Church Government教會政府

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Basically there are three types of church government, the episcopal, the presbyterian, and the congregational, each of which takes on features from the others.基本上有三種類型的教會政府, 主教,長老,及堂,每一項都需特徵,從別人的。 Episcopalianism, for example, finds a large place for presbyters in its synods and elsewhere, and its congregations have many functions of their own. episcopalianism ,舉例來說,找到一個大的地方長老在其主教會議和其他地方,它的畢業典禮有很多功能他們自己的。 Presbyterian congregations also play a large part, while the appearance of moderators attests a movement toward episcopal supervision.長老會教友也發揮了很大一部分,而外觀版主證明一個運動走向主教監督。 The very existence of such groupings as Congregational and Baptist Unions with their presidents shows that churches with a basically congregational polity are yet alive to the value of other elements in the Christian tradition.十分存在這樣的集團的堂會和浸信工會與他們的總統表明教會與基本上堂政體尚未意識到的價值,其他元素在基督教傳統。 Yet the general categories do apply.但一般類別適用。

Episcopacy

In this system the chief ministers of the church are bishops.在這個體系中的首席部長教會主教。 Other ministers are presbyters (or priests) and deacons.其他部長都是長老(或牧師)和執事。 All these are mentioned in the NT, although there bishops and presbyters seem to be identical.所有這些都提到,在新台幣,雖然有主教和長老似乎是一致的。 Those who see an episcopal system in the NT point to the function of the apostles, which some think was passed on to bishops whom the apostles ordained.那些認為一個主教系統在新台幣一點給函數的使徒,其中有些人認為被轉嫁到主教的人使徒受戒。 They see as important the position of James of Jerusalem, which is not unlike that of the later bishop.他們認為重要的地位詹姆斯耶路撒冷,是不是不像是後來的主教。 The functions of Timothy and Titus as revealed in the Pastoral Epistles show these men to have been something of a transition between the apostles and the bishops of later times.職能提摩太和提顯示,在牧區書信顯示這些男人已經有一個過渡之間的使徒和主教們稍後的時間。 The apostles are said to have practiced ordination by the laying on of hands (Acts 6:6; 1 Tim. 4:14), and they appointed elders in the churches they founded (Acts 14:23), presumably with the laying on of hands.使徒們說,練協調,由鋪設上的雙手(使徒6時06分,一添。 4時14分) ,並任命了,他們在長老教會他們成立(使徒14時23分) ,想必鋪設上的手中。 On this view the apostles were the supreme ministers in the early church, and they took care that suitable men were ordained to the ministry.按照這種觀點使徒保羅最高人民法院部長在早期教會,他們還要照顧合適的男子被祝聖為財政部。 To some of them they entrusted the power to ordain and so provided for the continuance of the ministry in succeeding generations.以他們中的一些人,他們賦予的權力,阿拉維等規定,繼續由財政部在後代。

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It is further alleged that the organization of the church subsequent to NT days supports this view.這是進一步指稱,該組織的教會以後至新台幣天支持這一觀點。 In the time of Ignatius the threefold ministry was clearly in existence in Asia Minor.在時間的伊格了三倍,財政部顯然是存在於小亞細亞。 By the end of the second century it is attested for Gaul and Africa by the writings of Irenaeus and Tertullian.到去年底,在公元二世紀,它是核簽為高盧和非洲所著作的愛任紐和戴爾都良。 Nowhere is there evidence of a violent struggle such as would be natural if a divinely ordained congregationalism or presbyterianism were overthrown.行不通的,是有證據的暴力鬥爭等,將自然,如果神受戒公理或presbyterianism被推翻。 The same threefold ministry is seen as universal throughout the early church as soon as there is sufficient evidence to show us the nature of the ministry.同時三倍部被看作是世界各地早期教會一旦有足夠證據,證明我們的性質,財政部。 The conclusion is drawn that episcopacy is the primitive and rightful form of church government.得出之故,是原始的和合法的形式,教會政府。

But there are objections.但也有反對意見。 There is no evidence that bishops differed from presbyters in NT days.目前並沒有證據顯示主教不同於眾長老在新台幣天。 It is going too far to say that all the ministry of these times was of apostolic origin.這是過猶不及地說,所有內政部這些時間是使徒的起源。 There were churches not of apostolic foundation, like that in Colossae, which do not seem to have lacked a ministry.有沒有教會的使徒基金會一樣,在科洛塞,這似乎並不缺少一個部。 Again, some of the early church orders, including the Didache, are congregational in outlook.再次,一些早期教會的命令,其中包括didache ,正堂在Outlook中。 The case is far from proven.此案是遠遠證明。

Nevertheless, episcopacy is undoubtedly early and practically universal.不過,之故,無疑是早期和實際上具有普遍性。 In time divisions appeared, notably the great schism in 1054 when the Orthodox Church in the East and the Roman Catholic Church in the West separated.在時間均告出現,尤其是大裂1054年時,東正教教會在該國東部和羅馬天主教會在西方分開。 Both continue to be episcopal and hold to the doctrine of apostolic succession.雙方繼續成為主教,並舉行以中庸的使徒繼承。 But there are differences.但也存在分歧。 The Orthodox Church is a federation of self governing churches, each with its own patriarch.東正教是一個聯邦的自治教會,每個國家都有它自己的主教。 The Roman Catholic church is more centralized, and its bishops are appointed by the pope.羅馬天主教會是較集中,它的主教都是由教皇。 There are doctrinal differences, such as different views of the filioque clause in the Nicene Creed.有理論上的差異,如不同的看法,該filioque條款尼西亞。

At the Reformation there were further separations.在改革有進一步離職。 The Church of England rejected Roman supremacy but retained the historic episcopate.英國教會拒絕接受羅馬至高無上的,但保留了歷史性的主教。 Some of the Lutheran churches opted for an episcopal system but did not remain in the historic succession.一些路德教會選擇了一種主教制,但沒有停留在歷史的繼承。 In more recent times other churches have decided to have bishops, e., some Methodist churches, and these too have rejected the historic succession.在近期其他教會已決定設立主教,即一些循道衛理教會,而這些也都不願接受歷史的繼承。 There have been other divisions, such as the separation of the Old Catholics when the dogma of papal infallibility was proclaimed.有其他分區,如分離的舊天主教徒當教條的教皇infallibility宣告成立。 More Christians accept episcopacy than any other form of church government, but episcopal churches are for the most part not in communion with one another.更多基督徒接受之比任何其他形式的教會政府,但聖公會大部分資料都是不共融與彼此。

Presbyterianism presbyterianism

This system emphasizes the importance of elders, or presbyters.這個制度強調的重要性長老,或長老。 Its adherents do not usually hold that this polity is the only one in the NT.其信徒通常不認為這種政體是唯一一個在新台幣。 At the Reformation the Presbyterian leaders thought that they were restoring the original form of church government, but this would not be vigorously defended by many Presbyterians today.在改革的長老會領導人認為,他們恢復原來的形式,教會政府,但這種做法不會大力辯護,許多presbyterians今天。 It is recognized that there has been much development, but it is held that this took place under the guidance of the Holy Spirit and that in any case the essentials of the presbyterian system are scriptural.人們認識到,有很多發展,但它認為,這件事發生的指導下聖靈,並認識到在任何情況下,必需品的長老會制度是聖經。 It is beyond question that in the NT presbyters occupy an important place.這是毫無疑問的,在新台幣長老佔有重要的地位。 They are identical with the bishops and form the principal local ministry.他們是一致的,與主教和形式主要地方部。 In each place there appears to have been a group of presbyters who formed a kind of college or committee which was in charge of local church affairs.在每一個地方,有似乎被一群長老,他們形成了一種學院或管理委員會是負責地方教會的事務。 That is the natural conclusion to which exhortations like Heb.這是自然的結論,其中囑託,像希伯來書。 13:17 and 1 Thess. 13時17分和1個帖。 5:12 - 13 point. 5點12分-1 3點。 From the account of the Council of Jerusalem in Acts 15 we see that the presbyters occupied an important place at the very highest levels of the early church.從賬戶的理事會在耶路撒冷的行為, 15日,我們看到眾長老中佔有重要位置,在最高領導層的早期教會的使命。

In the subapostolic age the bishop developed at the expense of the presbyters.在subapostolic年齡主教發達國家在犧牲的長老。 This was due to such circumstances as the need for a strong leader in times of persecution and in the controversies against heretics and perhaps also to the prestige attaching to the minister who regularly conducted the service of Holy Communion.這是由於有這樣的情況下,因為需要有一個強有力的領導者,在時代的迫害和在爭議,對異教徒,而且還可能向威信依附部長,定期進行服務的聖餐。

There is much that is convincing in this case.有不少是有說服力的,在這種情況下。 But we must also bear in mind the considerations urged by upholders of the other ways of viewing church government.但是,我們也必須銘記考慮敦促upholders的其他方式的觀景教會政府。 What is beyond doubt is that from the Reformation onward the presbyterian form of church government has been of very great importance.什麼是無庸置疑的是,從改造起了長老會的形式,教會,政府一直十分重視。 John Calvin organized the four churches in Geneva on the basis of his understanding of the NT ministry as four fold: the pastor, the doctor (or teacher), the deacon, and the presbyter (or elder).約翰卡爾文組織了四個教會在日內瓦就根據他的了解,新台幣部為四個方面:牧師,醫生(或老師) ,執事,並presbyter (或長輩) 。 It was the pastor who had the care of the congregation.這是牧師曾照顧眾。 This was not the full presbyterian system, but it laid the foundation for it, and presbyterianism developed in Switzerland, Germany, France, the Netherlands, and elsewhere.這是不是全部的長老會制度,但它奠定了基礎,並且presbyterianism發達,在瑞士,德國,法國,荷蘭,和其他地方。 On the continent the name "Reformed" is used for these churches.對大陸命名為"改革" ,是用於這些教堂。

Another important development in Geneva took place in a congregation of exiles from Queen Mary's England.另一項重要發展是,在日內瓦發生在聚集流亡分子從瑪麗的英格蘭。 They met under their elected pastors, John Knox and Christopher Goodman, and developed along presbyterian lines.他們下舉行了會議,他們所選出的牧師約翰諾克斯和克里斯托弗古德曼,並制定沿長老線路。 After the accession of Elizabeth, Knox returned to Scotland, and his work led in time to the full emergence of the Presbyterian Church in that country, from where it spread to northern Ireland.加入後,黃錢其濂,諾克斯回到蘇格蘭,和他率領的工作,在時間,以充分湧現的長老教會在該國,從那裡蔓延到北愛爾蘭。 England for a number of reasons did not accept presbyterianism as wholeheartedly as did Scotland, but a presbyterian church emerged there also.英格蘭基於多個原因,不接受presbyterianism作為全心全意像蘇格蘭,但長老教會出現的,也有。 From this church Welsh presbyterianism took its origin.從這個教堂威爾士語presbyterianism了它的起源。 From Europe, more particularly from Britain, the church spread to America, where it became one of the most significant groups of Christians.來自歐洲,特別是來自英國,教會傳播到美國,在那裡成為一個最顯著的基督徒群體。 In the great missionary movement of modern times missionaries carried the presbyterian form of the church far and wide, and national presbyterian churches were formed in many parts of the world.在偉大的傳教運動的近代傳教士進行了長老會的形式,教會遠且廣,全國長老會教堂,形成了世界上許多地方。

Presbyterian churches are independent of one another, but they have in common that they accept such standards as the Belgic Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism, or the Westminister Confession and that they practice a presbyterial form of church government.長老教會是相互獨立,但他們有一個共同點,即他們接受這種標準,作為belgic供述,海德堡講授,或westminister懺悔與他們實行presbyterial形式的教會政府。 The local congregation elects its "session," which governs its affairs.當地教區的選舉其"會話" ,而執政的事務。 It is led by the minister, the "teaching elder," who is chosen and called by the congregation.它是由農業部長說, "教學中的長老, "誰是選擇,並呼籲由眾。 He is, however, ordained by the presbytery, which consists of the teaching and ruling elders from a group of congregations over which it exercises jurisdiction.但是,他受戒由長老會,其中的教學水平和執政長老一群教友超過它行使管轄權。 Above it is a General Assembly.以上這是一個大會。 In all courts parity between teaching and ruling elders is important.在所有法庭平價之間的教學水平和執政長老是重要的。 There has been a tendency for smaller bodies of presbyterians to appear among those who are dissatisfied with the laxity (as they see it) in the way some of the larger churches hold to classic presbyterianism.有一種傾向,為規模較小的機構presbyterians出現那些不滿與懈怠(在他們看來)的方式,一些較具規模的教堂舉行,以經典presbyterianism 。

Congregationalism公理

As the name implies, this puts the emphasis on the place of the congregation.作為顧名思義,這種情況將使側重於地方的會眾。 Perhaps it would not be unfair to say that the chief scriptural buttresses of this position are the facts that Christ is the head of his church (Col. 1:18, etc.) and that there is a priesthood of all believers (1 Pet. 2:9). It is fundamental to NT teaching that Christ has not left his church.也許它不會被不公平的說,行政聖經支墩的這一立場都是事實, 基督是一家之主的他的教會(歌1:18等) ,並有一個神職人員的所有信徒( 1寵物。 2時09分) ,這是根本,以新台幣教學基督尚未離開他的教會。 He is the living Lord among his people.他是生活的主,他的人。 Where but two or three are gathered in his name, he is in the midst. Nor is it any less fundamental that the way into the very holiest of all presences is open to the humblest believer (Heb. 10:19 - 20). Other religions of the first century required the interposition of a priestly caste if anyone wished to approach God, but the Christians would have none of this.那裡,但有兩個或三個人聚集在他的名字,他是在複雜多變的, 也不是任何少根本途徑進入非常神聖的,所有存在的,是開放給humblest擁護者(希伯來書10時19分-2 0) ,其他宗教的第一世紀需要干預一名司鐸種姓,如果有人想辦法神,但基督徒會這一切都不是。 Christ's priestly work has done away with the necessity for any earthly priest as the mediator of access to God.基督的司鐸的工作,已經擺脫了必要性任何俗世的祭司作為調停人進入神。

Added to this is the emphasis on the local congregation in the NT.加上這是側重於當地聚集在新台幣。 There, it is maintained, we see autonomous congregations, not subject to episcopal or presbyterial control.在那裡,那是,我們看到自主教會,而不是受推崇或presbyterial控制。 The apostles, it is true, exercise a certain authority, but it is the authority of founders of churches and of the Lord's own apostles.使徒們,這是真的,行使一定的權力,但它是權威的奠基人教會和主自己的門徒。 After their death there was no divinely instituted apostolate to take their place.之後,他們的死是沒有神提起使徒考慮自己的位置。 Instead the local congregations were still self governing, as we see from local church orders like the Didache.反之,地方教會仍然自治,因為我們看到,由地方教會的命令一樣didache 。 Appeal is also made to the democratic principle.警方呼籲市民,也作出了民主的原則。 The NT makes it clear that Christians are all one in Christ and there is no room for any absolute human authority.新台幣作出明確表示,基督信徒都是在基督裡,不存在的餘地,任何人的絕對權威。

Congregationalism as a system appeared after the Reformation.公理作為一個系統後出現的改革。 Some among the Reformed decisively rejected the idea of a state church and saw believers as forming a "gathered church," those who have heard the call of Christ and have responded.其中一些改革後,果斷地拒絕了主意一國的教會和信徒看到,作為形成了一個"聚集在教堂, "那些聽到呼叫的基督,並已作出回應。 An Englishman, Robert Browne, published in Holland a famous treatise, "Reformation Without Tarrying for Any" (1582), in which he affirmed the principle of the gathered church, its independence of bishops and magistrates, and its right to ordain its ministers.一個英國人羅伯特布朗,發表在荷蘭著名的論述: "改革沒有tarrying任何" ( 1582 ) ,其中他在肯定的原則,所收集的教會,並確保其獨立性的主教和裁判,其權利阿拉維其部長。 Denied the freedom to put all this into practice in England, many crossed into Holland.剝奪了自由,把所有到這一點的做法,在英國,許多越過邊界進入荷蘭。 It was from the church at Leiden that the Pilgrims fathers sailed for America in 1620 and established congregationalism in the new world, where it became very important.這是由教會在萊頓表示,朝聖者的父親駛往美國在1620年建立了公理,在新的世界裡,它成了很重要的。

Congregationalism is much wider than the church that bears the name.公理是廣泛得多,比教會熊的名字。 Baptists, for example, usually have congregational polity.浸信會,舉例來說,通常是有公理的政體。 They see the local congregation as independent and not subject to any outside authority.他們看到這個地方聚集,為獨立,並沒有受到任何外界權威。 So it is with several other denominations.所以這是與其他幾個教派。 In addition there are Christians who from time to time set up their own congregations with no links with anyone. Congregationalists generally oppose creedal tests. This leads to an admirable toleration.此外,還有基督教徒,他們不時成立了自己的畢業典禮,沒有聯繫任何人。 稱為"公理派"普遍反對creedal考驗,這導致了令人欽佩的,嚴懲不貸。 But it also opens up the way to a distortion of NT Christianity, and some congregationalists have passed over into unitarianism.但它也開闢了道路,以扭曲的新台幣基督教,有的稱為"公理派"已通過到unitarianism 。 Nevertheless, congregationalism remains a widely held form of Christianity, and it undeniably points to important NT values.不過,公理仍是一個普遍的形式,基督教,它不可否認點,以重要新台幣價值觀。

Conclusion結論

A consideration of all the evidence leaves us with the conclusion that it is impossible to read back any of our modern systems into the apostolic age.考慮所有證據都留給我們的結論是,這是不可能看回我們的任何現代系統納入到使徒時代。 If we are determined to shut our eyes to all that conflicts with our own system we may find it there, but scarcely otherwise.如果我們有決心關閉,我們眼前的一切衝突與我們自己的制度,我們也許會發現它有,但很少。 It is better to recognize that in the NT church there were elements that were capable of being developed into the episcopal, presbyterian, and congregational systems and which in point of fact have so developed.這是更好地認識到,在新台幣教會有內容,有能力正在發展成為主教,長老會,公理系統,並在點其實有這麼發達。 But while there is no reason that any modern Christian should not hold fast to his particular church polity and rejoice in the values it secures to him, that does not give him license to unchurch others whose reading of the evidence is different.但是,儘管我們沒有理由認為任何現代基督教不應該堅守他的,尤其是教會的政體而憂,在價值觀,它會保護他,這並不會給他的許可unchurch其他人的讀的證據是不同的。

L Morris升莫里斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
RW Dale, Manual of Congregational Principles; E Hatch, The Organization of the Early Christian Churches; KE Kirk, ed., The Apostolic Ministry; JB Lightfoot, "The Christian Ministry," Commentary on Philippians; TW Mason, The Church's Ministry; J Moffatt, The Presbyterian Church; JN Ogilvie, The Presbyterian Churches of Christendom; BH Streeter, The Primitive Church; HB Swete, ed., Essays on the Early History of the Church and Ministry; W Telfer, The Office of a Bishop. rw戴爾,手動的公理原則;電子艙口,該組織的早期基督教教堂;柯柯克,版,使徒部;了JB lightfoot , "基督教省"的評philippians ;星期日梅森,教會的部; j moffatt ,長老教會;若望奧利弗,長老教會的基督教;波黑streeter ,原始教會;血紅蛋白swete ,版,散文對早期教會的歷史和內政部;瓦特特爾弗,該辦公室的一位主教。


Also, see:此外,見:
Authority in Church 管理局在教堂

Congregationalism 公理
Presbyterianism presbyterianism
Episcopal Church 聖公會

Belgic Confession belgic自白
Heidelberg Confession 海德堡自白
Westminster Confession 西敏寺自白


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


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