse was to differ from that for the people at large, who were to rank as inferiors (Strauss, lci 41 et seq.).從此理想人生為牧師和隱士是不同的,為人民大眾的人,以職級為低人一等( Strauss表示,國際獅子總會41頁起) 。 Whereas in Judaism the high priest was not allowed to officiate on the Day of Atonement unless he had a wife that made home sacred to him (Yoma. i. 1, after Lev. xvi. 11, 17), celibacy and virginity were prized as the higher virtues of the Christian elect, contempt of the world with all its material, social, and intellectual pursuits being rendered the ideal of life (see Ziegler, "Gesch. der Ethik," 1886, pp. 192-242).而在猶太教高級神職人員不得擔任上的贖罪日,除非他有一個妻子,使家庭神聖的,以他(指yoma.一, 1 ,經過列弗。十六, 11 , 17 ) ,獨身和貞操被作為珍貴的較高的美德,基督教選出,蔑視世界上所有的物質,社會和智力方面的追求正變成理想的生活(見齊格勒, " gesch 。明鏡ethik " , 1886年,第192-242 ) 。 Thus, to the Jew Christendom, from the days of the emperor Constantine, presented a strange aspect.因此,向猶太人基督教的,從幾天的皇帝君士坦丁,介紹了一個奇怪的方面。 The Church, formerly the declared enemy of Rome-Babel (Rev. xvii.), had become her ally, accepting Edom's blessing, "By thy sword shalt thou live" (Gen. xxvii. 40), as her own; and, on the other hand, there appeared her priests ("gallaḥ" = hair-clipped) and monks ("kummarim"), in the guise of the old Hebrew Nazarites and saints, claiming to be the true heirs to Israel's prophecy and priesthood.教會的前身宣布的敵人,羅馬的通天塔(啟示錄十七) ,已成為她的盟友,接受益登的祝福, "你的劍本當你的生活" (創二十七40 ) ,她自己,以及對另一方面,出現了她的神父( " gallaḥ " =頭髮夾)和僧侶( " kummarim " ) ,在花樣翻新的舊希伯來語nazarites與聖人,自稱為真正繼承人以色列的預言和神職人員。 Indeed, medieval Judaism and Christianity formed the greatest contrast.事實上,中世紀猶太教和基督教,形成了最大的反差。 Children of the same household, invoking the same God and using the same Scriptures as His revealed word, they interpreted differently life and its meaning, God and religion.兒童的同一家庭,引用同樣的上帝和使用相同的經文,因為他透露,總之,他們的解釋有不同的生活和它的意義,上帝和宗教。 Their Bible, Sabbath, and festivals, their whole bent of mind and soul, had become widely divergent.他們的聖經,安息日及節日中,其整體彎曲的心靈中,已成為大相徑庭。 They no longer understood each other.他們不再理解對方。

Medieval Jewish Views of Christianity.中世紀猶太意見基督教。

Yet, while neither Augustine nor Thomas Aquinas, the chief framers of the Church dogma, nor even Luther and Calvin, the Reformers, had any tolerance for Jew or Moslem, the authorities of the Synagogue accorded to Christianity and Islam a high providential mission in human history.然而,雖然既不奧古斯丁也不多瑪斯,行政成幀器的教會的教條,甚至也不路德和卡爾文改革者,有任何寬容,為猶太人或穆斯林,當局的猶太教堂給予基督教和伊斯蘭教的一個高天賜使命,在人類歷史。 Saadia (died 942), the first to examine the Christian dogma, says (in his "Emunot we-De'ot," ii. 5) that, unconcerned by the sensual Trinitarian belief of the common crowd, he would discuss only the speculative value given by Christian thinkers to the Trinity; and so, with penetrating acumen and profound earnestness and love of truth, he endeavors to lay bare either the metaphysical errors of those who, as he says, make of such attributes as life, power, and knowledge separate parts of the Deity, or the defects of the various philosophical constructions of the divinity of Jesus (see Kaufmann, "Gesch. der Attributenlehre," pp. 38-52; Guttmann, "Die Religionsphilosophie des Saadia," pp. 103-113). saadia (死於942 ) ,第一次審查基督教教義,說, (在他的" emunot我們- de'ot , "二,五) ,袖手旁觀,由感官三位一體的信念,共同的人群,他將只討論投機價值所給予的基督教思想家向三一;等,穿透性的敏銳和深刻,語重心長,並熱愛真理,他的努力,揭出要么形而上錯誤的那些,因為他說,作出這樣的屬性為生命,權力,知識獨立部分的神,或者缺陷的各種哲學建設的神性的耶穌(見考夫曼, " gesch 。明鏡attributenlehre "頁38-52 ; guttmann , "死religionsphilosophie萬saadia "頁103 - 113 ) 。

Grander still is the view of Christianity taken by Judah ha-Levi in the "Cuzari."宏偉的仍是鑑於基督教採取猶大公頃-利維在"庫扎裡" 。 After having rejected as incompatible with reason all the claims of the Trinity and of Christ's origin (i. 5), and remarked that both Christianity and Islam accepted the roots, but not the logical conclusions, of Israel's faith, (iv. 11)-rather amalgamating the same with pagan rites and notions-he declares (iv. 23) that both form the preparatory steps to the Messianic time which will ripen the fruit in which adherents of those faiths, too, will have a share, all the branches thus proving to be "the one tree" of Israel (Ezek. xxxvii. 17; see D. Cassel, "Das Buch Kuzari," 337).後經否決,因為不符合的原因全部債權的三位一體和基督的起源(一5 ) ,並表示,無論基督教和伊斯蘭教接受根源,而不是合乎邏輯的結論,對以色列的信仰, ( iv. 11 ) -而合併,同時與異教儀式和觀念-他宣稱( i v.2 3) ,它們都構成了準備步驟,以救世主的時候,將成熟的果實,其中遺民那些信仰,也將有一個分享,各分支機構的,因此證明是"一棵樹"的以色列( ezek.三十七。 17 ;見D. cassel "之buch kuzari , " 337 ) 。 This view is shared by Maimonides, who writes in "Yad," Melakim, xi.認同這個看法邁蒙尼德,他寫道: "亞得, " melakim ,十一。 4: "The teachings of the Nazarene and the Ishmaelite [Mohammed] serve the divine purpose of preparing the way for the Messiah, who is sent to make the whole world perfect by worshiping God with one spirit: for they have spread the words of the Scriptures and the law of truth over the wide globe; and, whatever of errors they adhere to, they will turn toward the full truth at the arrival of the Messianic time." 4 : "遺訓的拿撒勒和ishmaelite [穆罕默德]服務於神的目的,編制方法,為彌賽亞,誰是發送,使整個世界的完美所崇拜的神之一精神:因為他們已蔓延的話了經文和法律賦予的真相較廣泛的全球;且無論錯誤的,他們堅持,他們將轉向全部真相,在抵達救世主的時候" 。 And in his Responsa (No. 58) he declares: "The Christians believe and profess in common with us that the Bible is of divine origin and given through Moses, our teacher; they have it completely written down, though they frequently interpret it differently."在他responsa (第58號) ,他宣稱: "基督徒相信,並聲言在共同與我們說,聖經是神聖的起源和透過摩西,我們的老師,他們有完全寫了下來,雖然他們經常將它解釋不同"

The great rabbinical authorities, R. Gershom of Mayence (d. 1040; see "Ha-Ḥoḳer," i. 2, 45); Rashiand his school; the French Tosafists of the twelfth century ('Ab. Zarah, 2a); Solomon ben Adret of Barcelona, of the thirteenth century; Isaac b.偉大的猶太教當局,傳譯gershom的mayence (四10時40分;見稱"房委會- ḥoḳer , "一,二, 45 ) ; rashiand他的學校;法語tosafists的12世紀( '抗體。 zarah ,甲) ;所羅門賁adret的巴塞羅那, 13世紀;艾薩克乙 Sheshet of the fourteenth century (Responsa No. 119); Joseph Caro (Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 156, end; Yoreh De'ah, 148; and Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ, 266), and Moses Isserles of the sixteenth century declare that Christians are to be regarded as Proselytes of the Gate and not as idolaters, in spite of their image-worship. sheshet的14世紀( responsa第119號) ;約瑟夫卡羅( shulḥan ' aruk , oraḥ ḥayyim , 156 ,結束; yoreh de'ah , 148 ; ḥoshen mishpaṭ , 266 ) ,以及摩西伊塞萊斯的16世紀宣布基督徒都被視為proselytes的大門,而不是盲目崇拜者,儘管其在圖像崇拜。 Still more emphatic in the recognition of Christianity, as teaching a belief in the Creator, revelation, retribution, and resurrection, is Joseph Yaabeẓ, a victim of Spanish persecution (1492), who, in his "Ma'amar ha-Aḥdut," iii., goes so far as to assert that "but for these Christian nations we might ourselves have become infirm in our faith during our long dispersion."更肯定的承認基督教,作為教學的信念,在創作者,啟示,就是報應,與復活,是約瑟夫yaabeẓ ,受害人的西班牙語迫害( 1492 ) ,衛生組織,在他的" ma'amar夏aḥdut "三,有雲,就斷言" ,但對於這些基督教國家,我們可能自己已經成為體弱者,在我們的信仰在我們的長期分散" 。

Christianity Compared with Islam.比較基督教與伊斯蘭教。

The same generous view is taken by his contemporary Isaac Arama ("Aḳedat Yiẓḥaḳ," lxxxviii.).同樣慷慨的看法是,採取由他的當代艾薩克arama ( " aḳedat yiẓḥaḳ , " lxxxviii ) 。 Eliezer Ashkenazi (sixteenth century) warns his coreligionists, in his "Ma'ase ha-Shem," written in Turkey, "not to curse a whole Christian nation because a portion wrongs us, as little as one would curse one's own brother or son for some wrong inflicted."埃利澤德系( 16世紀)警告說,他coreligionists ,在他的" ma'ase夏SHEM後, "寫在土耳其" ,不罵人整個基督教國家,因為部分是非美,少人會詛咒那種將自己的兄弟或兒子對於一些錯誤造成的" 。 Jacob Emden at the middle of the eighteenth century wrote: "Christianity has been given as part of the Jewish religion by the Apostles to the Gentile world; and its founder has even made the moral laws stricter than are those contained in Mosaism. There are, accordingly, many Christians of high qualities and excellent morals who keep from hatred and do no harm, even to their enemies. Would that Christians would all live in conformity with their precepts! They are not enjoined, like the Israelites, to observe the laws of Moses; nor do they sin if they associate other beings with God in worshiping a triune God. They will receive reward from God for having propagated a belief in Him among nations that never heard His name; for 'He looks into the heart.'雅各布emden在中間的十八世紀中寫道: "基督教已發出的一部分猶太宗教使徒們向gentile世界,而且它的創辦人甚至道德法律更嚴格的比都包含在mosaism有,因此,許多基督徒的高品質和優良道德的人不斷從仇恨和不傷害,甚至是他們的敵人,將基督信徒將所有活在符合其戒律!他們不是受命於像以色列人,我必須遵守法律摩西;它們也不單,如果他們有聯繫的其他人與神的崇拜一三位一體上帝,他們將獲得獎勵,從神為宣揚一種理念,在他的國家之間的表示,從來沒有聽過他的名字,因為他看起來進入心中。 Yea, many have come forth to the rescue of Jews and their literature" ("Resen Mat'eh," p. 15b, Amsterdam, 1758, and "Leḥem ha-Shamayim" to Ab. v. 17).推倒的,許多人都站出來,以拯救猶太人的家園,他們的文學" (下稱" resen mat'eh , "第15B條,阿姆斯特丹, 1758 , " leḥem夏shamayim " AB的訴17 ) 。 Leone del Bene (Judah Asahel Meha-Ṭob) also may be mentioned, who, in his "Kis'ot le-Bet David," 1646, xxiv., xxvi., xlvi., xlviii., compares Mohammedanism with Christianity, and declares the latter as superior, notwithstanding its Trinitarian dogma.塞拉利昂恢復的益處(猶大阿薩赫爾麥華- ṭob ) ,也可提到,因為他們在他的" kis'ot樂打賭國寶" , 1646年,二十四,二十六,四十六,四十八,比較mohammedanism與基督教,並宣布後者為優,儘管其三位一體的教條。 A highly favorable opinion of Jesus is expressed also in a Karaite fragment noted in Steinschneider, "Oẓerot Ḥayyim," Catalogue of the Michael Library, pp.一個高度好感的是耶穌也表示,在karaite片段指出,在steinschneider , " oẓerot ḥayyim , "圖片目錄的邁克爾庫頁。 377 et seq., Hamburg, 1848. 377段及以下各段,漢堡, 1848年。 Compare Jew.比較猶太人。 Encyc. encyc 。 i.一。 223, sv Afendopolo. 223 , sv afendopolo 。

The persistent attacks of Christian controversialists against the Jewish belief gave rise, of course, to a number of polemical works, written in self-defense, in which both the Christian dogmas and the New Testament writings are submitted to unsparing criticism.持續不斷的攻擊基督教controversialists對猶太人的信仰產生了,當然是要了一些論辯作品,寫了自衛還擊,在雙方基督教教條和新約聖經的著作提交不留情的批評。 Foremost among these-not to mention Naḥmanides' published disputation with Pablo Christiani-is that of Ḥasdai Crescas, who, in a Spanish "tratado" on the Christian creeds (1396), showed the irrationality of the doctrines of Original Sin, the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Virginity of Jesus' Mother, and Transubstantiation, and who investigated the value of baptism and of the New Testament compared with the Old; beginning with the following three axioms: "(1) Reason can not be forced into belief; (2) God Himself can not alter the laws of a priori truth and understanding; (3) God's justice must comprise all His children."其中最主要的-更不用提naḥmanides '出版糾紛與巴勃羅christiani -是的ḥasdai crescas ,因為他們在西班牙的一個" tratado "對基督教教義( 1396 ) ,顯示了非理性的學說的原罪,三位一體,化身,貞潔的耶穌的母親,並陷於變體說,是誰在查處價值的洗禮和新約聖經與舊;開始,符合以下3個公理" : ( 1 )的原因,不能強迫信仰; ( 2 )天主自己,改變不了法律的先驗真理與理解; ( 3 )神的公義必須包含所有他的孩子們" 。 Another vigorous defender of Judaism against Christianity was Simon ben Ẓemaḥ Duran (1361-1440), who, in his great work, "Magen Abot," reiterates the assertion that Jesus, according to his own words, did not come to abrogate the Law; and then exposes the many self-contradictory statements in the New Testament concerning Jesus.另一個有力的維護者,對猶太教,基督教,是西蒙賁ẓemaḥ杜蘭巴( 1361至1440年) ,因為他們在他的偉大工作, "紅色abot , "再次斷言耶穌,據他自己的話來說,沒有來廢除法律;然後暴露了許多互相矛盾的聲明,在新約聖經有關耶穌。 The "Iḳḳarim" of Joseph Albo is (not merely in ch. xxv. of sect. iii., but in its totality) a defense of liberal Jewish thought against Christian dogmatism; and it therefore dwells with especial emphasis on the fact-which all Jewish thinkers from Saadia and Maimonides down to Mendelssohn accentuated-that miracles can never testify to the verity of a belief, because every belief claims them for itself. " iḳḳarim "約瑟夫albo是(而非僅在第2章二十五的第三節。的,但在其總體性) ,是捍衛自由猶太人的思想對基督教教條主義;因此,它整篇都特別強調一個事實-這一切猶太思想家從saadia和邁蒙尼德下降至孟德爾遜加劇,即奇蹟絕不能出庭作證向Verity公司的一個信念,因為每個信仰聲稱他們本身。 As to the two Hebrew standard works of New Testament criticism in the Middle Ages, written for apologetic purposes, the "Sefer Niẓẓaḥon" and the "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah," see Mühlhausen; Lippmann, and Isaac ben Abraham Troki.至於兩個希伯來語水準的作品,新約聖經的批評,在中世紀,書面致歉為宗旨, " sefer niẓẓaḥon "和" ḥizzuḳ emunah , "見穆爾豪森;李普曼,和Isaac賁亞伯拉罕troki 。

Christianity's Historic Mission.基督教的歷史使命。

III.三。 To offer to the great Gentile world the Jewish truth adapted to its psychic and intellectual capacities-this was the providential mission of Christianity.提供向偉大gentile世界猶太人真相適應其心理和智力的能力-這是天賜的使命基督教。 Yet, in order to become a unifying power for all the nations on the globe, shaping and reshaping empires, and concentrating the social, political, and spiritual forces of humanity in a manner never before attempted or dreamed of, it required an inspiring ideal of sublime grandeur and beauty, which should at once fascinate and stir souls to their very depths and satisfy their longings.但是,為了成為一個統一的力量,為所有的國家對全球,塑造和重塑帝國,並集中在社會,政治和精神的力量,人類在方式上以前從未嘗試或夢見的,就需要建立一個鼓舞人心的理想壯美的偉大和美麗,而應立即令人著迷,並激發心靈,他們非常的深度和滿足他們的憧憬。 Nothing less than the conquests of Cyrus the Lord's "anointed," called "to subdue nations and to break their prison doors" (Isa. xlv. 1, 2), than Alexander's great empire over the earth, still more than a kingdom that would encompass all that for which Rome and Alexandria and Jerusalem stood-"a kingdom of the people of the saints of the Most High" (Dan. vii. 17-27)-nothing less than this was the goal which they that were told to "go forth and make disciples of all nations" (Matt. xxviii. 19) had in view.沒有什麼比征服居魯士主的"不信任" ,所謂的"制服的國家,並打破他們的監獄大門" (以賽亞書四十五。 1,2 ) ,比亞歷山大的大帝國在地球上,仍有超過一個獨立王國會包含所有這其中羅馬和亞歷山大和耶路撒冷的主張- "英國的人聖徒的最高級" ( dan.七17-27 ) -不亞於這是目標,他們被告知"去了,使弟子各民族的" 。 ( 28 19 )曾在視圖中。 The Jewish propaganda, begun in the Babylonian Exile (Isa. xlv. 6; xlix. 6; lvi. 6, 7; lxvi. 21), and systematically pursued in Alexandria and Rome (Matt. xxiii. 15; Schürer, "Gesch." iii. 302 et seq., 420 et seq.), was to be left far behind, and, by battering down the barriers of the Law and the Abrahamic faith, was to be rendered elastic enough to suit the needs of a polytheistic world.猶太人的宣傳力度,開始在巴比倫流亡(以賽亞書四十五6段; xlix 6段; 56 。六,七; lxvi 21條) ,並有系統地追求在亞歷山大和羅馬。 (二十三。 15 ; schürer , " gesch 。 "三, 302頁起, 420頁起) ,是被遠遠拋在後面,並通過毆打降低貿易壁壘的法律和亞伯拉罕的信仰,是要提供足夠的彈性,以配合需要一個polytheistic世界。

Such was the view of the missionary of Tarsus.這是鑑於對傳教士的塔爾蘇斯。

But it was, after all, the glad tidings of the Jew Jesus which won humanity for Abraham's God.但它畢竟,福音的猶太人耶穌贏得人類為亞伯拉罕的上帝。 Jewish righteousness, "Ẓedaḳab," which is the power of helpful love readjusting social inadequacies, was destined to go forth from the Synagogue in order to lift the burden of wo from suffering humanity and to organize everywhere works ofcharity.猶太教義, " ẓedaḳab " ,這是所有的力量幫助的愛心調整社會的不足之處,是注定要到了從猶太教堂,以解除負擔的窩,從人類的苦難,並組織各地工程ofcharity 。 By this the Church, "the congregation of the Lord," conquered the masses of the vast Roman empire, and, as she learned the better to apply the Jewish system (see Essenes) to the larger field opened, achieved ever-increasing wonders with the mighty resources at her disposal.這個教會的"會眾的主" ,征服了廣大廣大羅馬帝國,而且,正如她了解,以更好地適用於猶太系統(見essenes ) ,以較大的場啟用後,取得了不斷增加的奇蹟浩蕩資源,在她的處置。 The poorhouse, or hospital, "transplanted as a branch of the terebinth of Abraham to Rome."該poorhouse ,或醫院, "移植的一個分支,該terebinth亞伯拉罕到羅馬" 。 (See Charity), became a mighty factor of human beneficence, and moved the deepest forces of the Church to glorious activity. (見慈善事業) ,已成為一支強大的因素,人的功德,並提出最深切的力量,教會的光榮活動。 Christianity, following the matchless ideal of its Christ, redeemed the despised and outcast, and ennobled suffering.基督教之後,無可匹敵的理想,它的基督,贖回的鄙視和拋棄,和高貴的痛苦。 It checked infanticide and founded asylums for the young; it removed the curse of slavery by making the humblest bondsman proud of being a child of God; it fought against the cruelties of the arena; it invested the home with purity and proclaimed, in the spirit of Ezek.檢查女嬰和精神病院成立,為青少年,它剔除了詛咒的奴隸制度,使humblest bondsman自豪的是一個孩子的上帝,它反抗殘酷的舞台上,而是投資家的純潔性和宣布,在精神對ezek 。 xviii.十八。 and Yer.和也門里亞爾。 Sanh. sanh 。 iv.四。 22a, the value of each human soul as a treasure in the eyes of God; and it so leavened the great masses of the empire as to render the cross of Christ the sign of victory for its legions in place of the Roman eagle. 22A條,價值每個人的靈魂作為精神財富眼中的上帝,並且使酵偉大的人民群眾的帝國,以使基督的十字架標誌的勝利,其軍團取代羅馬雄鷹。 The "Galilean" entered the world as conqueror. "伽利略"進入了世界的征服者。 The Church became the educator of the pagan nations; and one race after another was brought under her tutorship.教會成為教育家的異教國家和一個種族後,又被帶到下,她的輔導。 The Latin races were followed by the Celt, the Teuton, and the Slav.拉美賽事其次是celt ,位條頓和斯拉夫。 The same burning enthusiasm which sent forth the first apostle also set the missionaries aglow, and brought all Europe and Africa, and finally the American continent, under the scepter of an omnipotent Church.同時燃燒的熱情,其中派出了第一個傳道者,也定傳教士aglow ,並帶來了所有的歐洲和非洲,最後在美洲大陸,根據權杖的一個無所不能的教堂。 The sword and the cross paved the way through vast deserts and across the seas, and spread the blessings of a civilization claimed to be Christian because its end was the rule of Christ.劍和兩岸鋪平了道路,通過廣大沙漠和海洋彼岸,和蔓延的祝福,一個文明自稱為基督徒,因為它的盡頭是法治的基督。

Messianic Promises Not Fulfilled.彌賽亞的諾言沒有兌現。

Judaism, however, denies the validity of this claim.猶太教,但是,否認的有效性,這項索賠。 As Isaac Troki (in his "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah," i. 2, 4a, 6) says, "none of the Messianic promises of a time of perfect peace and unity among men, of love and truth of universal knowledge and undisturbed happiness, of the cessation of all wrong-doing, superstition, idolatry, falsehood, and hatred [Isa. ii. 1 et seq., 18; xi. 1-9, lxv. 19, 23; Jer. iii. 17; Ezek. xxxiv. 25, xxxvi. 25 et seq., xxxvii. 26; Zech. xiii. 2, xiv. 9; Zeph. iii. 13] have been fulfilled by the Church."正如艾薩克troki (在他的" ḥizzuḳ emunah , "一,二,第4 A ,六日)說: "沒有救世主諾言的時候,完美的和平與團結,在男子中,對愛與真理的普遍性知識和安靜的幸福,停止所有的不公正做法,迷信,偶像崇拜,虛假,和仇恨[伊薩第二節1段及以下各段, 18歲;十一, 1-9 , lxv 19 , 23歲;哲三。 17 ; ezek 。三十四。二十五,三十六, 25段及以下各段,三十七。 26 ;撒加利亞十三2 ,十四,九; zeph 。三, 13 ]已完成了由教會" 。 On the contrary, the medieval Church divided men into believers and unbelievers, who are to inherit heaven and hell respectively.與此相反,中世紀教堂分為男子把信教與不信,他們是繼承天堂與地獄的分別。 With the love which she poured forth as the fountain of divine grace, she also sent forth streams of hatred.與愛,她傾注了作為噴泉神的恩典,她也發出了源源不斷的仇恨。 She did not foster that spirit of true holiness which sanctifies the whole of life-marriage and home, industry and commerce-but in Jewish eyes seemed to cultivate only the feminine virtues, love and humility, not liberty and justice, manhood and independence of thought.她沒有樹立這一精神的真實成聖其中sanctifies整個生命的婚姻和家庭,工業和商業活動,但在猶太人的心目中,似乎只有培養女性的美德,愛情和謙恭,而不是自由和正義,男子氣概和獨立的思考。 She has done much in refining the emotions, unfolding those faculties of the soul which produce the heavenly strains of music and the beauties of art and poetry; but she also did all in her power to check intellectual progress, scientific research, and the application of knowledge.她已做了大量精製情緒,展現出這些院系的靈魂,產生天朝株的音樂和美麗的藝術和詩歌,但她還沒有全部在她有權退房智力進展,科學研究和應用知識。 Her tutorship sufficed as long as the nations under her care were in the infant stage; but as soon as they awoke to self-consciousness and longed for freedom, they burst the shackles of dogma and of ecclesiastical authority.她輔導足以只要把各歸她照顧人,在嬰幼兒階段,但一旦他們醒來的,以自我意識與嚮往自由,他們爆裂的桎梏中解放出來的教條和教會權威。 Thus the Church was broken up into churches.因此,這座教堂被分解成教堂。 Under the influence of Judaism and of Arabic philosophy, Scholasticism arose, and then came the Reformation; and the process of disintegration continues throughout Protestantism.的影響下,猶太教及阿拉伯哲學,士林出現,接著又是改造和過程的繼續解體的整個基督教。 The tendency of historical inquiry and Biblical criticism is to leave nothing but the picture of the man Jesus, the Jew, as a noble type of humanity, and to return to simple monotheism (see Renan, "Le Judaisme et le Christianisme," 1883; idem, "L'Eglise Chrétienne," 1879, p. 248; Alexander von Humboldt, in Samter, "Moderne Judentaufen," and in A. Kohut, "Alexander von Humboldt und das Judenthum," 1871, p. 176; Berner, "Judenthum und Christenthum," 1891, p. 31; Alphonse de Candolle, in Jellinek, "Franzosen über Juden," 1880, p. 27; Singer. "Briefe Berühmter Christ. Zeigenossen," p. 114. No human individual, however great in his own environment, can, according to the Jewish view, present a perfect ideal of humanity for all ages and phases of life. "No one is holy but God": to this Jewish conception of man Jesus also gave expression (Matt. xix. 17). Man as the image of God requires all the ages and historical conditions of progress to unfold the infinite possibilities of the divine life planted in him. "Each age has its own types of righteousness" (Tan., Miḳeẓ, Vienna ed., p. 48), and only by the blending of all human efforts toward the realization of the true, the good, and the beautiful can the highest perfection be attained at the end of history, "each mount of vision forming a stepping-stone to Zion as the sublime goal" (Midr. Teh. to Ps. xxxvi. 6).傾向歷史調查與聖經批評是離開無關,但了解該名男子的耶穌,猶太人,作為一個高尚型的人類在內,並有權返回簡單的一神教(見, Renan , "樂judaisme等樂christianisme " , 1883年;同上, " l' eglise基督教" , 1879年, 248頁;洪堡,在薩姆特, "現代judentaufen " ,在甲科胡特, "洪堡und之judenthum " , 1871年,第176頁;伯納, " judenthum und christenthum " , 1891年,第31頁;阿爾德candolle ,在jellinek , " franzosen黚er juden " , 1880年,第27頁;歌手" 。 briefe berühmter基督。 zeigenossen " ,第114頁。沒有人的個體,然而偉大在他自己的環境,可根據猶太人的看法,目前的一個完美的理想,為全人類所有年齡階段的生活, "沒有人是神聖的,但上帝" :這個猶太觀男子耶穌,也體現了。 (十九, 17 ) 。男子視為上帝的畫像要求所有年齡和歷史條件的進展情況,開展了無限的可能性,神聖生命的種植在他的" ,每個時代都有自己的類型的正義" ( tan. , miḳeẓ ,維也納版,第48頁) ,並只能由混合所有人類努力實現真,善,和美麗的,可最高的完美實現,在歷史的終結, "每一位摩的視覺形成了步進石錫安作為崇高目標" ( midr.了。向PS 。三十六。 6 ) 。

Christianity is not an end, but the means to an end; namely, the establishment of the brotherhood of man and the fatherhood of God.基督教不是一個目的,而是達到目的的手段,即建立了兄弟情誼的人與父親的上帝。 Here Christianity presents itself as an orb of light, but not so central as to exclude Islam, nor so bright and unique as to eclipse Judaism, the parent of both.基督教在這裡介紹了自己作為ORB的輕,但並非如此,中央,以排除伊斯蘭教,也不是那麼美好和獨特的,以月食猶太教,父母雙方的。 Moreover, room is left for other spiritual forces, for whatever of permanent value is contained in Brahmanism, especially its modern theistic sects, and in Buddhism (see Eucken, "Der Wahrheitsgehalt der Religion," Leipsic, 1901; Happel, "Die Religiösen und Philosophischen Grundanschauungen der Inder," 1902), and in the theosophic principles derived from it, and for all religious and philosophical systems that may yet be evolved in the process of the ages.此外,留下一定空間,為其他的精神力量,無論永久的價值,是載於婆羅門教,尤其是其現代有神論教派,在佛教中(見eucken , "明鏡wahrheitsgehalt明鏡宗教, " leipsic , 1901年; happel , "死religiösen und philosophischen grundanschauungen明鏡因德爾" , 1902年) ,並在theosophic原則源自它,並為所有宗教和哲學體系認為,還可能會演變在這個過程中的千古罪人。 In fact, whatever constitutes humanity and bears the image of God, whatever man does in order to unfold the divine life (Gen. i. 27; Lev. xviii. 5; Ps. viii. 6; Job xxviii. 28; Eccl. xii. 13)-that helps to make up the sum of religion.事實上,不管構成人類和熊的形象上帝,不管一個人,以開展神聖的生命(創一27 ;列弗。十八。五日;常任第八節6段;求職二十八。 28 ; eccl第十二13段) ,即幫助,以彌補這筆宗教。

For the modern tendency toward pure theistic and humanitarian views among the various systems of religious thought, see Ethical Culture; Unitarianism.針對現代傾向,單純的有神論和人道主義意見,各系統之間的宗教思想,見倫理文化; unitarianism 。

Kaufmann Kohler考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版1901年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Graetz, Hist.格雷茨,歷史。 of the Jews, ii., iii., iv., passim; Hamburger, RBT ii., sv Christenthum; Geiger, Das Judenthum und Seine Gesch.的猶太人,二,三,四,各處;漢堡包,隨機呼氣測試二, sv christenthum ;蓋格之judenthum und塞納河gesch 。 1865, i., ii., Supplement; M. Schreiner, Die Jüngsten Urtheile über das Judenthum, 1902; Perles, What Jews May Learn from Harnack, in Jew. 1865年,一,二,補充;米schreiner ,模具jüngsten urtheile黚er之judenthum , 1902年; perles ,猶太人可借鑒的Harnack ,在猶太人。 Quart.夸脫。 Rev. 1902; M. Güdemann, Das Judenthum, 1902; Toy, Judaism and Christianity, 1890; Harnack, History of Dogma, i.-v., Eng.牧師1902年;米güdemann之judenthum , 1902年;玩具,猶太教和基督教, 1890年;的Harnack ,歷史上的教條, i.-v. ,英。 transl.譯。 by N. Buchanan; D. Strauss, Die Christliche Glaubenslehre, 1840-41, i., ii.; Chwolson,Die Blutanklage und Sonstige Mittelalterliche Beschuldigungen, pp.由12月31日布坎南;施特勞斯四,模具christliche glaubenslehre , 1840年至1841年,一,二;奇沃爾松,模具blutanklage und sonstige mittelalterliche beschuldigungen頁。 1-78, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1901; Lecky,History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne, 1874, i., ii.; Ziegler, Gesch. 1-78 ,法蘭克福發表了主, 1901年; lecky ,歷史的歐洲道德,從奧古斯都到查理曼, 1874年,一,二;齊格勒gesch 。 der Christlichen Ethik, 1886.明鏡christlichen ethik , 1886 。 David Einhorn, Unterscheidungslehre Zwischen, Judenthum und Christenthum, in Sinai, 1860, pp.大衛艾因霍恩unterscheidungslehre zwischen , judenthum und christenthum ,在西奈半島, 1860年,頁。 193 et seq., and 1861, pp. 193段及以下各段, 1861年,頁。 100 et seq.K. 100等seq.k.


Also, see:此外,見:
Jesus 耶穌
Christ 基督
God 上帝
Bible 聖經
The Arising of Jesus 產生的耶穌

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