Christian Science基督教科學

Church of Christ, Scientist基督的教會科學家

General Information 一般資料

Christian Science is a religion emphasizing divine healing as practiced by Jesus Christ; its tenets were formulated by Mary Baker Eddy.基督教科學也是一種宗教,強調神的癒合,因為練的耶穌基督,其原理制訂的瑪麗貝克渦流。 In 1879, Eddy founded the Church of Christ, Scientist, with its headquarters in Boston.在1879年,方正成立了基督的教會科學家,其總部設在波士頓。 Today it has about 3,000 branch churches, societies, and college organizations in more than 50 countries.今天它擁有大約3000名科教會,社團,大學組織在50多個國家。 While the branches are democratic in government, they all conform to the rules laid down in the Manual of The Mother Church (1895) by Eddy.而支部是民主政府,他們都符合規則規定的在手冊中的母教堂( 1895年)由渦。

Sunday services consist mainly of readings from the Bible and Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (1906), the textbook of Christian Science written by Mary Baker Eddy.週日服務,主要由讀數從聖經和科學健康的關鍵念經( 1906年) ,該書的基督教科學書面瑪麗貝克渦流。 Wednesday meetings include testimonies of healing from the congregation.週三的會議包括證詞的癒合,由眾。 The church has no ordained clergy.教會並沒有受戒的神職人員。 Readers, both men and women, are elected from the membership to conduct the services.讀者,不論男性或女性,都是由選舉產生的會員進行服務。 Practitioners, also both men and women, devote full time to the work of spiritual healing.從業人員,也不論男性或女性,投入充分的時間來的工作精神癒合。

Christian Science teaches that God and his spiritual creation are the only realities.基督教科學教導我們,上帝和他的精神創造,是唯一的現實。 God is regarded as infinite Life, Truth, Spirit, Mind, and Principle.上帝被視為是無限的生命,真理,精神,心靈和原則。 The material world, with all its suffering, strife, and death, is considered to be a misconception or distorted view of the divine universe.物質世界,其所有的痛苦,爭鬥和死亡,被認為是一個錯誤的觀念,甚至是扭曲的看法神聖的宇宙。 Christian Science claims to prove through the healing of disease and other difficulties that the understanding of God and his spiritual creation is as effective now as it was in Jesus' time.基督教科學債權證明,通過癒合的疾病及其他困難的認識上帝和他的精神創造,是作為有效的,現在,因為它是在耶穌的時候。 Its adherents therefore rely on divine law in times of sickness instead of resorting to medical and other material means.其擁護者,因此靠神權法的時候,病而不訴諸醫療和其他物質手段。 The right of Christian Science parents to withhold medical treatment from their children has been challenged in court.正確的基督教科學家長不給治病,從他們的子女已經向法院提出質疑。

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Publications of the Christian Science Publishing Society include the Christian Science Quarterly, containing Bible lessons for daily study; The Christian Science Journal, a monthly magazine; Christian Science Sentinel, a weekly magazine; The Christian Science Monitor, a daily newspaper; and The Herald of Christian Science in 12 languages and in Braille.出版物的基督教科學出版協會,包括基督教科學季刊,載有聖經的教訓,為日常學習;基督教科學雜誌月刊;基督教科學定點,周刊;基督教科學箴言報,日報和先聲基督教科學,在使用12種語言和盲文。 In the 1980s the group expanded into other media, producing both radio and television news programming.在20世紀80年代該集團擴大到其他媒體,製作電台和電視台的新聞節目。

Bibliography 參考書目
JC Cort, Christian Scientism: An Informal History (1988); R Peel, Health and Medicine in the Christian Science Tradition (1988).時三十分皮質醇,基督教科學主義:一個非正式的歷史( 1988 )與r果皮,保健和醫藥基督教科學傳統( 1988 ) 。


Church of Christ, Scientist基督的教會科學家

General Information 一般資料

Mary Baker Eddy, b.瑪麗貝克渦流,乙 Bow, NH, July 16, 1821, d.弓新罕布什爾州, 1821年7月16日,四 Dec. 3, 1910, was an American religious leader and the founder of Christian Science. 1910年12月3日,是美國宗教領袖和創始人,基督教科學。 She was also the author of the Christian Science textbook, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures.她還對作者的基督教科學教科書,科學和健康的關鍵念經。 Her delicate health prevented her from attending school regularly, but her family provided private tutoring.她微妙的健康她無法上學,定期的,但她的家人提供的私人輔導。 Her childhood was also strongly marked by prayer and Bible reading.她的童年是又極力為標誌的祈禱和讀經。

During her early adult years she was twice married and suffered increasing invalidism.在她早期的成人來,她先後兩次結婚,並受到越來越多invalidism 。 In 1866, however, her life took a radically new turn.在1866年,然而,她的生活中採取了從根本上出現新的轉機。 After sustaining a severe injury through a fall, she asked for her Bible and read a Gospel account of one of Jesus' healings.經過持續嚴重損傷通過一個秋天,她問她的聖經,並宣讀了一份福音帳戶之一的耶穌的癒合。 While she was reading, she believed that she had an insight into the method by which Jesus Christ healed; at that moment she felt herself restored to health.雖然她讀的,她相信她有洞察到採用何種方法耶穌基督癒合;在那一刻,她感覺自己恢復了健康。

She made an intensive study of the Bible for 3 years after her cure and came to the belief that she was able not only to heal the sick herself but also to teach others to heal as well.她作出了一個密集的研究聖經,為三年後,她的治療和前來相信,她不僅能夠醫治病人自己,但也教導別人癒合等。 She held that all sickness was mental rather than physical and recorded the laws of God as she had discerned them in Science and Health (1875).她認為所有疾病,是精神而不是體能和備案的法律上帝,因為她已察覺到他們在科學和醫療保健( 1875 ) 。 This book contains a full statement of what she called Christian Science.這本書包含了全面的聲明,她什麼所謂基督教科學。 She later published 16 other books, including Retrospection and Introspection (1891), which tells of her own experience of discovering, practicing, and teaching the science of Christian healing.後來她出版了16名其他書籍,其中包括回顧與反思( 1891 ) ,其中講述了她自己的經驗發現,實踐和教學的科學基督教癒合。

In 1877 she married Asa Gilbert Eddy, an active Christian Scientist.在1877年她嫁給ASA的吉爾伯特,方正,積極基督教科學家。 Two years later Mrs. Eddy founded the Church of Christ, Scientist, whose organization she oversaw closely until her death.兩年後,譚渦創立了基督的教會科學家,他們的組織,她主持密切,直至她的死因。 She also established (1908) the Christian Science Monitor.她還成立( 1908年)基督教科學箴言報。 Christian Scientists today continue to acknowledge her as their leader and founder.基督教科學家今天繼續承認,她為他們的領袖和創始人。

Bibliography 參考書目
E Dakin, Mrs. Eddy (1929); R Peel, Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Discovery (1966), Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Trial (1971), and Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Authority (1977). e dakin夫人渦( 1929 )與r果皮,瑪麗貝克渦:多年的發現( 1966 ) ,瑪麗貝克渦:多年的審判( 1971 ) ,和瑪麗貝克渦:多年的權威( 1977 ) 。


Church of Christ, Scientist基督的教會科學家

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Church of Christ, Scientist is an organization founded by Mary Baker Eddy in an effort to reinstate primitive Christianity and its lost element of healing.基督的教會科學家,是一個組織,成立由瑪麗貝克方正在努力恢復原始基督教和其失去的元素癒合。 In 1876 Eddy formed the Christian Scientists Association and three years later chartered the Church of Christ, Scientist.在1876年,方正形成了基督教科學家協會,並在3年後渣打基督的教會科學家。 The church was reorganized into its present form in 1892.教堂改建為目前的形式於1892年。 The First Church of Christ, Scientist of Boston is known as the mother church, and other Christian Science churches are considered branches, although each is independently governed.第一基督的教會科學家波士頓被稱為母親教會,和其他基督教科學教會被認為是黨支部,儘管每個獨立的管治。 The tenets and bylaws of the church were incorporated by Eddy into the church manual of 1895.該原理和章程的教會被納入由渦進入教堂手冊1895年。 The church's fundamental theological teachings are presented in Eddy's Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures.教會的基本教義神學介紹,方正的科學和健康的關鍵念經。

Theologically, the Church of Christ, Scientist, does not concur with the basic tenets of historic orthodox Christianity. theologically ,基督的教會,科學家,不同意的基本原理,歷史正統基督教。 Although it uses the theological vocabulary of traditional Christianity, it assigns metaphysical meanings to the terms.雖然它使用的神學詞彙的傳統基督教,它會委派形而上意義的條款。 The sources of authority for the church are the Bible and Eddy's writings.消息來源的權力,為教會聖經和渦的著作。 Members accept Eddy's writings as divine revelation and interpret the Bible allegorically through her works.大家接受渦的著作作為神聖啟示和解釋聖經allegorically透過她的作品。 The most significant authority for the church is Science and Health, which was published in 1875 and regularly revised until Eddy's death in 1910.最顯著的權威,為教會是科學和醫療保健,這是出版於1875年,並定期修訂,直到渦的去世於1910年。 Eddy referred to this volume as containing the perfect word of God, and thus was divine and infallible teaching.渦提到這卷含有完美的上帝的話,因此是神聖和犯錯的教學。

Christian Science's view of God is monistic.基督教科學的觀點,上帝是monistic 。 God is divine principle, not a supreme being God is mind, and mind is all.上帝是神聖的原則,而不是一個最高神,是心靈和精神的一切。 Nothing possesses reality or exists which is not mind.任何具有現實還是存在,這是不介意。 The characteristics and attributes of God become God.特點和屬性的上帝成為上帝。 The Trinity is constituted by the threefold nature of divine principle (God): life, truth, and love.三位一體,是由三重性質的神聖原則(神) :生命,真理和愛。

God, Christ, and Holy Spirit are not persons.上帝,基督,聖靈不是人。 The Christology of Christian Science denies a physical incarnation of Christ and insists Mary conceived Christ only as a spiritual idea.該christology基督教科學不承認身體的化身,耶穌和瑪麗堅持構思基督只作為一種精神理念。 Since God is mind and spirit, and nothing exists which is not spirit, there can be no matter or flesh; these are only illusions.因為上帝是心態和精神,並沒有什麼存在的,這是沒有精神,便不會有問題,或果肉;這些只是幻想。 Thus Christ did not possess a body and did not die on a cross.因此,基督並不具備一個機構,沒有死亡就在十字架上。 The need of an atonement is nullified since sin, evil, sickness, and death are delusions, not reality.需要一個贖罪的是廢單,邪惡,疾病和死亡是幻想,而不是現實。 God is good, and nothing can exist which is not good.上帝是好的,並沒有任何東西可以存在,這是不好的。 Christian Science teaches man is created in God's image as spirit, mind, and good; thus man is incapable of sin, sickness, and death.基督教科學教人創造了上帝的形象,精神,心理,收到了良好的,因此人是無法單,疾病和死亡。 Man is placed on a plane of equality with God in his origin, character, and eternity.男子放在飛機上的平等與上帝在他的出身,性格,與永恆。 The metaphysical presuppositions of the church insist that heaven and hell are present states of man's thoughts, not real future dwelling places.形而上預設的教會堅持認為,天堂與地獄,是目前各國人的想法,而不是真正的未來的居住環境。

Christian Science church services are simple and uniform worldwide.基督教科學教會服務是簡單劃一。 They focus upon the uniform lesson - sermons which are read aloud from the Bible and Science and Health by readers elected from the congregation.他們集中後,統一的教訓-說教,這是朗讀,從聖經和科學健康的,由讀者選出,由眾。 There is no clergy or priesthood.有沒有牧師或神父。 The sacraments are not special rites.聖禮,是不是特別的儀式。 Baptism means the spiritual purification of daily life and the Eucharist is silent spiritual communion with God.洗禮是指精神淨化的日常生活和聖體聖事是無聲的心靈與上帝。 No visible elements are used.沒有有形要素使用。 Salvation to the Christian Scientist is the gaining of the understanding that man's life is wholly derived from God the Spirit, and is not mortal and material.得救的基督徒科學家是抬頭的理解,即人的生命是完全來自上帝的精神,而不是凡人的材料。

PG Chappell編號查
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
CS Braden, Christian Science Today; EM Ramsay, Christian Science and Its Discoverer; LP Powell, Christian Science, the Faith and Its Founder; R Peel, Christian Science: Its Encounter with American Culture; ES Bates and JV Dittemore, Mrs. Eddy, the Truth and the Tradition.政務司司長( Braden ,基督教科學今天在拉姆齊,基督教科學及其發現者;脂蛋白鮑威爾,基督教科學,信仰和它的創始人與r果皮,基督教科學:其遭遇與美國文化;中文的Bates和JV dittemore夫人,方正,真理和傳統。


Mary Baker Eddy瑪麗貝克渦流

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(1821-1910) ( 1821年至1910年)

Mary Baker Eddy was founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist, and author of its famous textbook, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures.瑪麗貝克渦流是創辦人的基督的教會科學家,作家,其著名的教科書,科學和健康的關鍵念經。 Born Mary Morse Baker, she was reared in a devout Congregationalist home, but later rejected her parents' strict Calvinism.瑪麗出生摩士貝克,她被飼養在一個虔誠congregationalist回家,但後來她拒絕了父母的嚴格加爾文。 Although her formal education was limited due to chronic ill health, she studied such subjects as natural science, moral philosophy, logic, Greek, and Hebrew under the tutelage of her brother, a Dartmouth graduate.雖然她的正規教育有限,由於慢性病患健康,她所研究的對象為自然科學,有道德,哲學,邏輯,希臘語,希伯來語,根據監護她的兄弟,達特茅斯畢業。 In 1843 she married George W. Glover, who died before the birth of their first child.在1843年她嫁給喬治W格洛弗,死於出生之前,他們的第一個孩子。 Her second marriage, to David Patterson (1853), ended in divorce.她的第二次婚姻,以大衛帕特森( 1853年) ,以離婚收場。 In 1877 at age fifty-six she married one of her first Christian Science students, Asa Gilbert Eddy.在1877年,在年齡56她嫁給一個她的第一基督教科學專業的學生, ASA的吉爾伯特渦。

Suffering poor health throughout most of her life, Mary was preoccupied with questions of health.苦難健康欠佳,大部分時間她的生命,瑪麗忙於與問題的健康。 In search of healing she submitted herself to the metaphysical teachings of Phineas P. Quimby and was healed.在搜索的癒合,她提交了自己形而上的遺訓菲尼亞斯頁quimby被治愈。 Suffering a serious fall in 1866, she was healed by reading the Bible and practicing metaphysical principles.患有嚴重下降,在1866年,她被撫平通過閱讀聖經和實踐形而上的原則。 She regarded that incident as the discovery of Christian Science.她認為,這件事,由於從發現的基督教科學。 Her metaphysical system gradually evolved and was published as Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures in 1875.她的形而上學體系的逐步形成,並刊登於科學和健康的關鍵念經於1875年。 Although her followers consider this work as divinely inspired, her critics contend that it is deeply indebted to the works of Francis Lieber and Quimby.雖然她的追隨者考慮這項工作作為神聖的,她的批評者爭辯說,這是深為感激的作品弗朗西斯利伯和quimby 。 The following year she founded the Christian Scientist Association, which three years later became the Church of Christ, Scientist.次年,她創立了基督教科學協會,其中3年後,成為基督的教會科學家。

Eddy's theological position has little in common with historic orthodox Christianity.渦的神學立場已沒有什麼共同之處,與歷史正統基督教。 It is entirely built upon a metaphysical base.這完全是建立在一個形而上學的基礎。 She uses the theological vocabulary of traditional Christianity but substitutes metaphysical meanings for the terms.她用神學詞彙的傳統基督教,但代用品形而上意義的條款。 For her, God is "All-in-All"; he is mind; he is the divine principle of all existence, not a person.對她來說,上帝是"全能型,在所有情況" ,他是考慮到他是神的原則,所有的存在,而不是一個人。 As the only cause of existence, God is reality and nothing apart from him can be real.作為唯一的原因,存在的,神是現實無關,除了他,可真實的。 Since God is Spirit and is All, matter cannot exist.因為上帝是精神,是一切,無論就不能存在。 Since all reality is divine and God is good, all reality is good.因為所有的現實是神與神的是好的,所有的現實情況是好的。 There cannot exist evil, sin, sickness, or death.有不能存在邪惡,罪惡,疾病,甚至導致死亡。 Imperfections of every sort are illusory and unreal, delusions of the carnal mind.不完善的,每類都是虛幻和不真實的,幻想的肉慾的心。

The Trinity is defined by Eddy as the principles of life, truth, and love.三位一體的定義是由渦為處世原則,真理,愛。 The historic view of three persons in one Godhead is labeled heathen.歷史鑑於3人,在一個神的源頭是標記異教徒。 Christ is not considered a person but rather the true idea of God, and his death or resurrection could not have occurred since evil and sin have no existence.基督是沒有考慮到一個人,而是真正的上帝觀,和他的死亡或復活本來不會發生以來,邪惡和罪過都沒有存在的。

Eddy's major writings include The People's Idea of God (1886), her autobiography Retrospection and Introspection (1891), Unity of Good (1891), Manual of the Mother Church (1895), and Miscellaneous Writings (1896).方正的主要著作包括人的上帝觀( 1886年) ,她的自傳回顧與反思( 1891 ) ,團結協作的良好( 1891年) ,手動的母教堂( 1895年) ,以及雜項著作( 1896 ) 。

PG Chappell編號查
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
S. Wilbur, Life of Mary Baker Eddy; R. Peel, Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Discovery; EM Ramsey, Christian Science and Its Discoverer; C. Smith, Historical Sketches from the Life of Mary Baker Eddy; W. Martin, The Christian Science Myth; MF Bednarowski, "Outside the Mainstream: Women's Religion and Women Religious Leaders," JAAR 48:207-31.第威爾伯,生命的瑪麗貝克渦流;傳譯果皮,瑪麗貝克渦:多年的發現;屋村拉姆齊,基督教科學及其發現者; C -史密斯,歷史寫生,從生活中的瑪麗貝克渦流;總統馬丁基督教科學神話;中頻bednarowski , "主流之外的:婦女的宗教和婦女的宗教領袖, " jaar 48:207-31 。


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