Brethren, Dunkers, Dunkards弟兄們, dunkers , dunkards

General Information 一般資料

The term Brethren identifies several Christian groups of common origin, at an earlier date frequently called "Dunkers," of which the Church of the Brethren is today the largest.任期兄弟確定幾個基督教團體的共同起源,在一個較早的日期經常所謂的" dunkers " ,而該教會的弟兄,是今天最大的。 The movement began in Germany in 1708 as part of the spiritual awakening called Pietism.這項運動在德國,在1708年,作為其精神的覺醒所謂pietism 。 In that year a small group led by Alexander Mack (1679 - 1735) baptized one another by immersion, facedown, three times in a flowing stream: this form of Baptism became a distinctive practice.在這一年一小群為首的亞歷山大麥克( 1679 -1 735)的洗禮,又沉浸, f acedown的3倍,在急流:這種形式的洗禮,成為一個獨特的做法。 Mack and his followers migrated to Pennsylvania from Germany in 1719.麥克和他的追隨者移居賓夕法尼亞由德國在1640 。 Since then, small groups have broken away from the main body, either because it seemed too liberal or not liberal enough.自那時起,小團體已經脫離了主體,因為它似乎太自由或不自由不夠的。 Among all Brethren, trine immersion is practiced and a pacifist witness maintained.各兄弟, trine浸沒是實行一個和平主義者證人保持下去。 The Church of the Brethren lists 161,824 members in 1,044 congregations (1986). 教會的弟兄名單161824成員: 23701044畢業典禮( 1986 ) 。 The Brethren Church and the Old German Baptist Brethren are much smaller. 兄弟教會舊德語浸信會弟兄,是要少得多。

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Bibliography 參考書目
SL Bowman, Power and Polity among the Brethren (1987); VS Fisher, The Story of the Brethren (1957).晚上鮑曼,電力和政體之間的兄弟( 1987年) ;隊費舍爾,故事的兄弟( 1957 ) 。


Brethren兄弟

General Information 一般資料

Introduction導言

The Church of the Brethren is one of the historic "peace churches" in the United States. 教會的弟兄,是一個歷史性的"和平之教會" ,在美國發行。 It is of German Pietistic-Anabaptist background and shares many Baptist characteristics.這是德國pietistic - anabaptist背景和股份許多浸信會的特點。 Members of the church are known also as Dunkers or Dunkards (from German tunken,"to dip"), because of their baptismal ceremony.教會的成員是也被稱為dunkers或dunkards (由德語屯墾, "浸" ) ,因為他們的洗禮儀式。 During this ceremony the believer is dipped three times, face forward, once at the mention of each name of the Trinity, according to the baptismal formula in Matthew 28:19.在這個儀式的信徒,抹於3倍,面臨著,一次是在一提的每一個名字的三位一體,根據我的洗禮公式在馬太28:19 。

Origin原產地

The Dunker movement was an offshoot of the German Pietist movement of the late 17th century.該dunker運動的一個分支,德國虔信運動的後期, 17世紀。 The first Dunker congregation was organized at Schwartzenau, Germany (now in North Rhine-Westphalia), in 1708.第一dunker聚集,是舉辦schwartzenau ,德國(目前在北萊茵-威斯特伐利亞) , 1629 。 Persecuted by the state church in Germany, the Dunkers immigrated to America from 1719 to 1729.受迫害的,由國家教會在德國, dunkers移民到美國,從1719年至1729年。 Their first church in what is now the United States was organized in 1723.他們首先教會在現在的美國舉辦了1723年。 The Dunkers are most numerous in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas, and North Dakota.該dunkers是數量最多,在賓夕法尼亞州,馬里蘭州,維吉尼亞州,俄亥俄州,印第安納,伊利諾伊,艾奧瓦,密蘇里州,內布拉斯加州,堪薩斯州,北達科他州。 Many of them are farmers.他們中的許多人都是農民。 In recent years the denomination has expanded to include many prosperous city churches.近年來,面額已擴大到包括許多繁榮的城市教堂。 The denomination supports a number of colleges, notably Ashland College, at Ashland, Ohio.面額為支持一些高校,尤其是Ashland的大學生,在Ashland公司,俄亥俄。

Doctrine and Organization教義和組織

In doctrine the Brethren adhere to the New Testament and accept no creeds.在法學理論中的弟兄,堅持以新約聖經,並接受任何信條。 They hold the Bible to be the inspired and infallible word of God and accept the New Testament as their only rule of faith and practice.他們持有聖經成為鼓舞和犯錯的上帝的話,並接受新約聖經作為其唯一的法治信仰和實踐。 They believe in the Trinity, in the divinity of Christ, in the Holy Spirit, and in future rewards and punishments.他們相信,在三一,在基督的神,在聖靈,並在未來兌現獎懲。 Faith, repentance, and baptism are held to be the conditions of salvation.信仰,悔改,並洗禮舉行待條件救贖。 In practice the Brethren closely follow the teachings of the Bible and observe the primitive simplicity of the Apostolic church.在實踐中弟兄,緊跟遺訓聖經,並觀察原始簡單的使徒教會。

At the basis of their belief is a commitment to peace.在根據他們的信仰是和平的承諾。 They enjoin plainness of dress, settle difficulties among themselves without civil law, affirm instead of taking oath, oppose secret societies, and advise against the use of tobacco and the manufacture, sale, and use of intoxicants.他們責成貌醜的著裝,解決困難,在它們之間沒有民法,肯定不是採取宣誓,反對秘密社團,並建議禁止使用煙草和製造,銷售,使用的intoxicants 。 As early as 1782 the Brethren prohibited slavery and vehemently denounced the slave trade.早在1782年的弟兄,禁止奴役,並強烈譴責奴隸貿易的。 A traditional ban on participation in politics has been relaxed somewhat in recent years.傳統的禁止參與政治已經放寬了近年來有所回升。 The Eucharist is celebrated in the evening, after the serving of a simple common meal.聖體聖事是慶祝在黃昏後,在職的一個簡單的普通膳食。 Before this meal the ordinance of foot washing is observed, and afterward the members extend the right hand of fellowship and exchange the kiss of peace.在此之前,餐條例腳洗手是遵守,並隨後成員擴大的右手團契和交流,這一吻的和平。 Bishops (or elders), ministers, and deacons are elected by the congregations.主教(或長者) ,部長,和執事是由民選產生的畢業典禮。 Congregations are organized into state districts; both units elect delegates to the annual conference.教會組織成國家的地區;兩個單位選出的代表向年度會議。

Later History後來歷史

In 1881-83 the church lost about 8000 members by a division in its ranks; the split resulted in the secession of two parties, known as the Old-Order Brethren and Progressive Brethren. The former group objected to the attention the church was paying to educational, missionary, and Sunday school work, and the latter insisted that the church was too conservative.在1881年至1883年,教會損失了大約8000名成員,進行記名表決時,其職級;分裂,導致在分裂國家的兩黨,被稱為舊階兄弟漸進的謠言。前者反對該注意教會付費教育,宣教士,週日學校工作,而後者堅持認為教會是過於保守。 After several years of contention these parties withdrew from the parent church and formed separate organizations.經過數年的爭論,這些政黨退出父母教會,並形成獨立的組織。 The parent church is known today as the Church of the Brethren (Conservative Dunkers) and according to recent statistics has 172,115 members in 1061 congregations.母公司教堂是眾所周知的,今天由於教會的弟兄 (保守dunkers ) ,並根據最新的統計數字,有172115成員,在1061年的畢業典禮。

The Progressive Brethren divided again in 1939. 逐步弟兄分再次在1939年。 According to the latest available statistics, one group, the Brethren Church (Ashland, Ohio) has 15,082 members in 122 churches; the second group, the National Fellowship of Brethren churches, has 34,000 members in more than 275 churches.根據最新資料統計,一組, 兄弟教會( Ashland公司,俄亥俄州) , 15082會員在122個教堂;第二組, 國家團契的弟兄,教會,有34000名成員中超過275人的教堂。 Another Dunker sect is composed of the Seventh Day Baptists (German) .另一dunker教派組成的第七天浸信會(德語)


Tunkers tunkers

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

(German tunken, to dip) (德語屯墾,以浸)

A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite.一名新教教派,因此命名為來自其獨特的受洗儀式。 They are also called "Dunkards", "Dunkers", "Brethren", and "German Baptists".他們也被稱為" dunkards " , " dunkers " , "兄弟" , "德語浸信會" 。 This last appellation designates both their national origin and doctrinal relationship.最後這個稱謂指定兩個國家的起源與理論的關係。 In addition to their admission of the teaching of the Baptists, they hold the following distinctive beliefs and practices.他們除了接納教學的浸禮會教友,他們擁有以下鮮明的信仰和習俗。 In the administration of baptism the candidate is required to kneel in the water and is dipped forward three times, in recognition of the three Persons of the Trinity.在政府的洗禮的考生須跪在水和抹於,提出了3倍,在承認上述三種人的三位一體。 Communion after the manner of the primitive church is administered in the evening; it is preceded by the love-feast or agape, and followed by the kiss of charity.後共融的方式原始教會是經管在傍晚,它是前面所愛的饗宴或愛德,其次是親吻的慈善機構。 On certain occasions they also perform the rite of foot-washing.在某些場合,他們也履行了成年禮的腳洗。 Their dress is characterized by unusual simplicity.他們的服飾特點是不尋常的簡單。 They refuse to take oaths, to bear arms, and, in so far as possible, to engage in lawsuits.他們拒絕宣誓,攜帶武器,並且在這樣盡量讓他們打得起官司。 Their foundation was due to a desire of restoring primitive Christianity, and dates back to 1708.其基礎是由於當局的願望,恢復原始基督教,並追溯至1629 。 In that year their founder Alexander Mack (1679-1735) received believers' baptism with seven companions at Schwarzenau, in Westphalia.正是這一年,其創始人亞歷山大麥克( 1679至1735年)獲得信徒們的洗禮與七名同伴在施瓦策瑙,在威斯特伐利亞。 The little company rapidly made converts, and congregations were established in Germany, Holland, and Switzerland.小公司迅速作出轉換,教友分別設在德國,荷蘭和瑞士。 As they were subjected to persecution, they all emigrated to America between the years 1719 and 1729.由於他們受到的迫害,他們都移民到美國之間的1719年和1729年。

The first families settled at Germantown, Pennsylvania, where a church was organized in 1723.第一家庭定居在Germantown的,賓夕法尼亞州,那裡的教堂舉辦了1723年。 Shortly after some members, led by Conrad Beissel who contended that the seventh day ought to be observed as the Sabbath, seceded and formed the "Seventh Day Baptists" (German; membership in 1911, 250).不久後,部分委員,率領由康拉德beissel人爭辯說第七天應該遵守的安息日,分裂,形成了"第七天浸信會" (德語;成員在1911年, 250頁) 。 The Tunkers, nevertheless, prospered and, in spite of set-backs caused by the Revolutionary and Civil Wars, spread from Pennsylvania to many other states of the Union, and to Canada.該tunkers ,不過,蓬勃發展,儘管集背部造成的革命和內戰,遍布從賓西法尼亞到許多其他國家的聯盟,並到加拿大。 Foreign missionary work and the foundation of educational institutions were inaugurated in the decade 1870-1880.外國傳教工作和基礎教育機構就職,在1870年至1880年的十年。 About the same time the demands for the adoption of a more progressive and liberal church policy became more and more insistent, and in 1881-82 led to division.大約同一時間,要求採取更進步和自由教會的政策,成為越來越多的堅持,並在1881年至1882年主導,以記名表決。 Two extreme parties, "the Progressives" and the "Old Order Brethren", separated from the main body, which henceforth was known as the "Conservative Tunkers".兩種極端的黨派, "進步"與"舊秩序兄弟" ,脫離主體,而從此就被稱為"保守tunkers " 。 These obey the annual conference as the central authority, and have a ministry composed of bishops or elders, ministers, and deacons.這些服從屆年會上,作為中央的權力,並有部組成的主教或長老,部長,和執事。 They maintain schools in various states, own a printing plant at Elgin, Illinois, and publish the "Gospel Messenger" as their official organ.他們堅稱學校在不同的州,自己的印刷廠,在埃爾金,伊利諾伊州,並公佈"福音使者"作為自己的官方機構。 (Membership, 3006 ministers, 880 churches, 100,000 communicants.) The Progressives hold that the decisions of the annual conference do not bind the individual conscience, that its regulations concerning plain attire need not be observed, and that each congregation shall independently administer its own affairs. (會員,第3006部長, 880教堂, 100000者。 )進步人士認為,該決定的年度會議上沒有約束力的個人良知,它的規章,平原裝束不必遵守,並表示,每一堂應獨立管理自己內政。 (Statistics, 186 ministers, 219 churches, 18,607 communicants.) The Old Order Brethren are unalterably attached to the old practices; they are opposed to high schools, Sunday schools, and missionary activity; they have still, according to the long prevalent custom of the sect, an unsalaried ministry and are extremely plain in dress. (統計,有186部長, 219個教堂, 18607者。 )舊秩序兄弟的威信已經無可改變隸屬舊習俗,他們是反對高中,週日學校和傳教活動,他們還根據長期流行的傳統風俗該教派, unsalaried部和極為平原裙。 (228 ministers; 75 churches; 4000 communicants.) ( 228部長會議75個教堂;四千者。 )

Publication information Written by NA Weber.出版信息寫娜韋伯。 Transcribed by Herman F. Holbrook.轉錄由赫爾曼樓霍爾布魯克。 Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum. confiteor教科文組織貨幣單位baptisma在remissionem peccatorum 。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.天主教百科全書,體積十五。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. nihil obstat , 1912年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

The statistics throughout are those of CARROLL in Christian Advocate (New York, 26 Jan., 1911).統計全是那些對卡羅爾在基督教主張(紐約, 1911年1月26日) 。 Beside the minutes of the Annual Meeting, consult on the doctrine: MACK, A Plain View of the Rites and Ordinances of the House of God (Mt. Morris, 1888), and MILLER, Doctrine of the Brethren Defended (Indianapolis, 1876); BRUMBAUGH, History of the German Baptist Brethren in Europe and America (Elgin, 1899); FALKENSTEIN, History of the German Baptist Brethren Church (Lancaster, 1901); HOLSINGER, History of the Tunkers and the Brethren Churches (Oakland, 1901); GILLEN, The Dunkers (New York, 1906).旁邊分鐘的年度會議,徵詢對學說:麥克,一個淺顯的看法禮儀和法令的上帝的家(東山莫里斯, 1888 ) ,和米勒,學說的兄弟辯護(印第安納波利斯, 1876年) ; brumbaugh ,歷史的德國浸信會弟兄,在歐洲和美洲(埃爾金, 1899 ) ;費爾肯斯坦,歷史的德國浸信教會弟兄(蘭開斯特, 1901年) ; holsinger ,歷史的tunkers和兄弟教會(奧克蘭, 1901年) ;吉倫, dunkers (紐約, 1906年) 。


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