Calvinism加爾文

General Information 一般資料

Calvinism, the Protestant religious perspective associated with the work of John Calvin, includes both the teachings of Calvin and the later developments of his world view. Calvin's doctrine was catholic in its acceptance of the Trinity, human sinfulness, and the saving work of Jesus Christ.加爾文教,新教宗教的角度來看,與相關工作的約翰卡爾文,既包括所有的遺訓卡爾文和後來的發展自己的世界觀。 卡爾文的教義是天主教在接受三位一體,人類的罪孽,並節約工作的耶穌基督。 It was Protestant in its commitment to the final authority of the Bible, justification by Grace through faith alone, and the bondage of the will for Salvation. 這是基督教在其承諾,最後權威的聖經,理由是由恩典透過信仰,僅和桎梏的意志為救贖。 It was distinctly reformed in its stress on the omnipotent sovereignty of God, the need for discipline in the church, and the ethical seriousness of life. 這是明顯的改革,在其脅迫對無所不能的主權的上帝,需要紀律,在教會裡,與倫理的嚴重性生活。

The so - called Five Points of Calvinism were formulated by Dutch Reformed theologians at the Synod of Dort (1618 - 19) in response to the teachings of Arminianism.所以-所謂的五點加爾文制定,由荷蘭改革神學家舉行的主教會議的d ort( 1 618- 19 )在回應的遺訓ar minianism。 The five points teach that五點教導

  1. humankind is spiritually incapacitated by Sin 人類在精神上無行為能力的,由單
  2. God chooses (elects) unconditionally those who will be saved 上帝選擇(當選)無條件那些將被保存
  3. the saving work of Christ is limited to those elected ones 拯救工作的基督是只限於那些民選
  4. God's grace cannot be turned aside 上帝的恩典不能把預留
  5. those whom God elects in Christ are saved forever Predestination 這些人當選上帝在基督裡都是永遠保存的宿命

Early in the 20th century, the German sociologist Max Weber and the English economist RH Tawney put forth the much debated thesis that Calvinism promoted the rise of capitalism.早在20世紀,德國社會學家韋伯和英語經濟學家銠托尼提出了備受爭議的論點,即加爾文推動崛起的資本主義。 Whether this is true or not, it cannot be denied that Calvinists have been deeply involved in political, social, educational, and economic developments.這是否是真還是假,但並不能否認calvinists已深深捲入政治,社會,教育與經濟的發展。 Puritanism in England and America is a product, to one degree or another, of the Calvinistic spirit.清教徒在英國和美國是一個產品,一個學位或那樣的calvinistic精神。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
Calvinism provides the basic doctrinal orientation of the Reformed Churches and Presbyterianism; branches of some other Protestant denominations, such as the Baptists, have also been influenced by Calvinism.加爾文教提供了基本的理論取向的改革,教堂和presbyterianism ;分行的一些其他新教教派,如浸信會,也受到加爾文。

Mark A Noll標誌著一個精靈

Bibliography 參考書目
A Dakin, Calvinism (1940); JH Leith, Introduction to the Reformed Tradition (1977); JT McNeill, The History and Character of Calvinism, (1967); M Prestwich, ed., International Calvinism (1985); BB Warfield, Calvin and Calvinism (1931); M Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1950). 1 dakin ,加爾文( 1940年) ; JH的leith ,介紹了這一改革的傳統( 1977年) ;特魯利McNeill商品,歷史和性格的加爾文, ( 1967年) ;米prestwich ,教育署,國際加爾文( 1985年) ; BB心跳沃菲爾德,卡爾文和加爾文( 1931年) ;米韋伯,新教倫理與資本主義精神( 1950 ) 。


Calvinism加爾文

Advanced Information 先進的信息

John Calvin, often regarded as "the systematizer of the Reformation," was a second generation Protestant Reformer of the sixteenth century who brought together biblical doctrine systematically, in a way that no other Reformer before him had done.約翰卡爾文,往往被視為" systematizer的改革, "是一種第二代新教改革者的16世紀的人聚集在一起聖經的教義系統,在某種意義上說,沒有其他改革者,在他面前做了。 At the same time, he was not an ivory tower scholar but a pastor who thought and wrote his theological works always with an eye to the edification of the Christian church.在同一時間內,他不是象牙塔中的學者,但一位牧師,他們的思路和寫他的神學作品始終與一個著眼於教化的基督教教堂。 Although his views have not always been popular and have at times been grossly misrepresented, his system of theology has had a very wide influence down to the present time, as indicated by the fact that all Reformed and Presbyterian churches look back to him as the founder of their biblical - theological doctrinal position.雖然他的意見並不總是受歡迎,並已在一個時期以來,嚴重歪曲了,他的系統神學已經進行了非常廣泛的影響到現在的時間,顯示了一個事實,即所有的改革和長老教會回頭看他,作為創辦人他們的聖經-神學教義的立場。

Scripture經文

The formal principle and source of Calvin's theological system is embodied in the Latin phrase sola Scriptura (Scripture only).正式的原則和源泉卡爾文的神學體系,是體現在拉丁語短語唯獨聖經(經文) 。 In a strict sense Calvin was primarily a biblical theologian.在嚴格意義上講卡爾文主要是一個聖經神學家。 Trained in the techniques of historicogrammatical exegesis through his humanistic and legal studies, he went to the Scriptures to see what they clearly said.訓練有素的技巧historicogrammatical訓詁學通過他的人文和法律研究,他去念經,看看有什麼,他們很明確地表示。 He rejected the medieval fourfold interpretation which allowed allegorizing, spiritualizing, and moralizing, insisting that the literal meaning of the words was to be taken in their historical context.他駁斥了中世紀的四倍詮釋,讓寓言, spiritualizing ,道德說教,堅持字面意思的話,是採取在其歷史背景。 On this basis he sought to develop a theology that would set forth in a systematic form the teaching of Scripture.在此基礎上,他設法制定一個神學這將闡述一個系統,形成教學的經文。 He was, however, no rationalist, for he constantly stressed the fact that while the Bible reveals God and his purposes to us, yet there is always the mystery of the divine Being and counsel which no human thought can penetrate.然而,他沒有理性,因為他不斷強調一個事實:儘管聖經揭示了上帝和他的目的,對我們來說,卻始終是個謎的神聖正和律師沒有人的思維能穿透。 Deut. deut 。 29:29 was a verse to which he referred many times. 29:28是一個詩的,因為他提到的許多倍。

The stress which he laid upon the Scriptures was the result of his belief that they were the Word of God and therefore were the final authority for Christian belief and action.應力,這奠定了他後,經文是由於他的信念,認為他們是上帝的話,所以最終的權力當局的基督教信仰和自覺行動。 He did not believe in a doctrine of dictation, although he did on occasion refer to the writers as God's amanuenses, but held that the Holy Spirit in different and often mysterious ways revealed God's will and work and guided the writers in their recording of them.他不相信在一個學說的聽寫,雖然他有時也指作家作為上帝的文秘,但主張聖靈在不同的,往往是不可思議的發現上帝的意志和工作,引導作家,他們錄製了他們。 Thus, the Bible is authoritative in all matters with which it deals, but it does not deal with everything, such as astronomy.因此,聖經是有權威的所有事項,其中涉及的,但它不處理一切,如天文學。 The individual comes to recognize the Bible as the Word of God not primarily because of logical, historical, or other arguments but by the enlightenment of the Holy Spirit's "internal testimony."個別來認識聖經作為上帝的話並非主要是因為邏輯的,歷史的,或其他的論點,而是由啟示聖靈的"內部證詞" 。

God上帝

This raises the question of how Calvin regarded the God who had so revealed himself.這就提出了一個問題,如何卡爾文把上帝的人,所以發現自己。 In this he accepted the historic doctrine of the trinity of God, who is Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, the same in substance and equal in power, and glory.在此,他接受了歷史主義的三位一體的上帝,誰是父親,兒子,聖靈,同時在實質上並享有平等的權力,和榮耀。 Further, he laid great stress upon the fact that God is sovereign.此外,他還非常重視後一個事實,即上帝是一個主權。 This eternal and completely self sufficient.這是永恆的,並將完全自給自足。 Therefore, he is not subject either to time or to any other beings, nor is he reducible to spaciotemporal categories for human understanding and analysis.因此,他並不受任何時間或任何其他的人,也不是他約來spaciotemporal類別,為人類了解和分析。 To his creatures God must always be mysterious, except insofar as he reveals himself to them.他的動物神,必須始終神秘,除了因為他暴露了自己給他們。

This sovereign God is the source of all that is.這一主權上帝的根源在於他們都知道。 But he is not the source because everything which exists apart from him is an emanation of the divine Being; he is the source of all things because he is their creator.但他沒有向任何人披露,因為這一切都存在著,除了他,是一個釋放的正神,他是從源頭上所有的東西,因為他是他們的造物主。 He has brought everything into existence, including the creation from nothing of both time and space.他把一切都存在,包括創造了從無到有雙方的時間和空間。 How he created everything neither Calvin nor his followers have attempted to explain, for that is in the realm of the mystery of God's action.他如何創造了一切,既不是美女也不是他的追隨者試圖解釋,因為這是在境界天主的行動。 Nor did God create because he was forced to do so by any necessity.也沒有上帝的創造,因為他是被迫這樣做任何必要的。 He freely created according to his own plan and purpose, which resulted in a universe that was good.他創造的自由,根據自己的計劃和目的,這就導致在一個宇宙,是好的。

To Calvin and his followers it is also important to realize that the triune God did not turn away from creation after it was formed, but continues to sustain and maintain its existence and operation.以卡爾文和他的追隨者,亦是重要的是要意識到三位一體上帝沒有迴避的創作以後,它的形成,但繼續維持並保持它的存在與運作。 The physical laws which govern the material universe are the result of the continual work and action of the Holy Spirit.物理定律,其中執政的物質宇宙,是由於不斷的工作和行動的聖靈。 Such a doctrine had an important influence on the development of physical science in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, being influential in the thinking of Pierre de la Ramee, Bernard Palissy, and Ambroise Pare in France; Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle, and Isaac Newton in England; and other early physical scientists.這種理論產生了重要影響,對發展體育科學在晚16和17世紀,作為有影響力的思想皮埃爾德香格里拉苧麻,伯納德帕利西, ambroise匯率在法國;培根,羅伯特貝爾,以及牛頓在英格蘭和其它早期的物理科學家。

As God sovereignly sustains all his creation, so in his providence he rules over and guides it to the accomplishment of his ultimate purposes that all things might be to the glory of God alone (soli Deo gloria).作為上帝sovereignly維繫著他的所有創作,使他在普羅維登斯,他的規則並引導它,以完成其最終的目的,所有的東西,可能是神的榮耀,單(固體迪奧禧) 。 This rule included even the free actions of man, so that history might achieve the end which God has determined from all eternity.這條規則,甚至包括自由行動的人,讓歷史有可能實現年底真主已決定從所有永恆。 Here again is a mystery which the Calvinist is prepared to accept, since he is prepared to accept the ultimate mystery of God's being and action.這裡又是一個謎,其中calvinist願意接受,因為他是準備接受最終的奧秘,上帝的作為和行動。

Man男子

Human beings were created in the image of God, with true knowledge, righteousness, and holiness.人類創造了在上帝的畫像,與真正的知識,義,和聖潔。 Man saw himself as God's creation, placed in creation as the steward of God's handiwork.男子將自己視為上帝的創造,放置在創作作為管家的上帝的手。 Being in the image of God, he also had free will, which meant that he had the capacity freely to obey or disobey God's commands.被形象的神,他也有自由意志,這意味著他有能力自由地服從或不服從上帝的命令。 In dealing with man God entered into a covenant relationship with him, promising his favor and blessing, in return for which man was to rule over and subdue nature, recognizing his office as the lord of creation under the sovereign authority of the triune God.在處理人神進入了一個盟約關係與他,答應他的青睞和祝福,作為回報,這名男子被統治和征服大自然,認識到他的辦公室作為神的創造下的主權權力三位一體神。 This is known in Calvinistic theology as the covenant of works.這是眾所周知的,在calvinistic神學作為該公約的工程。

Despite this covenant relationship and God's manifest revelation of himself, man chose to think that he could declare his independence of the sovereign God.儘管這個公約的關係和上帝的啟示表現令人捧腹的人選擇了自以為可以宣布他的,獨立的主權神。 Tempted by Satan, man asserted himself as an independent being worshipping the creature rather than the Creator and thus fell under the judgment of God.誘惑撒旦,男子聲稱自己是一個獨立的被崇拜的動物,而不是創造者,因此是屬於神的審判。 The outcome was God's condemnation of man, resulting in man's rejection by God, his total corruption, and his bequeathing of this corruption to his descendants throughout history.結果是上帝的譴責的人,導致人的排斥上帝,他的總腐敗,遺贈給他的這個腐敗,以他的子孫在整個歷史。 Only by the general or common grace of God man's corruption did not, and does not, work itself out fully or completely in this life.只有一般或共同的上帝恩典的人的腐敗,不,不,工作,要走出完全或不完全在此生活。

The sovereign God, however, did not allow his plans and purposes to be frustrated.宗主上帝,但是,沒有讓他的計劃和目的得逞。 Already in eternity as part of his secret counsel he had chosen a great number of his fallen creatures for himself, to be reconciled to him.已經在永恆的一部分,他的秘密律師,他曾選擇了一個很大的數目,他的墮落,為自己,以重新修好給他。 Why he did so God never reveals, except to say that he chose to do this in his mercy, for he quite justly could have rejected the whole human race for its sins.他為什麼這樣做,上帝從來沒有透露,只是說他選擇這樣做,在他的憐憫,因為他很理直氣壯地可以拒絕接受整個人類為它的罪孽。 In pursuance of this plan and purpose of redemption the Father sent the Son, the second person of the Trinity, into the world to pay the penalty for the sin of the elect and to fulfill completely the righteousness of God's law on their behalf.根據這項計劃,並為此贖買的父親送到了兒子,第二人的三位一體,融入世界繳付罰款,對單的選舉,並履行完全是正義的真主的法律代表他們。 In the OT the prophets and patriarchs looked forward to the coming of Christ, trusting in his promised redemption, while in the NT church, which continues down to today, Christians look back to what Christ accomplished for them in history在城市旅遊局先知和patriarchs期待著在未來的基督,相信在他所承諾的贖回,而在新台幣教堂,它仍然是下降到今天,基督徒回頭看,以基督為他們在歷史上

To those who are God's chosen ones the Holy Spirit is sent, not only to enlighten them to understand the gospel set forth in the Scriptures but to enable them to accept God's promise of forgiveness.那些是上帝的選民聖靈發出,這不僅是為了開導他們,以了解福音所列會念經,而是讓他們接受上帝的諾言寬恕。 By this "effectual calling" they come to faith in Christ as the one who has redeemed them, trusting in him alone as the one who has met all God's requirements on their behalf.由這種"顯效呼喚: "他們來在基督裡的信仰,作為一個人贖回他們,信任,在他單獨作為一個人已符合所有上帝的要求,代表他們。 Thus it is by faith alone (sola fidei) that they are saved, through the regenerating power of the Holy Spirit.因此,它是由單獨的信仰(索拉信) ,他們都會被保存下來,通過再生電力的聖靈。 Thereafter, as God's people they are to live lives which, while never perfectly holy, should manifest the fact that they are his people, seeking always to glorify him in thought, word, and deed.此後,作為上帝的人,他們是生活在其中,但卻從未完全聖潔的,要表現一個事實,即他們自己的人民,始終追求以頌揚他的思想,一言以蔽之,謹言慎行。

The Church教會

The life which God's people now live they live as those who are God's covenant people.生命真主的人,現在住住,因為那些是上帝的盟約。 From all eternity the sovereign God purposed to make a covenant with his elect in and through their representative, the Son, who in history redeemed them by his spotless life and sacrifice on Calvary's cross.從所有永恆宗主神移作它使公約與他的選舉中,並通過自己的代表,兒子,在歷史上,挽救他們,他一塵不染的生命和犧牲calvary的十字架上。 Therefore, as citizens of his kingdom they are now called to serve him in the world, which they do as the church.因此,作為公民,他的王國,他們現正所謂要為他服務,在世界上,他們做了教堂。 This obligation is laid upon both adult believers and their children, for the covenant is made with parents and children, as it was with Abraham and his descendants in the OT and with believers and their descendants in the NT.這項義務奠定了雙方成年信徒及他們的子女,為公約作出的,是與父母和孩子,因為這是亞伯拉罕和他的子孫在酒店與信徒及他們的後代居住在新界。 Baptism signifies this entry into the membership of the visible body of Christ's people for both children and adults, although in both cases the baptismal vows taken by the adults may be later repudiated.洗禮標誌著這進入會員可見基督的身體的人,為兒童和成人的,雖然在這兩種情況下洗禮誓言採取的成年人,可後來推翻。

The Lord's Supper is the continuing sacrament of which Christ's people partake in remembrance of him and of his redemptive work for them.主的晚餐是持續聖餐的基督的人參加悼念活動,他和他的救贖為他們工作。 But again, it is only as the elements are received and partaken of in faith that the Holy Spirit blesses those who receive the bread and wine, by making them spiritual participants in the body and blood of the Lord.但同樣地,它只是作為分子收到並partaken的,在信仰聖靈祝福那些領取麵包和酒,使他們的精神參加者在身體和血的主。

In the matter of the organization of the church Calvinists have generally agreed on the view that the church is to be governed by elders, those who teach and those who rule or supervise, elected by the church.在這件事的組織,教會calvinists已普遍同意,就認為教會是應受照顧的長者,那些教與治國者或監督,由民選產生的教堂。 Some, however, believe that an episcopal form of church government is the proper, or at least the allowable, form of organization.不過,有些人認為,一個主教形式的教堂,政府是正確的,或者至少是可容許的,組織形式。 But all agree that as far as possible the outward, visible unity of the church should be maintained, for all Christians are members of the one body of Christ.但大家都同意,盡量向外,可見團結的教會應該維持不變,為所有基督信徒的成員一個基督的身體。 On the other hand, Calvinists have also allowed for the pluriformity of the church, recognizing that the church is not perfect, but have also insisted that there must be basic uniformity or congruence of doctrine.另一方面,關於calvinists也不允許用於pluriformity的教會,認識到教會不是十全十美,但也堅持認為,必須有基本的一致性或和諧的教義。

Calvinism in History加爾文在歷史上

Although Calvin was the systematizer of the Reformation theology, since his day those who have accepted his structure of theology have continued to develop many of his ideas.雖然卡爾文是systematizer的改革神學,因為他每天那些接受了他的結構神學不斷發展,他的許多主張。 During his own lifetime he himself developed his thought in the successive editions of his Institutes of the Christian Religion.在他自己的一生,他自己制定了他的思想,在歷次版本中,他學會了基督教。 With the writing of various Calvinistic confessions such as the Heidelberg Catechism (1563), the Canons of the Synod of Dort (1618), and the Westminster Confession and Catechisms (1647 - 48) additions to and further developments in theological thought have appeared.與寫作不同calvinistic自白書,如海德堡問答( 1563 ) ,該炮的主教的dort ( 1618 ) ,和威斯敏斯特懺悔與catechisms ( 1647 -4 8)補充和進一步的發展,在神學思想出現。 Various theologians also during the succeeding years have elaborated various points which Calvin had raised but had not fully examined.各種神學另外,在繼承來闡述各點,其中卡爾文曾提出,但並沒有完全檢查。

The nineteenth century in particular saw a very considerable expansion of Calvinistic thought under the influence of Abraham Kuyper and Herman Bavinck in the Netherlands, Auguste Lecerf in France, and AA Hodge, Charles Hodge, and BB Warfield in the United States.十九世紀,特別是看到了一個很可觀的擴展calvinistic思想的影響下,石禮謙kuyper和赫爾曼巴文克在荷蘭, ( Auguste勒塞爾夫在法國,和AA Hodge的,查爾斯Hodge的,和BB沃菲爾德在美國。 The tradition established by these men has been carried on in the present century by John Murray, J Gresham Machen, and Cornelius Van Til in the United States; Herman Dooyeweerd and DH Th Vollenhoven in the Netherlands; and many others in various countries around the world.傳統透過這些男人已經進行了在本世紀由約翰默里,強格雷沙姆machen ,科尼利厄斯範的TIL在美國赫爾曼dooyeweerd及衛生署次vollenhoven在荷蘭和其他許多在世界各國。

Calvin's influence has by no means been limited to the theological sphere, however, for the implications of his beliefs even in his own day had a wide influence in other areas of thought.美女的影響力絕非僅僅局限於神學領域中,但是,對於影響自己的信仰,甚至在他自己的一天進行了廣泛的影響力,在其他方面的思想。 His view of the state and the right of the subjects and subordinate magistrates to remove an oppressive ruler helped to lay the foundation for the development of democracy.他認為,把國家和正確的科目和服從裁判,以消除暴虐的統治者,有助於奠定基礎,民主的發展。 His views on art have also been important in giving a theological - philosophical foundation for the development of pictorial art in the Netherlands, England, Scotland, and France, to mention only a few countries.他的觀點對藝術也有重要的,在給予神學-哲學發展的基礎圖案藝術在荷蘭,英格蘭,蘇格蘭,法國,何況只有少數幾個國家。 Much the same could be said of other fields of human endeavor such as science, economic activity, and social reform.許多相同的,可以說是對其它領域的人類事業,為科學,經濟活動和社會改革。 Moreover his thought has spread beyond the confines of the Western world to exercise an influence in places such as Africa, where Calvinists have gone as missionaries.此外,他的思想已蔓延超越局限的西方世界,以發揮影響力的地方,如非洲,在那裡calvinists甚至傳教士。 In all these ways Calvinism has wielded, and still does wield, an important influence in the world, seeking to set forth the biblical doctrine of God's sovereign grace.在所有這些方法加爾文已經揮起,並仍執掌,是一個重要的影響,在世界上尋求以闡明聖經教義的上帝的主權的恩典。

WS Reid被里德

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
Calvin, The Institutes of the Christian Religion, ed.卡爾文學院的基督教宗教,教育署。 JT McNeill; JT McNeill, The History and Character of Calvinism; JH Bratt, ed., The Heritage of John Calvin; DE Holwerda, ed., Exploring the Heritage of John Calvin; BB Warfield, Calvin and Calvinism; W Niesel, The Theology of Calvin; JT Hoogstra, ed., John Calvin, Contemporary Prophet; A Kuyper, Lectures on Calvinism; A Lecerf, Etudes Calvinistes; H Clavier, Etudes sur Calvinisme; WH Neuser, ed., Calvinus Theologus; GE Duffield, ed., John Calvin.特魯利McNeill商品;特魯利McNeill商品,歷史和性格的加爾文; JH的布拉特,海關,文物的約翰卡爾文;德holwerda ,海關,探索遺產的約翰卡爾文; BB心跳沃菲爾德,卡爾文和加爾文;瓦特niesel ,神學對卡爾文;特魯利hoogstra ,海關,約翰卡爾文,當代先知; kuyper ,講座對加爾文;勒塞爾夫,練習曲calvinistes ; h律,練習曲sur calvinisme ; neuser起,海關, calvinus theologus ;葛杜菲爾德,版,約翰卡爾文。


Calvinism加爾文

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

No better account of this remarkable (though now largely obsolete) system has been drawn out than Möhler's in his "Symbolism or Doctrinal Differences."沒有更好地考慮到這個了不起的(雖然現在基本上已經過時)的制度已制訂出較möhler的,在他的"象徵主義或學說上的分歧" 。 The "Institutes of the Christian Religion," in which Calvin depicted his own mind, were never superseded by creed or formulary, though the writer subscribed, in 1540, at Worms to the Confession of Augsburg, ie the second revised edition. "研究所的基督教" ,其中卡爾文描繪他自己的態度,從來沒有被取代,由信仰或處方,但筆者認購,在1540 ,在蠕蟲,以供認的奧格斯堡,即第二次修訂版。 To take his bearings in theology we must remember that he succeeded Luther in point of time and was committed to a struggle with Zwingli's disciples at Zurich and elsewhere, known as Sacramentarians, but who tended more and more towards a Christianity without mysteries.以他的軸承在神學,我們必須記得,他成功地路德,在時間點,並承諾鬥爭與zwingli的弟子在蘇黎世和其他地方,被稱為sacramentarians ,但他們往往更日益走向一個沒有基督教的奧秘。 In 1549 he and Farel entered with Bullinger into a moderate view as regarded the Eucharist, the "Consensus Tigurinus," or compact of Zurich, which Bucer also accepted.在1549年,他和farel進入與布凌格成為一個溫和的看法,把聖體聖事中, "共識tigurinus " ,或緊湊的蘇黎世,其中布策爾也接受了。 Another compact, of the "pastors of Geneva" strengthened his hands, in 1552, on the subjects of predestination, against Jerome Bolsec, whom he refuted and cast into prison.另一種緊湊型, "牧人的日內瓦" ,更增強了他的手,在1552年,對學科的宿命,對杰羅姆bolsec ,其中他反駁及演員關進監獄。 Bolsec finally returned to the Catholic Church. bolsec終於回到了天主教會。 In 1553 a controversy between the German Lutherans about the Lord's Supper led Calvin to declare his agreement with Melanchthon (the Philippists), but Melanchthon kept silence.在1553年的爭論與德國lutherans約主的晚餐主導卡爾文宣布他同意梅蘭希頓( philippists ) ,但梅蘭希頓保持沉默。 Further complications ensued when Beza, softening the real doctrine of Geneva, drew nearer still to the Lutheran belief on this head.進一步並發症隨之發生時, beza ,軟化的真正教義的日內瓦,提請較接近仍然以路德的信念,就這一頭。 Bullinger and Peter Martyr cried down Beza's unauthorized glosses; but Calvin supported his favourite.布凌格和彼得烈士哭了下來beza有未經授權的地一帶,但卡爾文支持他的最愛。 Nevertheless, that "declaration" was dropped by Beza when, in company with Farel, he put together a "Confession of the French Church," and fell back on the creed of Augsburg issued in 1530, while not assenting to its 10th article.不過,這"宣言" ,是下跌beza時,在公司與farel ,他提出了一個"交代的法語教會" ,並有所回落對教義的奧格斯堡發出在15時30分,而不是assenting至第10條。 The Eucharist was to be more than a sign; Christ was truly present in it, and was received by Faith (compare the English Prayer Book, which reproduces his conception).聖體聖事是要多於一個跡象;基督是真正存在於它,並受到信仰(比較英語祈禱書,抄錄了他的構想) 。 Beyond these, on the whole, abortive efforts toward a common understanding, Calvin never went.除了這些,就整體而言,夭折的努力,朝著共同的認識,卡爾文沒上過。 His individual genius demanded its own expression; and he is always like himself, unlike any other.他的個人天才,要求其自己的表達,以及他總是像他自己,不像任何其他。 The many creeds fell into olivion; but the "Institutes" were recognized more and more as the sum of Reformed Theology.許多教義落入olivion ;但"機構"的人認識到越來越多的,因為這筆改革神學。 It was said after 1560, by the Jesuit St. Peter Canisius, that Calvin appeared to be taking Luther's place even among Germans.有人說,經過1560年,由耶穌會聖彼得法爾斯,卡爾文看來是走路德的地方,即使是德國人。 Three currents have ever since held their course in this development of Protestantism:三個電流自從舉行了,當然,在這個發展的新教:

the mystic, derived from Wittenberg; the logical-orthodox, from Geneva; and the heterodox-rationalist, from Zurich (Zwingli), this last being greatly increased, thanks to the Unitarians of Italy, Ochino, Fausto, and Lelio神秘的,來自維滕貝格;邏輯-東正教,從日內瓦及非正統理性,從蘇黎世( zwingli ) ,這在過去被大大提高了,多虧了unitarians的意大利, ochino ,福斯托, lelio

Socino. socino 。

To the modern world, however, Calvin stands peculiarly for the Reformation, his doctrine is supposed to contain the essence of the Gospel; and multitudes who reject Christianity mean merely the creed of Geneva.以現代世界中,不過,卡爾文立場獨有的,為改革,他的學說是為了遏制本質福音和眾多的人反對基督教的意思,只是信仰的日內瓦。

Why does this happen?為什麼這種情況呢? Because, we answer, Calvin gave himself out as following closely in the steps of St. Paul and St. Augustine.因為,我們的答案,卡爾文了自己為緊隨在步驟聖保羅和聖奧古斯丁。 The Catholic teaching at Trent he judged to be Semi-Pelagian, a stigma which his disciples fix especially on the Jesuit schools, above all, on Molina.天主教教於遄他研判為半pelagian ,一種恥辱,他的弟子定,特別是對耶穌會學校,最重要的是,對莫利納。 Hence the curious situation arises, that, while the Catholic consent of the East and West finds little or no acknowledgement as an historical fact among assailants of religion, the views which a single Reformer enunciated are taken as though representing the New Testament.因此,好奇的情況出現,即,而天主教會的同意,東部和西部的認定,很少或根本沒有承認,作為一個歷史事實,其中行凶的宗教,觀點,其中一個單一的改革者,闡述政府採取了,雖然代表了新的佐證。 In other words, a highly refined individual system, not traceable as a whole to any previous age, supplants the public teaching of centuries.或者換句話說,一個高度精煉的個別系統,而不是追查,作為一個整體,以以往任何年齡, supplants公共教學的世紀。 Calvin, who hated Scholasticism, comes before us, as Luther had already done, in the shape of a Scholastic.卡爾文,他恨士林使用,並擺在我們面前的,正如路德已經完成,在形狀的學者。 His "pure doctrine" is gained by appealing, not to tradition, the "deposit" of faith, but to argument in abstract terms exercised upon Scripture.他的"純潔學說" ,是取得有吸引力,而不是傳統文化中, "存款"的信念,但爭論抽象行使經文。 He is neither a critic nor a historian; he takes the Bible as something given; and he manipulates the Apostles' Creed in accordance with his own ideas.他既不是影評人,也不是歷史學家,他以聖經作為東西;和他操縱的使徒'的信條,按照他自己的想法。 The "Institutes" are not a history of dogma, but a treatise, only not to be called an essay because of its peremptory tone. "學院" ,不是歷史上的教條,而是一個傷寒,只是不要被所謂的一篇文章,因為它的蠻橫語氣。 Calvin annihilates the entire space, with all its developments, which lies between the death of St. John and the sixteenth century.卡爾文被殲滅,整個空間,其所有的發展,在於雙方死亡的聖約翰和16世紀。 He does, indeed, quote St. Augustine, but he leaves out all that Catholic foundation on which the Doctor of Grace built.他確引述聖奧古斯丁,但他留下的一切天主教基礎上,醫生的恩典興建。 The "Institutes of the Christian Religion" are divided into four books and exhibit a commentary on the Apostles' Creed. "研究所的基督教宗教" ,共分為四個書籍和展覽評論,對使徒們的信條。

Book I considers God the Creator, the Trinity, revelation, man's first estate and original righteousness.書,我認為上帝造物者,三位一體,啟示,人的第一產業和原義。

Book II describes the Fall of Adam, and treats of Christ the Redeemer.本書第二部分描述了亞當的墮落,以及待人的基督救世主。

Book III enlarges on justifying faith, election, and reprobation.第三部擴大辯護,信仰,選舉,和reprobation 。

Book IV gives the Presbyterian idea of the Church.四本書給長老會的構想教會。

In form the work differs from the "Summa" of St. Thomas Aquinas by using exposition where the Angelic Doctor syllogizes; but the style is close, the language good Latin of the Renaissance, and the tone elevated, though often bitter.在表格的工作,不同於"總結"的聖托馬斯阿奎那利用博覽會如天使般的醫生syllogizes ,但風格相近,語言好拉丁語的文藝復興運動,以及聲調升高,但往往是慘痛的。 Arguments employed are always ostensibly grounded on Scripture, the authority of which rests not upon fallible human reasoning, but on the internal persuasion of the Holy Spirit.論據就業始終是表面上接地對經文的權威,而在於不經犯錯誤人的推理,但對他國的內部勸導的聖靈。 Yet Calvin is embarrassed at the outset by "unsteady men" who declare themselves enlightened of the same spirit and in no want of Scripture.然而卡爾文是尷尬,在一開始,由"非穩態男人" ,他們聲稱自己開明的同樣的精神和在沒有希望的經文。 He endeavours to refute them by the instance of St. Paul and other "primitive believers," ie after all, by Catholic tradition.他的努力,來反駁他們所舉例的聖保羅和其他"原始的信徒" ,即全體大會後,由天主教會傳統。 It will be obvious, moreover, that where the "Institutes" affirm orthodox tenets they follow the Councils and the Fathers, while professing reliance on the Bible alone.這將非常明顯,而且,凡"學院"肯定東正教信條,他們遵循議會和父親,而空頭依靠聖經。 Thus we need not rehearse those chapters which deal with the Nicene and Chalcedonian formulas.因此,我們不必再重複這些章節,其中處理與nicene和chalcedonian公式。

We shall best apprehend Calvin's master-thought if we liken it to modern systems of the Unconscious, or of physical predetermination, wherein all effects lie folded up, as it were, in one First Cause, and their development in time is necessitated.我們將最好的逮捕卡爾文的主想,如果我們比喻,它以現代企業制度的無意識的,或者身體先前,在這方面,所有的影響在於折疊起來,因為它有美國,其中第一個原因,其發展的時間是必要的。 Effects are thus mere manifestations, not fresh acts, or in any way due to free will choosing its own course.的影響,因此僅僅表現,而不是新鮮的行為,或以任何方式因自由意志選擇自己的路。 Nature, grace, revelation, Heaven, and Hell do but show us different aspects of the eternal energy which works in all things.自然,雍容,啟示,天堂與地獄做,但我們展示的不同方面永恆的能源,其中工程在一切事上。 There is no free will outside the Supreme.有沒有自由意志以外最高。 Zwingli argued that, since God was infinite being, He alone existed -- there could be no other being, and secondary or created causes were but instruments moved entirely by Divine power. zwingli爭辯說,既然上帝是無限的福祉,他獨自存在-不可能有任何其他福利,並為中學或製造原因,但文書動議,完全是神的力量。 Calvin did not go to this length.卡爾文沒有去這個長度。 But he denies freedom to creatures, fallen or unfallen, except it be libertas a coactione; in other words, God does not compel man to act by brute force, yet he determines irresistibly all we do, whether good or evil.但他否認自由的動物,倒下或unfallen ,除非它被libertas一coactione ;換句話說,上帝不強迫男子行事蠻力,但他斷定勢不可擋,我們都做的,無論是善或惡。 The Supreme is indeed self-conscious -- not a blind Fate or Stoic destiny; it is by "decree" of the sovereign Lawgiver that events come to pass.最高人民法院確實是自覺-不是一個盲目的命運或斯多葛命運,它是由"法令"的宗主l awgiver事件來通過。 But for such decrees no reason can be rendered.但對於這樣的法令,沒有任何理由可以提供。 There is not any cause of the Divine will save Itself.不存在任何事業的神聖將可節省本身。 If we ask why has the Almighty acted thus and thus, we are told, "Quia ipse voluit" -- it is His good pleasure.如果我們問為什麼萬能的,因此行事,因此,我們被告知, " quia ipse voluit " -這是他好高興。 Beyond this, an explanation would be impossible, and to demand one is impiety.除此之外,如果一個解釋,將是不可能的,並要求之一是不虔誠。 From the human angle of sight, therefore God works as though without a reason.從人的角度看,所以上帝作品雖然沒有一個原因。 And here we come upon the primal mystery to which in his argument Calvin recurs again and again.在這裡,我們來後,原始神秘,在他的論點卡爾文復發,一次又一次地。 This Supreme Will fixes an absolute order, physical, ethical, religious, never to be modified by anything we can attempt.這最高人民法院將修復一個絕對命令,物理,倫理,宗教,而永遠會修改什麼,我們可以嘗試。 For we cannot act upon God, else He would cease to be the First Cause.因為我們不能付諸行動上帝,否則,他將不再是第一個原因。 Holding this clue, it is comparatively simple to trace Calvin's footsteps along the paths of history and revelation.持這線索,它相對比較簡單追查卡爾文的足跡,沿著路徑的歷史與啟示。 Luther had written that man's will is enslaved either to God or to Satan, but it is never free.路德曾寫信說,以人的意志是被奴役無論是上帝還是魔鬼,但它絕不是免費的。 Melanchthon declaimed against the "impious dogma of Free Will," adding that since all things happen by necessity according to Divine predestination, no room was left for it.梅蘭希頓declaimed反對" impious教條的自由意志" ,並稱因為所有的事情發生,就必須按照神的宿命,沒有空間留給它。 This was truly the article by which the Reformation should stand or fall.這是真正的文章,其中改造應該站或下降。 God is sole agent.上帝是獨家代理。 Therefore creation, redemption, election, reprobation are in such sense His acts that man becomes merely their vehicle and himself does nothing.因此創作,贖回,選舉, reprobation是在這種意義上,他的行為,該名男子只是成為他們的車和他本人沒有任何作用。 Luther, contending with Erasmus, declares that "God by an unchangeable, eternal, infallible will, foresees purposes and effects all things. By this thunderbolt Free Will is utterly destroyed."路德,爭創同伊拉斯謨,宣稱"上帝永恆的,永恆的,不會犯錯誤的意志,可以預見的目的和效果,所有的東西,通過這個迅雷自由意志,是完全毀滅" 。 Calvin shared Luther's doctrine of necessity to the full; but he embroiled the language by admitting in unfallen Adam a liberty of choice.卡爾文共享路德的必要性原則,以充分,但他捲入了語言所承認unfallen亞當一自由選擇的原則。 He was likewise at pains to distinguish between his own teaching and the "nature bound fast in Fate" of the Stoics.他是在同樣的痛苦,要區分自己的教學與"大自然勢必快速命運"的stoics 。 He meant by liberty, however, the absence of constraint; and the Divine wisdom which he invoked could never be made intelligible to our understanding.他的意思自由,然而,由於缺乏約束和神聖的智慧,他援引再也無法取得理解,以我們的理解。 What he rejected was the Catholic notion of the self-determining second cause.他的拒絕是天主教的概念,自我確定第二個原因。 Neither would he allow the doctrine laid down by the Fathers of Trent (Sess. VI Canon 16), that God permits evil deeds, but is not their author.無論他會允許學說規定,由父親的遄達( sess.六,佳能16 ) ,即上帝許可證壞事,但不是他們的作者。 The condemnation struck expressly at Melanchthon, who asserted that the betrayal by Judas was not less properly God's act than the vocation of St. Paul.譴責這場明文在梅蘭希頓,曾斷言,賣國由猶大是不是更少妥善上帝的法比天職聖保祿。 But by parity of reasoning it falls upon Calvinism.但平價的推理,它落在加爾文。 For the "Institutes" affirm that "man by the righteous impulsion of God does that which is unlawful," and that "man falls, the Providence of God so ordaining" (IV, 18, 2; III, 23, 8).為"學院"申明"的男子由正義衝動的上帝是否表示這是非法的" , "男子瀑布,普羅維登斯的上帝,所以ordaining " (四, 18日, 2 ;三, 23日, 8 ) 。 Yet elsewhere Calvin denied this impulse as not in accordance with the known will of the Almighty.然而,在其他地方卡爾文否認了這一說法的衝動,因為不依照已知的意志全能的。 Both he and Luther found a way of escape from the moral dilemma inflicted on them by distinguishing two wills in the Divine Nature, one public or apparent, which commanded good and forbade evil as the Scripture teaches, the other just, but secret and unsearchable, predetermining that Adam and all the reprobate should fall into sin and perish.他表示,他與路德找到了一種方法,走火通道,從道德上的兩難處境對他們通過區分兩個遺囑,在神聖的性質,其中一個公共的或明顯的,它指揮的好,並禁止罪惡,因為聖經教導說,其他公正,但秘密和unsearchable ,預先說,亞當和所有reprobate應該落入罪惡和滅亡。 At no time did Calvin grant that Adam's transgression was due to his own free will.在任何時候做卡爾文給予亞當的海侵,是因為他自己的自由意志。 Beza traces it to a spontaneous, ie a natural and necessary, movement of the spirit, in which evil could not fail to spring up. beza痕跡,它以一種自發的,即在一個自然和必要的,運動的精神,在這種邪惡的,可以不辜負春天到了。 He justifies the means -- sin and its consequences -- by the holy purpose of the Creator who, if there were no one to punish, would be incapable of showing that he is a righteously vindictive God.他所持的手段-單及其後果-由羅馬教廷的目的造物主的人,如果有任何人以懲罰,將無法顯示出他是一位正氣,懷恨在心的上帝。 As, however, man's intent was evil, he becomes a sinner while his Creator remains holy.作為,但是,男子的意圖是惡,他將成為千古罪人,而他的創造者仍然是神聖的。 The Reformed confessions will not allow that God is the author of sin -- and Calvin shows deep indignation when charged with "this disgraceful falsehood."改革後的供述中,將不會讓人們相信上帝是作者的罪孽-美女表演極大憤慨時,被控以"這是可恥的謬誤" 。 He distinguishes, like Beza, the various intentions concurring to the same act on the part of different agents- but the difficulty cannot well be got over, that, in his view, the First Cause alone is a real agent, and the rest mere instruments.他與眾不同,像beza ,各種意向並存,以同樣的行為,對部分不同代理商-但困難不能很好地得到過,在他看來,第一個原因,僅是一個真正的代理商,其餘僅僅文書。 It was objected to him that he gave no convincing reasons for the position thus taken up, and that his followers were swayed by their master's authority rather than by the force of his logic.它遭到了反對,他說,他沒有提供有說服力的理由位置,因此採取了,和他的追隨者被動搖自己的主人的權力,而不是由武力的他的邏輯。 Even an admirer, JA Froude, tells us:甚至崇拜者,司法機構政務長弗勞德,告訴我們:

To represent man as sent into the world under a curse, as incurably wicked-wicked by the constitution of his nature and wicked by eternal decree-as doomed, unless exempted by special grace which he cannot merit, or by any effort of his own obtain, to live in sin while he remains on earth, and to be eternally miserable when he leaves it-to represent him as born unable to keep the commandments, yet as justly liable to everlasting punishment for breaking them, is alike repugnant to reason and conscience, and turns existence into a hideous nightmare.代表男子送往融入世界下詛咒,因為治愈的邪惡-邪惡是由憲法的本質和邪惡的,由永恆的法令,因為注定,除非獲得豁免,由特殊的恩典,使他可沒有好處,或以任何的努力,他自己得到,以罪惡的生活,而他仍然在地球上,並可以在大智慘的時候,他離開科技,以代表他的出生無法跟上誡命,但作為公正者永恆的處罰打破他們,是同樣令人憎惡的,以理性和良知,並輪流存在成為一個可怕的惡夢。 (Short Studies, II, 3.) (短期研究的第一,二,三)

Another way to define the Reformed theology would be to contrast its view of God's eternal decrees with that taken in the Catholic Church, notably by Jesuit authors such as Molina.另一種方式來確定改革的神學,將是對比自己的觀點,上帝的永恆的法令與採取的天主教教會,尤其是耶穌會作家如莫利納。 To Calvin the ordinances of Deity seemed absolute, ie not in any way regardful of the creature's acts, which they predetermined either right or wrong; and thus reprobation -- the supreme issue between all parties -- followed upon God's unconditioned fiat, no account being had in the decree itself of man's merits or demerits.以卡爾文條例的神似乎是絕對的,即不以任何方式regardful的動物的行為,而他們預定無論對或錯,因此reprobation -最高法院之間的問題,有關各方-然後當上帝的無條件的菲亞特,沒有考慮到被曾在該法令本身的人的優點或缺點。 For God chose some to glory and others to shame everlasting as He willed, not upon foreknowledge how they would act.因為上帝選擇了一些人光榮與他人辱永恆的,因為他意志,而不是一經foreknowledge它們將如何行事。 The Jesuit school made foreknowledge of "future contingencies" or of what creatures would do in any possible juncture, the term of Divine vision "scientia media" which was logically antecedent (as a condition not a cause) to the scheme of salvation.耶穌會學校取得foreknowledge "未來突發事件" ,或什麼樣的動物會做任何可能的時刻,任期神州放眼未來"的知識傳播媒介" ,這是合乎邏輯的前因(作為一個條件而不是原因) ,該計劃的救贖。 Grace, said Catholic dogma, was offered to all men; none were excluded from it.恩典說,天主教教義,提供給所有男人;沒有被排除在外。 Adam need not have transgressed, neither was his fall pre-ordained.亞當不必transgressed ,既不是他屬於前受戒。 Christ died for the whole human race; and every one had such help from on high that the reprobate could never charge their ruin upon their Maker, since he permitted it only, without an absolute decree.基督死為整個人類和每個人有這樣的幫助,對高說, reprobate絕不可收費坑害自己的製造者,因為他不允許只,沒有一個絕對的法令。 Grace, then, was given freely; but eternal life came to the saints by merit, founded on correspondence to the Holy Spirit's impulse.寬限期,然後,給出了自由,但永生來到聖人所擇優的原則,成立於書信,以聖靈的衝動。 All these statements Calvin rejected as Pelagian, except that he would maintain, though unable to justify, the- imputation of the sinner's lapse to human nature by itself.所有這些聲明卡爾文否決,因為pelagian ,除表示,他將維持,但無法自圓其說,全歸責的千古罪人的失效,以人性本身。

To be consistent, this doctrine requires that no prevision of Adam's Fall should affect the eternal choice which discriminates between the elect and the lost.為貫徹一致,這種學說要求無預知亞當的秋天應該影響永恆的選擇,這是歧視之間的選舉權和失落。 A genuine Calvinist ought to be a supralapsarian; in other terms, the Fall was decreed as means to an end; it did not first appear in God's sight to be the sufficient cause why, if He chose, He might select some from the "massa damnata," leaving others to their decreed doom.一個真正的calvinist應是一個supralapsarian ,在其他條件,屬於被命令作為達到目的的手段,它並不首先出現在妝飾將有充分的理由為何,如果他選擇,他可能會選擇一些從"馬薩damnata " ,留下其他人,他們頒布的滅亡。 To this subject St. Augustine frequently returns in his anti-Pelagian treatises, and he lays great emphasis on the consequences to mankind as regards their final state, of God's dealing with them in fallen Adam.這個題目聖奧古斯丁經常返回他在反pelagian論文,他都十分重視對後果給人類至於他們的最終狀態,對神的處理它們在塌亞當。 But his language, unlike that of Calvin, never implies absolute rejection divorced from foreknowledge of man's guilt.但他的語言,不同的美女,從來就意味著絕對排斥脫離foreknowledge人的罪責。 Thus even to the African Father, whose views in his latter works became increasingly severe (see "On the Predestination of the Saints" and "On Correction and Grace") there was always an element of scientia media, ie prevision in the relation of God with His creatures.因此,甚至到非洲的父親,其觀點在他的後期作品變得越來越嚴重(見"關於宿命的聖人" , "關於糾正與恩典" ) ,總有一個要素的知識傳播媒介,即在預知的關係上帝與他的海洋生物。 But, to the Reformer who explained Redemption and its opposite by sheer omnipotence doing as it would, the idea that man could, even as a term of knowledge, by his free acts be considered in the Everlasting Will was not conceivable.不過,以改革派人士解釋,贖回和其相反的,由純粹的全能做,因為此舉會,主張男子可能的話,即便作為一個長遠的知識,用他自己的自由的行為,被視為在永恆的,將是不可以想像的。 As the Arian said, "How can the Eternal be begotten?"由於阿里安說: "怎樣才能永恆遺物" ? and straightway denied the generation of the Word, in like manner Calvin, "How can the contingent affect the First Cause on which it utterly depends?"和straightway否認代字,在喜歡的方式美女" ,又如何能影響到隊伍中的第一個事業,它完全取決於" ? In the old dilemma, "either God is not omnipotent or man is not self determined," the "Institutes" accept the conclusion adverse to liberty.在舊的矛盾之處, "無論是上帝不是萬能的或人為的,是不是自封的決心" , "學院" ,接受結論不良人身自由。 But it was, said Catholics, equally adverse to morals; and the system has always been criticised on that ground.但有人說,天主教徒,也同樣不利,以道德標準和制度一直受到批評,對提出的理由。 In a word, it seemed to be antinomian.總的來說,它似乎被antinomian 。

With Augustine the Geneva author professed to be at one.與奧古斯丁日內瓦作者自稱被一。 "If they have all been taken from a corrupt mass," he argued, "no marvel that they are subject to condemnation." "如果他們都被從一個腐敗的集體, "他辯稱, "沒有奇蹟,他們都受到譴責" 。 But, his critics replied, "were they not antecedently predestined to that corruption?"但是,他的批評者回答說: "他們是不是命中註定先行,以貪污" ? And "is not God unjust in treating His creatures with such cruel mystery?" "是不是上帝不公正對待他的造物這種殘忍之謎" ? To this Calvin answers, "I confess that all descendants of Adam fell by the Divine will," and that "we must return at last to God's sovereign determination, the cause of which is hidden" (Institutes, III, 23, 4).這卡爾文回答, "我坦白地說,所有的華夏子孫,亞當也由神意" ,並說: "我們必須回到最後以上帝的主權決心,有事業,這是隱性" (院所,三, 23日, 4 ) 。

"Therefore," he concludes, "some men are born devoted from the womb to certain death, that His name may be glorified in their destruction." "所以, "他的結論是, "有些人人生而專門從子宮中的某些死刑,那麼他的名字,可能是歌頌他們自取滅亡" 。 And the reason why such necessity is laid upon them?和原因,例如需要是奠定了他們那一邊嗎? "Because," says Calvin "life and death are acts of God's will rather than of his foreknowledge," and "He foresees further events only in consequence of his decree that they shall happen." "因為, "卡爾文說: "生命和死亡的行為,上帝的意志,而不是他的foreknowledge " , "他預期進一步盛事不僅在後果,他的法令,就是他們回事" 。 Finally, "it is an awful decree, I confess [horribile decretum, fateor], but none can deny that God foreknew the future final fate of man before He created him -- and that He did foreknow it because it was appointed by His own ordinance."最後, "這是一個可怕的法令,但我得承認[ horribile decretum ,失敗,但沒有人能夠否認上帝foreknew未來的最終命運男子之前,他創造了他-以及他f oreknow它,因為它是由他自己的條例" 。 Calvin, then, is a supralapsarian; the Fall was necessary; and our first parents, like ourselves, could not have avoided sinning.卡爾文話,那麼,是一個supralapsarian ;秋天是必要的;和我們的第一父母,想自己,不能,也避免了犯過失。

So far, the scheme presents a cast-iron logic at whatever expense to justice and morality.到目前為止,該計劃提出了鑄鐵邏輯在什麼犧牲,以公義和道德。 When it comes to consider human nature, its terms sound more uncertain, it veers to each extreme in succession of Pelagius and Luther.當談到要考慮人性,其職權聲音更加不明朗,它veers每個極端繼承pelagius和路德。 In St. Augustine, that nature is almost always viewed historically, not in the abstract hence as possessed by unfallen Adam it was endowed with supernatural gifts, while in his fallen children it bears the burden of concupiscence and sin.在聖奧古斯丁的,那自然是幾乎總是從歷史上來看,而不是抽象的,因此作為擁有量unfallen亞當被賦予了超自然的禮物,而在他的塌兒童負有負擔concupiscence和罪孽。 But the French Reformer, not conceding a possible state of pure nature, attributes to the first man, with Luther (in Genesis 3), such perfection as would render God's actual grace unnecessary, thus tending to make Adam self-sufficient, as the Pelagians held all men to be.但是,法國的改革者,而不是讓步,有可能國家的純天然,屬性,以第一人,與路德(成因3 ) ,這種完美的,會令上帝的恩典實際不必要的,因此,撫育,使亞當可以自給自足,作為pelagians召開全體官兵。 On the other hand, when original sin took them once captive the image of God was entirety blotted out.在另一方面,當原罪了,他們一旦圈養的形象,上帝是全部抹殺。 This article of "total depravity" also came from Luther, who expressed it in language of appalling power.這篇文章的"總沉淪" ,也來自路德他們表示,它在語言上的駭人力量。 And so the "Institutes" announce that "in man all which bears reference to the blessed life of the soul is extinct."因此, "學院"宣布說, "在人類一切負有參考之生命的靈魂,是絕跡" 。 And if it was "natural" in Adam to love God and do justice, or a part of his very essence, then by lapsing from grace he would have been plunged into an abyss below nature, where his true moral and religious being was altogether dissolved.如果要說"自然" ,在亞當愛上帝和伸張正義,或其中的一部分,他很本質,然後從停止生效的恩典,他將陷入深淵下面的性質,在那裡他的真實道德和宗教是被完全溶解。 So, at any rate, the German Protestants believed in their earlier period, nor was Calvin reluctant to echo them.所以,無論如何,德國新教徒認為,在先前的時期,也不是卡爾文不願附和他們。

Catholics distinguish two kinds of beatitude: one corresponding to our nature as a rational species and to be acquired by virtuous acts; the other beyond all that man may do or seek when left to his own faculties, and in such wise God's free gift that it is due only to acts performed under the influence of a strictly supernatural movement.天主教徒區分2種beatitude :一是對應於我們的本性,作為一個理性的物種,並取得良性行為;以外的其他所有的人,可能做或尋求的時候,留給他自己的特長,並在這種明智的上帝的免費禮物,它是因為只有以行為的影響下,在嚴格超自然的運動。 The confusion of grace with nature in Adam's essence was common to all the Reformed schools; it is peculiarly manifest in Jansenius, who strove to deduce it from St. Augustine.混亂的恩典與自然亞當的,實質上是對共同所有的學校進行改革,它是獨有的表現在jansenius ,他們力圖推斷,它從聖奧古斯丁。 And, granting the Fall, it leads by direct inference to man's utter corruption as the unregenerate child of Adam. ,並給予了秋天,它導致直接推論到人的徹底腐敗作為unregenerate兒童亞當。 He is evil in all that he thinks, or wills, or does.他是邪惡的一切,他認為,或遺囑,或是否。 Yet Calvin allows him reason and choice, though not true liberty.但美女讓他的理由和選擇,雖然不是真正的自由。 The heart was poisoned by sin, but something remained of grace to hinder its worst excesses, or to justify God's vengeance on the reprobate (over and above their original fault inherited).心臟是被毒死的,由單事情,而且仍然寬限期,以阻礙其最惡劣的暴行,或辯解上帝的復仇就reprobate (超出他們原來故障繼承) 。 On the whole, it must be said that the "Institutes" which now and then allow that God's image was not quite effaced in us, deny to mankind, so far as redemption has not touched them, any moral and religious powers whatsoever.就整體而言,它必須說, "學院" ,現在,然後讓神的形象是不太effaced美,否定了人類,就贖回還沒有觸及,任何道德和宗教權力可言。 With Calvin as with his predecessor of Wittenberg, heathen virtue is but apparent, and that of the non-Christian merely "political," or secular.與美女同他的前任的維滕貝格,異教徒的美德,只不過是顯著的,並表示,在該非基督教僅僅是"政治" ,還是世俗。 Civilization, founded on our common nature, is in such a view external only, and its justice or benevolence may claim no intrinsic value.文明,建立於我們共同的性質,就是在這種觀點的外部只,其正義或善可能聲稱,沒有內在價值。 That it has no supernatural value Catholics have always asserted; but the Church condemns those who say, with Baius, "All the works of unbelievers are sinful and the virtues of the philosophers are vices."它沒有任何超自然的價值天主教徒一直斷言,但教會譴責那些說, baius " ,所有的作品,不信是罪孽深重的美德,哲學家是罪惡" 。 Propositions equivalent to these are as follows: "Free Will not aided by God's grace, avails only to commit sin," and "God could not have created man at the beginning such as he is now born" (Props. 25, 27, 55, censured by St. Pius V, Oct., 1567, and by Urban VIII, March, 1641).命題相當於這些內容如下: "自由意志不是借助於上帝的恩典,援用只犯下罪過" , "上帝無法創造了男子在開始時,例如他現在是生於" ( props. 25 , 27 , 55 ,譴責聖比約五, 10月, 1567年,由市區八, 3月, 1641年) 。 Catholic theology admits a twofold goodness and righteousness -- the one natural, as Aristotle defines it in his "Ethics," the other supernatural inspired by the Holy Ghost.天主教神學承認雙重善良和正義-一個天然的,正如亞里士多德界定在他的"倫理" ,其他超自然的靈感來自聖靈。 Calvin throws aside every middle term between justifying faith and corrupt desire.卡爾文全中撥出每一個中期之間正當的信仰和腐敗現象的願望。 The integrity of Adam's nature once violated, he falls under the dominion of lust, which reigns in him without hindrance, save by the external grace now and again preventing a deeper degradation.誠信亞當的性質,一旦遭到侵犯,他屬於統治慾望,而籠罩在他身上沒有障礙,拯救被外在的恩典,現在又如何防止出現更深的退化。 But whatever he is or does savours of the Evil One.但是,不管他是還是savours的罪惡之一。 Accordingly the system maintained that faith (which here signifies trust in the Lutheran sense) was the first interior grace given and source of all others, as likewise that outside the Church no grace is ever bestowed.因此,該系統保持信仰(在這裡,標誌著信託在路德意義上的)是第一家內部的恩和來源的所有其他人,作為同樣認為教會之外,沒有寬限期,是以往任何時候都賜予的。

We come on these lines to the famous distinction which separates the true Church that of the predestined, from the seeming or visible, where all baptized persons meet.我們來對這些線路,以著名的區分隔開,真正教會的命中註定,從表面或可見,讓所有受洗者見面。 This falls in with Calvin's whole theory, but is never to be mistaken for the view held by Roman authorities, that some may pertain to the soul of the Church who are not members of its body.這瀑布與美女的整個理論,但絕不是要被誤認為所持的觀點羅馬當局,即有些人可能涉及到的靈魂,教會的人沒有加入其組織。 Always pursuing his idea, the absolute predestinarian finds among Christians, all of whom have heard the Gospel and received the sacraments, only a few entitled to life everlasting.一向追求自己的想法,絕對predestinarian認定,其中,基督信徒,所有的人都聽到了福音,並收到聖禮,只有極少數享有生命永恆的。 These obtain the grace which is in words offered to every one; the rest fill up the measure of their condemnation.這些獲得的恩典,這是在口頭上給予每一位;其餘填補了衡量他們的譴責。 To the reprobate, Gospel ordinances serve as a means to compass the ruin intended for them.向reprobate ,福音條例作為一種手段,指南針廢墟打算給他們。 Hereby, also, an answer is made possible when Catholics demand where the Reformed Church was prior to the Reformation.在此同時,一個答案是,可能當天主教徒的需求,而改革後的教堂宗教改革前。 Calvin replies that in every age the elect constituted the flock of Christ, and all besides were strangers, though invested with dignity and offices in the visible communion.卡爾文答复說,在每一個年齡選出構成基督的羊群,和所有的人,除了有陌生人,雖然投資與尊嚴和辦事處,在可見的共融。 The reprobate have only apparent faith.該reprobate只有明顯的信仰。 Yet they may feel as do the elect, experience similar fervours, and to the best of their judgment be accounted saints.然而,他們可能覺得像這樣選出,經驗類似fervours ,並以最好的自己的判斷力,被佔聖人。 All that is mere delusion; they are hypocrites "into whose minds God insinuates Himself, so that, not having the adoption of sons, they may yet taste the goodness of the Spirit."一切僅僅是妄想,他們是偽君子" ,其心目中神的暗示自己,因此,不具備收養的兒子,他們可能尚未嘗善的精神" 。 Thus Calvin explained how in the Gospel many are called believers who did not persevere; and so the visible Church is made up of saints that can never lose their crown, and sinners that by no effort could attain to salvation.因此卡爾文解釋如何在福音中不少是所謂的信徒,他們沒有堅持到底;等有形教會是由無數的聖人,這永遠不會失去王冠,並罪人,通過努力可以達到,以救贖。

Faith, which means assurance of election, grace, and glory, is then the heritage of none but the predestined.信仰,即保證選舉的話,恩典和榮耀,是那麼的遺產沒有,但命中註定。 But, since no real secondary cause exists man remains passive throughout the temporal series of events by which he is shown to be an adopted son of God.但是,由於沒有真正的次要原因存在男子依然被動,在整個時間的一系列事件,是由他所顯示的是被領養的上帝的兒子。 He neither acts nor, in the Catholic sense co-operates with his Redeemer.他既不行為也不是,在天主教意義上的協調運作,與他的救贖主。 A difference in the method of conversion between Luther and Calvin may here be noted.差別在法之間的轉換路德和卡爾文可以在這裡值得注意的。 The German mystic begins, as his own experience taught him, with the terrors of the law.德國神秘的開始,正如他自己的經驗告訴他,與恐怖的法律。 The French divine who had never gone through that stage, gives the first place to the Gospel; and repentance, instead of preceding faith, comes after it.法國神聖的人從來沒有經歷過那個階段,給人的第一地點,以福音;悔改,而不是先前的信念,是以後。 He argued that by so disposing of the process, faith appeared manifestly alone, unaccompanied by repentance, which, otherwise, might claim some share of merit.他認為,這樣處置過程中,信仰出現明顯單,舉目無親由悔過書,其中,否則的話,可能會取得一些份額的高招。 The Lutherans, moreover, did not allow absolute predestination.該lutherans ,此外,不容許絕對的宿命。 And their confidence in being themselves justified, ie saved, was unequal to Calvin's requirements.他們的信心正在自己的理由,即節省了,是不平等的卡爾文的要求。 For he made assurance inevitable as was its object to the chosen soul.因為他作出了保證,不可避免的是它的對象所選擇的靈魂。 Nevertheless, he fancied that between himself and the sounder medieval scholastics no quarrel need arise touching the principle of justification -- namely, that "the sinner being delivered gratuitously from his doom becomes righteous."不過,他希罕認為自己與健全中世紀scholastics沒有吵架,有需要時可觸及原則的理由-即, "千古罪人被交付無償從他的厄運,成為正義的" 。 Calvin overlooked in these statements the vital difference which accounts for his aberration from the ancient system.卡爾文忽略了在這些聲明中的重要差異,佔他的畸變從古代制度。 Catholics held that fallen man kept in some degree his moral and religious faculties, though much impaired, and did not lose his free will.天主教徒認為,塌男子繼續在一定程度上,他的道德和宗教學系,雖然還有許多受損,但並沒有失去他的自由意志。 But the newer doctrine affirmed man's total incompetence, he could neither freely consent nor ever resist, when grace was given, if he happened to be predestinate.但較新的學說肯定人的總數不稱職,他可以自由地既不同意,也不抗拒,當恩典是由於,如果他正好是predestinate 。 If not, justification lay beyond his grasp.如果不是,理由在於他無法掌握。 However, the language of the "Institutes" is not so uncompromising as Luther's had been.然而,語言的"研究所" ,是不那麼強硬,因為路德的已。 God first heals the corrupt will, and the will follows His guidance; or, we may say, cooperates.神首先是醫治腐敗的意志和意願如下他的指導;或者,我們可以說,合作。

The one final position of Calvin is that omnipotent grace of itself substitutes a good for an evil will in the elect, who do nothing towards their own conversion but when converted are accounted just.在最後一個位置的卡爾文是無所不能的恩典本身代用品一個良好的一個邪惡的,將在選出,他們什麼也不做對他們自己的轉換,但轉換時,都佔了公正。 In all the original theology of the Reformation righteousness is something imputed, not indwelling in the soul.在所有原始神學的改造正義是可扣抵,而不是留置在靈魂。 It is a legal fiction when compared with what the Catholic Church believes, namely, that justice or sanctification involves a real gift, a quality bestowed on the spirit and inherent, whereby it becomes the thing it is called.這是一個法律擬制的時候相比,有什麼天主教會認為,那就是正義或成聖涉及到一個真正的禮品,優質賜予的精神和固有的,使其成為東西,它是所謂的。 Hence the Council of Trent declares (Sess. VI) that Christ died for all men, it condemns (Canon XVII) the main propositions of Geneva, that "the grace of justification comes only to the predestinate," and that "the others who are called receive an invitation but no grace, being doomed by the Divine power to evil."因此安理會的遄達宣布( sess.六)基督死去的所有男性,它譴責(佳能十七)的主要命題日內瓦說, "恩典的理由,只能向predestinate " ,並說: "其他人所謂接受邀請,但沒有風度,被注定由神力,以惡" 。 So Innocent X proscribed in Jansenius the statement: "It is Semipelagian to affirm that Christ died for all men, or shed His blood in their behalf."所以無辜x取締jansenius聲明說: "這是semipelagian申明基督而死的所有男人,或大棚,他的血液在他們的代表" 。 In like manner Trent rejected the definition of faith as "confidence in being justified without merit"; grace was not "the feeling of love," nor was justification the "forgiveness of sin," and apart from a special revelation no man could be infallibly sure that he was saved.同樣地遄拒絕的定義信念作為"的信心,正正當,沒有好處" ;寬限期,是不是"感覺愛情" ,也不是理由, "赦罪" ,除了有一個特殊的啟示,沒有人可以infallibly相信他挽回一命。 According to Calvin the saint was made such by his faith, and the sinner by want of it stood condemned, but the Fathers of Trent distinguished a dead faith, which could never justify, from faith animated by charity -- and they attributed merit to all good works done through Divine inspiration.據卡爾文聖作了這樣的,由他的信仰,以及罪人所想的,它經受譴責,但父親的遄達傑出的死信仰,可從來沒有合理的理由,從信仰的動畫片,由慈善機構-他們歸功於優異所有好的作品透過神的啟示。 But in the Genevese doctrine faith itself is not holy.但是,在日內瓦主義信仰本身並不神聖。 This appears very singular; and no explanation has ever been vouchsafed of the power ascribed to an act or mean, itself destitute of intrinsic qualities, neither morally good nor in any way meritorious, the presence or absence of which nevertheless fixes our eternal destiny.這似乎是很奇異;沒有解釋從未vouchsafed的權力歸因於一種行為或意思,本身貧困的內在品質,無論是在道義上的好,也不以任何方式功勳,存在與否,不過補丁我們永恆的命運。

But since Christ alone is our righteousness, Luther concluded that the just man is never just in himself; that concupiscence, though resisted, makes him sin damnably in all he does, and that he remains a sinner until his last breath.但由於基督僅是我們的義,路德總結時表示,剛剛男子,是永遠不會只是在自己; concupiscence ,雖然抗拒,使他成為單damnably在所有他,而他仍然是一個罪人,直到生命最後一息。 Thus even the "Solid Declaration" teaches, though in many respects toning down the Reformer's truculence.因此,即使"固體宣言"的教導說,雖然在許多方面淡化了改革者的truculence 。 Such guilt, however, God overlooks where faith is found -- the one unpardonable sin is want of faith.這種內疚,不過,上帝忽略了那裡的信仰是發現-一個不可饒恕的罪過,是想信念。 "Pecca fortiter sed crede fortius" -- this Lutheran epigram, "Sin as you like provided you believe," expresses in a paradox the contrast between corrupt human nature, filthy still in the very highest saints, and the shadow of Christ, as, falling upon them, it hides their shame before God. " pecca fortiter的SED Crede ) fortius " -這路德警句, "罪惡如你所願提供的,你相信" ,表示在一個悖論的對比舞弊人性,污穢仍處於非常高的聖人,與影子基督的,因為,下降後,他們的,它躲在自己的恥辱,上帝面前。 Here again the Catholic refuses to consider man responsible except where his will consents; the Protestant regards impulse and enticement as constituting all the will that we have.這裡再次天主教拒絕考慮負責人,除非他會同意;新教方面的衝動和誘惑,作為構成所有會說,我們做到了。 These observations apply to Calvin -- but he avoids extravagant speech while not differing from Luther in fact.這些意見適用於卡爾文-但他迴避了奢華的講話,而不是不同路德在的事實。 He grants that St. Augustine would not term involuntary desires sin; then he adds, "We, on the contrary, deem it to be sin whenever a man feels any desires forbidden by Divine law -- and we assert the depravity to be sin which produces them" (Institutes, III, 2, 10).他說,贈款聖奧古斯丁不會任期自願慾望單,然後他補充說, "我們正好相反,認為它是單每當一名男子覺得任何慾望所禁止的神聖法則-我們都聲稱其墮落將其中單他們生產的" (院所,三,二, 10 ) 。 On the hypothesis of determinism, held by every school of the Reformers, this logic is unimpeachable.對假說的宿命論舉行,由每所學校的改革者,這個邏輯是無可指責的。 But it leads to strange consequences.但它會導致奇怪的後果。 The sinner commits actions which the saint may also indulge in; but one is saved the other is lost; and so the entire moral contents of Christianity are emptied out.千古罪人犯的行動,其中聖也可能沉迷,但一個是節約,另一個是損失;所以整個德育的內容,基督教是掏空了。 Luther denominated the saint's liberty freedom from the law.路德計價聖人的人身自由不受法律。 And Calvin, "The question is not how we can be righteous, but how, though unworthy and unrighteous, we may be considered righteous."美女, "問題不在於我們如何能夠得到正義,而是如何,雖然卑微的不義的,我們可能會被視為正義的" 。 The law may instruct and exhort, but "it has no place in the conscience before God's tribunal."該法可指示和勸告,但"它沒有發生在良心上帝面前的法庭" 。 And if Christians advert to the law, "they see that every work they attempt or meditate is accursed" (Institutes, III, 19, 2, 4).如果基督徒的廣告,向法" ,他們看到每一個工作,他們企圖或打坐是招致譴責" (院所,三, 19 , 2 , 4 ) 。 Leo X had condemned Luther's thesis, "In every good work the just man sins."利奧x譴責了路德的論斷, "在每一個良好的工作剛剛男子罪孽" 。 Baius fell under censure for asserting (Props. 74, 75) that "concupiscence in the baptized is a sin, though not imputed." baius下跌的責難下,為斷言( props. 74 , 75 )表示, " concupiscence在受洗是一種罪過,但不是歸罪於" 。 And, viewing the whole theory, Catholics have asked whether a sinfulness which exists quite independent of the will is not something substantial, like the darkness of the Manichæans, or essential to us who are finite beings. ,並觀看整個理論,天主教徒們詢問的罪孽,其中存在著相當獨立的意志,是不是很龐大,像黑暗中的manichæans ,還是有必要對我們的人是有限的。

At all events Calvin seems entangled in perplexities on the subject, for he declares expressly that the regenerate are "liable every moment at God's judgment-seat to sentence of death" (Instit., III, 2, 11); yet elsewhere he tempers his language with a "so to speak," and explains it as meaning that all human virtue is imperfect.在所有比賽中卡爾文看來糾纏於惑就此事,因為他宣布明確表示,再生,是"承擔責任的每一時刻,在上帝的判決議席,以判處死刑" ( instit. ,三,二, 11 ) ,但在其他地方,他自己的脾氣語言,具有"可以這麼說" ,並解釋,它的意思是,每個人的美德,是不完善的。 He would certainly have subscribed to the "Solid Declaration," that the good works of the pious are not necessary to salvation.他一定會簽署了"堅實的宣言" ,認為好的作品的虔誠是沒有必要的救贖。 With Luther, he affirms the least transgression to be a mortal sin, even involuntary concupiscence -- and as this abides in every man while he lives, all that we do is worthy of punishment (Instit., II, 8, 68, 59).同路德,他肯定至少有越軌行為是一個致命的罪過,甚至自願concupiscence -隨著這種習性每一個男人,而他的生命,我們所有做的,是值得的處罰( i nstit.第一,第二,第8 ,第6 8條, 5 9條) 。 And again, "There never yet was any work of a religious man which, examined by God's severe standard would not be condemnable" (Ibid., III, 14,11).並再次表示"有,但絕不是任何工作的一個宗教人,其中審核通過上帝的嚴峻標準將不會被應受譴責" (同上,第III , 14,11 ) 。 The Council of Trent had already censured these axioms by asserting that God does not command impossibilities, and that His children keep His word.安理會的遄已公開譴責這些公理,聲稱上帝不指揮不可能,而且他的孩子們真正履行諾言。 Innocent X did the like when he proscribed as heretical the fifth proposition of Jansenius, "Some commandments of God are impossible to the just who will and endeavour; nor is the grace by which they should become possible given to them."無辜x沒有像當他被禁為邪教第五命題jansenius , "有些誡命,上帝是不可能的,以正義的人的意志和努力,也不是恩典,使他們應成為可能給予他們" 。

Two important practical consequences may be drawn from this entire view: first, that conversion takes place in a moment -- and so all evangelical Protestants believe; and, second, that baptism ought not to be administered to infants, seeing they cannot have the faith which justifies.兩個重要的實際後果可能是來自這整個的看法:第一,轉換發生在一剎那間-等所有福音派新教徒相信;第二,洗禮,不應該加以管理,以嬰兒,看到他們不能有誠意哪些是合理的。 This latter inference produced the sect of Anabaptists against whom Calvin thunders as he does, against other "frenzied" persons, in vehement tones.這後一種推理產生該教派的anabaptists人卡爾文天邊的雷聲就要像他那樣,對其他"喪心病狂"的人,在激烈的聲調。 Infant baptism was admitted, but its value, as that of every ordinance, varied with the predestination to life or to death of the recipient.嬰兒洗禮被接納,但它的價值,因為這每一個條例,形式多樣,與宿命生命或死亡的收件人。 To Calvinists the Church system was an outward life beneath which the Holy Spirit might be present or absent, not according to the dispositions brought by the faithful, but as grace was decreed.以calvinists教會系統是一個外向生活下方,其中聖靈可能出席或缺席,而不是根據該處分所帶來的信徒,但作為寬限期,是命令。 For good works could not prepare a man to receive the sacraments worthily any more than to be justified in the beginning.對於好的作品,可以不編制一名男子接受聖禮抱負任何以上是合理的,在一開始的。 If so, the Quakers might well ask, what is the use of sacraments when we have the Spirit?如果是的話,貴格會可能會問,什麼是使用聖禮的時候,我們有精神嗎? And especially did this reasoning affect the Eucharist.尤其是這種推理的影響,聖體聖事。 Calvin employs the most painful terms in disowning the sacrifice of the Mass. No longer channels of grace, to Melanchthon the sacraments are "Memorials of the exercise of faith," or badges to be used by Christians.卡爾文僱用了最痛苦的條款disowning犧牲了馬薩諸塞州不再渠道的寬限期,以梅蘭希頓聖禮,是"奏摺對香港行使信仰" ,或者肩章被人利用的光榮任務。 From this point of view, Christ's real presence was superfluous, and the acute mind of Zwingli leaped at once to that conclusion, which has ever since prevailed among ordinary Protestants.從這個角度來看,基督的真實存在是多餘的,以及急性心的zwingli躍居立即這一結論,其中有自佔了上風當做一般新教徒。 But Luther's adherence to the words of the Scripture forbade him to give up the reality, though he dealt with it in his peculiar fashion.但路德的堅持的話,聖經,不容許他放棄現實中,雖然他處理的,它在其獨特的時裝。 Bucer held an obscure doctrine, which attempted the middle way between Rome and Wittenberg.布策爾舉行的一個晦澀的學說,它企圖在中間道路之間的羅馬和維滕貝格。 To Luther the sacraments serve as tokens of God's love; Zwingli degrades them to covenants between the faithful.以路德聖禮作為令牌上帝的愛; zwingli逐漸退化,他們之間的盟約的忠誠。 Calvin gives the old scholastic definition and agrees with Luther in commending their use, but he separates the visible element proffered to all from the grace which none save the elect may enjoy.卡爾文讓老學術上的定義,並同意路德,在讚揚他們的使用,但他割裂了有形要素proffered向所有從寬限期,其中無救選出,可享有。 He admits only two sacraments, Baptism and the Lord's Supper.他承認,只有兩個聖禮,洗禮和主的晚餐。 Even these neither contain nor confer spiritual graces; they are signs, but not efficacious as regards that which is denoted by them.即使這些都不包含,也沒有授予精神文明青睞,他們的跡象,但並沒有什麼效用至於說這是記他們。 For inward gifts, we must remember, do not belong to the system, whereas Catholics believe in ordinances as acts of the Man-God, producing the effects within the soul which He has promised, "He that eateth Me shall live by Me."抵港禮物,我們一定要記住,不屬於該系統,而天主教徒認為,在條例的行為,該名男子神,產生的影響,內部的靈魂,他已經答應, "他說, eateth我將生活由我" 。

When the Church's tradition was thrown aside, differences touching the Holy Eucharist sprang up immediately among the Reformers which have never found a reconciliation.當教會的傳統,被擱置分歧感人的聖體聖事擺出來,立即之間改革者,其中有沒有找到和解。 To narrate their history would occupy a volume.以敘說自己的歷史將會佔有量。 It is notable, however, that Calvin succeeded where Bucer had failed, in a sort of compromise, and the agreement of Zurich which he inspired was taken up by the Swiss Protestants.值得注意的是,不過,這美女的地方取得了成功布策爾已經失敗了,在某種妥協,該協議的蘇黎世,他的靈感是由瑞士新教徒。 Elsewhere it led to quarrels, particularly among the Lutherans, who charged him with yielding too much.在其他地方,這導致爭吵,尤其是lutherans ,他們指控他與高產太多。 He taught that the Body of Christ is truly present in the Eucharist, and that the believer partakes of it that the elements are unchanged, and that the Catholic Mass was idolatry.他告訴我們,基督的身體是真正的,目前在聖體聖事,並認為信奉參與大的,它說,分子不變,並認為天主教彌撒是偶像崇拜。 Yet his precise meaning is open to question.但他的確切意義是值得商榷的。 That he did not hold a real objective presence seems clear from his arguing against Luther, as the "black rubric" of the Common Prayer Book argues -- Christ's body, he says, is in heaven.他並沒有進行實客觀存在,似乎很明顯,從他的爭論,對路德,為"黑色標題"的共同祈禱書辯稱-基督的身體,他說,在天上。 Therefore, it cannot be on earth.因此,我們不能把地球上。 The reception was a spiritual one; and this perfectly orthodox phrase might be interpreted as denying a true corporal presence.這次招待會是一種精神之一;這絕對正統短語可能被解釋為否定一個真正的下士的存在。 The Augsburg Confession, revised by its author Melanchthon, favoured ambiguous views -- at last he declared boldly for Calvin, which amounted to an acknowledgment that Luther's more decided language overshot the mark.該奧格斯堡供述,修訂其作者梅蘭希頓,喜歡模棱兩可的意見-最後他大膽地宣布,為卡爾文,相當於承認路德的決定,更超越語言的標誌。 The "Formula of Concord" was an attempt to rescue German Churches from this concession to the so-called Sacramentarians; it pronounced, as Calvin never would have done, that the unworthy communicant receives Our Lord's Body; and it met his objection by the strange device of "ubiquity" -- namely, that the glorified Christ was everywhere. "公式的和諧"是一種嘗試,以拯救德國教堂從這個讓步,即所謂sacramentarians ;宣判,正如卡爾文從未想到自己會做的,這不但不配communicant收到我們的主的身體,並且會見了他的反對意見,由奇怪裝置的"無處不在" -即,在歌頌耶穌是無處不在。 But these quarrels lie outside our immediate scope.但這些吵架不在我們眼前的範圍。

As Calvin would not grant the Mass to be a sacrifice, nor the ministers of the Lord's Supper to be priests, that conception of the Church which history traces back to the earliest Apostolic times underwent a corresponding change.至於卡爾文將不給予大眾是一個犧牲者,也不是長對主的晚餐被祭司,即觀,教堂,其中歷史追溯最早的使徒時代經歷了相應的變化。 The clergy were now "Ministers of the Word," and the Word was not a tradition, comprising Scripture in its treasury, but the printed Bible, declared all-sufficient to the mind which the Spirit was guiding.教士現在的"部長的一句話, "這個詞不是一個傳統,包括經文,在其庫,但印刷聖經,宣布全足以心,其中的精神,是指導。 Justification by faith alone, the Bible, and the Bible only, as the rule of faith -- such were the cardinal principles of the Reformation.因信稱義,就有聖經和聖經只,作為法治的信仰-這種人基本原則的改革。 They worked at first destructively, by abolishing the Mass and setting up private judgment in opposition to pope and bishops.他們工作在第一破壞性,取消了群眾,並設立私人判斷,反對教皇和主教。 Then the Anabaptists arose.那麼anabaptists出來了。 If God's word sufficed, what need of a clergy?如果上帝的話語就足夠,有什麼需要的是一個神職人員? The Reformers felt that they must restore creeds and enforce the power of the Church over dissidents.改革者認為,他們必須恢復信條和執行的權力,教會超過異見人士。 Calvin, who possessed great constructive talent, built his presbytery on a democratic foundation -- the people were to choose, but the ministers chosen were to rule.卡爾文,誰擁有巨大的建設性人才,建立了他的長老對一個民主的基礎-人的選擇,但部長們選擇的人來統治。 Christian freedom consisted in throwing off the yoke of the Papacy, it did not allow the individual to stand aloof from the congregation.基督教自由構成,在擺脫了枷鎖的教皇國,它不容許個人立場超然,由眾。 He must sign formulas, submit to discipline, be governed by a committee of elders.他必須簽署公式,服從紀律,要受一些委員會的長者。 A new sort of Catholic Church came into view, professing that the Bible was its teacher and judge, but never letting its members think otherwise than the articles drawn up should enjoin.一種新的天主教教會生效來看,空頭認為,聖經是其師資和判斷,但絕不允許其成員認為,否則超過條款制訂應責成。 None were allowed in the pulpit who were not publicly called, and ordination, which Calvin regarded almost as a sacrament, was conferred by the presbytery.沒有人被允許在講道壇上的人並沒有公開呼籲,和排序,其中卡爾文算是幾乎一樣從樓上掉了,被授予由長老。

In his Fourth Book the great iconoclast, to whom in good logic only the Church invisible should have signified anything, makes the visible Church supreme over Christians, assigns to it the prerogatives claimed by Rome, enlarges on the guilt of schism, and upholds the principle, Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus.在他的第四本書大孤星叛逆者,向誰在良好的邏輯只能教會無形的,應該顯示出任何東西,使有形教會最高超過基督教徒,分配給它的特權聲稱羅馬,擴大了對有罪裂,並堅持原則婚外情ecclesiam nulla salus 。 He will not allow that corrupt morals in the clergy, or a passing eclipse of doctrine by superstition, can excuse those who, on pretence of a purer Gospel, leave it.他不會允許這種有傷風化在神職人員,或路過偏食學說迷信,都不能原諒的人,就打著純福音,離開它。 The Church is described in equivalent terms as indefectible and infallible.教會是描述當量為indefectible和犯錯誤的。 All are bound to hear and obey what it teaches.一切都是必然,聽取並服從它的教導。 Luther had spoken of it with contempt almost everywhere in his first writings; to him the individual guided by the Holy Spirit was autonomous.路德曾談到它與蔑視幾乎無處不在,他的第一著作;給他個人的引導下,由聖靈是自主性。 But Calvin taught his followers so imposing a conception of the body in which they were united as to bring back a hierarchy in effect if not in name.但卡爾文教導他的信徒,使強加的概念,身體,使他們團結在一起,以帶回等級的影響,如果不能在名稱。 "Where the ministry of Word and Sacraments is preserved," he concludes, "no moral delinquencies can take away the Church's title." " ,而財政部的Word和聖禮,是保存下來" ,他說, "在道義上沒有拖欠情況,可以拿走了教會的名稱" 。 He had nevertheless, broken with the communion in which he was born.他曾儘管如此,打破了受教育者與共融他在其中誕生了。 The Anabaptists retorted that they did not owe to his new-fashioned presbytery the allegiance he had cast away -- the Quakers, who held with him by the Inward Light, more consistently refused all jurisdiction to the visible Church.該anabaptists反駁說,他們沒有欠他的新守舊長老效忠他已擺脫-貴格,他們曾與他所外來光線,更一貫地拒絕了所有司法管轄權,以有形的教會。

One sweeping consequence of the Reformation is yet to be noticed.一個籠統的後果,改革仍有待發現。 As it denied the merit of good works even in the regenerate, all those Catholic beliefs and ordinances which implied a Communion of Saints actively helping each other by prayer and self-sacrifice were flung aside.因為它剝奪了優異的優秀作品,即使在再生,所有這些天主教的信仰和條例,這就意味著共融的聖人積極協助對方與祈禱和自我犧牲精神,分別是偏遠的一邊。 Thus Purgatory, Masses for the dead, invocation of the blessed in Heaven, and their intercession for us are scouted by Calvin as "Satan's devices."因此煉獄,群眾為死難者祈禱的祝福在天上,他們的干涉,我們正在尋找由卡爾文為"撒旦的裝置" 。 A single argument gets rid of them all: do they not make void the Cross of Christ our only Redeemer?一個單一的論點,摒棄了他們全部:難道他們不作無效基督的十字架我們唯一的救贖? (Instit., III, 5, 6). ( instit. ,三,五,六) 。 Beza declared that "prayer to the saints destroys the unity of God." beza宣稱的"祈禱向聖人破壞團結的上帝" 。 The Dutch Calvinists affirmed of them, as the Epicureans of their deities, that they knew nothing about what passes on earth.荷蘭calvinists肯定的,作為epicureans他們的神靈,他們不知道什麼通行證地球。 Wherever the Reformers triumphed, a wholesale destruction of shrines and relics took place.而改革者的勝利,以批發方式銷毀神龕和文物發生。 Monasticism, being an ordered system of mortification on Catholic principles, offended all who thought such works needless or even dangerous -- it fell, and great was the fall thereof, in Protestant Europe.修道生活,作為一個有序的制度mortification對天主教的原則,得罪了所有的人以為這樣的作品不用或者甚至是危險的-它下跌,偉大的是秋天時,在基督教歐洲。 The Calendar had been framed as a yearly ritual, commemorating Our Lord's life and sufferings, with saints' days filling it up.日曆已被誣陷為每年儀式,紀念我們的主的生活和疾苦,與聖人'天內灌裝了。 Calvin would tolerate the Swiss of Berne who desired to keep the Gospel festivals; but his Puritan followers left the year blank, observing only the Sabbath, in a spirit of Jewish legalism.卡爾文會容忍瑞士的伯爾尼,他們想要把福音節日,但他的清教徒追隨者離開了一年的空白,觀測只有安息日,本著猶太法家。 After such a fashion the Church was divorced from the political order -- the living Christian ceased to have any distinct relation with his departed friends; the saints became mere memories, or were suspected of Popery; the churches served as houses of preaching, where the pulpit had abolished the altar; and Christian art was a thing of the past.經過這樣的方式,教會脫離了政治秩序-生活基督教不再有任何明顯的關係,與他的朋友離開;聖人變成了記憶,或者被懷疑的p opery;教會擔任房子的說教,而講壇已經廢除的祭壇;和基督教藝術是過去的事。 The Reformers, including Calvin, appealed so confidently to St. Augustine's volumes that it seems only fair to note the real difference which exists between his doctrine and theirs.改革者,其中包括卡爾文呼籲,所以理直氣壯地向聖奧古斯丁的體積,它似乎是唯一公平的注意,真正的分歧,這之間存在著他的學說和他們的建議。 Cardinal Newman sums it up as follows:紅衣主教紐曼概括起來如下:

The main point is whether the Moral Law can in its substance be obeyed and kept by the regenerate.這點主要是否道德律,可以在它的實質遵守和保存由再生。 Augustine says, that whereas we are by nature condemned by the Law, we are enabled by the grace of God to perform it unto our justification; Luther [and Calvin equally] that, whereas we are condemned by the law, Christ has Himself performed it unto our justification -- Augustine, that our righteousness is active; Luther, that it is passive; Augustine, that it is imparted, Luther that it is only imputed; Augustine, that it consists in a change of heart; Luther, in a change of state.奧古斯丁說,而我們是從本質上的譴責,法律的,我們所創造出天主的恩典,以履行它不欲,我們的理由;路德[美女同樣] ,而我們受到譴責,受到法律的,基督自己的表現,它祂對我們的理由-奧古斯丁,我們的正義感,是活躍;路德的,它是被動的;奧古斯丁的,它是傳授,路德說,它是唯一可扣抵;奧古斯丁,它存在於一種改變主意;路德,在一個變化國家。 Luther maintains that God's commandments are impossible to man Augustine adds, impossible without His grace; Luther that the Gospel consists of promises only Augustine, that it is also a law, Luther, that our highest wisdom is not to know the Law, Augustine says instead, to know and keep it -- Luther says, that the Law and Christ cannot dwell together in the heart.路德認為上帝的誡命,是不可能的男子奧古斯丁補充說,不可能沒有他的文采,路德認為福音構成的承諾,只有奧古斯丁,它也是一個法律,路德,我們的最高智慧,是不知道法律的,奧古斯丁說,而不是,讓他們知道並使其保持-路德說,認為法律與基督不能糾纏在一起,在心中。 Augustine says that the Law is Christ; Luther denies and Augustine maintains that obedience is a matter of conscience.奧古斯丁說,該法是基督;路德否認和奧古斯丁認為,服從是一個關乎良心的問題。 Luther says that a man is made a Christian not by working but by hearing; Augustine excludes those works only which are done before grace is given; Luther, that our best deeds are sins; Augustine, that they are really pleasing to God (Lectures on Justification, ch. ii, 58).路德說,一個男人是一個基督教不是工作,而是由聽證會;奧古斯丁排除這些作品不僅是前所做的恩典是給予;路德,我們最好的事蹟,是捷聯慣導系統;奧古斯丁,它們確實是令人高興的神(講座理由的,你的第二節, 58 ) 。

As, unlike the Lutheran, those Churches which looked up to Calvin as their teacher did not accept one uniform standard, they fell into particular groups and had each their formulary.因為,不像路德,那些教堂,其中被奉為以美女作為自己的老師並沒有接受一個統一的標準,他們落入特定群體,並有自己的每一個處方。 The three Helvetic Confessions, the Tetrapolitan, that of Basle, and that composed by Bullinger belong respectively to 1530, 1532, 1536.三個helvetic供述中, tetrapolitan ,即巴塞爾委員會,並組成由所屬布凌格分別為1530 ,第1532 , 1536 。 The Anglican 42 Articles of 1553, composed by Cranmer and Ridley, were reduced to 39 under Elizabeth in 1562.聖公會42條的1553年,由克蘭默和利禮賢,分別減至39下,黃錢其濂1562 。 They bear evident tokens of their Calvinistic origin, but are designedly ambiguous in terms and meaning.他們具有明顯的記號,他們calvinistic出身,但designedly含糊的條款和含義。 The French Protestants, in a Synod at Paris, 1559, framed their own articles.法國新教徒,在主教會議在巴黎, 1559號決議的框架,他們自己的文章。 In 1562 those of the Netherlands accepted a profession drawn up by Guy de Bres and Saravia in French, which the Synod of Dort (1574) approved. 1562那些對荷蘭接受了一門專業所制訂的傢伙德BREs裡面和saravia法語,其中主教的dort ( 1574年)批准。 A much more celebrated meeting was held at this place 1618-19, to adjudicate between the High Calvinists, or Supralapsarians, who held unflinchingly to the doctrine of the "Institutes" touching predestination and the Remonstrants who opposed them.一個更為慶祝召開協調會議,在這個地方, 1618年至1619年,作出裁決,在與高級calvinists ,或supralapsarians ,持堅定不移地以中庸之道"機構"的感人宿命和remonstrants持反對意見。 Gomar led the former party; Arminius, though he died before the synod, in 1609, had communicated his milder views to Uytenbogart and Episcopius, hence called Arminians. gomar為首的前黨; arminius ,雖然他去世前主教,在1609年,曾將他的溫和觀點uytenbogart和埃皮斯科皮厄斯,因此所謂arminians 。 They objected to the doctrine of election before merit, that it made the work of Christ superfluous and inexplicable.他們反對中庸之道選舉之前,擇優的原則,即它的工作,基督是多餘和莫名其妙。 The Five Articles which contained their theology turned on election, adoption, justification, sanctification, and sealing by the Spirit, all which Divine acts presuppose that man has been called, has obeyed, and is converted.該五篇文章,其中載有其神學開啟選舉,收養,理由,成聖,並密封所體現的精神,所有這神聖的行為,假定這名男子已呼籲,有服從,並轉化。 Redemption is universal, reprobation due to the sinner's fault and not to God's absolute decree.贖回是普遍性, reprobation由於罪人的過錯而不是上帝的絕對命令。 In these and the like particulars, we find the Arminians coming close to Tridentine formulas.在這些以及類似的詳情時,我們發現arminians接近德律但丁的公式。 The "Remonstrance" of 1610 embodied their protest against the Manichaean errors, as they said, which Calvin had taken under his patronage. "諫" , 1610年,體現了他們的抗議反對摩尼教錯誤,因為他們說,這卡爾文採取了根據他的使用量。 But the Gomarists renewed his dogmas; and their belief met a favourable reception among the Dutch, French, and Swiss.但gomarists延長了他的教條和自己的信仰達到一個良好的接待,其中荷蘭語,法語和瑞士。 In England the dispute underwent many vicissitudes.在英國的爭議經歷了許多滄桑。 The Puritans, as afterwards their Nonconformist descendants, generally sided with Gomar; the High Church party became Arminian.清教徒,因為他們事後nonconformist後裔,從總體片面與gomar ;高級教會黨成為arminian 。 Wesley abandoned the severe views of Calvin; Whitefield adopted them as a revelation.韋斯利拋棄了嚴重的意見卡爾文; Whitefield的通過他們的一個啟示。 The Westminster Assembly (1643-47) made an attempt to unite the Churches of Great Britain on a basis of Calvinism, but in vain.西敏寺議會( 1643年至1647年)所作的一項嘗試,以團結教會大英帝國的一個基礎加爾文,但不成功。 Their Catechism -- the Larger and the Smaller -- enjoyed authority by Act of Parliament.他們講授-規模較大和較小-享有的權力,國會的法案。 John Knox had, in 1560 edited the "First Book of Discipline," which follows Geneva, but includes a permissive ritual.約翰諾克斯曾在1560年主編的"第一本書的紀律" ,這是繼日內瓦,但包括一個寬容的例行公事。 The "Second Book of Discipline" was sent out by a congregation under Andrew Melville's influence in 1572, and in 1592 the whole system received Parliamentary sanction. "第二本書有紀律"的是派出由眾之下安德魯梅爾維爾的影響,在第1572和1592年整個系統獲得議會批准。 But James I rejected the doctrines of Dort.但詹姆斯一世拒絕學說dort 。 In Germany the strange idea was prevalent that civil rulers ought to fix the creed of their subjects, Cujus regio, ejus religio.在德國一個奇怪的想法很普遍,民間統治者應該訂定信條加強學科建設, cujus區選, ejus religio 。 Hence an alternation and confusion of formulas ensued down to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.因此一個輪崗和混亂的公式,隨後回落到和平的威斯特伐利亞於1648年。 Frederick III, Count Palatine, put forward, in 1562, the Heidelberg Catechism, which is of Calvin's inspiration.馮三,計數腭,提出, 1562 ,海德堡問答,這是卡爾文的靈感。 John George of Anhalt-Dessau laid down the same doctrine in 20 Articles (1597).約翰喬治的安哈爾特- Dessau的訂定相同的學說在20篇( 1597 ) 。 Maurice of Hesse-Cassel patronized the Synod of Dort; and John Sigismund of Brandenburg, exchanging the Lutheran tenets for the Genevese, imposed on his Prussians the "Confession of the Marches."莫里斯黑森州- cassel光顧主教的dort和John sigismund的勃蘭登堡州,交換路德原理為日內瓦,對他的prussians "交代的行軍" 。 In general, the reformed Protestants allowed dogmatic force to the revised Confession of Augsburg (1540) which Calvin himself had signed.總體上看,改革新教徒允許教條式的武力,以修訂後供認的奧格斯堡( 1591 ) ,其中卡爾文本人簽名。

Publication information Written by William Barry.出版信息寫威廉巴里。 Transcribed by Tomas Hancil.轉錄由Tomas漢奇爾。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III.天主教百科全書,第三卷。 Published 1908. 1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. nihil obstat , 1908年11月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


Also, see:此外,見:
John Calvin 約翰卡爾文

Canons of Dort 大砲的dort
Heidelberg Confession 海德堡自白

Westminster Confession 西敏寺自白


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在