Baptism洗禮

General Information 一般資料

Baptism is a Sacrament of the Christian church in which candidates are immersed in water or water is poured over them in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. It is derived from the practice of John the Baptist, who baptized Jesus, and probably from the Jewish tebilah (a ritual bath). Matthew 28:19 calls upon Christians to make disciples and to baptize them. 洗禮是一個神聖的基督教教堂在哪位候選人,完全沉浸在水或水,是澆過他們的名字,父親,兒子,和聖靈的,它是從實踐中的施洗約翰,他們的洗禮,耶穌,並大概從猶太tebilah (一禮儀浴) 。 馬修28:19呼籲基督信徒,使弟子並baptize他們。

In the early church, baptism was administered after a period of preparation (catechumenate), preferably at Easter.在早期教會,受洗是經管經過一段時間的籌備, (慕道) ,最好是在復活節。 It was performed in conjunction with the rites later called confirmation and Eucharist. The effects of baptism were believed to be union with Jesus in his death and Resurrection, forgiveness of sin, the gift of the Holy Spirit, membership in the church, and rebirth to new life in Christ. Some scholars believe infants were included among the candidates from the beginning; others believe that infant baptism began in the 3d century. Today Baptists and Disciples of Christ do not practice infant baptism and do insist on immersion.這是演出與儀軌後來所謂的確認和聖體聖事的影響的洗禮,據信是聯盟與耶穌同在,他的死與復活,赦罪,聖靈的恩賜,成員在教會,並以重生新的生命在基督裡,有學者認為,嬰幼兒被列入候選人從一開始,其他人認為,嬰兒的洗禮,開始在三維世紀的今天,浸信會和弟子的基督不修煉嬰兒的洗禮,並堅持浸泡。 Most other churches baptize infants and permit the pouring of water. 大多數其他教會baptize嬰兒,並允許進行澆的水。 A few Protestant groups, such as the Quakers, reject outward baptism altogether. The Christian rite is in some ways similar to rites of purification used in other religions. 少數新教團體,如貴格會,拒絕向外洗禮共有。基督教成年禮,是在某些方面是相似的儀軌淨化用在其他宗教。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
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LL Mitchell黎巴嫩鎊米切爾

Bibliography 參考書目
GR Beasley - Murray, Baptism in the New Testament (1973); AT Eastman, The Baptizing Community (1982); M Fahey, ed., Catholic Perspectives on Baptism, Eucharist, and Ministry (1986); A Schmemann, Of Water and the Spirit (1974); G Wainwright, Christian Initiation (1969).遺傳資源比斯利-美利,洗禮,在新約聖經( 1 973) ;伊士曼,洗禮共同體( 1 982年) ;米f ahey,教育署,天主教觀點的洗禮,聖體聖事部( 1 986年) ;舒梅曼,水和精神( 1974 ) 100 wainwright ,基督教開始( 1969年) 。


Baptism洗禮

Editor's Notes 編者注

In the normal process of things, one's Salvation is accomplished entirely separately from the Sacrament of Baptism.在正常的過程中的事,一個人的救恩是完成了完全分開,從聖事的洗禮。 A person proceeds through Regeneration and Justification and becomes Saved.一個人的收益是通過再生和理由,並成為拯救。 The subject of Baptism is a little different.該課題的洗禮,是一個有點不同。 (And then the lifelong process of Sanctification follows.) (然後終身的過程成聖如下) 。

There are even some different attitudes toward Baptism.甚至還有一些不同態度的洗禮。 The very fact that this presentation needs to include around twenty different articles indicates that different Churches have different understandings regarding exactly what is required of a Baptism and what is meant by it.非常這一事實陳述需要包括約二十不同的文章,表明不同的教會有不同的理解,對於到底什麼是所需的洗禮和是什麼意思。

The actual most "correct" one is called "Believer's Baptism".實際最"正確" ,一個是所謂的"信仰之人的洗禮" 。 [An entire article about Believer's Baptism is below, and most of these articles refer to it.] This is where, once a person IS Saved, whether as a 'new' Christian or a life-long Church attendee, a (public) Baptism is LATER performed, for that new Believer. [整條約的信徒的洗禮,是下面,而大部分的這些文章提到這一點。 ]這是哪裡,一個人一旦保存起來,不論是作為'新'基督教或終生只要教會參會, (公共)的洗禮就是後來的表現,為新的信徒。 This Believer's Baptism is certainly actually the Sacrament that Jesus instituted.這個信奉的洗禮,當然,其實聖耶穌提起。 It is an after-the-fact public acknowledgement and demonstration that a person has been Saved.這是一個經過- -事實上,公開承認和論證認為,一個人已得救。

There are many Churches and many Christians who consider Baptism to be a sort of "help" toward being Saved.有許多教堂和許多基督教徒認為洗禮是一個排序的"幫助" ,對被保存。 "Infant Baptism" [see the article below] fits in this category, where a child clearly does not yet fully comprehend all the significance of being Saved or the Sacrament. "嬰兒洗禮" [見文章下面]適合在這一類別中,如果兒童顯然尚未完全理解所有的意義被保存或聖餐。 There can easily be such value, mostly in a psychological basis, but that concept seems clearly somewhat different from what Jesus intended Baptism to represent.因此,可以很容易被這種價值的,主要是在心理基礎上,但這個概念似乎顯然有所不同的是什麼用意耶穌洗禮,以代表。

Since the only people who would receive a Believer's Baptism are those who have been ALREADY Saved, such people are expected to clearly and fully understand the difference between right and wrong.因為只有人會接受信徒的洗禮,是那些已一清二楚,這些人預期明確和充分明白兩者之間的正確和錯誤的。 Such people also now recognize and understand the many "sins" they had done prior to becoming Saved as a Christian.這樣的人現在也認識和了解,許多"罪孽" ,他們事先做之前成為拯救身為基督徒。

The Baptism therefore represents a "washing away" of those past sins (forgiveness for them), allowing the new Christian to have a "clean slate" (called tabula rasa after the Latin for it) without carrying countless earlier guilts and sins.洗禮,因此代表著"洗刷"這些過去的罪孽(寬恕) ,讓新基督教有一個"白板" (所謂搭俄空後,拉丁語為它) ,沒有攜帶無數較早guilts和罪孽。 In addition, the "washing" of the Baptism implies a new "cleanness and purity" suitable for the entrance of a new Indwelling of the Holy Spirit (Holy Ghost) in that individual.此外, "洗"的洗禮,意味著一種新的"潔淨度和純度"適合入口的一個新的留置的聖靈(聖靈) ,在個別的。

The newly Saved Christian (or newly committed or re-committed Christian) therefore benefits from the Baptism regarding both his/her past (forgiveness) and future (guidance by the Spirit).新近節省基督教(或新承諾或重新致力於基督教) ,因此也受益洗禮,無論從他/她的過去(寬恕)和未來(指導所體現的精神) 。

The combination of all these effects represents a public indication that the person has fully and totally committed to a Christian Faith.結合所有這些效應,代表著一個公共跡象表明,該人已充分和完全致力於以基督教信仰。 A Church considers this Sacrament to represent a transition to becoming a "full" member of the Church.教會認為這是聖餐代表了過渡到成為一個"全"的成員,該教會。 Where an individual was generally considered a "Seeker" before, now he/she is a Christian, and can take his/her rightful place in the structure of the Church.如果個人被普遍認為是"導引"之前,現在他/她是一個基督徒,可以採取他/她應有的地位,在體制上的教堂。

The Sacrament of Baptism reflects on the other of the Two Sacraments that most Protestant Churches administer, the Eucharist.聖事的洗禮,反映對其他的兩個聖禮,大多數新教教會管理,聖體聖事。 Prior to Baptism, nearly all Churches deny participation in the Eucharist to those present in the Church.之前的洗禮,幾乎所有的教會否認參與聖體聖事對那些目前在教會裡。 It is believed that the Eucharist is explicitly intended only for Christians who have been Baptized.據認為,聖體聖事是明確的用意不僅是基督信徒們得到洗禮。

Virtually ALL Christian Churches follow this Sacrament.幾乎所有的基督教會跟隨這個聖餐。 It is quite important to all Christian Churches, since Jesus Himself instituted it.這是很重要的,所有的基督教教堂,因為耶穌自己提起它。

There seem to be two central themes regarding the various disagreements of Churches regarding Baptism, whether young children should be Baptized and the method to be used.似乎有兩個中心主題有關的各種分歧的教堂就洗禮,無論是年輕的兒童應該受到洗禮和使用的方法。 Regarding young children, the concern is regarding the implications regarding a young child if he/she dies very young.對於年幼兒童,我們關注的是關於影響對於一個年輕的孩子,如果他/她去世非常年輕。 The argument for Paedo-Baptism (child Baptism) is to assure that such a child would be Saved and then go to Heaven.論據paedo -洗禮(兒童洗禮) ,以保證這些孩子會得救,然後進入天堂。 However, the early Christian Church had instituted "Household Salvation" [a separate presentation in BELIEVE] which concludes that ALL babies and young children of Christian parents are "automatically" protected (Saved) UNTIL they attain an age at which they are able to make an informed choice for themselves.不過,早期的基督教堂制定了"住戶救贖" [一個單獨的陳述中認為:該報告的結論是,所有嬰兒和年幼兒童的基督徒父母是"自動"保護(挽救) ,直到他們達到一個年齡上的,他們都能夠做出知情選擇,為自己。

As to the precise method to be used in a Baptism Rite, the Bible does not really offer much information.至於確實的方法用在洗禮儀式,聖經沒有真正提供多少信息。 Each Church has had to make their own assumptions regarding the interpretations or meanings of certain words in the Bible, and in this way, they have arrived at different procedures.每個教會不得不作出自己的假設就解釋或含義的某些字眼在聖經中,並在此新制度下,他們已經來到了不同的程序。 In fact, there is a story in the early Christian Church that accentuates this matter.其實,還有一個故事,在早期基督教的教堂,凸顯這件事。 It seems that a group of men were in the desert, around the second century after Christ, one of whom was a Christian Priest.看來,一組官兵在沙漠中,大約在公元二世紀後,基督教會,其中一人是基督教牧師。 An elderly man in the group was not yet a Christian and he began to die, and he asked the Christian Priest to Baptize him.一名老翁在組尚不是一個基督教和他開始求死之心,他要求基督教牧師,以baptize他。 The Priest agreed but there was no water available.神父同意,但沒有發生任何有源頭活水來。 Due to necessity, the Priest felt that he had to use desert sand in the Baptism Rite!由於必要性,牧師認為他不得不用沙漠中的洗禮成年禮! He therefore did, and the man soon died.因此,他這樣做了,該男子很快死亡。 When the Priest got back to his Church leaders, he Confessed to them that he had done a Sin in performing a Baptism without water, and they then had extensive discussion regarding whether the "sand Baptism" had actually Saved the man or not and whether the Priest should be condemned.當牧師回來後,以他的教會領袖,他供認,他們說,他已做了單,在演出的洗禮,沒有水,然後,他們進行了廣泛的討論,關於是否將"防砂洗禮" ,實際上節省了該名男子是不是是否牧師應該受到譴責。 They eventually concluded that the Priest had done the right thing and that the sand Baptism had been valid and effective.他們最後得出結論認為,神父做了正確的事,並表示,沙的洗禮,已有效期和有效。 However, they also made clear that water MUST be used in Baptisms except for such extreme circumstances.然而,他們也明確表示,水必須用在受洗儀式,除了這種極端的情況。

Many modern Churches have NO tolerance of any procedure other than the one that they perform in their Church.許多現代教會絕不容忍任何程序以外的一個是他們的精彩表演,他們的教堂。 This situation has resulted in many schisms among Protestant Churches which use the different methods described below.這種情況導致了許多分裂基督教教會中使用了不同的方法介紹如下。 Our [BELIEVE and A Christ Walk Church] attitude involves noting that the Lord is Compassionate and Loving, and we are tempted to think that He recognizes as valid ALL Baptisms which are done with the proper solemnity and attitudes of the participants.我們[相信和基督步行教會的態度涉及注意到耶和華是富有同情心和愛心,我們也忍不住覺得他承認為有效所有受洗儀式,這是做正確的嚴肅性和態度的人參加。 For example, if a Church insists on immersion Baptism and the situation is regarding an Eskimo in a desolate area of northern Alaska, we think that the Lord would know the potential danger of fully immersing a person in ice-cold water there and that He would recognize as valid a pouring or sprinkling FOR THAT SITUATION.舉例來說,如果一所教堂堅持沉浸洗禮和形勢是關於一個愛斯基摩人在一個荒涼的北部地區的阿拉斯加,我們認為,主必知道潛在的危險完全浸入一個人在冰冷的水中,並表示,他將承認為有效的一澆或灑這種情況。 This would not alter that Church's official position but would simply apply Christian Compassion, which we believe the Lord would endorse.這會不會改變這個教會的官方立場,但只是適用於基督教同情心,因為我們相信上帝會贊同。

Finally, we would note that in the region where Jesus lived, there was not an abundance of water!最後,我們注意到,在該地區的耶穌曾經生活過,現在還沒有大量的水! Other than the Sea of Galilee, the Dead Sea and a very few rivers, available water was limited to what was raised from the few wells in the region.除了海上的加利利,死海等極少數河流,可利用的水是有限的,以什麼有人提出,從數口井在該地區。 For early Baptisms that were not near one of those natural bodies of water, it seems hard to imagine that sufficient water for an immersion would always be brought up from wells!為早日受洗儀式,被認為是不近的一個,這些天然水體的,這似乎很難想像有足夠的水供一個浸泡,將永遠會帶來了來自水井! (In the hot and dry climate, a font of water would soon evaporate, so it probably could not be re-used for any extended period without fully replacing the water.) So, even though we might want to believe that all early Baptisms were by full immersion, practical issues seem to sometimes preclude that. (在炎熱乾燥的氣候,不過字體的水會很快蒸發,所以這也許不能再用於任何延長服務時間內,而沒有完全取代水) ,所以即使我們可能會願意相信,所有早期受洗者經充分浸泡的實際問題,似乎有些妨礙。

I will add a personal thought here, as Editor.我會加入個人的思想,在這裡,作為編輯器。 It seems to me that the event of a Salvation, and then the event of a (public) Baptism acknowledging the first event, really only needs to involve that one individual and the Lord.在我看來,這項活動的救贖,然後萬一有(公眾)的洗禮承認首項賽事,真的只需要涉及其中,個人與主。 The attending Members, and the Priest or Minister, and the Church, certainly all want to believe that their participation is important, but it seems likely that they are all secondary.出席會議的成員,以及牧師或部長,以及教會,當然大家都希望,相信他們的參與是很重要的,但似乎有可能,他們都是次要的。 We can certainly count on the Lord to have the proper mindset regarding the Solemnity of the event.當然,我們可以指望得到主就要有正確的心態,就嚴肅性活動。 That seems to leave it entirely to the attitude of the person being Baptized regarding the effectiveness of a Baptism.這似乎離開它完全是態度的人正在洗禮就效力的洗禮。 For this reason, our small Non-Denominational Church always asks that individual if there is a preference for the method of Baptism.基於這個原因,我們的小型非教派教堂一直要求個人,如果有一個偏好的方法洗禮。 We therefore are willing to perform a Trine Baptism for one person, an Immersion for another, and a Pouring for a third.因此,我們願意履行trine洗禮一個人,一個沉浸另一種目的,並澆築了三分之一。 We fee that OUR attitude is really not that important, even though we are the ones performing the Rite!我們費了我們的態度其實並不真的那麼重要,即使由我們自己的表演禮樂! As long as the Lord and the individual both agree of the great importance of the Baptism Rite, all the critically important things are provided for.只要主及個人都同意的重大意義的洗禮儀式,都極為重要的事情是作出規定。 (Our Church is aware that we have a very unusual approach to this subject! If no preference is indicated, we generally mention a Pouring Baptism to the individual, but for extremely elderly or ill individuals, we may mention a Sprinkling Baptism. We feel that our function is really quite simple, that we are responsible for performing an immensely important Rite for the Lord and for that individual. (我們的教會是知道,我們有一個非常與眾不同的方式來使用這個題目!若沒有意願,是表示,一般來說,我們更遑論澆築的洗禮,對個人,但對於極老人或病患個人,我們可能更遑論灑洗禮,我們覺得我們的功能,實在是很簡單,我們的責任是為表演一個極為重要的成年禮,為上帝和個人。


Christian Baptism基督教洗禮

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Christian Baptism is an ordinance immediately instituted by Christ (Matt. 28: 19, 20), and designed to be observed in the church, like that of the Supper, "till he come."基督教的洗禮是一個條例,立即由基督。 ( 28 : 19 , 20 ) ,並設計成可觀察到在教會一樣,對晚飯, "直到他來吧" 。 The words "baptize" and "baptism" are simply Greek words transferred into English. This was necessarily done by the translators of the Scriptures, for no literal translation could properly express all that is implied in them. The mode of baptism can in no way be determined from the Greek word rendered "baptize."改為" baptize "和"洗禮"純粹是希臘語詞轉譯成英文, 這是一定會做的,翻譯的聖經,因為沒有直譯,可以適當表達一切,就是隱含在其中。模式的洗禮,能在沒有出路確定由希臘字,使" baptize " 。 Baptists say that it means "to dip," and nothing else.浸信會說,它意味著"下跌" ,什麼都沒有了。 That is an incorrect view of the meaning of the word.這是一個不正確鑑於一詞的含義。 It means both (1) to dip a thing into an element or liquid, and (2) to put an element or liquid over or on it. Nothing therefore as to the mode of baptism can be concluded from the mere word used.這意味著雙方( 1 )苦口婆心的事變成一個要素或液體,以及( 2 )把一個元素或液體或超過它。 無關,因此以該模式的洗禮,可以得出這樣的結論,從單純用的字眼。

The word has a wide latitude of meaning, not only in the New Testament, but also in the LXX Version of the Old Testament, where it is used of the ablutions and baptisms required by the Mosaic law.字,有相當廣泛的緯度的意義,不僅是在新約全書,而且也表現在lxx版舊約聖經,因為它正在使用的浴室和受洗儀式所需的鑲嵌法。 These were effected by immersion, and by affusion and sprinkling; and the same word, "washings" (Heb. 9:10, 13, 19, 21) or "baptisms," designates them all. In the New Testament there cannot be found a single well-authenticated instance of the occurrence of the word where it necessarily means immersion. Moreover, none of the instances of baptism recorded in the Acts of the Apostles (2:38-41; 8:26-39; 9:17, 18; 22:12-16; 10:44-48; 16:32-34) favours the idea that it was by dipping the person baptized, or by immersion, while in some of them such a mode was highly improbable.這些均是由浸沒,並灌注和噴灌,以及同一個詞, "洗液" (希伯來書9:10 13 , 19 , 21 )或"洗禮" ,指定他們都在新約聖經就不可能有發現單井認證的事例發生的字眼,而必然意味著浸泡,而且,沒有一個實例洗禮記錄在行為的門徒( 2:38-41 ; 8:26-39 ; 9時17分, 18 ; 22:12-16 ; 10:44-48 ; 16:32-34 ) ,是優待的想法,這是由浸人受洗,或浸泡,而在他們中的一些人這種模式是極不可能發生。

The gospel and its ordinances are designed for the whole world, and it cannot be supposed that a form for the administration of baptism would have been prescribed which would in any place (as in a tropical country or in polar regions) or under any circumstances be inapplicable or injurious or impossible. Baptism and the Lord's Supper are the two symbolical ordinances of the New Testament. The Supper represents the work of Christ, and Baptism the work of the Spirit. 福音及其條例的目的是為整個世界,它不能被假定的一種形式,為政府的洗禮,已訂明會在任何地方(如在熱帶國家,或在極地區域 ) , 或在任何情況下都不適或傷害,或者是不可能的。洗禮和主的晚餐是兩件具有象徵意義,條例的新約聖經。晚飯是代表工作的基督的洗禮和工作的精神。

As in the Supper a small amount of bread and wine used in this ordinance exhibits in symbol the great work of Christ, so in Baptism the work of the Holy Spirit is fully seen in the water poured or sprinkled on the person in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. That which is essential in baptism is only "washing with water," no mode being specified and none being necessary or essential to the symbolism of the ordinance.在晚飯少量的麵包和酒用在本條例中的展品在象徵偉大的工作,基督,所以在洗禮的工作,聖靈是充分看到在水中澆或灑對人的名字,這一父親,兒子,聖靈,這是至關重要的洗禮,只是"洗與水" ,沒有模式被指定,並沒有受到必要或必需的象徵意義有關條例。

The apostles of our Lord were baptized with the Holy Ghost (Matt. 3:11) by his coming upon them (Acts 1:8).使徒保羅也因為我們的上帝洗禮與聖靈。 ( 3時11分)在他到來後,他們(使徒行1:8 ) 。 The fire also with which they were baptized sat upon them.火災還與他們坐在洗禮後,他們。 The extraordinary event of Pentecost was explained by Peter as a fulfilment of the ancient promise that the Spirit would be poured out in the last days (2:17).不平凡的事件五旬解釋彼得作為履行古老的諾言,這一精神將傾注在最後的日子( 2:17 ) 。 He uses also with the same reference the expression shed forth as descriptive of the baptism of the Spirit (33).他用的,也具有相同的參考表達棚出來,作為描寫的洗禮精神( 33 ) 。 In the Pentecostal baptism "the apostles were not dipped into the Spirit, nor plunged into the Spirit; but the Spirit was shed forth, poured out, fell on them (11:15), came upon them, sat on them."在五旬洗禮"使徒保羅也沒有抹於精神,也陷入了精神,但精神是大棚出來,倒出來,倒在他們( 11:15 ) ,來到後,就坐在他們" 。 That was a real and true baptism. We are warranted from such language to conclude that in like manner when water is poured out, falls, comes upon or rests upon a person when this ordinance is administered, that person is baptized.這是一個真實和真實的洗禮, 我們需要從這樣的語言作出結論,認為在地時,水是傾注了出來,跌倒,來後,還是取決於一個人的時候,這個條例是經管的,這個人是受洗。

Baptism is therefore, in view of all these arguments "rightly administered by pouring or sprinkling water upon the person."洗禮,因此,有鑑於所有這些論點, "正確經管澆或灑水後的人" 。

The subjects of baptism.該科目的洗禮。

This raises questions of greater importance than those relating to its mode.這就提出了問題,更重要的,比那些有關其模式。

(from: The Church, by Professor Binnie, DD). (來自:中華,由教授賓尼工程,房屋署副署長) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Baptism洗禮

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Deriving from the Greek baptisma, "baptism" denotes the action of washing or plunging in water, which from the earliest days (Acts 2:41) has been used as the rite of Christian initiation.源於希臘baptisma , "洗禮"是指行動的洗滌或下海了水,其中從最早的天(使徒2時41分)被用來作為成年禮的基督教起爆。 Its origins have been variously traced to the OT purifications, the lustrations of Jewish sects, and parallel pagan washings, but there can be no doubt that baptism as we know it begins with the baptism of John. Christ himself, by both precedent (Matt. 3:13) and precept (Matt. 28:19), gives us authority for its observance. On this basis it has been practiced by almost all Christians, though attempts have been made to replace it by a baptism of fire or the Spirit in terms of Matt.它的起源已不同程度地追查到該城市旅遊局purifications , lustrations猶太支派,和平行異教洗液,但不可能有任何疑問的洗禮,因為我們知道它是從洗禮的約翰。 基督本人,由兩個先例。 ( 3時13分) ,並於言教。 ( 28:19 ) ,給了我們權力,其遵守。在此基礎上,它已經施行了幾乎所有基督徒,雖然已經作出,以取代它由一個火的洗禮或精神條款馬特。 3:11. 3時11分。

In essence the action is an extremely simple one, though pregnant with meaning. It consists in a going in or under the baptismal water in the name of Christ (Acts 19:5) or more commonly the Trinity (Matt. 28:19). 在本質上的行動是一個極其簡單的一個,雖然懷孕與意義,它在走的情況下或洗禮水的名字基督(使徒19時05分) ,或更普遍的三位一體。 ( 28:19 ) 。 Immersion was fairly certainly the original practice and continued in general use up to the Middle Ages.沉浸頗為肯定原來的做法,並繼續在一般使用最多的中世紀。 The Reformers agreed that this best brought out the meaning of baptism as a death and resurrection, but even the early Anabaptists did not think it essential so long as the subject goes under the water. The type of water and circumstances of administration are not important, though it seems necessary that there should be a preaching and confession of Christ as integral parts of the administration (cf. Acts 8:37).改革者同意這個最好帶出的意義的洗禮,作為死與復活,但即使是早期anabaptists認為,沒有必要的,所以,只要主題有雲下的水。 類型的水和的情況下,政府當局並不重要,雖然似乎有必要有一個說教和懺悔基督的不可分割的組成部分,政府(參見行為8時37分) 。 Other ceremonies may be used at discretion so long as they are not unscriptural and do not distract from the true action, like the complicated and rather superstitious ceremonial of the medieval and modern Roman Church.其他儀式,可用於在裁量權,所以,只要他們不是unscriptural不要分心,從真正的行動,如複雜,而不是迷信禮儀的中世紀和現代的羅馬教會。

Discussion has been raised concerning the proper ministers and subjects of the action. 討論中已提出了關於妥善部長和學科的行動。

In the first instance there may be agreement with Augustine that Christ himself is the true minister ("he shall baptize you," Matt. 3:11).在一審有可能同意奧古斯丁說, 基督自己是真正的部長 (下稱"他應baptize你" ,馬特。 3時11分) 。 But Christ does not give the external baptism directly; he commits this to his disciples (John 4:2). This is taken to mean that baptism should be administered by those to whom there is entrusted by inward and outward calling the ministry of word and sacrament, though laymen have been allowed to baptize in the Roman Church, and some early Baptists conceived the strange notion of baptizing themselves. Normally baptism belongs to the public ministry of the church.基督並不賦予對外直接洗禮,他的命令,這是他的門徒(約翰4時02分) ,這是指說的洗禮,應該由那些人有委託抵港及離港要求財政部Word和聖餐,雖然是外行被允許到baptize在羅馬教會,和一些早期浸信會構思一個奇怪的概念洗禮。 洗禮一般屬於公共事務部的教會。

As concerns the subjects, the main difference is between those who practice the baptism of the children of confessing Christians and those who insist upon a personal confession as a prerequisite.作為關注的對象,它們的主要區別就是那些實踐洗禮的孩子們的懺悔基督信徒和那些堅持了個人自白作為一項先決條件。 This point is considered in the two separate articles devoted to the two positions [Editor: presented below] and need not detain us in this exposition of positive baptismal teaching. It may be noted, however, that adult baptisms continue in all churches, that confession is everywhere considered important, and that Baptists often feel impelled to an act of dedication of children.這點被認為是在兩個單獨的文章,專門討論這兩種立場[編輯:下文] ,不必扣留我們在這方面的論述,積極洗禮教學中, 它可能會注意到,不過,成人受洗儀式繼續在所有的教堂,即自白到處是重要的考慮,並浸信會常常感到激勵,以行為奉獻的兒童。 Among adults it has been a common practice to refuse baptism to those unwilling to leave doubtful callings, though the attempt of one sect to impose a minimum age of thirty years did not meet with common approval.在成年人中,它已成為普遍的做法,拒絕洗禮,對那些不願意離開疑問召喚,雖然嘗試的一節施加的最低年齡限定在三十年沒有見面的共同批准。 In the case of children, there has been misgiving concerning the infants of parents whose profession of Christian faith is very obviously nominal or insincere.在案件的兒童,出現了擔憂的有關嬰幼兒的家長,其專業的基督信仰是很明顯只是名義上的,或者言不由衷。 The special case of the mentally impaired demands sympathetic treatment, but there is no warrant for prenatal or forced baptisms, and even less for baptism of inanimate objects such as was practiced in the Middle Ages.特殊案件弱智受損要求交感神經治療,但沒有任何值得作產前或被迫受洗儀式,更遑論為洗禮的無生命的物體,如被施行了中世紀。

A clue to the meaning of baptism is given by three OT types: the flood (I Pet. 3:19-20), the Red Sea (I Cor. 10:1-2), and circumcision (Col. 2:11-12).提供線索的意思洗禮,是由三個城市旅遊局類型:洪水(我的寵物。 3:19-20 ) ,紅海(我肺心病。 10:1-2 ) ,以及包皮環切術(上校2時11分- 12 ) 。 These all refer in different ways to the divine covenant, to its provisional fulfillment in a divine act of judgment and grace, and to the coming and definitive fulfillment in the baptism of the cross.這些都指以不同的方式向神盟約,其臨時在完成一項神聖的行為判斷和恩典,並能在未來和最終實現在洗禮過。 The conjunction of water with death and redemption is particularly apt in the case of the first two; the covenantal aspect is more particularly emphasized in the third.結合水與死亡和贖回,尤其容易在發生前兩; covenantal方面更是特別強調了第三位。

When we come to the action itself, there are many different but interrelated associations.當我們來到這一行動本身,也有許多不同但相互關聯的聯想。 The most obvious is that of washing (Titus 3:5), the cleansing water being linked with the blood of Christ on the one side and the purifying action of the Spirit on the other (see I John 5:6, 8), so that we are brought at once to the divine work of reconciliation.最明顯的是洗滌(提3點05分) ,潔淨水與血的基督問題的一個重要方面和淨化行動的精神,並就其他(見約翰5點06分, 8 ) ,使我們帶來了一次以神聖工作的和解。 A second is that of initiation, adoption, or, more especially, regeneration (John 3:5), the emphasis again being placed on the operation of the Spirit in virtue of the work of Christ.第二個是,啟動期,收養,或者更特別是,再生(約翰3點05分) ,重又被放在了經營的精神,在德的工作,基督的復活。

These various themes find common focus in the primary thought of baptism (in the destructive, yet also life-giving, power of water) as a drowning and an emergence to new life, ie, a death and resurrection (Rom. 6:3-4). But here again the true witness of the action is to the work of God in the substitutionary death and resurrection of Christ. 這些各有不同的主題,尋找共同關注的焦點集中在小學的思想洗禮(在破壞性的,但也賦予生命,電力用水) ,作為一個溺水,並出現了新的生活,也就是說,死亡和復活(羅馬書選手- 4 ) ,但這裡又真實的見證行動,是天主的工程,在替代死亡和復活的基督。 This identification with sinners in judgment and renewal is what Jesus accepts when he comes to the baptism of John and fulfills when he takes his place between two thieves on the cross (Luke 12:50).這種認同感的罪人,在判斷和重建是什麼耶穌接受的時候,當他來到洗禮的約翰和滿足的時候,他以他的地方,兩竊賊在十字架上(路加福音12:50 ) 。 Here we have the real baptism of the NT, which makes possible the baptism of our identification with christ and underlies and is attested by the outward sign. Like preaching and the Lord's Supper, "baptism" is an evangelical word telling us that Christ has died and risen again in our place, so that we are dead and alive again in him, with him, and through him (Rom. 6:4, 11).我們在這裡有真正的洗禮新台幣,使得可能的洗禮,我們的鑑定與基督同突顯,並核簽向外的跡象。 一樣的說教和上帝的晚飯"洗禮"是一個福音詞告訴我們,基督已死亡和復活再次在我們的地方,讓我們死亡,活著又在他身上,與他,並通過他 (羅馬書6:4 11 ) 。

Like all preaching, however, baptism carries with it the call to that which we should do in response or correspondence to what Christ has done for us.象所有的說教,但是,洗禮,附有呼籲說,我們所應該做的事情的反應或信件,以耶穌為我們。 We, too must make our movement of death and resurrection, not to add to what Christ has done, nor to complete it, nor to compete with it, but in grateful acceptance and application. We do this in three related ways constantly kept before us by our baptism: the initial response of repentance and faith (Gal. 2:20); the lifelong process of mortification and renewal (Eph. 4:22-23); and the final dissolution and resurrection of the body (I Cor. 15). This rich signification of baptism, which is irrespective of the time or manner of baptism, is the primary theme that ought to occupy us in baptismal discussion and preaching.我們也必須使我們的運動的死與復活,沒有什麼要補充基督做了,也不能完成這項工作,也沒有競爭,但在感激地接受和應用, 我們在這三個相關辦法,一直擺在我們面前我們的洗禮:初步反應的懺悔和信仰( gal. 2時20分) ;終身的過程mortification和重建(以弗所書4:22-23 ) ,以及最後解體和復活的身體(林前15 ) ,這富有意義的洗禮,這是不論在時間或方式的洗禮,是首要的主題,應該是我們在洗禮討論和說教。 But it must be emphasized continually that this personal acceptance or entry is not independent of the once for all and substitutionary work of Christ, which is the true baptism.但必須強調,不斷表示,這種個人接受或入境,是不是獨立的,一旦所有和替代工作的救世主,這才是真正的洗禮。

It is forgetfulness of this point which leads to misunderstanding of the so-called grace of baptism. This may be by its virtual denial. 這是健忘的,這點而導致的誤解,即所謂的恩典的洗禮,這可能是其虛擬抵賴。 Baptism has no grace apart from its psychological effects.洗禮沒有寬限期外,其心理影響。 It is primarily a sign of something that we do, and its value may be assessed only in explicable religious terms.它主要是一個跡象,這點我們做的,其價值可分攤只有在可以解釋宗教的條款。 The fact that spiritual gifts and even faith itself are true gifts of the Holy Spirit, with an element of the mysterious and incalculable, is thus denied.事實上,屬靈的恩賜,甚至信仰本身是真實的聖靈的禮物,同一個單元的神秘和無法估量的,因此拒絕了。

On the other hand, it may be by distortion or exaggeration. Baptism means the almost automatic infusion of a mysterious substance which accomplishes a miraculous but not very obvious transformation. 在另一方面,它可通過歪曲或誇張 。洗禮意味著幾乎自動輸液的神秘物質,它可完成奇蹟,但不很明顯的轉變。 It is thus to be regarded with awe, and fulfilled as an action of absolute necessity to salvation except in very special cases.因此,它是被視為與敬畏,圓滿地完成了作為一個行動的絕對必要性,以救贖,只是在非常特殊的個案。 The true mystery of the Holy Spirit yields before ecclesiastical magic and theological sophistry.真正的奧秘聖靈產量前教會魔法及神學詭辯。

But when baptismal grace is brought into proper relationship to the work of God, we are helped on the way to a fruitful understanding. 但是,當洗禮的恩典就是帶入正確的關係,以上帝做事,我們的幫助,通向更富有成果的理解。

First, and above all, we remember that behind the external action there lies the true baptism, which is that of the shed blood of Christ. Baptismal grace is the grace of this true reality of baptism, ie, of the substitutionary work of Christ, or of Christ himself. Only in this sense can we legitimately speak of grace, but in this sense we can and must.首先,最重要的是,我們記得背後的對外行動的謊言有真正的洗禮,這就是該拋頭顱,灑熱血的喊聲。 洗禮的恩典,是恩典這個真實的現實的洗禮,即該替代工作的基督,或耶穌本身的,只有在這個意義上,我們才能合法地發言的寬限期,但在這個意義上,我們可以而且必須。

Second, we remember that behind the external action there lies the inward operation of the Spirit moving the recipient to faith in Christ's work and accomplishing regeneration to the life of faith. Baptismal grace is the grace of this internal work of the Spirit, which cannot be presumed (for the Spirit is sovereign) but which we dare to believe where there is a true calling on the name of the Lord.第二,我們要深刻牢記落後對外行動有謊言外來運作的精神動收件人信仰基督的工作,並完成再生,以生命的信念。 洗禮的恩典,是恩典的這個內部的工作精神,這是不能假定(為精神,是君主) ,但我們也不敢相信,如果有一個真正的呼籲主的名字。

Third, the action itself is divinely ordained as a means of grace, ie, a means to present Christ and therefore to fulfill the attesting work of the Spirit.第三, 這一行動本身是神聖的受戒作為一種手段,寬限期,即一種手段,以目前的基督,因此,以履行核簽工作的精神。 It does not do this by the mere performance of the prescribed rite; it does it in and through its meaning. Nor does it do it alone; its function is primarily to seal and confirm, and therefore it does it in conjunction with the spoken and written word. It need not do it at the time of administration; for, under the gracious sovereignty of the Spirit, its fruition may come at a much later date. It does not do it automatically; for, whereas Christ is always present and his grace remains, there are those who respond to neither word nor sacrament and therefore miss the true and inward meaning and power.不這樣做就由單純的表現,明禮; 它的確能做到,而且通過它的含義,也沒有獨自做到這一點,它的功能主要是印章,並確認,因此, 它是否與口語和書面詞,它需要不能這樣做在時間的管理;下,大方主權的精神,它的成果有可能在一個更晚日期, 但不這樣做,它會自動;為,而基督是始終存在和他的寬限期仍然存在,也有那麼一些人的反應既不是字,也沒有聖餐,並因此錯過了真正的和外來的意義和力量。

When we think in these terms, we can see that there is and ought to be a real, though not a magical, baptismal grace which is not affected greatly by the detailed time or mode of administration. The essentials are that we use it (1) to present Christ, (2) in prayer to the Holy Spirit, (3) in trustful dependence upon his sovereign work, and (4) in conjunction with the spoken word. Restored to this evangelical use, and freed especially from distorting and unhelpful controversy, baptism might quickly manifest again its power as a summons to live increasingly, or even to begin to live, the life which is ours in Christ crucified and risen for us.當我們認為在這些條款,我們可以看到有與應是一個真實的,雖然不是一個神奇的,洗禮的恩典,這是影響較大的詳細時間或管理模式。 重中之重,是我們使用它( 1 ) ,以目前的基督, ( 2 )在祈禱中,以聖靈, ( 3 )在相互信任依賴他的主權工作, ( 4 ) ,結合口語詞。恢復到這個福音使用,並釋放尤其是來自扭曲和無益爭議,但洗禮可能很快再次表現出其實力為傳票活越來越多,甚至開始對生活,生命,這是我們在基督被釘十字架和復活,為我們。

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
GW Bromiley, Baptism and the Anglican Reformers; J. Calvin, Institutes 4; WF Flemington, The NT Doctrine of Baptism; Reports on Baptism in the Church of Scotland; GR Beasley-Murray, Baptism in the NT; A. Oepke, TDNT, I, 529-46.毛重羅米立,洗禮和聖公會改革者的J.卡爾文學院4 ; WF號flemington ,新台幣學說的洗禮;報導洗禮,在教堂的蘇格蘭;遺傳資源比斯利-默里,洗禮,在新台幣;甲奧百克, tdnt ,一, 529-46 。


Baptism (noun)洗禮(名詞)

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Baptism, consisting of the processes of immersion, submersion and emergence (from bapto, "to dip"), is used (a) of John's "baptism," (b) of Christian "baptism," see B. below; (c) of the overwhelming afflictions and judgments to which the Lord voluntarily submitted on the cross, eg, Luke 12:50; (d) of the sufferings His followers would experience, not of a vicarious character, but in fellowship with the sufferings of their Master.洗禮,其中的過程浸泡,淹沒和出苗(從bapto , "浸" ) ,是用(一)約翰的"洗禮" , (二)基督教"洗禮" ,見乙下面; (三)該壓倒性痛苦和判斷,其中主自願提交的關於兩岸關係,例如,路加福音12:50 ; (四)的痛苦,他的信徒會的經驗,而不是一種替代的性格,但在金與苦難的自己的主人。 Some mss.一些支助。 have the word in Matt.有字的馬特。 20:22-23; it is used in Mark 10:38-39, with this meaning. 20:22-23 ,它是用來在馬克10:38-39 ,這個意思。


Baptism (noun)洗禮(名詞)

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as distinct from baptisma (the ordinance), is used of the "ceremonial washing of articles," Mark 7:4, 8, in some texts; Heb.有別於baptisma (以下簡稱條例) ,是用的"禮儀洗滌物品的, "馬克7時04分, 8 ,在一些文本;希伯來書。 9:10; once in a general sense, Heb. 9時10分,一旦在一般意義上說,希伯來書。 6:2. 6時02分。


Baptism, Baptize (verb)洗禮baptize (動詞)

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"to baptize," primarily a frequentative form of bapto, "to dip," was used among the Greeks to signify the dyeing of a garment, or the drawing of water by dipping a vessel into another, etc. Plutarchus uses it of the drawing of wine by dipping the cup into the bowl (Alexis, 67) and Plato, metaphorically, of being overwhelmed with questions (Euthydemus, 277 D). " baptize " ,主要是一個frequentative形式bapto , "浸" ,是用其中希臘人,以顯示染色的服裝,或繪製的水浸漬船隻進入另一個等plutarchus用途,它的繪畫葡萄酒浸漬將杯子放入一碗(亞歷克西, 67歲)和柏拉圖,比喻,感概問題( euthydemus , 277名四) 。 It is used in the NT in Luke 11:38 of washing oneself (as in 2 Kings 5:14, "dipped himself," Sept.); see also Isa.它是用在NT和盧克11時38洗滌自己( 2國王5時14分, "浸自己: "九月) ,還見伊薩。 21:4, lit., "lawlessness overwhelms me." 21時04分,點燃了, "和尚打傘,無法無天壓垮我" 。 In the early chapters of the four Gospels and in Acts 1:5; 11:16; 19:4, it is used of the rite performed by John the Baptist who called upon the people to repent that they might receive remission of sins.在早期的章節四大福音中的行為1:5 ; 11:16 ; 19時04分,它是用的成年禮由施洗約翰,他們呼籲人們悔改表示,他們可能會得到緩解的罪孽。 Those who obeyed came "confessing their sins," thus acknowledging their unfitness to be in the Messiah's coming kingdom.那些聽從來到"懺悔自己的罪過" ,從而確認其不適宜在彌賽亞的未來王國。

Distinct from this is the "baptism" enjoined by Christ, Matt.有別於這是"洗禮"受命於基督,馬特。 28:19, a "baptism" to be undergone by believers, thus witnessing to their identification with Him in death, burial and resurrection, eg, Acts 19:5; Rom. 28:19 ,這是一次"洗禮" ,將經歷由信徒,所以目睹了他們的身份與他的死亡,埋葬與復活,例如,行為, 19時05分;光碟。 6:3-4; 1 Cor. 6:3-4 1肺心病。 1:13-17; 12:13; Gal. 1:13-17 ; 12時13分;加爾。 3:27; Col. 2:12. 3時27分;上校2時12分。 The phrase in Matt.這句話在馬特。 28:19, "baptizing them into the Name" (RV; cf. Acts 8:16, RV), would indicate that the "baptized" person was closely bound to, or became the property of, the one into whose name he was "baptized." 28:19 , "洗禮,他們把名稱改為" (風疹病毒;比照行為8時16分, RV )的,將表明, "洗禮"的人是息息相關,或成為財產的,一到他的名字,他是"洗禮" 。 In Acts 22:16 it is used in the middle voice, in the command given to Saul of Tarsus, "arise and be baptize," the significance of the middle voice form being "get thyself baptized."在行為, 22時16分,它是用來在中東的聲音,在指揮給娑羅雙樹的跗關節, "出現,並baptize "的意義中的語音形式的"預言者洗禮" 。 The experience of those who were in the ark at the time of the Flood was a figure or type of the facts of spiritual death, burial, and resurrection, Christian "baptism" being an antitupon, "a corresponding type," a "like figure," 1 Pet.經歷了這些人在方舟上的時候,洪水是一個數字,或某一類型的事實,精神上的死亡,喪葬,與復活,基督教"洗禮"作為一個antitupon " ,相應地型" , "想圖, " 1寵物。 3:21. 3時21分。

Likewise the nation of Israel was figuratively baptized when made to pass through the Red Sea under the cloud, 1 Cor.同樣,民族的以色列被形象地受洗時,以穿越紅海下雲,一肺心病。 10:2. 10時02分。 The verb is used metaphorically also in two distinct senses: firstly, of "baptism" by the Holy Spirit, which took place on the Day of Pentecost; secondly, of the calamity which would come upon the nation of the Jews, a "baptism" of the fire of divine judgment for rejection of the will and word of God, Matt.動詞是用來比喻也有兩種截然不同的觀念:第一, "洗禮" ,由聖靈,其中發生在五旬節;第二,災難會來後,全國的猶太人,這是一次"洗禮"對消防的神聖判決駁回理由的意志和上帝的話,馬特。 3:11; Luke 3:16. 3時11分;盧克3:16 。


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Believers Baptism信徒的洗禮

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Where the gospel is first preached or Christian profession has lapsed, baptism is always administered on confession of penitence and faith.凡福音首先是鼓吹或基督教界已失效,洗禮,始終是管理上的認罪悔罪和信念。 In this sense believers' baptism, ie, the baptism of those who make a profession of faith, has been an accepted and persistent phenomenon in the church.在這個意義上,信徒的洗禮,即洗禮的人,使一個專業的信仰,已被公認的和持久性的現象,在教會裡。 Yet there are powerful groups among Christians who think that we should go further than this.然而,還有許多功能強大的群體之間的基督信徒們認為,我們應該更進一步此數。 Believers' baptism as they see it is not merely legitimate; it is the only true baptism according to the NT, especially, though not necessarily, in the form of immersion.信徒們的洗禮,在他們看來,這不僅是合法的,它是唯一真正的洗禮據新台幣,尤其是,但未必會在形式的浸泡。

This is seen first from the precept which underlies its institution.這被認為是第一個來自於言教,這突顯其機構。 When Jesus commanded the apostles to baptize, he told them first to make disciples and said nothing whatever about infants (Matt. 28:19). In other words, preaching must always precede baptism, for it is by the word and not the sacrament that disciples are first made. Baptism can be given only when the recipient has responded to the word in penitence and faith, and it is to be followed at once by a course of more detailed instruction.當耶穌指揮使徒,以baptize ,他說,他們首先使弟子並沒有說,無論對嬰兒。 ( 28:19 ) 。換句話說,說教,必須始終先洗禮,因為它是由一個字不說,聖餐弟子是第一次。洗禮,能夠獲得只有當受援國回應了字懺悔和信念,就是要遵循在一次由當然更詳細的指示。

That the apostles understood it in this way is evident from the precedents which have come down to us in Acts.該使徒理解它在這方面的做法是顯而易見的,從先例有所下調,給我們的行為。 On the day of Pentecost, for example, Peter told the conscience-stricken people to repent and be baptized; he did not mention any special conditions for infants incapable of repentance (Acts 2:38).對五旬節,舉例來說,彼得告訴良知的人要悔改,他沒有提任何特殊條件,為嬰幼兒無法悔過書(使徒2時38分) 。 Again, when the Ethiopian eunuch desired baptism, he was told that there could be no hindrance so long as he believed, and it was on confession of faith that Philip baptized him (Acts 8:36ff.).再次,當埃塞俄比亞太監理想的洗禮,有人告訴他說,不可能有任何障礙,只要他認為,這是對供認的信仰弘洗禮的他(使徒8時36分幾段) 。 Even when whole households were baptized, we are normally told that they first heard the gospel preached and either believed or received an endowment of the Spirit (cf. Acts 10:45; 16:32-33).甚至當整個家庭的洗禮,我們通常說,他們第一次聽到福音宣揚要么相信或接受捐贈的精神(參見行為10:45 ; 16:32-33 ) 。 In any case, no mention is made of any other type of baptism.在任何情況下,沒有一提的是,取得的任何其他類型的洗禮。

The meaning of baptism as developed by Paul in Rom.所指的洗禮,作為開發的保羅在ROM 。 6 supports this contention.六是支持這項爭議的焦點。 It is in repentance and faith that we are identified with Jesus Christ in his death, burial, and resurrection.這是在悔過書,並真誠地表示,我們確定了與耶穌基督在他死後,埋葬,以及復活。 To infants who cannot hear the word and make the appropriate response, it thus seems to be meaningless and even misleading to speak of baptism into the death and resurrection of Christ. The confessing believer alone knows what this means and can work it out in his life. In baptism, confessing his penitence and faith, he has really turned his back on the old life and begun to live the new life in Christ. He alone can look back to a meaningful conversion or regeneration and thus receive the confirmation and accept the challenge that comes with baptism. To introduce any other form of baptism is to open the way to perversion or misconception.給嬰兒的人不能聽到這個詞,並作出適當的反應,因此,它似乎是毫無意義的,甚至有誤導之嫌發言的洗禮,成為死亡和復活的基督。供認擁護者,僅知道這意味著什麼,並能工作,它在他的生命在洗禮,供認他的懺悔和信仰,他真的成為背棄舊生活,並開始過上新生活,在基督裡, 他就可以回頭看看,以一個有意義的改建或再生,從而得到確認和接受挑戰隨之而來的洗禮。引入任何其他形式的洗禮,是開闢道路的歪曲或誤解。

To be sure, there is no direct prohibition of infant baptism in the NT.可以肯定的是,有沒有直接禁止嬰兒的洗禮,在新台幣。 But in the absence of direction either way it is surely better to carry out the sacrament or ordinance as obviously commanded and practiced than to rely on exegetical or theological inference for a different administration.但在缺乏方向,無論哪種方式,它肯定是更好地貫徹落實聖餐或條例,顯然指揮和實行比依靠訓詁或神學推理的一個不同的政府。 This is particularly the case in view of the weakness or irrelevance of many of the considerations advanced.這是特別的情況,鑑於弱點或無關的很多的考慮因素,先進的。

Christ's blessing of the children, for example, shows us that the gospel is for little ones and that we have a duty to bring them to Christ, but it says nothing whatever about administering baptism contrary to the acknowledged rule (Mark 10:13ff.).基督的福音的兒童,例如,我們表明了福音,是為小朋友,而且我們有責任把他們基督,但它表示,沒有任何關於管理的洗禮,違反了公認的規則(馬克10:13法郎) 。 。 Again, the fact that certain characters may be filled with the Spirit from childhood (Luke 1:15) suggests that God may work in infants, but it gives us no warrant to suppose that he normally does so, or that he does so in any given case, or that baptism may be given before this work finds expression in individual repentance and faith.再次,事實上,某些字符可能充滿精神,從童年(路1:15 )表明,上帝可能工作,在嬰幼兒的,但它使我們沒有手令,以假設說,他通常是這樣做的,或者說,他這樣做,在任何鑑於情況下,或認為洗禮,可考慮在此之前的工作表現在個別悔罪和信念。 Again, the children of Christians enjoy privileges and perhaps even a status which cannot be ascribed to others.再次,孩子們的基督徒享有特權,甚至可能地位,不能歸咎於他人。 They are reckoned in some sense "holy" by God (I Cor. 7:14).他們估計,在一定意義上的"聖地" ,由神(林前。 7時14分) 。 But here too there is no express connection with baptism or the baptismal identification with Jesus Christ in death and resurrection.但這裡也有沒有明文涉嫌與洗禮或洗禮鑑定與耶穌基督的死亡和復活。

Reference to the household baptisms of Acts is of no greater help. The probability may well be that some of these households included infants, yet this is by no means certain. 提及家庭受洗儀式的行為是沒有更大的幫助。機率,可能是一些這些家庭包括嬰幼兒,然而,這絕非是肯定的。 Even if they did, it is unlikely that the infants were present when the word was preached, and there is no indication that any infants were actually baptized.即使他們做的,所以是不會的嬰兒時,目前這個詞是鼓吹過,並沒有任何跡象表明任何嬰幼兒其實洗禮。 At very best this could only be a hazardous inference, and the general drift of the narratives seems to be in a very different direction.在最好的,這只能是一危險的推論,和普通漂移的敘述,似乎是在一個非常不同的方向發展。

Nor does it serve to introduce the OT sign of circumcision.也不是為了引入城市旅遊局簽署了割禮。 There is certainly a kinship between the signs.有當然是親情之間的跡象。 But there are also great differences.但也存在著很大的分歧。 The fact that the one was given to infant boys on a fixed day is no argument for giving the other to all children some time in infancy.事實是,一個是給嬰兒男孩對一個固定的一天,是沒有理由讓其他所有孩子一些時間在萌芽狀態。 They belong, if not to different covenants, at least to different dispensations of the one covenant: the one to a preparatory stage, when a national people was singled out and its sons belonged naturally to the people of God; the other to the fulfillment, when the Israel of God is spiritual and children are added by spiritual rather than natural regeneration.他們所屬的,如果沒有不同的盟約,至少在不同dispensations的一個盟約:一,以一個籌備階段,當一個國家的人被挑出來,並對其兒子屬於自然向人的上帝;另向圓滿當以色列的上帝是精神和兒童補充精神,而不是自然的再生能力。 In any case, God himself gave a clear command to circumcise the male descendants of Abraham; he has given no similar command to baptize the male and female descendants of Christians.在任何情況下,上帝給予了明確的指揮,以circumcise男性後裔亞伯拉罕;他沒有類似的命令來baptize男性和女性後代的基督徒。

Theologically, the insistence upon believers' baptism in all cases seems better calculated to serve the true significance and benefit of baptism and to avoid the errors which so easily threaten it. theologically ,堅持其信徒的洗禮,在所有案件中,似乎更好地計算服務的真正意義及效益的洗禮,並避免錯誤,所以很容易構成威脅。 Only when there is personal confession before baptism can it be seen that personal repentance and faith are necessary to salvation through Christ, and that these do not come magically but through hearing the word of God.只有當有個人供述之前的洗禮,才能看到個人的懺悔和信念是要救國,通過基督,而這些不來神奇,但通過聽上帝的話。 With believers' baptism the ordinance achieves its significance as the mark of a step from darkness and death to light and life. The recipient is thus confirmed in the decision which he has taken, brought into the living company of the regenerate, which is the true church, and encouraged to walk in the new life which he has begun.與信徒們的洗禮條例實現其意義,因為這標誌著一個步驟,從黑暗和死亡的,以光明和生命。 接受者,因此確認這項決定,這反映出他已採取,帶入生活公司的再生,這才是真正的教會,並鼓勵他們走在新的生活中,他又開始了。

This means that in believers' baptism faith is given its proper weight and sense. The need for faith is recognized, of course, in infant baptism. 這意味著,在信徒們的洗禮,信仰是給予其適當的重量和責任感。需要信仰是公認的,當然,在嬰兒的洗禮。 It is contended that infants may believe by a special work of the Spirit, or that their present or future faith is confessed by the parents or sponsors, or that the parents or sponsors exercise vicarious faith, or even that faith is given in, with, or under the administration.如果認為這些嬰兒可能相信由一個特別的工作精神,或者說,他們目前或未來的信心是供認,由家長或贊助商,或者說,家長或贊助演習替代信仰,甚至信仰是放棄, ,或根據政府當局。 Some of these notions are manifestly unscriptural.部分這些觀念顯然是unscriptural 。 In others there is a measure of truth.而在有些國家,是衡量真理。 But none of them meets the requirement of a personal confession of personal faith as invariably fulfilled in believers' baptism.但他們都不符合規定的個人自白的個人信仰往往滿足信徒們的洗禮。

Again, believers' baptism also carries with it a genuine, as opposed to a spurious, baptismal grace. The expression of repentance and faith in baptism gives conscious assurance of forgiveness and regeneration and carries with it an unmistakable summons to mortification and renewal. 再次,信徒們的洗禮,還帶有一個真正的,因為反對以虛假的,洗禮的恩典 。表達悔罪和信念的洗禮,讓自覺保證的寬恕與再生及附有一個明白無誤的傳票mortification和重建。 Properly understood, this may also be the case with infant baptism, as in the Reformed churches.缺乏正確的理解,這也可能是這種情況,嬰兒的洗禮,在改革教會。 But a good deal of embarrassed explanation is necessary to make this clear, and there is always the risk of a false understanding, as in the medieval and Romanist view of baptismal regeneration. Baptism on profession of faith is the only effective safeguard against the dangerous notion that baptism itself can automatically transfer the graces which it represents.但是,是一個很好的協議的尷尬解釋是,要把這一明確的,而且始終存在著風險,有虛假的理解,因為在中世紀和romanist鑑於洗禮,振興中華。 洗禮,對專業的信念是唯一有效的保障,以免危險概念這洗禮本身可以自動傳送恩寵,它代表了。

To the exegetical and theological considerations there may also be added some less important but noteworthy historical arguments.向訓詁與神學方面考慮,也可能增加了一些不太重要,但值得注意的歷史論據。 First, there is no decisive evidence for a common Jewish practice of infant baptism in apostolic times.第一,沒有決定性的證據,是為了一個共同的猶太人的做法,嬰兒的洗禮,在使徒時代。 Second, the patristic statements linking infant baptism with the apostles are fragmentary and unconvincing in the earlier stages.第二,教父報表連接嬰兒的洗禮與門徒都是割裂和難以令人信服,在較早階段。 Third, examples of believers' baptism are common in the first centuries, and a continuing, if supressed, witness has always been borne to this requirement.第三,例子信徒們的洗禮,是常見的,在第一世紀,並仍在繼續,如果壓制,證人一直承擔這項規定。 Fourth, the development of infant baptism seems to be linked with the incursion of pagan notions and practices.第四,發展嬰兒的洗禮,似乎是聯繫在一起的入侵異教徒的觀念和做法。 Finally, there is evidence of greater evangelistic incisiveness and evangelical purity of doctrine where this form of baptism is recognized to be the baptism of the NT.最後,有證據顯示更大的福音incisiveness和福音派的純潔性學說而這種形式的洗禮,是公認的,以被洗禮新台幣。

GW Bromiley毛重羅米立

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
K. Barth, The Teaching of the Church Regarding Baptism and Church Dogmatics IV/4; A. Booth, Paedobaptism Examined; A. Carson, Baptism in Its Modes and Subjects; J. Gill, Body of Divinity; J. Warns, Baptism; K. Aland, Did the Early Church Baptize Infants? k.領域,教學的教會就洗禮和教會dogmatics四/ 4 ;甲攤位, paedobaptism審查;甲卡森的洗禮,其方式和科目的J.鰓,身體的神性的J.警告,洗禮; k.阿蘭德時,有沒有早期教會baptize兒? D. Moody, The World of Truth.四穆迪,世界的真相。


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Infant Baptism嬰兒洗禮

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In a missionary situation the first subjects of baptism are always converts.在傳教的情況第一科目的洗禮,都是皈依。 But throughout Christian history, attested as early as Irenaeus and Origen with a reference back to the apostles, it has also been given to the children of professing believers.但是,在整個基督教的歷史,證明了早在愛任紐,並與淵源參考回到使徒們,但同時也給孩子們的空頭信徒。 This has not been solely on grounds of tradition, or in consequence of a perversion, but for what have been regarded as scriptural reasons.這不是純粹基於傳統的,還是在後果顛倒,但對於曾經被視為聖經的原因。

To be sure, there is no direct command to baptize infants. 可以肯定的是,有沒有直接指揮,以baptize嬰兒。 But there is also no prohibition. Again, if we have no clear-cut example of an infant baptism in the NT, there may well have been such in the household baptisms of Acts, and there is also no instance of the children of Christians being baptized on profession of faith. 但也存在著不禁止,同樣,如果我們沒有鮮明的例子,嬰兒的洗禮,在新台幣,有可能已經在這樣的家庭中洗禮的行為,因此也就例如對兒童的基督徒被受洗對專業的信念。 In other words, no decisive guidance is given by direct precept or precedent.或者換句話說,沒有決定性的指導,是給予直接的信條或先例。

Yet there are two lines of biblical study which are thought to give convincing reasons for the practice. The first is a consideration of detailed passages or statements from the OT and NT. 但有兩條路線的聖經研究,而被認為是拿出令人信服的理由,接受實踐的檢驗。第一個是審議詳細旅費或陳述,從城市旅遊局及新台幣。 The second is a consideration of the whole underlying theology of baptism as it comes before us in the Bible.二是考慮到整個背後的神學的洗禮,因為它是擺在我們面前的聖經。

To begin with the detailed passages, we naturally turn first to the types of baptism found in the OT. All these favor the view that God deals with families rather than individuals. When Noah is saved from the flood, his whole family is received with him into the ark (cf. 1 Pet. 3:20-21).首先詳細旅費,我們當然首先要談談類型的洗禮發現,在酒店, 這些都傾向於認為,上帝涉及家庭,而不是個人的時候,諾亞是免於水患,他的整個家庭是接到他的進入方舟(參見一日寵物。 3:20-21 ) 。 When Abraham is given the covenant sign of circumcision, he is commanded to administer it to all the male members of his house (Gen. 17; cf. Col. 2:11-12 for the connection between baptism and circumcision).亞伯拉罕的時候,給出了該公約簽訂的割禮,他是指揮者來管理它的所有男性成員到他家(創17個;比照上校為2:11-12之間的聯繫洗禮和割禮) 。 At the Red Sea it is all Israel (men, women, and children) which passes through the waters in the great act of redemption that foreshadows not only the sign of baptism but the work of God behind it (cf. 1 Cor. 10:1-2).在紅海上,它是所有以色列(男子,婦女和兒童) ,其中,穿越水域,在大的行為贖回這預示著,不僅標誌的洗禮,但天主的工程背後(參見一肺心病。 10 : 1-2 ) 。

In the NT the ministry of our Lord is particularly rich in relevant statements.在新台幣財政部我們的主是特別豐富,在有關報表。 He himself becomes a child, and as such is conceived of the Holy Spirit.他自己成為孩子的,正因為如此,是構思的聖靈。 The Baptist, too, is filled with the Spirit from his mother's womb, so that he might have been a fit subject for baptism no less than circumcision very early in life.浸會,也充滿了精神,從他母親的子宮內,使他可能是一個合適的主題洗禮不得少於割禮非常早期的生活情趣。 Later, Christ receives and blesses the little ones (Matt. 19:13-14) and is angry when his disciples rebuff them (Mark 10:14).後來,基督接受並祝福小朋友。 ( 19:13-14 ) ,並正在生氣的時候,他的弟子們碰了他們(馬克10時14分) 。 He says that the things of God are revealed to babes rather than the wise and prudent (Luke 10:21).他說,那些東西是上帝透露給美女,而不是明智謹慎(路加福音10:21 ) 。 He takes up the statement of Ps.他佔據了該聲明的PS 。 8:2 about the praise of sucklings (Matt. 21:16). 8:2左右的高度讚譽sucklings 。 ( 21時16分) 。 He warns against the danger of offending against little ones that believe in him (Matt. 18:6), and in the same context says that to be Christians we have not to become adults but to become as children.他提醒市民預防危險得罪對小朋友說,相信他。 ( 18時06分) ,並在同一背景下說,為被基督徒,我們不要變成成人,但要成為為兒童。

In the first preaching in Acts it is noticeable that Peter confirms the covenant procedure of the OT with the words: "The promise is unto you, and to your children."在第一次講道行為值得注意的是,彼得證實了該公約的程序,職能治療與詞: "無極,是你們和你們的孩子" 。 In the light of the OT background and the similar procedure in proselyte baptisms, there is little reason to doubt that the household baptisms would include any children who might belong to the families concerned.在考慮到該城市旅遊局的背景和類似的程序在proselyte受洗儀式,有一點是有理由懷疑我們的家庭受洗儀式將包括任何孩子可能屬於家庭。

In the epistles children are particularly addressed in Ephesians, Colossians, and probably 1 John. We also have the important statement in 1 Cor.在教會中的兒童是特別針對在以弗所,歌羅西書,大概約翰一, 我們也有重要聲明一日肺心病。 7:14 in which Paul speaks of the children of marriages that have become "mixed" by conversion as "holy." This cannot refer to their civil status, but can only mean that they belong to the covenant people, and therefore will obviously have a right to the covenant sign. 7時14分,其中保羅談到子女的婚姻,這已經成為"混合"轉化為"聖戰" ,這不能指其公民身份,而只能意味著它們屬於該公約的人,因此,很明顯權利公約的跡象。

It will be noted that in different ways all these statements bring before us the covenant membership of the children of professing believers. They thus introduce us directly to the biblical understanding of baptism that provides the second line of support for baptizing infants. 大家會注意到,在以不同的方式,所有這些陳述,使我們面前盟約成員的子女自稱信徒,他們所以引入我們直接向聖經的認識洗禮,提供第二線的支援,為嬰兒洗禮。

As the Bible sees it, baptism is not primarily a sign of repentance and faith on the part of the baptized.正如聖經看來,洗禮不是主要標誌的悔過書和信念,對部分的洗禮。 It is not a sign of anything that we do at all.這是不是一個跡象,凡是我們做的一切。 It is a covenant sign (like circumcision, but without blood-shedding), and therefore a sign of the work of God on our behalf which precedes and makes possible our own responsive movement.這是一個盟約簽署(如包皮環切術,但沒有流血) , 所以一個標誌工作,上帝對我們的代表,其中先行,並提出可能我們自己的回應。

It is a sign of the gracious election of the Father who plans and establishes the covenant.這是一種跡象的殷勤選舉的父親計劃,並確定了該公約。 It is therefore a sign of God's calling.因此,這是一種跡象,上帝的呼喚。 Abraham no less than his descendants was first chosen and called by God (Gen. 12:1).亞伯拉罕不低於他的後代是第一選擇,並呼籲上帝(創12:1 ) 。 Israel was separated to the Lord because he himself had said: "I will be your God, and ye shall be my people" (Jer. 7:23). Of all disciples it must be said: "Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you" (John 15:16).以色列分離出來,向上帝禱告,因為他本人曾表示: "我將是你的上帝,你們必將成為我的人" ( jer. 7時23分) , 所有弟子必須說: "你們沒有選擇我,但我選你" (約翰福音15:16 ) 。 The elective will of God in Christ extends to those who are far off as well as nigh, and the sign of it may be extended not only to those who have responded, but to their children growing up in the sphere of the divine choice and calling.選修課將上帝在基督裡延伸到那些已經為期不遠,以及要來臨,和標誌,它可以擴展,不僅包括那些已作出回應,但對自己的子女生長在該領域的神聖選擇,並呼籲。

But baptism is also a sign of the substitutionary work of the Son in which the covenant is fulfilled. As a witness of death and resurrection, it attests the death and resurrection of the One for the many without whose vicarious action no work even of repentance and faith can be of any avail. It preaches Christ himself as the One who is already dead and risen, so that all are dead and risen in him (II Cor. 5:14; Col. 3:1) even before the movements of repentance and faith which they are summoned to make in identification with him.但洗禮,也標誌了替代工作的兒子,在該公約是履行作為一個證人的死亡和復活,它證明死亡與復活的一個為許多沒有他們的替代行動,沒有工作,甚至有悔罪信仰可以任何徒勞的,它宣揚基督本人作為一個人,是已經死亡和復活,讓所有市民都死和復活,在他(指二肺心病。 5時14分;上校3:1 ) ,即使在運動的悔過書與信仰,他們都傳喚作出鑑定他的看法。 This substitutionary work is not merely for those who have already believed.這個替代工作,不只是為那些已經相信。 It may and must be preached to all, and the sign and seal given both to those who accept it and to the children who will be brought up with the knowledge of what God has already done for them once for all and all-sufficiently in Christ.它可能必須宰殺所有,並簽署和蓋章均給予那些接受,並給孩子們帶來了知識,有什麼神已做了,他們曾經為所有人都夠在基督裡。

Finally, baptism is a sign of the regenerative work of the Holy Spirit by which individuals are brought into the covenant in the responsive movement of repentance and faith.最後,洗禮,是一種跡象的再生工作,聖靈其中個人被帶入盟約,在順應運動的悔過書和信念。 But the Holy Spirit is sovereign (John 3:8).但聖靈是一個主權(約翰3點08分) 。 He works how and when and in whom he pleases.他的作品如何以及何時和以他為所欲為。 He laughs at human impossibilities (Luke 1:37). He is often present before his ministry is perceived, and his operation is not necessarily coextensive with our apprehension of it.他笑著說,在人類不可能(路加福音1時37分) , 他往往是,目前他的前部是知覺,其運作並不一定是共存與我們逮捕。 He does not disdain the minds of the undeveloped as fit subjects for the beginning, or if he so disposes the completion, of his work. So long as there is prayer to the Spirit, and a readiness to preach the evangelical word when the opportunity comes, infants may be regarded as within the sphere of this life-giving work which it is the office of baptism to sign and seal.他並不蔑視的頭腦不發達的適當人選科目開始時,或如他作主完成,他的工作, 所以只要有禱告的精神,並準備宣講福音詞時,有機會來,嬰兒可能會被視為內部的領域,這賦予生命的工作,這是辦公室的洗禮簽署和印章。

Where infant baptism, or paedobaptism, as it is sometimes called, is practiced, it is right and necessary that those who grow to maturity should make their own confession of faith. But they do so with the clear witness that it is not this which saves them, but the work of God already done for them before they believed.如嬰兒的洗禮,或paedobaptism ,因為它有時也被稱為,是練, 這是正確的和必要的,那些成長壯大的,應該讓他們自己招供的信仰,但他們這樣做是與證人明確表示,這不是為節省他們,但天主的工程已經做了,他們才相信。 The possibility arises, of course, that they will not make this confession, or do so formally.可能出現的,當然,他們不會做出這樣供述,或者這樣做正式的。 But this cannot be avoided by a different mode of administration.不過,這是不能迴避的,由不同的管理模式。 It is a problem of preaching and teaching.這是一個問題的傳教和教學。 And even if they do not believe, or do so nominally, their prior baptism as a sign of the work of God is a constant witness to call or finally to condemn them.即使他們不相信,還是這樣做名義上的,他們事先和洗禮,作為一種標誌的工作,上帝是一個不斷的證人,以打電話或最後以譴責他們。

On the mission field adult baptism will naturally continue.對團場成人的洗禮,自然會繼續下去。 In days of apostasy it can and will be common even in evangelized lands.在兩天的叛教它可以並且將會共同即使在evangelized土地。 Indeed, as a witness to the fact that our response is really demanded it is good for the church that there should always be a Baptist section within it.的確,作為一個見證了一個事實,即我們的答复是真的要求,它是好的,對於教會認為應該永遠是浸會科。 But once the gospel has gained an entry into a family or community, there is good scriptural and theological ground that infant baptism should be the normal practice.但一旦福音獲得了一個進入家庭或社區環境,有良好的聖經和神學,理由是嬰兒的洗禮,應該是正常的做法。

GW Bromiley毛重羅米立

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
GW Bromiley, The Baptism of Infants; J. Calvin, Institutes 4.16; O. Cullmann, Baptism in the NT; PC Marcel, The Biblical Doctrine of Infant Baptism; Reports on Baptism in the Church of Scotland; W. Wall, The History of Infant Baptism; J. Jeremias, Infant Baptism in the First Four Centuries; H. Thielicke, The Evangelical Faith, III.毛重羅米立,受洗嬰兒的J.卡爾文學院4.16 ;澳cullmann ,洗禮,在新台幣; PC機( Marcel ,聖經教義的嬰兒洗禮;報導洗禮,在教堂的蘇格蘭小牆,歷史的嬰兒洗禮的J. jeremias ,嬰兒的洗禮,在今年首4個世紀;每小時thielicke ,福音派信仰,三。


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Lay Baptism奠定洗禮

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The NT affords neither precept nor precedent for the administration of baptism except by an ordained minister. From an early period, however, laymen did give baptism where ministers were not available. 新台幣頗既不信條,也沒有先例,當局的洗禮,除一個受戒部長,從初期,但是,外行又過了洗禮,而部長們未能提供有關資料。 The custom was defended by Tertullian and later theologians on the ground that what is received may be passed on, that the sacrament is more important than order, and that the rule of love permits it.習俗是悍戴爾都良和後來的神學家,所持理由是什麼,是收到,可通過對,即聖餐,更重要的,比秩序,並認為法治的愛情許可證。 Some early authorities insisted on certain qualifications (eg, monogamy or confirmation), and the medieval church drew up an order of precedence.一些早期當局堅持一定學歷(例如,一夫一妻或確認) ,和中世紀的教堂,制定了一個優先順序。

Luther approved of the practice, seeing in it an exercise of the priesthood of the laity.路德核准的實踐中,看到在這一次演習的神職人員的俗人。 But the Reformed school rejected and suppressed it on the ground that it is not scriptural, destroys good order, and is linked with the false idea of an absolute necessity of baptism.但改革後學校拒絕和鎮壓,它在地面上,這是不是聖經,破壞良好的社會秩序,是聯繫在一起的虛假構思一個絕對必要的洗禮。 Baptism by midwives was particularly disliked.洗禮,由助產士,尤其不喜歡。 The practice was fully debated in the Church of England, and eventually discontinued after the Hampton Court Conference in 1604.這種做法充分辯論,在英國教會,並最終停售後,漢普頓法院會議1604 。

GW Bromiley毛重羅米立

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
J. Bingham, Works, VIII; GW Bromiley, Baptism and the Anglican Reformers. j.賓厄姆,工程,第八章;毛重羅米立,洗禮和聖公會改革者。


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Rebaptism rebaptism

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During the second century, the church in Asia Minor, faced with considerable heresy, refused to recognize the validity of heretical baptism.在公元二世紀,教會在亞洲未成年人,面臨著相當大的邪說,拒絕承認的有效性異端的洗禮。 Converts to the orthodox faith from heretical groups were accordingly rebaptized.轉換到東正教信仰,從邪教團體據此rebaptized 。 The church at Rome, however, took the position that the rite was valid when properly performed, ie, with the correct formula and with the right intention, despite the erroneous views of its administrator.教會在羅馬,但是,所採取的立場表示,成年禮是有效的時候,適當的表現,也就是說,有了正確的配方和正確的意圖,儘管錯誤的觀點,其管理人。 In North Africa, Tertullian, then Cyprian, would not recognize the baptism of heretics.在北非,戴爾都良的話,塞浦路斯,將不承認洗禮的異端。 Cyprian carried on a bitter controversy with Stephen, bishop of Rome, on this issue.塞浦路斯進行了痛苦的爭論與鑑泉,羅馬的主教,在這個問題上。 An anonymous writing, De rebaptismate, set forth the position of the church at Rome.一個匿名寫作,德rebaptismate ,闡明立場,教會在羅馬。 It made a distinction between water baptism and Spirit baptism.它作了區分水的洗禮和精神的洗禮。 When a heretic was admitted to the church by the laying on of hands, the Spirit was conveyed, making further application of water unnecessary.當邪教組織被接納為教會所鋪設上的手中,他們的精神是傳達,使進一步應用水不必要的。

The Roman position was endorsed by the Council of Arles (314) and was championed by Augustine in his controversy with the Donatists.羅馬的立場得到了議會的阿爾勒( 314 ) ,並倡導的奧古斯丁在他的爭議與donatists 。 Its advocates could point to the fact that Scripture contained no instance of rebaptism, that the analogous rite of circumcision was not repeatable, and that the questioning of the legitimacy of heretical baptism made the efficacy of the rite depend upon man rather than God.它的鼓吹者也指出這樣一個事實,即聖經中沒有實例rebaptism ,認為類似成年禮的割禮是不重複的,並表示,訊問的合法性異端的洗禮,取得的成效之祭取決於人,而不是神。 The Council of Trent, in its fourth canon on baptism, reaffirmed the Catholic position.安理會的遄達,在其第四次對佳能的洗禮,重申了天主教會的立場。

In Reformation times the Anabaptists insisted on baptism for those who had been baptized in infancy, and this has continued to be the position of the Baptist churches.在改造倍anabaptists堅持的洗禮,對於那些已經受洗在嬰兒期,而這將繼續成為該位置的浸會教堂。 The Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England practice what is known as conditional baptism in cases where there is doubt as to the validity of prior baptism.羅馬天主教會和英國教會的做法,就是我們所熟悉的洗禮有條件的情況下,有懷疑,以有效性事先的洗禮。 The formula used in the Church of England begins, "If thou art not already baptized, I baptize thee."公式中使用的英國教會開始之際, "如果你是藝術不是已經受洗,我baptize祢" 。

EF Harrison英法哈里森
Elwell Evangelical Dictionary Elwell宣布了福音字典

Bibliography 參考書目
EW Benson, Cyprian; Blunt; HG Wood in HERE. EW向班森,塞浦路斯;鈍;汞柱木在這裡。


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Modes of Baptism模式的洗禮

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There are, generally speaking, two opinions regarding the proper manner of administering baptism: that only immersion is lawful and that the mode is a matter of indifference. It would not be correct to identify the immersionist as the Baptist position, for some Baptists do not accept the necessity of immersion. 還有,一般來說,兩方面的意見,以適當方式對管理的洗禮:只有沉浸是合法的,並且該模式是一個問題,態度冷漠,這是不正確的,以確定immersionist作為浸會的立場,對一些浸信會不接受必要的浸泡。 The early Anabaptists as a rule baptized by pouring, and still today certain writers who strongly condemn infant baptism are indifferent as to mode (eg, Karl Barth).早期anabaptists作為一項規則的洗禮,澆注,而現在仍是今天的某些作家,他們強烈譴責嬰兒的洗禮,都無動於衷,以模式(例如,卡爾巴特) 。

The immersionist position is founded on three arguments. 該immersionist的立場是建基於三個論據。

The second position is essentially a negative one. 第二位的是基本上是一個消極的。

It denies the immersionist insistence that baptism is rightly administered only by immersion; instead, it contends that in the NT baptism, in its external form, is simply a washing, a cleansing, which can as well be effected by pouring (affusion) or sprinkling (aspersion) as by immersion.它否認immersionist堅持的洗禮,這是十分正確的管理,只有浸泡;相反,它認為,在新台幣洗禮,在其外部形態,根本是一個洗滌,保持清潔,可作為良好生效澆築(灌注) ,或灑( aspersion )由於受浸泡。

While there is widespread agreement that baptizein in classical Greek means "to immerse," because baptizein has become a technical theological term in the NT it is maintained that the classical and secular usage cannot by itself be normative.雖然人們普遍同意, baptizein在古典希臘語意思是"沉浸" ,因為baptizein已經成為一個技術性的神學來說,在新台幣它堅持認為,古典與世俗的使用本身不能加以規範。 The term diatheke, for example, universally means "testament" in the Greek of the NT period, but it cannot be given that meaning in its NT usage.任期diatheke ,舉例來說,普遍是指"遺囑" ,在希臘語的新台幣時期,但它不能給予這麼一點意思,在其新台幣用法。 That in its biblical and theological use baptizein has come to mean simply "to wash" or "to purify with water" is indicated by certain occurrences of the term in the LXX and NT where baptizein cannot mean immerse (Sir. 34:25; Luke 11:38; Acts 1:5; 2:3-4, 17; 1 Cor. 10:1-2; Heb. 9:10-23).在其聖經和神學使用baptizein來的意思是簡單的"洗手"或"淨化水" ,顯示出某些事件的任期在lxx和NT那裡baptizein不能意味著沉浸( sir. 34:25 ;路加福音11時38分; 1:5行為; 2:3-4 , 17 , 1肺心病。 10:1-2 ;以弗所書9:10-23 ) 。 The last text in particular is a reminder that the purificatory water rites of the OT, the biblical antecedents of baptism, were never immersions. It is further maintained that it is at least implausible that certain baptisms recorded in the NT were immersions (Acts 2:41; 10:47-48; 16:33).最後文本中,特別是提醒人們,淨化水儀軌的職能治療,聖經前因的洗禮,從未浸入, 它是進一步堅持認為,它至少implausible某些受洗記錄在新台幣分別浸入 (使徒2 : 41 ; 10:47-48 ; 16時33分) 。 Nor, it is contended, can appeal be made to the use of the prepositions "in" and "into" which are ambiguous and, if pressed, in Acts 8:38 would require the immersion of both subject and minister.也不是,這是有爭議的,可以提出上訴作出使用介詞"在"和"到" ,這是一種模糊的,如果壓,在行為8時38分將需要浸泡的兩個課題和交通部長。

While baptism certainly signifies union with Christ in his death and resurrection, it is denied that this has relevance for the mode.而洗禮當然標誌著聯盟已經與基督同在,他的死與復活,這是無可否認,這是適切性,為模式。 In Rom.在ROM 。 6:6 union with Christ in his crucifixion and in Gal. 6時06分聯盟與基督在十字架上,並在半乳糖。 3:27 being clothed with Christ are included in the signification of baptism, but no mode illustrates these aspects of the symbolism of baptism. 3時27分被豐衣足食,與基督都包括在意義的洗禮,但沒有模式的說明,這些方面的象徵意義的洗禮。 Further, water is a singularly unlikely symbol for the earth into which one is buried, as the immersionist contends. Actually, sprinkling is as well established in Ezek.此外,水是一種奇異的可能性不大象徵地球進入哪一個是埋,因為immersionist爭辯說,事實上,噴水,是因為早已確立在ezek 。 36:25 and Heb. 36:25和希伯來書。 9:10, 13-14; 10:22. 9:10 13-14 ; 10:22 。

It is conceded that immersion was the primary mode in the early church, but it is pointed out that other modes were permitted (cf. Didache 7; Cyprian, Epistle to Magnus 12), the earliest artistic representations depict baptism by pouring (affusion), and that some of the influences contributing to the popularity of immersion well may not have been healthy. In general, the nonimmersionist contends that rigor in matters of form is contrary to the spirit of NT worship, contrary to the universal indifference to the mode of celebrating the Lord's Supper, and subject to the scandal that, in principle, the immersionist depopulates the church of most of its membership and most of its finest sons and daughters. 這是讓步,即沉浸於初級模式,在早期教會,但它指出,以其他方式允許 (參見didache 7項;塞浦路斯,書信,以馬格納斯12 ) ,最早的藝術交涉描繪洗禮澆(灌注) ,並有部分影響,促使人氣沉浸以及可能不會有健康的。 一般來說, nonimmersionist認為,在嚴謹的事項形式,是違反精神新台幣崇拜,相反,普遍冷漠的方式慶祝主的晚餐,並須符合該醜聞中,原則上, immersionist depopulates教會它的大部分成員和它的大多數最優秀的兒女。

RS Rayburn盧比rayburn

Bibliography 參考書目
A. Carson, Baptism, Its Mode and Its Subjects; TJ Conant, The Meaning and Use of Baptizein; J. Warns, Baptism; J. Gill, Body of Divinity; AH Strong, Systematic Theology; A. Oepke, TDNT, I, 529, 46; BB Warfield, "How Shall We Baptize?"答:卡森,洗禮,它的模式和其子民; TJ音樂諾伍德的,但其意義和使用baptizein的J.警告,洗禮的J.鰓,身體的神性;啊強烈的,有系統的神學;甲奧百克, tdnt ,我, 529人, 46歲; BB心跳沃菲爾德, "我們怎樣baptize " ? in Selected Shorter Writings of Benjamin B. Warfield, II; WGT Shedd, Dogmatic Theology; RL Dabney, Lectures in Systematic Theology; R. Watson, Theological Institutes; RG Rayburn, What About Baptism?在選定較短的著作本傑明乙沃菲爾德,二; wgt謝德,教條式的神學;研究部主管dabney ,講座,在系統神學;傳譯沃森,神學院校;的RG rayburn ,什麼洗禮? J. Murray, Christian Baptism. j.默里,基督教的洗禮。


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Trine (Triune) Immersion Baptism trine (三位一體)浸泡洗禮

One popular aspect of Baptizing a Christian involves a triple Baptism, called a Trine Baptism or a Triune Baptism.一個受歡迎的方面洗禮是一個基督教牽涉到三重洗禮,即所謂的trine洗禮或三位一體的洗禮。 In contrast with a single immersion or a single sprinkling of water, this involves three quickly successive immersions or sprinklings.相比之下,與一個單一的浸泡或單一灑水,這涉及到三個快速連續浸入或sprinklings 。

Historical Practice歷史實踐

There is no evidence that the Jews practiced trine immersion, nor had they doctrinal reason to do so.沒有任何證據表明,猶太人實行trine浸泡過,也從未教義沒有理由這樣做。 A threefold scheme is sometimes detected in the sequence of circumcision, baptism and sacrifice, but this sequence is reflected rather in the baptism, confirmation, and first communion of the early Church.三倍的計劃是,有時發現在序列的割禮,洗禮和犧牲,但這種順序反映,而不是在洗禮,確認,並首先共融的初期教會。

The NT neither commands trine immersion nor provides any example of it. The only possible connection is with the trinity (Mt. 28:19), but single immersion might equally well be deduced from the reported baptizing in the name of Christ. 新台幣既不指揮trine浸泡,也沒有提供任何的例子。唯一可能的聯繫是與三一(東山28:19 ) ,但單一的浸泡,可能同樣是好推斷,從報告的洗禮,在名稱的喊聲。

Yet trine immersion is undoubtedly early and seems to have established itself quickly as the common practice, though with no apparent appeal to the Apostles.然而trine浸沒無疑是早期似乎已經建立了自己迅速成為世界普遍的做法,雖然沒有明顯上訴到使徒。 Thus the Didache speaks of trine immersion (or affusion): "But if thou hast neither [cold or warm running water], pour water three times [Gk. tris] on the head 'in the Name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit'" (7:3).因此didache談到trine浸沒(或灌注)說: "不過,如果祢既不[冷或暖自來水] ,傾訴水3倍[ GK型。三]在頭上' ,在父親的姓名,子和聖神' " ( 7:3 ) 。 Justin Martyr, too, seems to have hinted at trine immersion (Apol. i.61), and it is plainly attested by Tertullian: "And indeed it is not once only, but three times, that we are immersed into the Three Persons, at each several mention of Their names" (nam nec semel, sed ter, ad singula nomina. in personas singulas, tinguimur; Adv. Prax. 26; cf. also De corona 3). The Apostolic Constitutions reiterate: "if any bishop or presbyter does not perform the three immersions of the one admission, but one immersion, which is given into the death of Christ, let him be deprived" (xlvii. 50).賈斯汀烈士,也似乎已暗示trine浸沒( apol. i.61 ) ,它是赤裸裸地核簽戴爾都良說: "事實上,這不是一次,而是三次,我們完全沉浸到3人,在每幾個提及他們的名字" (南NEC的塞梅爾的SED條之三,專案singula nomina在建立persona singulas , tinguimur ; ADV的。普拉克斯26段;比照亦德電暈3 ) 。 使徒憲法中重申: "如果有任何主教或presbyter不履行三個浸入了一入學,但一浸泡,這是考慮到死亡的基督,讓他被剝奪" ( xlvii. 50 ) 。

At a later stage Gregory allowed single immersion, in Spain, thus giving rise to the famous Toledo ruling much cited by the Reformers. 在後一階段格雷戈里允許單一浸泡,在西班牙,從而掀起了著名的托萊多執政得多舉改革者。 This ruling seems to have been in opposition to a false Arian conception of the three persons and to emphasize their essential oneness in deity. In both Western and Eastern Churches trine immersion has continued to be the common practice.這一判決結果似乎一直在反對虛假阿里安觀三名人士,並強調他們的基本統一性,在神看, 在西方和東方教會trine浸沒已持續成為普遍的做法。

Reformation Teaching教學改革

The Reformers did not object in principle to trine immersion. For Luther it was a neutral matter. 改革者沒有原則上不反對trine浸沒。路德它是一個中立的事。 Calvin, too, argued for liberty in the matter, although he did not practice trine baptism; he also permitted either immersion or sprinkling (Inst. iv.15.19).卡爾文,也主張自由在這件事的,雖然他沒有實踐trine的洗禮, 他也不允許任何浸泡或噴淋 ( inst. iv.15.19 ) 。 The principle of a primary conformity to what is actually found in Scripture probably influenced Calvin's own practice.該原則的一個主要整合到什麼是真正發現經文可能影響卡爾文的自己的做法。

In England the Sarum Use prescribes dipping, "first on the right side, then the left, then the face."在英格蘭中部sarum使用明浸" ,先在右邊側,然後在左邊的,那麼,面"的原則。 In 1549 the first Book of Common Prayer maintains trine immersion; in the 1552 edition dipping remains, but the three dippings are abandoned as of no true moment.在1549年的第一本書的共同祈禱保持trine浸沒,在第1552版浸漬仍然存在,但三個dippings被丟棄,因為沒有真正的時刻。 T. Becon (ca. 1511-1567) granted that the trine practice is ancient, but he listed it among things indifferent, since "Christ left the manner of baptism free in the church" (Works, 2, ed. J. Ayre for Parker Society [1843-44]).湯匙becon (約公元1511年至1567年)理所當然地認為該trine實踐,是古代的,但他列舉了這其中的事情漠不關心,因為"基督離開該地的洗禮免費在教會" (工程, 2 ,海關學報Ayre說,為帕克社會, 1843年至1844年] ) 。 Later opinion tended to harden against the practice.後來民意趨向強硬起來反對這一做法。 Thus J. Calfhill (ca. 1530-1576), almost certainly erroneously, dismissed it as a "strange invention of Tertullian" (Works, 213, ed. Parker Society). Reformation teaching and practice was generally biased against the custom on the ground that it was an addition with no biblical sanction or true theological weight. A principle of liberty was not abandoned, however, except by the narrower Puritans.因此j. calfhill (約公元1530年至1576年) ,幾乎可以肯定誤,駁回這是一個"奇怪的發明戴爾都良" (工程, 213 ,海關帕克社會) 。 改造教學與實踐普遍的偏見習俗對地面這是一個除了沒有聖經制裁或真正的神學重量。原則的自由是沒有放棄,不過,除由窄清教徒。

The Reformation view seems on the whole to be the most satisfactory.改革的看法,似乎對整個應是最令人滿意的。 Since trine immersion lacks direct biblical support, it is not a binding obligation.自trine浸沒缺乏直接聖經的支持,這不是一個有約束力的義務。 A different baptismal practice does not affect the sacrament and may be preferred by churches that try to exclude what is not biblically enjoined.不同的洗禮做法,並不會影響聖餐,並可能比較喜歡教堂,設法排除什麼是不聖經受命。 Nevertheless, trine immersion has impressive historical attestation. It is not devoid of helpful signification and does not corrupt the sacrament. A liberty of judgment may thus be conceded to Churches that maintain the practice.不過, trine浸沒了令人印象深刻的歷史證明, 它不是空洞的幫助意義,不腐蝕聖餐。人身自由的判斷,因而可能讓步,以教會保持這種做法。 In other words, it belongs to the sphere where each church may and should decide for itself the most appropriate form of fulfilling the scriptural ordinance.或者換句話說,它屬於該領域,而每一個教會可能,並應自行決定最適當的形式,落實到聖經的條例。


Strong's Definitions for (Greek) Biblical Baptism words強大的定義為(希臘文)聖經洗禮的話

907 baptizo 907 baptizo

from a derivative of 911; TDNT - 1:529,92; verb從衍生的911 ; tdnt -1 :529,92;動詞

AV - baptize (76), wash 2, baptist 1, baptized + 2258 1; 80影音-b aptize( 7 6) ,洗2 ,浸會1 ,受洗+二二五八一8 0

1) to dip repeatedly, to immerse, to submerge (of vessels sunk) 1 )浸多次,以浸泡,淹沒(船隻沉沒)
2) to cleanse by dipping or submerging, to wash, to make clean with water, to wash one's self, bathe 2 )清洗則浸泡或淹沒,洗,使清潔水,洗一個人的自我,洗澡
3) to overwhelm 3 )以壓倒


Not to be confused with 911, bapto.請不要將它與911 , bapto 。 The clearest example that shows the meaning of baptizo is a text from the Greek poet and physician Nicander, who lived about 200 BC It is a recipe for making pickles and is helpful because it uses both words.最明顯的例子,這說明含義baptizo是文本,從希臘詩人和內科醫生尼坎德,住約公元前200 ,它是一個用於製造鹹菜和幫助,因為它使用兩個詞。 Nicander says that in order to make a pickle, the vegetable should first be 'dipped' (bapto) into boiling water and then 'baptised' (baptizo) in the vinegar solution.尼坎德說,為了使泡菜,蔬菜應先'跌' ( bapto )到沸水,然後'洗禮' ( baptizo )在醋溶液。 Both verbs concern the immersing of vegetables in a solution.這兩個動詞的關切浸泡的蔬菜,在一個解決辦法。 But the first is temporary.但第一是暫時的。 The second, the act of baptising the vegetable, produces a permanent change.第二,該法案的洗禮蔬菜,製作了永久性的變化。

When used in the New Testament, this word more often refers to our union and identification with Christ than to our water baptism.使用時,在新約聖經,這兩個字更經常地是指我們的工會和鑑定與基督比我們的水的洗禮。 eg Mark 16:16.例如馬克16:16 。 'He that believes and is baptised shall be saved'. '他說,相信是領洗必得救' 。 Christ is saying that mere intellectual assent is not enough.基督是說,僅僅是智力贊同是不夠的。 There must be a union with him, a real change, like the vegetable to the pickle!必須有一個聯盟與他,一個真正的改變,像蔬菜到泡菜!

Bible Study Magazine, James Montgomery Boice, May 1989.聖經學習雜誌,詹姆斯蒙哥馬利卜易士, 1989年5月。


908 baptisma 908 baptisma

from 907; TDNT - 1:545,92; nn從907 ; tdnt -1 :545,92;神經網絡

AV - baptism 22; 22影音-洗禮2 22 2

1) immersion, submersion 1 )浸泡,淹沒
1a) of calamities and afflictions with which one is quite overwhelmed一A )的災難和痛苦與哪一個是頗為不堪重負
1b) of John's baptism, that purification rite by which men on confessing their sins were bound to spiritual reformation, obtained the pardon of their past sins and became qualified for the benefits of the Messiah's kingdom soon to be set up. 1B )條約翰的洗禮,淨化成年禮其中男子供認自己的罪孽必然會出現精神改造,得到了赦免他們過去的罪孽,並成為合格的,為造福彌賽亞的英國即將成立的。 This was valid Christian baptism, as this was the only baptism the apostles received and it is not recorded anywhere that they were ever rebaptised after Pentecost.這是有效基督教洗禮,因為這是唯一的洗禮使徒們收到了,這是不記錄任何地方,他們任何時候都rebaptised後五旬。
1c) of Christian baptism; a rite of immersion in water as commanded by Christ, by which one after confessing his sins and professing his faith in Christ, having been born again by the Holy Spirit unto a new life, identifies publicly with the fellowship of Christ and the church. 1C )條的基督教洗禮;成年禮的浸沒在水中,作為指揮的基督,其中之一後,承認他的罪孽,並自稱他在基督裡的信仰,已經誕生再次被聖靈所不欲,一個新的生命,確定公開與聯誼會基督和教會。


In Rom.在ROM 。 6:3 Paul states we are "baptised unto death" meaning that we are not only dead to our former ways, but they are buried.選手保羅國家,我們是"領洗,以至於死" ,也就是說,我們不僅是這些死者都是我們以前的方式,但他們被埋葬。 To return to them is as unthinkable for a Christian as for one to dig up a dead corpse!為了回報他們,是因為無法想像一個基督徒,作為一個人挖了一個死者的屍體! In Moslem countries a new believer has little trouble with Moslems until he is publicly baptised.在穆斯林國家的一個新的信仰者已很少麻煩與穆斯林直到他的是公開受洗。 It is then, that the Moslems' know he means business, and then the persecution starts.它是那麼說,穆斯林知道他的意思業務,然後再迫害開始。 See also discussion of baptism under No. 907.見還討論了洗禮下907 。


909 baptismos 909 baptismos

from 907; TDNT - 1:545,92; nm從907 ; tdnt -1 :545,92;奈米

AV - washing 3, baptism 1; 4影音-洗三,一洗禮;四日

1) a washing, purification effected by means of water 1 )洗滌,淨化的效果,就是水
1a) of washing prescribed by the Mosaic law (Heb 9:10) which seems to mean an exposition of the difference between the washings prescribed by the Mosaic law and Christian baptism一A )洗衣機所鑲嵌法(希伯來書9時10分) ,這似乎意味著世界博覽會的區別洗液所鑲嵌法和基督教的洗禮


910 Baptistes 910 baptistes

from 907; TDNT - 1:545,92; nm從907 ; tdnt -1 :545,92;奈米

AV - Baptist 14; 14影音-浸會1 41 4

1) a baptiser 1 ) baptiser
2) one who administers the rite of baptism 2 )一個人管理成年禮的洗禮
3) the surname of John, the forerunner of Christ 3 )姓莊,前身基督


911 bapto 911 bapto

a primary word; TDNT - 1:529,92; v小學字; tdnt -1 :529,92; v

AV - dip 3; 3影音-浸三日;

1) to dip, dip in, immerse 1 )浸,浸漬,浸
2) to dip into dye, to dye, colour 2 )動用染料,染料,膚色


Not to be confused with 907, baptizo.請不要將它與907 , baptizo 。 The clearest example that shows the meaning of baptizo is a text from the Greek poet and physician Nicander, who lived about 200 BC It is a recipe for making pickles and is helpful because it uses both words.最明顯的例子,這說明含義baptizo是文本,從希臘詩人和內科醫生尼坎德,住約公元前200 ,它是一個用於製造鹹菜和幫助,因為它使用兩個詞。 Nicander says that in order to make a pickle, the vegetable should first be 'dipped' (bapto) into boiling water and then 'baptised' (baptizo) in the vinegar solution.尼坎德說,為了使泡菜,蔬菜應先'跌' ( bapto )到沸水,然後'洗禮' ( baptizo )在醋溶液。 Both verbs concern the immersing of vegetables in a solution.這兩個動詞的關切浸泡的蔬菜,在一個解決辦法。 But the first is temporary.但第一是暫時的。 The second, the act of baptising the vegetable, produces a permanent change.第二,該法案的洗禮蔬菜,製作了永久性的變化。


Baptism洗禮

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

One of the Seven Sacraments of the Christian Church; frequently called the "first sacrament", the "door of the sacraments", and the "door of the Church".其中的七個聖禮的基督教堂;經常被稱為"第一次聖餐" , "家門口聖禮" , "門的教會" 。

The subject will be treated under the following headings:這個問題會在治療下,其標題如下:

I. Authoritative Statement of Doctrine一,具有權威性的說明學說

II.二。 Etymology詞源

III.三。 Definition定義

IV.四。 Types類型

V. Institution of the Sacrament五,體制的聖餐

VI.六。 Matter and Form of the Sacrament此事與形式的聖餐

VII.七。 Conditional Baptism有條件的洗禮

VIII.八。 Rebaptism rebaptism

IX.九。 Necessity of Baptism必要性的洗禮

X. Substitutes for the Sacrament十代用品為聖餐

XI.十一。 Unbaptized Infants unbaptized兒

XII.十二。 Effects of Baptism影響洗禮

XIII.十三。 Minister of the Sacrament部長的聖餐

XIV.十四。 Recipient of Baptism受贈人的洗禮

XV.十五。 Adjuncts of Baptism輔助的洗禮

XVI, Ceremonies of Baptism十六,儀式的洗禮

XVII.十七。 Metaphorical Baptism隱喻的洗禮

I. AUTHORITATIVE STATEMENT OF DOCTRINE一,具有權威性的說明學說

At the outset we think it advisable to give two documents which express clearly the mind of the Church on the subject of baptism.在一開始我們認為這是可取的,讓這兩個文件,其中明確地表達心中的教會關於這一主題的洗禮。 They are valuable, also, as containing a summary of the main points to be considered in the treatment of this important matter.他們是寶貴的,同時,由於含有主要觀點的概述,以考慮在對待這一重要的事情。 Baptism is defined positively in the one and negatively in the other.洗禮,是指積極,在一負,在其他。

(1) The Positive Document: "The Decree for the Armenians" ( 1 )積極文件說: "這項法令,為亞美尼亞人"

"The Decree for the Armenians", in the Bull "Exultate Deo" of Pope Eugene IV, is often referred to as a decree of the Council of Florence. "這項法令,為亞美尼亞人" ,在牛氣沖天的" exultate迪奧"的教皇尤金四中,常常被稱為一項法令,該理事會的佛羅倫薩。 While it is not necessary to hold this decree to be a dogmatic definition of the matter and form and minister of the sacraments, it is undoubtedly a practical instruction, emanating from the Holy See, and as such, has full authenticity in a canonical sense.雖然它不是有必要舉行這項法令被教條化的定義此事,並形成和交通部長聖禮,它無疑是一個實踐教學環節,來自羅馬教廷的,正因為如此,有完全的真實性,在一個規範的意義。 That is, it is authoritative.這就是說,它具有權威性。 The decree speaks thus of Baptism:該法令說,因此洗禮:

Holy Baptism holds the first place among the sacraments, because it is the door of the spiritual life; for by it we are made members of Christ and incorporated with the Church.神聖的洗禮舉行首次地方之間的聖禮,因為這是家門口的精神生活;由它,我們取得了會員的基督,並採納了與教會。 And since through the first man death entered into all, unless we be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, we can not enter into the kingdom of Heaven, as Truth Himself has told us.而且由於通過第一男子死亡進入所有的,除非我們生出來的水和聖靈,我們不能進入天國,為自己的真理告訴我們。 The matter of this sacrament is true and natural water; and it is indifferent whether it be cold or hot.此事本聖餐是真實而天然水;它是漠不關心,不管是冷還是熱。 The form is: I baptize thee in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost.形式是:我baptize祢在父親的姓名和子和聖靈。 We do not, however, deny that the words: Let this servant of Christ be baptized in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost; or: This person is baptized by my hands in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, constitute true baptism; because since the principal cause from which baptism has its efficacy is the Holy Trinity, and the instrumental cause is the minister who confers the sacrament exteriorly, then if the act exercised by the minister be expressed, together with the invocation of the Holy Trinity, the sacrament is perfected.我們不是這樣做,但是,無可否認的話:讓這個僕人耶穌受洗,在父親的姓名和子和聖靈;或:此人就是洗禮,我的手在父親的姓名和該子和聖靈,構成了真正的洗禮;因為自的主要根源,從其中的洗禮,有其功效,是聖三一,以及器樂的事業是部長誰賦予了聖exteriorly ,那麼,如果該法行使部長表現出來,再加上引用的聖三一,聖餐是完善。 The minister of this sacrament is the priest, to whom it belongs to baptize, by reason of his office.部長這個聖餐是神父,向誰提出,它屬於baptize ,因他的辦公室。 In case of necessity, however, not only a priest or deacon, but even a layman or woman, nay, even a pagan or heretic can baptize, provided he observes the form used by the Church, and intends to perform what the Church performs.在案件的必要性,不過,並非只有一名神父或執事,但即使外行人都還是女人,不,甚至是異教或異教徒可以baptize ,只要他願意遵守形式所使用的教堂,並打算履行什麼教會的表現而定。 The effect of this sacrament is the remission of all sin, original and actual; likewise of all punishment which is due for sin.此舉的效果聖餐是減免一切罪過,原來和實際;同樣的一切懲罰,是因為為單。 As a consequence, no satisfaction for past sins is enjoined upon those who are baptized; and if they die before they commit any sin, they attain immediately to the kingdom of heaven and the vision of God.作為一個後果,沒有滿意為過去的罪孽是受命後,那些受洗;如果他們死之前,他們犯任何罪,他們能達到立即向天國的和遠見的上帝。

(2) The Negative Document: "De Baptismo" ( 2 )消極文件: "德baptismo "

The negative document we call the canons on baptism decreed by the Council of Trent (Sess. VII, De Baptismo), in which the following doctrines are anathematized (declared heretical):負面文件,我們稱之為大砲對洗禮頒布安理會的遄達( sess.七,德baptismo ) ,其中以下教義anathematized (申報邪) :

The baptism of John (the Precursor) had the same efficacy as the baptism of Christ, True and natural water is not necessary for baptism, and therefore the words of Our Lord Jesus Christ "Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost" are metaphorical.洗禮的約翰(先導) ,有相同的療效,作為洗禮的基督,真實而自然的水是沒有必要的洗禮,因此,也就是說我們的主耶穌基督" ,除非一個人出生,又水和聖靈"是隱喻。 The true doctrine of the sacrament of baptism is not taught by the Roman Church, Baptism given by heretics in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost with the intention of performing what the Church performs, is not true baptism, Baptism is free, that is, not necessary for salvation.真正教義的聖事的洗禮,是不教,父之由羅馬教會的洗禮,所給予的異端,在父親的姓名和子和聖靈與意向表演什麼教堂演出,是不正確的洗禮,洗禮是免費的,也就是沒有必要救贖。 A baptized person, even if he wishes it, can not lose grace, no matter how much he sins, unless he refuses to believe. 1洗禮的人,即使他的意願,不能輸掉風度,不論數額多少,他的罪孽,除非他不肯相信。 Those who are baptized are obliged only to have faith, but not to observe the whole law of Christ.那些受洗有責任,只有有信心,但不能觀察整個法律的喊聲。 Baptized persons are not obliged to observe all the precepts of the Church, written and traditional, unless of their own accord they wish to submit to them.受洗者沒有義務遵守所有戒律的教會,筆試和傳統的,除非他們自己的協議,他們希望提交給他們。

All vows made after baptism are void by reason of the promises made in baptism itself; because by these vows injury is done to the faith which has been professed in baptism and to the sacrament itself.所有的誓言後,作出的洗禮是無效的原因所作出的承諾,在洗禮本身,因為這些誓言損傷做是為了信仰一直自稱在洗禮和聖事本身。 All sins committed after baptism are either forgiven or rendered venial by the sole remembrance and faith of the baptism that has been received.所有罪孽的洗禮後,是不是情有可原,或者無法venial由唯一的紀念和信仰的洗禮已收到。 Baptism although truly and properly administered, must be repeated in the case of a person who has denied the faith of Christ before infidels and has been brought again to repentance.洗禮,雖然真正和妥善管理,要反复在案件的人已經否認信仰基督之前異教徒和已提請再次悔改之意。 No one is to be baptized except at the age at which Christ was baptized or at the moment of death.一查到底,決不受洗,除在年齡上的耶穌受洗禮或目前死因。

Infants, not being able to make an act of faith, are not to be reckoned among the faithful after their baptism, and therefore when they come to the age of discretion they are to be rebaptized; or it is better to omit their baptism entirely than to baptize them as believing on the sole faith of the Church, when they themselves can not make a proper act of faith.嬰幼兒的,不能夠做出的行為,信仰,不應該被忽視其中的忠實後,他們的洗禮,因此,當他們來到這個年齡的裁量權,他們將rebaptized ;抑或是為更好地略去他們的洗禮,完全比以baptize他們相信在鞋底上的信仰教會,當他們自己不能夠作出正確行為的信念。 Those baptized as infants are to be asked when they have grown up, whether they wish to ratify what their sponsors had promised for them at their baptism, and if they reply that they do not wish to do so, they are to be left to their own will in the matter and not to be forced by penalties to lead a Christian life, except to be deprived of the reception of the Eucharist and of the other sacraments, until they reform.那些受洗嬰兒是要問的時候,他們都長大了,他們是否願意批准什麼及其保薦人曾承諾為他們自己的洗禮,如果他們答复說,他們不打算這樣做,他們要留給自己自己的意願,在這件事的,不要強迫刑罰,以做一名基督信徒的生活,除了被剝奪酒會的聖體聖事和其他聖禮,直到他們的改革。

The doctrines here condemned by the Council of Trent, are those of various leaders among the early reformers.該學說在這裡譴責安理會的遄達,是那些各領導人之間早期的改革者。 The contradictory of all these statements is to be held as the dogmatic teaching of the Church.矛盾的,所有這些聲明是即將舉行,作為教條式的教學中的教會。

II.二。 ETYMOLOGY詞源

The word Baptism is derived from the Greek word, bapto, or baptizo, to wash or to immerse.這個詞的洗禮,是來自希臘字, bapto ,或baptizo ,洗手或浸泡。 It signifies, therefore, that washing is of the essential idea of the sacrament.它標誌,因此,洗手是對基本理念的聖餐。 Scripture uses the term baptize both literally and figuratively.經文中使用的術語是baptize都從字面上和形象。 It is employed in a metaphorical sense in Acts 1:5, where the abundance of the grace of the Holy Ghost is signified, and also in Luke 12:50, where the term is referred to the sufferings of Christ in His Passion.這是受聘於一個隱喻意義上的行為, 1:5 ,那裡豐富的恩典聖靈是標誌著,又在路加福音12:50 ,該詞是指痛苦的基督在他的激情。 Otherwise in the New Testament, the root word from which baptism is derived is used to designate the laving with water, and it is employed, when speaking of Jewish lustrations, and of the baptism of John, as well as of the Christian Sacrament of Baptism (cf. Hebrews 6:2; Mark 7:4).否則,在新約聖經,根字,從其中的洗禮,推導是用來指定laving水,它是就業,在談到猶太lustrations和洗禮的約翰,以及作為基督教聖餐的洗禮(參見希伯來人中以;馬克7時04分) 。 In ecclesiastical usage, however, when the terms Baptize, Baptism are employed without a qualifying word, they are intended to signify the sacramental washing by which the soul is cleansed from sin at the same time that water is poured upon the body.在教會使用,但是,當條件baptize ,洗禮是受僱於未經修飾詞,他們的原意是象徵聖洗,其中的靈魂,是清洗,從單在同一時間內,那就是水潑在屍體上。 Many other terms have been used as descriptive synonyms for baptism both in the Bible and Christian antiquity, as the washing of regeneration, illumination, the seal of God, the water of eternal life, the sacrament of the Trinity, and so on.其他許多條款已被用來作為描述同義詞的洗禮,無論是在聖經和基督教的古物,由於洗衣機的再生,照明,密封的神,水的永恆的生命,聖事的三位一體,等等。 In English, the term christen is familiarly used for baptize.在英語,術語命名,是familiarly用於baptize 。 As, however, the former word signifies only the effect of baptism, that is, to make one a Christian, but not the manner and the act, moralists hold that "I christen" could probably not be substituted validly for "I baptize" in conferring the sacrament.作為,但前者字標誌,不僅效果洗禮,也就是使一個基督徒,但不同意的方式和行為,道德家認為, "我命名" ,也可能是不可替代的有效,為"我baptize "授予聖餐。

III.三。 DEFINITION定義

The Roman Catechism (Ad parochos, De bapt., 2, 2, 5) defines baptism thus: Baptism is the sacrament of regeneration by water in the word (per aquam in verbo).羅馬問答(公元parochos ,德bapt , 2 , 2 , 5 )定義的洗禮,因此:洗禮是聖餐的再生水字(每aquam在動詞) 。 St. Thomas Aquinas (III:66:1) gives this definition: "Baptism is the external ablution of the body, performed with the prescribed form of words."聖托馬斯阿奎那(三: 66:1 ) ,讓這個定義: "洗禮是外部洗盥的身體,並與指定表格的話" 。 Later theologians generally distinguish formally between the physical and the metaphysical defining of this sacrament.後來神學家一般區分正式與物理和形而上學的界定這個聖餐。 By the former they understand the formula expressing the action of ablution and the utterance of the invocation of the Trinity; by the latter, the definition: "Sacrament of regeneration" or that institution of Christ by which we are reborn to spiritual life.由前他們明白公式表達行動的沐浴和話語的引用三位一體;受到後者,定義: "聖餐的再生" ,或該機構的基督,我們正獲得重生,以精神生活。

The term "regeneration" distinguishes baptism from every other sacrament, for although penance revivifies men spiritually, yet this is rather a resuscitation, a bringing back from the dead, than a rebirth.而言, "振興中華"的區別洗禮,從每一個其他聖事,因為雖然在懺悔revivifies男人精神上的,然而,這是相當復甦,帶回了從死裡復活,比重生。 Penance does not make us Christians; on the contrary, it presupposes that we have already been born of water and the Holy Ghost to the life of grace, while baptism on the other hand was instituted to confer upon men the very beginnings of the spiritual life, to transfer them from the state of enemies of God to the state of adoption, as sons of God.懺悔並不令我們基督徒;相反,它預示著我們已出生的水和聖靈向生命的恩典,而洗禮的問題,另一方面是為了賦予男人很開端的精神生活,以轉移他們從國家的真主的敵人向國家領養,因為神的兒子。

The definition of the Roman Catechism combines the physical and metaphysical definitions of baptism.定義羅馬講授相結合的物理和形而上學的定義洗禮。 "The sacrament of regeneration" is the metaphysical essence of the sacrament, while the physical essence is expressed by the second part of the definition, ie the washing with water (matter), accompanied by the invocation of the Holy Trinity (form). "聖事的再生" ,是形而上的本質的聖餐,而物理本質上是表示,由第二部分的定義,即洗滌水(物) ,並附上援引聖三一(表格) 。 Baptism is, therefore, the sacrament by which we are born again of water and the Holy Ghost, that is, by which we receive in a new and spiritual life, the dignity of adoption as sons of God and heirs of God's kingdom.洗禮,因此,聖餐,使我們再次降生的水和聖靈,也就是使我們得到一個新的和精神生活,人的尊嚴收養神的兒子和繼承人的上帝的王國。

IV.四。 TYPES類型

Having considered the Christian meaning of the term "baptism", we now turn our attention to the various rites which were its forerunners before the New Dispensation.審議了基督教一詞的含義"洗禮" ,現在,我們將我們的注意力轉向各種儀軌,其中,其先輩在新的豁免。

Types of this sacrament are to be found among the Jews and Gentiles.各類這聖餐是要找到之間的猶太人和外邦人。 Its place in the sacramental system of the Old Law was taken by circumcision, which is called by some of the Fathers "the washing of blood" to distinguish it from "the washing of water".它在聖事制度的舊法是採取包皮環切術,即所謂的一些爸爸"洗血" ,以區別於由"清洗水" 。 By the rite of circumcision, the recipient was incorporated into the people of God and made a partaker in the Messianic promises; a name was bestowed upon him and he was reckoned among the children of Abraham, the father of all believers.由成年禮的割禮,受贈人被吸收到人的神,並提出了partaker在救世主的承諾;名字,是上天賦予他和他的估計,其中兒童亞伯拉罕的,父親的所有信徒。

Other forerunners of baptism were the numerous purifications prescribed in the Mosaic dispensation for legal uncleannesses.其他先行者的洗禮,被眾多purifications明在花葉免除法律uncleannesses 。 The symbolism of an outward washing to cleanse an invisible blemish was made very familiar to the Jews by their sacred ceremonies.象徵主義的外向型洗衣機清洗一隻無形的污點,是十分熟悉的猶太人當作自己的神聖儀式。 But in addition to these more direct types, both the New Testament writers and the Fathers of the Church find many mysterious foreshadowings of baptism.但除了這些更直接的類型,無論是新約聖經的作家和教會的神父發現不少神秘foreshadowings的洗禮。 Thus St. Paul (1 Corinthians 10) adduces the passage of Israel through the Red Sea, and St. Peter (1 Peter 3) the Deluge, as types of the purification to be found in Christian baptism.因此聖保祿(哥林多前書10 ) adduces通過以色列渡過紅海,和聖彼得( 1彼得3 )雨淋,因為類型的淨化被發現在基督教的洗禮。 Other foreshadowings of the sacrament are found by the Fathers in the bathing of Naaman in the Jordan, in the brooding of the Spirit of God over the waters, in the rivers of Paradise, in the blood of the Paschal Lamb, during Old Testament times, and in the pool of Bethsaida, and in the healing of the dumb and blind in the New Testament.其他foreshadowings的聖餐發現,由父親在洗澡的naaman在約旦,在育雛的精神,上帝在水域中,在大江大河的天堂,在血液中的逾越節羔羊,在舊約時代,並在泳池中的bethsaida ,並在癒合的啞巴和盲人,在新約聖經。 How natural and expressive the symbolism of exterior washing to indicate interior purification was recognized to be, is plain from the practice also of the heathen systems of religion.如何自然和表現力的象徵意義外洗,以顯示室內淨化被承認為,是平原,從實踐中,也對異教徒系統的宗教。 The use of lustral water is found among the Babylonians, Assyrians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Hindus, and others.使用lustral水是發現其中巴比倫人,亞述人,埃及人,希臘人,羅馬人,印度人和其他人。 A closer resemblance to Christian baptism is found in a form of Jewish baptism, to be bestowed on proselytes, given in the Babylonian Talmud (Döllinger, First Age of the Church).更緊密的相似性,以基督教的洗禮是發現一種形式的猶太人的洗禮,被賜予的proselytes ,由於在巴比倫塔木德經( döllinger ,首先是年齡的教會) 。

But above all must be considered the baptism of St. John the Precursor.但上述所有必須考慮的洗禮聖約翰的先導。 John baptized with water (Mark 1) and it was a baptism of penance for the remission of sins (Luke 3).約翰洗禮與水(注1 ) ,它是一個洗禮懺悔,為緩解的罪孽(路加福音3 ) 。 While, then, the symbolism of the sacrament instituted by Christ was not new, the efficacy which He joined to the rite is that which differentiates it from all its types.一會兒,然後,象徵性的聖餐是由基督是不是新的,但療效,他加入到成年禮,就是區別,它從所有類型。 John's baptism did not produce grace, as he himself testifies (Matthew 3) when he declares that he is not the Messias whose baptism is to confer the Holy Ghost.約翰的洗禮,不產風度,正如他自己證明了(馬太3 )時,他宣稱,他是不是messias的洗禮,是賦予聖靈。 Moreover, it was not John's baptism that remitted sin, but the penance that accompanied it; and hence St. Augustine calls it (De Bapt. contra Donat., V) "a remission of sins in hope".此外,它不是約翰的洗禮,即匯出單,但懺悔說,伴隨著它;所以聖奧古斯丁稱它為(德bapt 。矛盾人才庫,五) "減刑的罪過,希望" 。 As to the nature of the Precursor's baptism, St. Thomas (III:38:1) declares: The baptism of John was not a sacrament of itself, but a certain sacramental as it were, preparing the way (disponens) for the baptism of Christ." Durandus calls it a sacrament, indeed, but of the Old Law, and St. Bonaventure places it as a medium between the Old and New Dispensations. It is of Catholic faith that the Precursor's baptism was essentially different in its effects from the baptism of Christ, It is also to be noted that those who had previously received John's baptism had to receive later the Christian baptism (Acts 19).至於性質先導的洗禮,聖托馬斯(三: 38:1 )宣稱:洗禮的約翰不是聖事的本身,而是某聖事,因為它被編寫方式( disponens )洗禮基督" 。 durandus稱它為從樓上掉了,實在的,而是由舊法,及聖文德地方,它作為一種媒體之間的新老dispensations ,這是天主教信仰的先導的洗禮,有本質的不同,在它的影響,從洗禮的基督,這也是值得注意的是,那些先前曾收到約翰的洗禮,不得不接受後來基督教洗禮(使徒19 ) 。

V. INSTITUTION OF THE SACRAMENT五,體制的聖餐

That Christ instituted the Sacrament of Baptism is unquestionable.基督提起聖事的洗禮,是不容置疑的。 Rationalists, like Harnack (Dogmengeschichte, I, 68), dispute it, only by arbitrarily ruling out the texts which prove it.理性,喜歡的Harnack ( dogmengeschichte ,我, 68歲) ,發生爭執,只有任意排除文本,其中可以證明這一點。 Christ not only commands His Disciples (Matthew 28:19) to baptize and gives them the form to be used, but He also declares explicitly the absolute necessity of baptism (John 3): "Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he can not enter into the Kingdom of God."基督不僅命令他的門徒(馬太28:19 ) baptize並讓他們在表格上使用,但他也明確宣示絕對有必要的洗禮(約翰3 ) : "除非一個人出生,又水和聖地鬼,他也不能進入神的國度" 。 Moreover, from the general doctrine of the Church on the sacraments, we know that the efficacy attached to them is derivable only from the institution of the Redeemer.此外,從一般的理論教會聖禮,我們知道療效的重視,他們是唯一獲得的,由該機構的救贖。

When, however, we come to the question as to when precisely Christ instituted baptism, we find that ecclesiastical writers are not agreed.但是,當我們來到這個問題,至於何時正是基督提起洗禮,我們發現教會作家,不獲通過。 The Scriptures themselves are silent upon the subject.聖經本身是沉默後,這項議題。 Various occasions have been pointed out as the probable time of institution, as when Christ was Himself baptized in the Jordan, when He declared the necessity of the rebirth to Nicodemus, when He sent His Apostles and Disciples to preach and baptize.在不同場合都指出,由於可能出現的時候所,當基督被自己的洗禮,在約旦,當他宣布的必要性重生,以尼哥底母,當他派遣他的門徒和弟子傳教和baptize 。

The first opinion was quite a favorite with many of the Fathers and Schoolmen, and they are fond of referring to the sanctification of the baptismal water by contact with the flesh of the God-man.第一個意見是相當喜愛,與許多的父親和schoolmen的,他們喜歡指中共成聖的洗禮水的接觸與肉體的神人。 Others, as St. Jerome and St. Maximus, appear to assume that Christ baptized John on this occasion and thus instituted the sacrament.其他人,正如聖杰羅姆和聖鮃,似乎認定基督受洗約翰這一次,並因此建立了聖體。 There is nothing, however, in the Gospels to indicate that Christ baptized the Precursor at the time of His own baptism.沒有什麼,但是,在福音表明耶穌受洗的先導當時他自己的洗禮。 As to the opinion that it was in the colloquy with Nicodemus that the sacrament was instituted, it is not surprising that it has found few adherents.至於認為,它在座談會與尼哥底母認為聖餐被提起,這是不足為奇的,它已發現數附和。 Christ's words indeed declare the necessity of such an institution, but no more.基督的話確實申報的必要性,這樣的一個機構,但沒有更多。 It seems also very unlikely that Christ would have instituted the sacrament in a secret conference with one who was not to be a herald of its institution.這似乎也不太可能,基督會已建立了聖體在一個秘密的會議,其中一個人是不是一個先聲,其機構。

The more probable opinion seems to be that baptism, as a sacrament, had its origin when Christ commissioned His Apostles to baptize, as narrated in John 3 and 4.更可能的輿論似乎是說的洗禮,作為一個聖餐,有其起源的時候,基督委託他的門徒,以baptize ,作為敘述約翰第3和第4 。 There is nothing directly in the text as to the institution, but as the Disciples acted evidently under the instruction of Christ, He must have taught them at the very outset the matter and form of the sacrament which they were to dispense.有什麼直接在文本中,作為該機構的,但由於弟子擔任明顯的指示下,基督裡,他要告訴他們,在一開始就此事與形式的聖餐他們被免除。 It is true that St. John Chrysostom (Hom., xxviii in Joan.), Theophylactus (in cap. iii, Joan.), and Tertullian (De Bapt., c. ii) declare that the baptism given by the Disciples of Christ as narrated in these chapters of St. John was a baptism of water only and not of the Holy Ghost; but their reason is that the Holy Ghost was not given until after the Resurrection.這是事實聖約翰金口( hom. ,二十八,在鄧務滋女士) , theophylactus (章第三節,鄧務滋女士) ,和戴爾都良(德bapt ,長二)申報洗禮,由弟子基督作為旁白,在這些章節中聖約翰是一個洗禮的水不僅不是聖靈,但其理由卻是認為聖靈沒有給予直到復活之後。 As theologians have pointed out, this is a confusion between the visible and the invisible manifestation of the Holy Spirit.作為神學家所指出的那樣,這是一個混亂之間有形和無形的表現聖靈。 The authority of St. Leo (Ep. xvi ad Episc. Sicil.) is also invoked for the same opinion, inasmuch as he seems to hold that Christ instituted the sacrament when, after His rising from the dead, He gave the command (Matthew 28): "Go and teach . . . baptizing"; but St. Leo's words can easily be explained otherwise, and in another part of the same epistle he refers to the sanction of regeneration given by Christ when the water of baptism flowed from His side on the Cross; consequently, before the Resurrection.權威聖利奧( ep.十六專案episc 。 sicil )也引用相同的看法,因為他似乎認為基督設立了聖餐的時候,經過他的崛起從死中,他先後指揮(馬修。 28 ) : "去教導… … 。洗禮" ,但聖利奧的話,可以很容易被解釋,否則,而在另一部分,同時書信,他是指以制裁的再生所給予的基督當水的洗禮流到從他的方就兩岸關係;因此,在復活。 All authorities agree that Matthew 28, contains the solemn promulgation of this sacrament, and St. Leo does not seem to intend more than this.所有有關當局同意馬太28日,載有莊嚴頒布這項聖餐和聖利奧似乎並不打算比這更多。 We need not delay on the arguments of those who declare baptism to have been necessarily established after Christ's death, because the efficacy of the sacraments is derived from His Passion.我們不必推遲對論點的人士申報的洗禮,已建立了一定後,基督之死的,因為功效聖禮,是來自他的激情。 This would prove also that the Holy Eucharist was not instituted before His death, which is untenable.這將證明,也表示,聖體聖事,是不是提起他死之前,這是根本站不住腳的。 As to the frequent statement of the Fathers that the sacraments flowed from the side of Christ upon the Cross, it is enough to say that beyond the symbolism found therein, their words can be explained as referring to the death of Christ, as the meritorious cause or perfection of the sacraments, but not necessarily as their time of institution.至於頻繁聲明的父親說,聖禮流到從側面基督後,在十字架上,但它足以說超出了象徵發現的,他們的話,可以解釋為是指死亡的基督,作為建功立業的事業或完善的聖禮,但未必是因為他們當時的機構。

All things considered, we can safely state, therefore, that Christ most probably instituted baptism before His Passion.經考慮各項因素,我們可以在安全狀態,因此,基督極有可能提起的洗禮之前,他的激情。 For in the first place, as is evident from John 3 and 4, Christ certainly conferred baptism, at least by the hands of His Disciples, before His Passion.為擺在首位,這一點從約翰第3和第4 ,基督賦予一定的洗禮,至少交給他的弟子,在他的激情。 That this was an essentially different rite from John the Precursor's baptism seems plain, because the baptism of Christ is always preferred to that of John, and the latter himself states the reason: "I baptize with water . . . [Christ] baptizeth with the Holy Ghost" (John 1).這是一個本質不同的成年禮,由約翰先導的洗禮,似乎平原,因為洗禮的基督總是傾向於認為,約翰,後者自己國家的理由是: "我baptize水… … 。 [基督] baptizeth與聖靈" (約翰福音1 ) 。 In the baptism given by the Disciples as narrated in these chapters we seem to have all the requisites of a sacrament of the New Law:在洗禮,由弟子作為旁白,在這些章節我們似乎已經全部條件,一個聖餐的新的法律:

the external rite,對外禮儀

the institution of Christ, for they baptized by His command and mission, and該機構的基督,因為他們的洗禮,他的指揮和使命感,並

the conferring of grace, for they bestowed the Holy Ghost (John 1).該賦予的恩典,因為他們賜予的聖靈(約翰1 ) 。

In the second place, the Apostles received other sacraments from Christ, before His Passion, as the Holy Eucharist at the Last Supper, and Holy orders (Conc. Trid., Sess. XXVI, c. i).在第二位,使徒們收到其他聖禮由基督之前,他的激情,因為聖體聖事,在最後的晚餐,和聖令( conc. trid , sess 。二十六,長一) 。 Now as baptism has always been held as the door of the Church and the necessary condition for the reception of any other sacrament, it follows that the Apostles must have received Christian baptism before the Last Supper.現在,作為洗禮,一直舉行的大門,教會和必要條件,以便接收其他任何聖餐,它跟隨使徒們必須接受基督教洗禮之前最後的晚餐。 This argument is used by St. Augustine (Ep. clxiii, al. xliv) and certainly seems valid.這個論點是用聖奧古斯丁( ep. clxiii ,鋁。 XLIV )號和肯定,似乎有效。 To suppose that the first pastors of the Church received the other sacraments by dispensation, before they had received baptism, is an opinion with no foundation in Scripture or Tradition and devoid of verisimilitude.假定第一牧師的教會收到其他聖禮由配藥前,他們接到的洗禮,是一個民意沒有基礎經文或傳統和缺乏逼真。 The Scriptures nowhere state that Christ Himself conferred baptism, but an ancient tradition (Niceph., Hist. eccl, II, iii; Clem. Alex. Strom., III) declares that He baptized the Apostle Peter only, and that the latter baptized Andrew, James, and John, and they the other Apostles.聖經無處國家基督親自授予洗禮,而是一種古老的傳統( niceph. ,歷史。 eccl第一,二,三;克蘭姆。徐家。 strom ,三)宣布他受洗使徒彼得只,並認為後者的洗禮,鄭家富詹姆斯,約翰,他們其餘的使徒。

VI.六。 MATTER AND FORM OF THE SACRAMENT此事與形式的聖餐

(1) Matter ( 1 )事

In all sacraments we treat of the matter and the form.在所有聖禮,我們對待的問題,並填報。 It is also usual to distinguish the remote matter and the proximate matter.這也是一貫的,以分清偏遠此事,並近因此事。 In the case of baptism, the remote matter is natural and true water.在案件的洗禮,偏遠件事是很自然和真實的水。 We shall consider this aspect of the question first.我們會考慮這方面的問題。

(a) Remote matter (一)遙控事

It is of faith (de fide) that true and natural water is the remote matter of baptism.這是信仰(德正當)表示,真實而自然的,水是偏遠的事的洗禮。 In addition to the authorities already cited, we may also mention the Fourth Council of the Lateran (c. i).此外向當局已列舉,我們還可以提第四屆理事會的lateran (丙一) 。

Some of the early Fathers, as Tertullian (De Bapt., i) and St. Augustine (Adv. Hær., xlvi and lix) enumerate heretics who rejected water entirely as a constituent of baptism.一些早期的父親,因為戴爾都良(德bapt , I )和聖奧古斯丁( adv. hær ,四十六和LIX )號列舉異端的人拒絕水完全作為一種成分的洗禮。 Such were the Gaians, Manichians, Seleucians, and Hermians.這種被gaians , manichians , seleucians , hermians 。 In the Middle Ages, the Waldensians are said to have held the same tenet (Ewald, Contra Walden., vi).在中世紀, waldensians據說都持相同特尼特(埃瓦爾德,矛盾華登,六) 。 Some of the sixteenth century reformers, while accepting water as the ordinary matter of this sacrament, declared that when water could not be had, any liquid could be used in its place.一些16世紀的改革者,同時接受水作為普通的事,這聖餐,宣布時,水不能過,任何液體,可用於代行其職務。 So Luther (Tischr., xvii) and Beza (Ep., ii, ad Till.).所以路德( tischr. ,第十七章)和beza ( ep. ,二,專案至今) 。 It was in consequence of this teaching that certain of the Tridentine canons were framed.這是後果,這種教學一定的德律但丁門炮的具體辦法。 Calvin held that the water used in baptism was simply symbolic of the Blood of Christ (Instit., IV, xv).卡爾文認為,所用的水的洗禮,只不過是象徵性的血液中的基督( instit. ,四,十五) 。

As a rule, however, those sects which believe in baptism at the present time, recognize water as the necessary matter of the sacrament.作為一項規則,但是,這些支派,其中信奉的洗禮,在當今時代,認識到水作為必備事項的聖餐。

Scripture is so positive in its statements as to the use of true and natural water for baptism that it is difficult to see why it should ever be called in question.經文是那麼積極,在其聲明中,以使用真實而自然之水的洗禮,這是很難理解為什麼它應該永遠受到質疑。 Not only have we the explicit words of Christ (John 3:5) "Unless a man be born again of water", etc., but also in the Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles of St. Paul there are passages that preclude any metaphorical interpretation.我們不僅明確基督的話(約翰3點05分) , "除非一個人出生,再次水" ,等等,而且也表現在行為的使徒和教會的聖保羅有段落排除任何隱喻解釋。 Thus (Acts 10:47) St. Peter says "Can any man forbid water, that these should not be baptized?"因此, (使徒行10:47 )聖彼得說: "能有任何人不許水,這些不應被洗禮" ? In the eighth chapter of the Acts is narrated the episode of Philip and the eunuch of Ethiopia, and in verse 36 we read: "They came to a certain water; and the eunuch said: See, here is water: what doth hinder me from being baptized?"在第八章中的行為是敘述事件的菲利普和宦官的埃塞俄比亞,並在韻文36我們讀到: "他們來到某水和宦官說:看,這裡是水:什麼doth妨礙我從正在洗禮" ?

Equally positive is the testimony of Christian tradition.同樣積極的,是見證基督信仰的傳統。 Tertullian (op. cit.) begins his treatise: "The happy sacrament of our water".戴爾都良(同前)開始他的論文: "快樂聖餐我們的水" 。 Justin Martyr (Apol., I) describes the ceremony of baptism and declares: Then they are led by us to where there is water .賈斯汀烈士( apol. , I )的敘述典禮的洗禮,並宣布:那麼他們是帶領我們到那裡的水。 . . and then they are laved in the water". St. Augustine positively declares that there is no baptism without water (Tr. xv in Joan.). The remote matter of baptism, then, is water, and this taken in its usual meaning. Theologians tell us consequently that what men would ordinarily declare water is valid baptismal material, whether it be water of the sea, or fountain, or well, or marsh; whether it be clear or turbid; fresh or salty; hot or cold; colored or uncolored. Water derived from melted ice, snow, or hail is also valid. If, however, ice, snow, or hail be not melted, they do not come under the designation water. Dew, sulfur or mineral water, and that which is derived from steam are also valid matter for this sacrament. As to a mixture of water and some other material, it is held as proper matter, provided the water certainly predominates and the mixture would still be called water. Invalid matter is every liquid that is not usually designated true water. Such are oil, saliva, wine, tears, milk, sweat, beer, soup, the juice of fruits, and any mixture containing water which men would no longer call water. When it is doubtful whether a liquid could really be called water, it is not permissible to use it for baptism except in case of absolute necessity when no certainly valid matter can be obtained.然後他們laved在水" 。聖奧古斯丁積極宣稱不存在的洗禮之水( tr.十五,在鄧務滋女士) 。偏遠事的洗禮,那麼,水,而這在其通常的意義。神學家告訴我們,因此說什麼男人通常申報水是有效的洗禮材料,不論它是水的海洋,或噴泉,或好,或馬師;是否清晰或混濁;新鮮或太鹹;高溫或低溫;有色或uncolored水來自融化的冰,雪或冰雹,也是有效的。但是,如果冰,雪,冰雹或不融化,它們不屬於指定用水。露水,硫或礦泉水,並認為這是來自蒸汽,也有效的事,這聖餐,至於混合水和一些其他材料,它是舉行適當的問題,提供了水,肯定佔主導地位和混合物仍然被稱為水。無效的事,是每一個液體是通常不是真正的指定用水等都是石油,唾液,酒,眼淚,牛奶和汗水,啤酒,湯,果汁,水果,以及任何混合物含有水,男人將不再稱水的時候,這是令人懷疑是否有液體可真正稱得上是水,它是不容許的,以用它來洗除的情況下絕對有必要的時候,沒有一定有效的事,可以得到的。

On the other hand, it is never allowable to baptize with an invalid liquid.在另一方面,這是從來沒有允許的,以baptize與無效液體。 There is a response of Pope Gregory IX to the Archbishop of Trondhjem in Norway where beer (or mead) had been employed for baptism.有一個響應羅馬教皇格雷戈里九大主教trondhjem在挪威的啤酒(或蜂蜜酒)已受聘的洗禮。 The pontiff says: "Since according to the Gospel teaching, a man must be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, those are not to be considered validly baptized who have been baptized with beer" (cervisia).教宗說: "因為根據福音教學中,一名男子必須重生的水和聖靈,那是不被視為有效的洗禮,他們已受洗與啤酒" ( cervisia ) 。 It is true that a statement declaring wine to be valid matter of baptism is attributed to Pope Stephen II, but the document is void of all authority (Labbe, Conc., VI).這是事實一份聲明中宣布葡萄酒視為有效此事的洗禮,是由於教皇斯蒂芬第二,但這份文件是無效的一切事務管理局(拉比濃度,六) 。

Those who have held that "water" in the Gospel text is to be taken metaphorically, appeal to the words of the Precursor (Matthew 3), "He shall baptize you in the Holy Ghost and fire".那些認為"水"的福音文本是將要採取的比喻,呼籲話前驅(馬太3 ) , "他應baptize你在聖靈與火" 。 As "fire" must certainly be only a figure of speech here, so must "water" in the other texts.至於"火"一定只是一個修辭格在這裡,所以一定要"水" ,在其他文本。 To this objection, it may be replied that the Christian Church, or at least the Apostles themselves, must have understood what was prescribed to be taken literally and what figuratively.這個反對,就可能會回答說,基督教的教堂,或者至少是使徒們自己,就必須了解什麼是處方將要採取的字面意義是什麼形象。 The New Testament and church history prove that they never looked on fire as a material for baptism, while they certainly did require water.新約聖經和教會的歷史充分證明,他們從未找過防火作為材料的洗禮,而他們當然也需要水。 Outside of the insignificant sects of Seleucians and Hermians, not even heretics took the word "fire" in this text in its literal meaning.地以外的微不足道教派的seleucians和hermians ,甚至沒有異端了字, "火"在這個文本在其字面含義。 We may remark, however, that some of the Fathers, as St. John Damascene (Orth. Fid., IV, ix), concede this statement of the Baptist to have a literal fulfillment in the Pentecostal fiery tongues.我們可以說話,不過,這部分的父親,作為聖約翰大馬士革( orth. FID法,第四,第九) ,承認這個聲明浸會有一個圓滿的字面在五旬節火熱的舌頭。 They do not refer it, however, literally to baptism.他們這樣做,不是指它,但是,從字面上來看,以洗禮。 That water alone is the necessary matter of this sacrament depends of course on the will of Him Who instituted it, although theologians discover many reasons why it should have been chosen in preference to other liquids.水單是必要的事,這聖餐取決於當然對將他的人提起它,雖然神學家發現,原因很多,它應該已經選擇了優先於其他液體。 The most obvious of these is that water cleanses and purifies more perfectly than the others, and hence the symbolism is more natural.最明顯的是,水淨化和淨化更加完美,比其他的,所以象徵意義,是更接近自然的。

(b) Proximate matter (二)近因事

The proximate matter of baptism is the ablution performed with water.近因件事的洗禮是洗盥與水。 The very word "baptize", as we have seen, means a washing.極字" baptize " ,正如我們所看到的,是指進行清洗。

Three forms of ablution have prevailed among Christians, and the Church holds them all to be valid because they fulfill the requisite signification of the baptismal laving.三種形式的洗盥佔了上風基督教徒,教堂裡舉行他們的所有物質都可以有效,因為他們履行必要意義的洗禮laving 。 These forms are immersion, infusion, and aspersion.這些形式都浸泡,輸液,並aspersion 。 The most ancient form usually employed was unquestionably immersion.最古老的形式,通常會僱用無疑是浸沒。 This is not only evident from the writings of the Fathers and the early rituals of both the Latin and Oriental Churches, but it can also be gathered from the Epistles of St. Paul, who speaks of baptism as a bath (Ephesians 5:26; Romans 6:4; Titus 3:5).這不僅是顯而易見的,從寫作的父親,並儘早禮儀無論是拉美和東方教會部,但它也可以蒐集到的書信的聖保羅,他們說話的洗禮,作為浴(以弗所5時26分;入鄉隨俗六四;弟兄3時05分) 。 In the Latin Church, immersion seems to have prevailed until the twelfth century.在拉丁美洲教會,沉浸似乎已經佔了上風,直到12世紀。 After that time it is found in some places even as late as the sixteenth century.之後,我們每次都發現,在有些地方甚至遲至16世紀。 Infusion and aspersion, however, were growing common in the thirteenth century and gradually prevailed in the Western Church.輸液及aspersion ,不過,長勢普遍在13世紀逐漸盛行於西方教會。 The Oriental Churches have retained immersion, though not always in the sense of plunging the candidate's entire body below the water.東方教會仍保留浸泡,但並不總是在責任感投身候選人的整個身體下面水。 Billuart (De Bapt., I, iii) says that commonly the catechumen is placed in the font, and then water is poured upon the head. billuart (德bapt ,一,三)表示,常見的catechumen是放置在字體,然後水是澆後頭部。 He cites the authority of Goar for this statement.他舉出的權威goar為這項聲明。

Although, as we have said, immersion was the form of baptism that generally prevailed in the early ages, it must not thereby be inferred that the other forms of infusion and aspersion were not also employed and held to be valid.雖然,我們已經說過,沉浸於形式的洗禮,一般佔了上風,在早期年齡,也不能因而推斷,其他形式的輸液及aspersion人是不是還聘用,並舉行視為有效。 In the case of the sick or dying, immersion was impossible and the sacrament was then conferred by one of the other forms.在案件患病或死亡,沉浸是不可能和聖餐當時所賦予其中的其他形式。 This was so well recognized that infusion or aspersion received the name of the baptism of the sick (baptismus clinicorum).這是這麼好承認輸液或aspersion收到的名字洗禮有病( baptismus clinicorum ) 。 St. Cyprian (Epistle 75) declares this form to be valid.聖塞浦路斯(書信75 )宣布此表為有效。 From the canons of various early councils we know that candidates for Holy orders who had been baptized by this method seem to have been regarded as irregular, but this was on account of the culpable negligence supposed to be manifested in delaying baptism until sick or dying.從大砲的各種早期議會我們知道候選人為聖訂單已受洗用此方法似乎都被視為不正常,但這是對戶口的罪責疏忽要體現在拖延的洗禮,直到生病或死亡。 That such persons, however, were not to be rebaptized is an evidence that the Church held their baptism to be valid.這種人,然而,被不被rebaptized是一個證據,證明教堂舉行了洗禮才有效。 It is also pointed out that the circumstances under which St. Paul (Acts 16) baptized his jailer and all his household seem to preclude the use of immersion.它也指出,在何種情況下,聖保羅(使徒16 )的洗禮,他的看守和他的全體家庭似乎排除使用浸沒。 Moreover, the acts of the early martyrs frequently refer to baptizing in prisons where infusion or aspersion was certainly employed.此外,行為的早期烈士中經常提到洗禮,在監獄輸液或aspersion肯定是受僱於。

By the present authorized ritual of the Latin Church, baptism must be performed by a laving of the head of the candidate.按當前授權儀式的拉美教會的洗禮,必須由一個laving的首長人選。 Moralists, however, state that in case of necessity, the baptism would probably be valid if the water were applied to any other principal part of the body, as the breast or shoulder.道德家,但是,國家在危急情況,洗禮可能會有效,如果水適用於任何其他主要的身體部分,由於乳房或肩膀。 In this case, however, conditional baptism would have to be administered if the person survived (St. Alphonsus, no. 107).在這種情況下,不過,有條件的洗禮,將須經管如果此人倖存(聖阿方,沒有107號) 。 In like manner they consider as probably valid the baptism of an infant in its mother's womb, provided the water, by means of an instrument, would actually flow upon the child.同樣地,他們認為可能是有效的洗禮,一名嬰兒在其母親的子宮內,提供水,即通過一種工具,實際上能夠流通後,對兒童不利。 Such baptism is, however, later to be repeated conditionally, if the child survives its birth (Lehmkuhl, n. 61).這樣的洗禮,但後來被反复有條件,如果兒童生存,其出生( lehmkuhl , 12月31日61 ) 。

It is to be noted that it is not sufficient for the water to merely touch the candidate; it must also flow, otherwise there would seem to be no real ablution.這是值得注意的是,它是不足夠的水,僅觸及候選人;它也必須流動,否則會似乎就沒有真正的沐浴。 At best, such a baptism would be considered doubtful.在最好的,這樣的洗禮,將被視為可疑的。 If the water touches only the hair, the sacrament has probably been validly conferred, though in practice the safer course must be followed.如果水觸及只有頭髮,聖餐可能已授予有效,但在實際執行過程中的安全所必須遵循的。 If only the clothes of the person have received the aspersion, the baptism is undoubtedly void.如果只是衣服的人都收到了aspersion ,洗禮,無疑是無效的。

The water to be employed in solemn baptism should also be consecrated for the purpose, but of this we shall treat in another section of this article.水中,使受聘在莊嚴的洗禮,也應該consecrated為目的的,但,這也是我們在對待另一段的這篇文章。 It is necessary in baptizing to make use of a threefold ablution in conferring this sacrament, by reason of the prescription of the Roman ritual.這是必要的洗禮,使利用三重洗盥授予這一聖餐,因處方羅馬的例行公事。 This necessarily refers, however, to the liceity, not to the validity of the ceremony, as St. Thomas (III:66:8) and other theologians expressly state.這不一定是指,但要liceity ,而不是有效性儀式,為聖托馬斯(三: 66:8 )和其他神學家明確狀態。

The threefold immersion is unquestionably very ancient in the Church and apparently of Apostolic origin.三重沉浸無疑是十分古老的,在教會和明顯的使徒的起源。 It is mentioned by Tertullian (De cor. milit., iii), St. Basil (De Sp. S., xxvii), St. Jerome (Dial. Contra Luc., viii), and many other early writers.這是所提到的戴爾都良(德肺心病。 milit ,三) ,聖羅勒(德藻美國,二十七) ,聖杰羅姆( dial.矛盾呂克,八) ,以及其他許多早期的作家。 Its object is, of course, to honor the three Persons of the Holy Trinity in whose name it is conferred.其目的,當然是為了榮譽, 3人的聖三一在他的名字,它是授予。 That this threefold ablution was not considered necessary to the validity of the sacrament, however, is plain.這三重洗盥被視為沒有必要的有效性聖事,但是,是平原。 In the seventh century the Fourth Council of Toledo (633) approved the use of a single ablution in baptism, as a protest against the false trinitarian theories of the Arians, who seem to have given to the threefold immersion a significance which made it imply three natures in the Holy Trinity.在第七世紀第四屆理事會托萊多( 633 )核准使用一個單一的沐浴中的洗禮,作為抗議,反對虛假三位一體理論的arians ,似乎已考慮到三倍浸泡,意義之重大,它意味著3天性,在聖三一。 To insist on the unity and consubstantiality of the three Divine Persons, the Spanish Catholics adopted the single ablution and this method had the approval of Pope Gregory the Great (I, Ep. xliii).要堅持團結和consubstantiality的三大神聖的人,西班牙天主教會通過單一浴室和這種方法已批准教皇格里高利大(我的EP 。四十三) 。 The Eunomian heretics used only one immersion and their baptism was held invalid by the First Council of Constantinople (can. vii); but this was not on account of the single ablution, but apparently because they baptized in the death of Christ.該eunomian異端只用了一個沉浸及其洗禮舉行無效,由第一屆理事會君士坦丁堡( can.七) ,而這是不是就交代了單洗盥,但顯然是因為他們的洗禮,在死亡的基督。 The authority of this canon is, moreover, doubtful at best.權威的,這是佳能公司,而且,令人懷疑在最好的。

(2) Form ( 2 )表格

The requisite and sole valid form of baptism is: "I baptize thee (or This person is baptized) in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost."必要的,唯一有效的形式,洗禮是: "我baptize祢(或這個人是受洗) ,在父親的姓名和子和聖靈" 。 This was the form given by Christ to His Disciples in the twenty-eighth chapter of St. Matthew's Gospel, as far, at least, as there is question of the invocation of the separate Persons of the Trinity and the expression of the nature of the action performed.這是形式所給予的基督對他的弟子們在第二十八章聖馬太福音,因為至目前為止,至少有問題,引用了另人三位一體,並表達了大自然的行動表現。 For the Latin usage: "I baptize thee", etc., we have the authority of the Council of Trent (Sess. VII, can. iv) and of the Council of Florence in the Decree of Union.為拉丁語用法: "我baptize祢"等,我們有安理會的權威的遄達( sess.七,可第四節)和部長理事會佛羅倫薩在該法令的聯盟。 In addition we have the constant practice of the whole Western Church.此外,我們也不斷的實踐中,整個西方教會。 The Latins also recognize as valid the form used by the Greeks: "This servant of Christ is baptized", etc. The Florentine decree acknowledges the validity of this form and it is moreover recognized by the Bull of Leo X, "Accepimus nuper", and of Clement VII, "Provisionis nostrae."該拉丁人也承認為有效的形式,所用的希臘人說: "這僕人耶穌受洗的" ,等等。佛羅倫薩法令承認的有效性,這種形式,它是公認的,而且是由牛市的利奧十, " accepimus最近談論"和克萊門特第七章" provisionis nostrae " 。 Substantially, the Latin and Greek forms are the same, and the Latin Church has never rebaptized Orientals on their return to unity.實質上,拉丁語和希臘語形式都是一樣的,和拉丁教會從未rebaptized東方人對他們返回的團結。 At one time some Western theologians disputed the Greek form, because they doubted the validity of the imperative or deprecatory formula: "Let this person be baptized" (baptizetur).在同一時間,一些西方神學家有爭議的希臘形式,因為他們懷疑的有效性,迫切需要或貶低公式: "讓這個人受洗" ( baptizetur ) 。 As a matter of fact, however, the Greeks use the indicative, or enuntiative, formula: "This person is baptized" (baptizetai, baptizetur).如兒戲,但實際上,該希臘人使用的指示,或enuntiative ,公式為: "此人是受洗" ( baptizetai , baptizetur ) 。 This is unquestionable from their Euchologies, and from the testimony of Arcudius (apud Cat., tit. ii, cap. i), of Goar (Rit. Græc. Illust.), of Martène (De Ant. Eccl. Rit., I) and of the theological compendium of the schismatical Russians (St. Petersburg, 1799).這是不容置疑的,從他們的euchologies ,從證詞arcudius ( apud貓,鐵,第二章) , goar ( rit. græc 。 illust ) , martène (德螞蟻。 eccl 。 rit 。 ,我)和神學彙編的schismatical俄羅斯(聖彼得堡, 1799年) 。 It is true that in the decree for the Armenians, Pope Eugene IV uses baptizetur, according to the ordinary version of this decree, but Labbe, in his edition of the Council of Florence seems to consider it a corrupt reading, for in the margin he prints baptizatur.這是事實,在該法令為亞美尼亞人,教皇尤金四用途baptizetur ,根據普通版的這項法令,但拉比,在他的版理事會佛羅倫薩似乎認為這是一個貪官讀,在他的保證金版畫baptizatur 。 It has been suggested by Goar that the resemblance between baptizetai and baptizetur is responsible for the mistake.有人曾建議由goar認為相似之間baptizetai和baptizetur負責的錯誤。 The correct translation is, of course, baptizatur.正確翻譯的,當然是baptizatur 。

In administering this sacrament it is absolutely necessary to use the word "baptize" or its equivalent (Alex. VIII, Prop. damn., xxvii), otherwise the ceremony is invalid.在管理這個聖餐,這是絕對有必要用" baptize "或其等值( alex.第八, prop.媽,二十七) ,否則,簽署儀式是無效的。 This had already been decreed by Alexander III (Cap. Si quis, I, x, De Bapt.), and it is confirmed by the Florentine decree.這已經頒布的亞歷山大三世(第斯什麼,我, X ,黑德bapt ) ,它證實了佛羅倫薩法令。 It has been the constant practice of both the Latin and Greek Churches to make use of words expressing the act performed.它一直不斷的實踐中都拉丁語和希臘語教會使用的話,表達行為。 St. Thomas (III:66:5) says that since an ablution may be employed for many purposes, it is necessary that in baptism the meaning of the ablution be determined by the words of the form.聖托馬斯(三: 66:5 )說,因為洗盥可為多種用途,這是必要的,在受洗的意義,該洗盥決定的話,該表格。 However, the words: "In the name of the Father", etc., would not be sufficient by themselves to determine the sacramental nature of the ablution.不過,話是: "在父親的姓名"等,將不會有足夠的,由自己決定聖事的性質以及洗盥。 St. Paul (Colossians 3) exhorts us to do all things in the name of God, and consequently an ablution could be performed in the name of the Trinity to obtain restoration of health.聖保祿他們(三)提倡我們做的一切事情,在上帝的名義,因此一個個沐浴,可在演出的名義,三位一體,以獲得恢復健康。 Therefore it is that in the form of this sacrament, the act of baptism must be expressed, and the matter and form be united to leave no doubt of the meaning of the ceremony.因此,它是在形式,這聖餐,該法案的洗禮,必須表示,事情並形成團結的離開毫無疑問的意思了儀式。

In addition to the necessary word "baptize", or its equivalent, it is also obligatory to mention the separate Persons of the Holy Trinity.除了必要的詞" baptize "或同等學歷,這也是義不容辭的責任提獨立人士的聖三一。 This is the command of Christ to His Disciples, and as the sacrament has its efficacy from Him Who instituted it, we can not omit anything that He has prescribed.這是指揮的基督,以他的弟子,並作為聖餐有其功效,從他的人提起它,我們就不能省略的東西,他已明。 Nothing is more certain than that this has been the general understanding and practice of the Church.沒有比這更一定比這已是普遍的理解和實踐的教會。 Tertullian tells us (De Bapt., xiii): "The law of baptism (tingendi) has been imposed and the form prescribed: Go, teach the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost."戴爾都良告訴我們, (德bapt ,十三) : "法律的洗禮( tingendi )一直在施加和形式明:去吧,教導國,他們的洗禮,在父親的姓名和子和聖靈" St. Justin Martyr (Apol., I) testifies to the practice in his time.聖賈斯汀烈士( apol. , I )的證明,到實踐中,在他的時代了。 St. Ambrose (De Myst., IV) declares: "Unless a person has been baptized in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, he can not obtain the remission of his sins," St. Cyprian (Ad Jubaian.), rejecting the validity of baptism given in the name of Christ only, affirms that the naming of all the Persons of the Trinity was commanded by the Lord (in plena et adunata Trinitate).聖劉漢銓(德神秘島,四)宣稱: "除非某人已被洗禮,在父親的姓名和子和聖靈,他不能獲得減刑,他的罪孽, "聖塞浦路斯(專案jubaian ) ,拒絕了有效性的洗禮,在名稱的基督只,申明命名所有的人三位一體,是由主( plena等adunata trinitate ) 。 The same is declared by many other primitive writers, as St. Jerome (IV, in Matt.), Origen (De Princ., i, ii), St. Athanasius (Or. iv, Contr. Ar.), St. Augustine (De Bapt., vi, 25).同樣是宣布由其他許多原始的作家,正如聖杰羅姆(四,在馬特) ,淵源(德原理,一,二) ,聖athanasius ( or.四,可控。氬) ,聖奧古斯丁(德bapt ,六, 25 ) 。 It is not, of course, absolutely necessary that the common names Father, Son, and Holy Ghost be used, provided the Persons be expressed by words that are equivalent or synonymous.它當然不是,我們絕對有必要指出,共同的名字,父親,兒子,和聖靈使用,所提供的有關人士表達的話是相等或同義的。 But a distinct naming of the Divine Persons is required and the form: "I baptize thee in the name of the Holy Trinity", would be of more than doubtful validity.但是,一個獨特的命名神聖的人,是需要與形式: "我baptize在你的名字聖三一" ,將以上疑問的有效性。

The singular form "In the name", not "names", is also to be employed, as it expresses the unity of the Divine nature.奇異形式" ,在名稱" ,而不是"姓名" ,也將委聘,因為它體現了團結的神性。 When, through ignorance, an accidental, not substantial, change has been made in the form (as In nomine patriâ for Patris), the baptism is to be held valid.時,借無知,是一個偶然的,不是實質性的改變已經取得的形式(如在nomine patriâ為patris ) ,洗禮,是即將舉行的有效期。

The mind of the Church as to the necessity of serving the trinitarian formula in this sacrament has been clearly shown by her treatment of baptism conferred by heretics.心中的教會,以必要性,服務三位一體的公式,在這聖餐已經清楚地表明了她的治療洗禮所賦予的異端。 Any ceremony that did not observe this form has been declared invalid.任何儀式上說,沒有看到這種形式已被宣布無效。 The Montanists baptized in the name of the Father and the Son and Montanus and Priscilla (St. Basil, Ep. i, Ad Amphil.).該montanists洗禮,在父親的姓名和兒子montanus和priscilla (聖羅勒,歐洲議會,我,專案amphil ) 。 As a consequence, the Council of Laodicea ordered their rebaptism.因此,安理會的勞迪西亞責令其rebaptism 。 The Arians at the time of the Council of Nicæa do not seem to have tampered with the baptismal formula, for that Council does not order their rebaptism.該arians在的時候,安理會的nicæa似乎沒有篡改與洗禮公式,因為這會不為了自己的rebaptism 。 When, then, St. Athanasius (Or. ii, Contr. Ar.) and St. Jerome (Contra Lucif.) declare the Arians to have baptized in the name of the Creator and creatures, they must either refer to their doctrine or to a later changing of the sacramental form.時,那麼,聖athanasius ( or.第二,可控。氬)和聖杰羅姆(矛盾lucif )宣布arians擁有的名受洗,叫造物主和動物,他們必須要么是指他們的學說或稍後改變的聖事的形式。 It is well known that the latter was the case with the Spanish Arians and that consequently converts from the sect were rebaptized.這是人所共知的,後者的情況同西班牙arians並因此轉換為從第一節被rebaptized 。 The Anomæans, a branch of the Arians, baptized with the formula: "In the name of the uncreated God and in the name of the created Son, and in the name of the Sanctifying Spirit, procreated by the created Son" (Epiphanius, Hær., lxxvii).該anomæans ,分行的arians ,受洗與公式為: "三個字的uncreated上帝和人姓名的創造兒子,並在名稱的sanctifying精神, procreated所創造的兒子" ( epiphanius , hær , lxxvii ) 。

Other Arian sects, such as the Eunomians and Aetians, baptized "in the death of Christ".阿里安其他教派,如以eunomians和aetians ,受洗" ,在死亡的基督" 。 Converts from Sabellianism were ordered by the First Council of Constantinople (can. vii) to be rebaptized because the doctrine of Sabellius that there was but one person in the Trinity had infected their baptismal form.皈依從sabellianism奉命由特區首屆立法會的君士坦丁堡( can.七)被rebaptized因為中庸sabellius有,但一個人在三一感染了他們的洗禮形式。 The two sects sprung from Paul of Samosata, who denied Christ's Divinity, likewise conferred invalid baptism.兩個教派的異軍突起,從保羅的samosata ,他們否認基督的神性,同樣賦予無效的洗禮。 They were the Paulianists and Photinians.它們分別是paulianists和photinians 。 Pope Innocent I (Ad. Episc. Maced., vi) declares that these sectaries did not distinguish the Persons of the Trinity when baptizing.教宗無辜的我( ad. episc 。 maced ,六)宣稱這些sectaries沒有區分人的時候,三一洗禮。 The Council of Nicæa (can. xix) ordered the rebaptism of Paulianists, and the Council of Arles (can. xvi and xvii) decreed the same for both Paulianists and Photinians.安理會的nicæa ( can.十九)下令rebaptism的paulianists ,以及安理會的阿爾勒( can.十六和十七)命令都一樣paulianists和photinians 。 There has been a theological controversy over the question as to whether baptism in the name of Christ only was ever held valid.有一個神學爭論的問題是,是否洗禮的名字基督不僅是一次有效的。 Certain texts in the New Testament have given rise to this difficulty.某些文本,在新約聖經已出現困難。 Thus St. Paul (Acts 19) commands some disciples at Ephesus to be baptized in Christ's name: "They were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus."因此聖保祿(使徒19 )命令一些弟子在伸出手受洗,在基督裡的名字: "他們的名受洗,叫主耶穌" 。 In Acts 10, we read that St. Peter ordered others to be baptized "in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ".在行為10 ,我們讀到聖彼得下令其他被洗禮" ,名義上是主耶穌基督" 。 Those who were converted by Philip.那些被轉換,由弘。 (Acts 8) "were baptized in the name of Jesus Christ", and above all we have the explicit command of the Prince of the Apostles: "Be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of your sins (Acts 2). (使徒8 ) "人的名受洗,叫耶穌基督" ,而且首先是我們有明確的指揮王子的使徒們說: "受洗,每個人都在你的名字耶穌基督,為緩解你的罪惡(使徒2 ) 。

Owing to these texts some theologians have held that the Apostles baptized in the name of Christ only.由於這些文本的一些神學家都認為使徒的名受洗,叫基督只。 St. Thomas, St. Bonaventure, and Albertus Magnus are invoked as authorities for this opinion, they declaring that the Apostles so acted by special dispensation.聖托馬斯,聖文德,及: Albertus馬格納斯引用作為當局這種看法,他們宣稱,使徒保羅也如此行事,由特別豁免。 Other writers, as Peter Lombard and Hugh of St. Victor, hold also that such baptism would be valid, but say nothing of a dispensation for the Apostles.其他作家,作為彼得倫巴第和休聖維克多,舉辦同時也指出,這樣的洗禮,將有效的,但更不用說免除為門徒。 The most probable opinion, however, seems to be that the terms "in the name of Jesus", "in the name of Christ", either refer to baptism in the faith taught by Christ, or are employed to distinguish Christian baptism from that of John the Precursor.最有可能的見解,然而,似乎是說"在耶穌的名字" , "三個字的基督" ,無論是指洗禮中教信仰基督,或者是受僱於區分基督教洗禮,從即約翰的前兆。 It seems altogether unlikely that immediately after Christ had solemnly promulgated the trinitarian formula of baptism, the Apostles themselves would have substituted another.似乎不大可能完全後,立刻基督曾鄭重頒布了三位一體公式的洗禮,使徒們自己也會有取代另一個。 In fact, the words of St. Paul (Acts 19) imply quite plainly that they did not.事實上,換言之,聖保羅(使徒19 )意味相當明顯,他們卻沒有這樣做。 For, when some Christians at Ephesus declared that they had never heard of the Holy Ghost, the Apostle asks: "In whom then were you baptized?"為,當一些基督徒在以弗所宣稱,他們從來沒有聽說過聖靈,使徒問道: "對他們,然後你洗禮" ? This text certainly seems to declare that St. Paul took it for granted that the Ephesians must have heard the name of the Holy Ghost when the sacramental formula of baptism was pronounced over them.這一案文似乎一定要申報,聖保祿,又把它理所當然地認為以弗所都聽過名字的聖靈之時,聖公式的洗禮宣判超過他們。

The authority of Pope Stephen I has been alleged for the validity of baptism given in the name of Christ only.權威教皇斯蒂芬亦已被指控為有效期的洗禮,在名稱的基督只。 St. Cyprian says (Ep. ad Jubaian.) that this pontiff declared all baptism valid provided it was given in the name of Jesus Christ.聖說,塞浦路斯( ep.專案jubaian 。 )表示,這教宗宣布所有的洗禮有效提供這份報告是在名稱的耶穌基督。 It must be noted that the same explanation applies to Stephen's words as to the Scriptural texts above given.必須指出的是,同樣的解釋,適用於斯蒂芬的話,以聖經文本以上。 Moreover, Firmilian, in his letter to St. Cyprian, implies that Pope Stephen required an explicit mention of the Trinity in baptism, for he quotes the pontiff as declaring that the sacramental grace is conferred because a person has been baptized "with the invocation of the names of the Trinity, Father and Son and Holy Ghost".此外, firmilian ,在他的信中,以聖塞浦路斯,意味著教皇斯蒂芬需要明確提及的三一洗禮,因為他引述教宗作為宣示聖事的恩典,是因為賦予一個人已經受洗"援引姓名三位一體,父親和兒子和聖靈" 。

A passage that is very difficult of explanation is found in the works of St. Ambrose (Lib. I, De Sp. S., iii), where he declares that if a person names one of the Trinity, he names all of them: "If you say Christ, you have designated God the Father, by whom the Son was anointed, and Him Who was anointed Son, and the Holy Ghost in whom He was anointed."一個通道,這是非常困難的解釋是,發現在工程聖劉漢銓( lib.我,德藻第,三) ,在那裡他宣稱,如果一個人的名字之一,三位一體,他的名字,他們全部: "如果你說基督,你必須指定上帝父親,誰的兒子被選定的,他被任命的兒子,和聖靈的人,他被任命的" 。 This passage has been generally interpreted as referring to the faith of the catechumen, but not to the baptismal form.這段話已被普遍解讀為是指信仰的catechumen ,但不向這些洗禮的形式。 More difficult is the explanation of the response of Pope Nicholas I to the Bulgarians (cap. civ; Labbe, VIII), in which he states that a person is not to be rebaptized who has already been baptized "in the name of the Holy Trinity or in the name of Christ only, as we read in the Acts of the Apostles (for it is one and the same thing, as St. Ambrose has explained)".更為難的是,該解釋的反應,教皇尼古拉一至買入(第civ ;拉比八) ,他在其中說,一個人是不能被rebaptized已被洗禮" ,名義上是聖三一或在名稱基督的唯一,因為我們在閱讀行為的使徒(因為這是同一個事情,正如聖劉漢銓解釋) " 。 As in the passage to which the pope alludes, St. Ambrose was speaking of the faith of the recipient of baptism, as we have already stated, it has been held probable that this is also the meaning that Pope Nicholas intended his words to convey (see another explanation in Pesch, Prælect. Dogm., VI, no. 389).在通道,其中,教宗提到,聖劉漢銓發言的信念受援國的洗禮,正如我們已經指出,半個世紀以來一直是可能的,這也是該意思表示,教皇尼古拉意他的話轉達(看到另一種解釋在pesch , prælect 。 dogm ,六,沒有。 389 ) 。 What seems to confirm this is the same pontiff's reply to the Bulgarians (Resp. 15) on another occasion when they consulted him on a practical case.什麼似乎證實了這無異是教宗的答复,給保加利亞人(或15 )在另一個場合,當他們請教一個實際案例。 They inquired whether certain persons are to be rebaptized on whom a man, pretending to be a Greek priest, had conferred baptism?他們詢問是否對某些人是被rebaptized對其中一名男子,假裝是一個希臘神父,曾授予洗禮? Pope Nicholas replies that the baptism is to be held valid "if they were baptized, in the name of the supreme and undivided Trinity".教皇尼古拉斯回答說洗禮,是即將舉行的有效期, "如果他們的洗禮,在姓名的最高人民法院不可分割的三位一體" 。 Here the pope does not give baptism in the name of Christ only as an alternative.在這裡,教宗沒有給予洗禮,在名稱的基督只作為替代方案。 Moralists raise the question of the validity of a baptism in whose administration something else had been added to the prescribed form as "and in the name of the Blessed Virgin Mary".道德提高的效力問題的洗禮,其管理的東西,否則已被添加到指定表格" ,並在名稱的祝福聖母瑪利亞" 。 They reply that such baptism would be invalid, if the minister intended thereby to attribute the same efficacy to the added name as to the names of the Three Divine Persons.他們答复說,這樣的洗禮,將被視為無效,如果部長的用意,從而屬性相同的療效,再加上名字,因為他們的姓名的三個神聖的人。 If, however, it was done through a mistaken piety only, it would not interfere with the validity (S. Alph., n. 111).但是,如果有人做了一個錯誤的觀念,它是不會干預的有效性(第alph , 12月31日111號) 。

VII.七。 CONDITIONAL BAPTISM有條件的洗禮

From the foregoing it is evident that not all baptism administered by heretics or schismatics is invalid.從前述這是顯而易見的是,並非所有的洗禮經管異端或schismatics是無效的。 On the contrary, if the proper matter and form be used and the one conferring the sacrament really "intends to perform what the Church performs" the baptism is undoubtedly valid.與此相反,如果正確的事和形式的用途和使用一個授予聖餐,真的是"有意從事什麼教會演出"的洗禮,無疑是有效的。 This is also authoritatively stated in the decree for the Armenians and the canons of the Council of Trent already given.這也是權威性的聲明,在該法令為亞美尼亞和大砲對安理會的遄達已經作出。 The question becomes a practical one when converts to the Faith have to be dealt with.現在的問題是一個實踐問題時,在轉換為信仰必須加以處理。 If there were one authorized mode of baptizing among the sects, and if the necessity and true significance of the sacrament were uniformly taught and put in practice among them, there would be little difficulty as to the status of converts from the sects.如果有一,授權模式之間的洗禮教派的,如果有必要與真正意義的聖餐者一律教授,並在實踐當中,將會有什麼困難,以現況的轉換,從支派。 But there is no such unity of teaching and practice among them, and consequently the particular case of each convert must be examined into when there is question of his reception into the Church.不過,有沒有這樣的統一,教學與實踐當中,因此特殊情況,每個轉換必須檢查到有問題,就是他的接待到了教堂。 For not only are there religious denominations in which baptism is in all probability not validly administered, but there are those also which have a ritual sufficient indeed for validity, but in practice the likelihood of their members having received baptism validly is more than doubtful.這不僅有宗教教派中的洗禮,是在所有的概率要有效管理,但也有那麼一些,也有祭祀足夠確實的有效性,但在實踐中的可能性及其成員在收到有效的洗禮,是多令人懷疑。 As a consequence converts must be dealt with differently.作為一個後果,必須轉換成不同的處理。 If it be certain that a convert was validly baptized in heresy, the sacrament is not repeated, but the ceremonies which had been omitted in such baptism are to be supplied, unless the bishop, for sufficient reasons, judges that they can be dispensed with.如果它一定能轉換成有效的洗禮,在異端,聖事是不會再出現,但儀式,其中被遺漏了,在這樣的洗禮,是供應,除非主教,有足夠的理由,法官表示,他們可以放棄不用。 (For the United States, see Conc. Prov. Balt., I.) If it be uncertain whether the convert's baptism was valid or not, then he is to be baptized conditionally. (對於美國來說,看到濃度省balt ,一) ,如果不能確定是否轉換的洗禮,是有效或不符合的話,他是要有條件的洗禮。 In such cases the ritual is: "If thou art not yet baptized, then I baptize thee in the name", etc. The First Synod of Westminster, England, directs that adult converts are to be baptized not publicly but privately with holy water (ie not the consecrated baptismal water) and without the usual ceremonies (Decr. xvi).在這種情況下,禮儀是: "如果你是藝術還沒有洗,然後我baptize在你的名字"等,第一次主教會議的西敏寺,英國,指示成人皈依,是受洗,不公開,但私下聖水(即不是consecrated洗禮水) ,並沒有慣常的儀式( decr.十六) 。 Practically, converts in the United States are almost invariably baptized either absolutely or conditionally, not because the baptism administered by heretics is held to be invalid, but because it is generally impossible to discover whether they had ever been properly baptized.實際上,轉換成在美國幾乎總是洗禮無條件或有條件的,不是因為洗禮經管異端舉行為無效,而是因為它是一般不可能發現,他們是否有任何時候都得到了妥善的洗禮。 Even in cases where a ceremony had certainly been performed, reasonable doubt of validity will generally remain, on account of either the intention of the administrator or the mode of administration.即使在的情況下,頒獎典禮已被肯定的表現,有合理懷疑的有效期一般會維持不變,是考慮到無論是有意的管理人或管理模式。 Still each case must be examined into (SC Inquis., 20 Nov., 1878) lest the sacrament be sacrilegiously repeated.還是每個案例必須研究到(自然科學inquis , 1878年11月20日) ,以免聖餐被sacrilegiously重演。

As to the baptism of the various sects, Sabetti (no. 662) states that the Oriental Churches and the "Old Catholics" generally administer baptism accurately; the Socinians and Quakers do not baptize at all; the Baptists use the rite only for adults, and the efficacy of their baptism has been called in question owing to the separation of the matter and the form, for the latter is pronounced before the immersion takes place; the Congregationalists, Unitarians and Universalists deny the necessity of baptism, and hence the presumption is that they do not administer it accurately; the Methodists and Presbyterians baptize by aspersion or sprinkling, and it may be reasonably doubted whether the water has touched the body and flowed upon it; among the Episcopalians many consider baptism to have no true efficacy and to be merely an empty ceremony, and consequently there is a well-grounded fear that they are not sufficiently careful in its administration.至於洗禮的各教派,認為這套(第662頁)說,東方教會和"舊教徒"統管的洗禮,準確; socinians和貴格會不baptize所有;浸信會使用成年禮只為成年人,和療效的洗禮,他們一直在呼籲的問題,由於分家這件事的形式,後者則是明顯的前浸泡發生;稱為"公理派" , unitarians和universalists否認的必要性洗禮,因此推定他們不管理它準確;循道和presbyterians baptize由aspersion或噴水,並可以得到合理的質疑,水已觸及身體的影響和流過它;之中episcopalians許多人認為洗禮,有沒有真正的療效,並得到僅僅是一個空洞的典禮,並因此是有充分理由擔心,他們既沒有充分注意其管治。 To this may be added, that Episcopalians often baptize by aspersion, and though such a method is undoubtedly valid if properly employed, yet in practice it is quite possible that the sprinkled water may not touch the skin.這可能會增加,即episcopalians往往baptize由aspersion ,雖然這種方式無疑是有效的,如果適當地聘用,但在實踐中,它很可能當時撒上水可能不會接觸皮膚。 Sabetti also notes that ministers of the same sect do not everywhere follow a uniform method of baptizing.這套還指出,部長們對同一節不要處處遵循一個統一的方法洗禮。

The practical method of reconciling heretics with the Church is as follows:-- If baptism be conferred absolutely, the convert is to make no abjuration or profession of faith, nor is he to make a confession of his sins and receive absolution, because the sacrament of regeneration washes away his past offences.該實用方法調和異端與教會具體內容如下: -如果洗禮賦予絕對,轉換,是不作a bjuration或專業而真誠的,也不是他作出供認他的罪孽,並獲得赦免,因為聖餐再生沖走他過去的罪行。 If his baptism is to be conditional, he must first make an abjuration of his errors, or a profession of faith, then receive the conditional baptism, and lastly make a sacramental confession followed by conditional absolution.如果他的洗禮,是要有條件的,他首先必須作出abjuration他的錯誤,還是一門專業的信念,然後接受有條件的洗禮,並最後做出聖供認其次是有條件地赦免。 If the convert's former baptism was judged to be certainly valid, he is only to make the abjuration or the profession of faith and receive absolution from the censures he may have incurred (Excerpta Rit. Rom., 1878).如果轉換前的洗禮,被判定為有效,當然,他是唯一使abjuration或法律界的信仰和接受赦免從責難他可能招致( excerpta rit 。光碟, 1878年) 。 The abjuration or profession of faith here prescribed is the Creed of Pius IV, translated into the vernacular.該abjuration或專業的信念在這裡明是信仰的比約四,翻譯成白話文。 In the case of conditional baptism, the confession may precede the administration of the rite and the conditional absolution be imparted after the baptism.在案件有條件的洗禮,供認可能會先於政府的成年禮,並有條件地赦免被傳授後的洗禮。 This is often done as a matter of fact, as the confession is an excellent preparation for the reception of the sacrament (De Herdt, VI, viii; Sabetti, no. 725).這往往是做的問題,事實上,正如供認是一個很好的準備,為酒會的聖餐(德herdt ,第六,第八章;這套,沒有。 725 ) 。

VIII.八。 REBAPTISM rebaptism

To complete the consideration of the validity of baptism conferred by heretics, we must give some account of the celebrated controversy that raged around this point in the ancient Church.完成審議的有效性洗禮所賦予的異教徒,我們必須給一些帳戶的慶祝爭議肆虐圍繞這一點在古代教堂。 In Africa and Asia Minor the custom had been introduced in the early part of the third century of rebaptizing all converts from heresy.在非洲和亞洲的小型習俗已在年初的第三個世紀的rebaptizing全部轉換成從異端。 As far as can be now ascertained, the practice of rebaptism arose in Africa owing to decrees of a Synod of Carthage held probably between 218 and 222; while in Asia Minor it seems to have had its origin at the Synod of Iconium, celebrated between 230 and 235.據可現在確定,但這種做法的rebaptism出現在非洲,由於法令一個主教的迦太基舉行大概介乎218和222 ,而在小亞細亞,它似乎產生了它的原產地在主教的伊康,慶祝之間230和235 。 The controversy on rebaptism is especially connected with the names of Pope St. Stephen and of St. Cyprian of Carthage.爭議就rebaptism尤其是與姓名,教宗聖士提反灣和聖塞浦路斯的迦太基。 The latter was the main champion of the practice of rebaptizing.後者是主要的倡導者的做法rebaptizing 。 The pope, however, absolutely condemned the practice, and commanded that heretics on entering the Church should receive only the imposition of hands in paenitentiam.教宗,但絕對譴責這種做法,和指揮的這異端就進入教會應該只得到強加雙手paenitentiam 。 In this celebrated controversy it is to noted that Pope Stephen declares that he is upholding the primitive custom when he declares for the validity of baptism conferred by heretics.在這個慶祝的爭議,而是要指出,教宗宣布斯蒂芬說,他就是堅持把原始習俗時,他宣稱,為效力的洗禮所賦予的異端。

Cyprian, on the contrary, implicitly admits that antiquity is against his own practice, but stoutly maintains that it is more in accordance with an enlightened study of the subject.塞浦路斯,與此相反,含蓄地承認,古物,是對他自己的做法,但堅決主張更是按照一個開明的研究課題。 The tradition against him he declares to be "a human and unlawful tradition".傳統對他的,他宣稱要成為一個"人類和非法傳統" 。 Neither Cyprian, however, nor his zealous abettor, Firmilian, could show that rebaptism was older than the century in which they were living.既不是塞浦路斯,不過,也不是他的熱心教唆, firmilian ,可顯示rebaptism是年紀比世紀中,他們的生活水平。 The contemporaneous but anonymous author of the book "De Rebaptismate" says that the ordinances of Pope Stephen, forbidding the rebaptism of converts, are in accordance with antiquity and ecclesiastical tradition, and are consecrated as an ancient, memorable, and solemn observance of all the saints and of all the faithful.在同時代,但無名氏本書的作者"德rebaptismate "表示,該條例的教皇斯蒂芬,禁止rebaptism的轉換,是按照文物和宗教傳統,是consecrated作為一個古老的,令人難忘的,並鄭重遵守所有聖人和所有信徒。 St. Augustine believes that the custom of not rebaptizing is an Apostolic tradition, and St. Vincent of Lérins declares that the Synod of Carthage introduced rebaptism against the Divine Law (canonem), against the rule of the universal Church, and against the customs and institutions of the ancients.聖奧古斯丁認為,風俗不rebaptizing是使徒傳統,以及聖文森特的lérins宣稱主教的迦太基介紹rebaptism反對神權法( canonem ) ,對法治的普世教會,並針對海關機構的古人。 By Pope Stephen's decision, he continues, antiquity was retained and novelty was destroyed (retenta est antiquitas, explosa novitas).由羅馬教皇斯蒂芬的決定,他繼續下去,文物被保留和新穎性被破壞( retenta預測antiquitas , explosa novitas ) 。 It is true that the so-called Apostolic Canons (xlv and xlvi) speak of the non-validity of baptism conferred by heretics, but Döllinger says that these canons are comparatively recent, and De Marca points out that St. Cyprian would have appealed to them had they been in existence before the controversy.這是事實,這所謂使徒大砲(四十五及四十六)發言的非有效性的洗禮所賦予的異端,但döllinger說這些大砲是比較近,和德馬卡指出,聖塞浦路斯將呼籲他們有他們一直存在之前的爭議。 Pope St. Stephen, therefore, upheld a doctrine already ancient in the third century when he declared against the rebaptism of heretics, and decided that the sacrament was not to be repeated because its first administration had been valid, This has been the law of the Church ever since.教宗聖士提反灣,因此,堅持教條,已經在古老的第三個世紀,當他宣布對rebaptism的異教徒,並決定該聖餐但結果卻並非如此反复,因為它的第一屆政府已經有效的,這已是法律的教會至今。

IX.九。 NECESSITY OF BAPTISM必要性的洗禮

Theologians distinguish a twofold necessity, which they call a necessity of means (medii) and a necessity of precept (præcepti).神學家區分具有雙重的必要性,他們所謂的必要性手段( medii )和必要性的信條( præcepti ) 。 The first (medii) indicates a thing to be so necessary that, if lacking (though inculpably), salvation can not be attained.第一次( medii )表明一件事情上是如此必要,如果缺乏(雖然inculpably ) ,救國不能達到。 The second (præcepti) is had when a thing is indeed so necessary that it may not be omitted voluntarily without sin; yet, ignorance of the precept or inability to fulfill it, excuses one from its observance.第二次( præcepti ) ,是已當一件事情確實如此必要,它可能就不會被遺漏自願沒有罪的,但,無知的信條或無法履行,藉口一名來自其遵守。 Baptism is held to be necessary both necessitate medii and præcepti.洗禮的目的是向有需要都需要medii和præcepti 。 This doctrine is rounded on the words of Christ.這一學說是四捨五入對基督的話。 In John 3, He declares: "Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he can not enter into the kingdom of God."在約翰3 ,他宣稱: "除非一個人出生,又水和聖靈,他也不能進入神的國度" 。 Christ makes no exception to this law and it is therefore general in its application, embracing both adults and infants.基督也不例外,以這部法律之一,因此在一般的應用,其中包括成人和嬰幼兒。 It is consequently not merely a necessity of precept but also a necessity of means.它因此不僅是一個必然的戒律,但也是必要的手段。

This is the sense in which it has always been understood by the Church, and the Council of Trent (Sess, IV, cap, vi) teaches that justification can not be obtained, since the promulgation of the Gospel, without the washing of regeneration or the desire thereof (in voto).這是常識,它一直是明白的教會,以及安理會的遄達( sess ,第四章,第六章)教導我們,理由不能獲得,自從頒布的福音,如果沒有清洗或再生慾望(在沃托) 。 In the seventh session, it declares (can. v) anathema upon anyone who says that baptism is not necessary for salvation.在第七部分,它宣告( can.五)詛咒後,任何人說的洗禮,是沒有必要的救贖。 We have rendered votum by "desire" for want of a better word.我們有優越votum由"慾望" ,為想一個更好的詞。 The council does not mean by votum a simple desire of receiving baptism or even a resolution to do so.安理會並不意味著由votum一個簡單的願望,接受洗禮,甚至是一項決議案,這樣做的。 It means by votum an act of perfect charity or contrition, including, at least implicitly, the will to do all things necessary for salvation and thus especially to receive baptism.這意味著由votum行為,完善慈善機構或contrition ,其中,至少有含蓄,將盡一切必要的東西,為救國圖存,因此,特別是在接受洗禮。

The absolute necessity of this sacrament is often insisted on by the Fathers of the Church, especially when they speak of infant baptism.絕對有必要的,這是聖餐,往往堅持由教會的神父,尤其是當他們說話的嬰兒的洗禮。 Thus St. Irenæus (II, xxii): "Christ came to save all who are reborn through Him to God - infants, children, and youths" (infantes et parvulos et pueros).因此聖irenæus (二22 ) : "基督來拯救所有的人都獲得重生通過他向上帝-嬰幼兒,兒童和青少年" (嬰兒等p arvulos等p ueros) 。 St. Augustine (III De Anima) says "If you wish to be a Catholic, do not believe, nor say, nor teach, that infants who die before baptism can obtain the remission of original sin."聖奧古斯丁(三德動物)說: "如果你想成為一名天主教徒,不相信,也不說,也不是教導,即嬰兒死亡前的洗禮,還可以得到減免的原罪" 。 A still stronger passage from the same doctor (Ep. xxviii, Ad Hieron.) reads:"Whoever says that even infants are vivified in Christ when they depart this life without the participation of His Sacrament (Baptism), both opposes the Apostolic preaching and condemns the whole Church which hastens to baptize infants, because it unhesitatingly believes that otherwise they can not possibly be vivified in Christ," St. Ambrose (II De Abraham., c. xi) speaking of the necessity of baptism, says:" No one is excepted, not the infant, not the one hindered by any necessity."一個更加強大的通道,由同一醫生( ep.二十八,專案hieron )說: "誰說,即使嬰兒vivified在基督裡,當他們離開人世,如果沒有參與他的聖餐(洗禮) ,兩者都反對教廷說教和譴責整個教會,其中加速向baptize嬰兒,因為它毫不含糊地認為,否則他們不可能vivified在基督裡, "聖劉漢銓(二德亞伯拉罕,長十一)在談到必要性的洗禮,說: "不一個是例外,而不是嬰兒,而不是一個阻礙任何必要性" 。

In the Pelagian controversy we find similarly strong pronouncements on the part of the Councils of Carthage and Milevis, and of Pope Innocent I. It is owing to the Church's belief in this necessity of baptism as a means to salvation that, as was already noted by St. Augustine, she committed the power of baptism in certain contingencies even to laymen and women.在pelagian爭議,我們發現同樣強烈的聲明,對部分議會的迦太基和milevis ,教皇無辜一,它是由於教會的信仰,這種必要性的洗禮,作為一種手段來拯救,就像已經指出的,由聖奧古斯丁,她致力於權力的洗禮,在某些突發事件,甚至是外行和婦女。 When it is said that baptism is also necessary, by the necessity of precept (praecepti), it is of course understood that this applies only to such as are capable of receiving a precept, viz.當它說的洗禮,也是必要條件,由必要性言教( praecepti ) ,這是當然的理解是,這僅適用於諸如有能力接受信條,即。 adults.成年人。

The necessity in this case is shown by the command of Christ to His Apostles (Matthew 28): "Go and teach all nations, baptizing them", etc. Since the Apostles are commanded to baptize, the nations are commanded to receive baptism.有必要在這件事所表現出的指揮基督,以他的門徒(馬太28日) : "去教導所有國家,他們的洗禮" ,等等,因為使徒是指揮者,以baptize ,國家正在指揮的接受洗禮。 The necessity of baptism has been called in question by some of the Reformers or their immediate forerunners.必要性的洗禮,也被稱為有問題的一些改革者或其直系先輩。 It was denied by Wyclif, Bucer, and Zwingli.這是否認wyclif ,布策爾,並zwingli 。 According to Calvin it is necessary for adults as a precept but not as a means.據卡爾文是要為成年人作為信條,而不是作為一種手段。 Hence he contends that the infants of believing parents are sanctified in the womb and thus freed from original sin without baptism.因此他認為,嬰幼兒的父母認為是聖潔在子宮裡,從而擺脫原罪未經洗禮。 The Socinians teach that baptism is merely an external profession of the Christian faith and a rite which each one is free to receive or neglect.該socinians教導洗禮僅僅是一個外部專業的基督教信仰和禮儀,其中每一個免費領取或疏忽行為。

An argument against the absolute necessity of baptism has been sought in the text of Scripture: "Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, you shall not have life in you" (John 6).來反對絕對有必要的洗禮,已經尋求在文本中的經文說: "除非你吃的肉給兒子的男子,並喝他的血液中,你不能有生命,在你" (約翰福音6 ) 。 Here, they say, is a parallel to the text: "Unless a man be born again of water".在這裡,他們說,是一個平行的案文說: "除非一個人出生,再次水" 。 Yet everyone admits that the Eucharist is not necessary as a means but only as a precept.但大家都承認,聖體聖事是沒有必要作為一種手段,而只是作為一個信條。 The reply to this is obvious.這個回答,這是有目共睹的。 In the first instance, Christ addresses His words in the second person to adults; in the second, He speaks in the third person and without any distinction whatever.在初審階段時,基督地址,他的話在第二人,以成人,在第二,他說,在第三人,並沒有任何區別。

Another favorite text is that of St. Paul (1 Corinthians 7): "The unbelieving husband is sanctified by the believing wife; and the unbelieving wife is sanctified by the believing husband; otherwise your children should be unclean; but now they are holy."另一個喜愛的文本就是聖保羅(哥林多前書7 ) : "不信的丈夫是聖潔所相信的妻子和不信的妻子是聖潔所相信的丈夫,否則你的孩子應該不潔的,但現在他們是神聖的。 " Unfortunately for the strength of this argument, the context shows that the Apostle in this passage is not treating of regenerating or sanctifying grace at all, but answering certain questions proposed to him by the Corinthians concerning the validity of marriages between heathens and believers.不幸的力量,這樣的說法,背景顯示,使徒保羅在這段話是不是治療再生或sanctifying寬限期,在所有的,但在回答一些問題上向他提出由哥林多前書有關的有效性之間的婚姻heathens和信徒。 The validity of such marriages is proved from the fact that children born of them are legitimate, not spurious.有效性,這種婚姻證明,從這一事實所生的子女,他們都是合法的,而不是虛假的。 As far as the term "sanctified" is concerned, it can, at most, mean that the believing husband or wife may convert the unbelieving party and thus become an occasion of their sanctification.據而言, "神聖化"而言,它可以在最,即表示相信丈夫或妻子,可轉換不信黨,從而成為一個機會,他們成聖。 A certain statement in the funeral oration of St. Ambrose over the Emperor Valentinian II has been brought forward as a proof that the Church offered sacrifices and prayers for catechumens who died before baptism.某聲明,在葬禮咨訊聖劉漢銓超過皇帝valentinian二,已提出了一個證據,證明教會的祭祀和祈禱,為慕道者死亡前的洗禮。 There is not a vestige of such a custom to be found anywhere.有沒有痕跡這種風俗被發現任何地方。 St. Ambrose may have done so for the soul of the catechumen Valentinian, but this would be a solitary instance, and it was done apparently because he believed that the emperor had had the baptism of desire.聖張永森可能有這樣做的,為靈魂的catechumen valentinian ,但是這將是一個孤獨的,例如,它是做了,顯然是因為他相信天皇不得不洗禮的慾望。 The practice of the Church is more correctly shown in the canon (xvii) of the Second Council of Braga: "Neither the commemoration of Sacrifice [oblationis] nor the service of chanting [psallendi] is to be employed for catechumens who have died without the redemption of baptism."實踐教會是更正確地顯示,在佳能( 17 )第二屆理事會布拉加說: "既不是為紀念犧牲[ oblationis也不是服務的呼喊[ psallendi ]是被聘用為慕道者已經死亡但無贖回洗禮" 。 The arguments for a contrary usage sought in the Second Council of Arles (c. xii) and the Fourth Council of Carthage (c. lxxix) are not to the point, for these councils speak, not of catechumens, but of penitents who had died suddenly before their expiation was completed.論據相反的使用要求,在第二屆理事會阿爾勒(丙十二)和第四屆理事會的迦太基(丙lxxix )不給一點,因為這些議會的發言,而不是對慕道者,但penitents人死亡突然之前,他們犯罪被害人已經完成。 It is true that some Catholic writers (as Cajetan, Durandus, Biel, Gerson, Toletus, Klee) have held that infants may be saved by an act of desire on the part of their parents, which is applied to them by some external sign, such as prayer or the invocation of the Holy Trinity; but Pius V, by expunging this opinion, as expressed by Cajetan, from that author's commentary on St. Thomas, manifested his judgment that such a theory was not agreeable to the Church's belief.我不否認一些天主教作家(如cajetan , durandus ,比爾gerson , toletus ,克利)曾召開嬰兒可能得救的一項法案慾望對他們的部分家長,這是適用於他們的一些外部標誌,如默禱或引用聖三一,但比約五,由expunging這一見解,表達的cajetan ,從這個作者的評論中對聖托馬斯的問題,這顯示了他的判斷是,這樣的理論是不同意教會的信仰。

X. SUBSTITUTES FOR THE SACRAMENT十代用品為聖餐

The Fathers and theologians frequently divide baptism into three kinds: the baptism of water (aquæ or fluminis), the baptism of desire (flaminis), and the baptism of blood (sanguinis).父親和神學家經常鴻溝洗禮成三種:洗禮水( aquæ或fluminis ) ,洗禮的願望( flaminis ) ,以及洗禮的血液(血) 。 However, only the first is a real sacrament.然而,這只不過是第一次,是一個真正的聖餐。 The latter two are denominated baptism only analogically, inasmuch as they supply the principal effect of baptism, namely, the grace which remits sins.後兩種面額的洗禮,只有analogically ,因為它們的供應主要作用的洗禮,即恩典職權的罪孽。 It is the teaching of the Catholic Church that when the baptism of water becomes a physical or moral impossibility, eternal life may be obtained by the baptism of desire or the baptism of blood.它是教學的天主教教會,當洗禮的水變成身體上或道德上是不可能的,永恆的生命可以得到洗禮的慾望或洗禮的血液。

(1) The Baptism of Desire ( 1 )洗禮的願望

The baptism of desire (baptismus flaminis) is a perfect contrition of heart, and every act of perfect charity or pure love of God which contains, at least implicitly, a desire (votum) of baptism.洗禮的願望( baptismus flaminis )是一個完美的contrition的心,每一個行為,完善慈善機構或純上帝的愛載,至少暗示,願望( votum )的洗禮。 The Latin word flamen is used because Flamen is a name for the Holy Ghost, Whose special office it is to move the heart to love God and to conceive penitence for sin.拉丁詞flamen是因為flamen是一個名稱為聖靈,其專門的辦公室,它是提出把心交給愛上帝,並受孕懺悔罪過。 The "baptism of the Holy Ghost" is a term employed in the third century by the anonymous author of the book "De Rebaptismate". "洗禮聖靈"是一個詞,受聘於三世紀由無名氏本書的作者"德rebaptismate " 。 The efficacy of this baptism of desire to supply the place of the baptism of water, as to its principal effect, is proved from the words of Christ.功效此洗禮的願望供應地點洗禮的水,因為它的主要作用,就是證明,從基督的話。 After He had declared the necessity of baptism (John 3), He promised justifying grace for acts of charity or perfect contrition (John 14): "He that loveth Me, shall be loved of my Father: and I will love him and will manifest myself to him."之後,他曾宣稱有必要洗禮(約翰3 ) ,他許諾恩典辯解的行為,慈善機構或完善contrition (約翰14 )說: "他說,愛我,會被愛,我的父親:我會愛他,並會表現我給他" 。 And again: "If any one love me, he will keep my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him, and will make our abode with him."並再次說: "如果任何一個愛我,他會保持我的一句話,我的父親會愛他,並且我們要到他,並會使我們的居留權與他" 。 Since these texts declare that justifying grace is bestowed on account of acts of perfect charity or contrition, it is evident that these acts supply the place of baptism as to its principal effect, the remission of sins.由於這些文本申報理由Grace是賜予帳戶的行為,完善慈善機構或contrition ,很顯然,這些行為供應地點的洗禮,以它的主要作用,但減免的罪孽。 This doctrine is set forth clearly by the Council of Trent.這一學說是闡述清楚,安理會的遄達。 In the fourteenth session (cap. iv) the council teaches that contrition is sometimes perfected by charity, and reconciles man to God, before the Sacrament of Penance is received.在第十四屆會議(第四)理事會教導我們contrition有時是完善慈善機構,並核對男子向上帝之前,聖事的懺悔收到。 In the fourth chapter of the sixth session, in speaking of the necessity of baptism, it says that men can not obtain original justice "except by the washing of regeneration or its desire" (voto).在第四章中的第六次會議上,在談到有必要的洗禮,它說,男子不能獲得原來的公義" ,除了清洗再生或其慾望" (沃托) 。 The same doctrine is taught by Pope Innocent III (cap. Debitum, iv, De Bapt.), and the contrary propositions are condemned by Popes Pius V and Gregory XII, in proscribing the 31st and 33rd propositions of Baius.同一學說,是教教宗無辜第三期(第debitum ,四,德bapt件) ,以及相反的主張受到譴責,由教宗比約五和格雷戈里十二,在禁制第31屆和第33屆命題baius 。

We have already alluded to the funeral oration pronounced by St. Ambrose over the Emperor Valentinian II, a catechumen.我們已經提到葬禮咨訊遽聖劉漢銓超過皇帝valentinian二, catechumen 。 The doctrine of the baptism of desire is here clearly set forth.該學說的洗禮的願望是在這裡明確提出了。 St. Ambrose asks: "Did he not obtain the grace which he desired? Did he not obtain what he asked for? Certainly he obtained it because he asked for it."聖劉漢銓問道: "他不獲得寬限期,他的理想嗎?當時他並沒有獲得他所要求的嗎?當然他得到了,因為他要求它" 。 St. Augustine (IV, De Bapt., xxii) and St. Bernard (Ep. lxxvii, ad H. de S. Victore) likewise discourse in the same sense concerning the baptism of desire.聖奧古斯丁(四,德bapt , xxii )及聖伯納德( ep. lxxvii ,專案每小時德第victore )同樣的話語在同樣的意義上的關於洗禮的慾望。 If it be said that this doctrine contradicts the universal law of baptism made by Christ (John 3), the answer is that the lawgiver has made an exception (John 14) in favor of those who have the baptism of desire.如果說,這一學說違背了普遍規律的洗禮所作的基督(約翰3 ) ,我的答案是因為lawgiver作出了例外(約翰14 ) ,贊成者有洗禮的慾望。 Neither would it be a consequence of this doctrine that a person justified by the baptism of desire would thereby be dispensed from seeking after the baptism of water when the latter became a possibility.也不會是一個後果,這種學說認為,一個人的理由洗禮的慾望從而將予免除,從追求洗禮水的時候,後者成為一種可能性。 For, as has already been explained the baptismus flaminis contains the votum of receiving the baptismus aquæ.因為,正如已經解釋過baptismus flaminis載votum收到baptismus aquæ 。 It is true that some of the Fathers of the Church arraign severely those who content themselves with the desire of receiving the sacrament of regeneration, but they are speaking of catechumens who of their own accord delay the reception of baptism from unpraiseworthy motives.這是事實,有些教會的神父arraign嚴厲那些內容與自己的願望,接受了聖體再生,但他們講的慕道者,他們自己的延誤接收洗禮,從unpraiseworthy動機。 Finally, it is to be noted that only adults are capable of receiving the baptism of desire.最後,它是要指出的是,只有成年人有能力接受洗禮的慾望。

(2) The Baptism of Blood ( 2 )洗禮的血

The baptism of blood (baptismus sanquinis) is the obtaining of the grace of justification by suffering martyrdom for the faith of Christ.洗禮的血( baptismus sanquinis )是獲得恩典的理由,由痛苦殉難,為信仰基督的復活。 The term "washing of blood" (lavacrum sanguinis) is used by Tertullian (De Bapt., xvi) to distinguish this species of regeneration from the "washing of water" (lavacrum aquæ).而言, "洗血" ( lavacrum血) ,是用戴爾都良(德bapt ,十六)區分這一物種的再生,從"洗的水" ( lavacrum aquæ ) 。 "We have a second washing", he says "which is one and the same [with the first], namely the washing of blood." "我們有第二次洗" ,他說: "這是同一個[第一] ,即洗血" 。 St. Cyprian (Ep. lxxiii) speaks of "the most glorious and greatest baptism of blood" (sanguinis baptismus).聖塞浦路斯( ep. lxxiii )說的是"最光榮的,且是最大的洗禮的血" (血baptismus ) 。 St. Augustine (De Civ. Dei, XIII, vii) says: "When any die for the confession of Christ without having received the washing of regeneration, it avails as much for the remission of their sins as if they had been washed in the sacred font of baptism."聖奧古斯丁(德civ 。 dei ,十三,七)說: "當任何模具供認基督沒有收到清洗再生,將利用多,為緩解他們的罪孽,因為如果他們被刷掉,在神聖字體的洗禮" 。

The Church grounds her belief in the efficacy of the baptism of blood on the fact that Christ makes a general statement of the saving power of martyrdom in the tenth chapter of St. Matthew: "Every one therefore that shall confess me before men, I will also confess him before my Father who is in heaven" (verse 32); and: "He that shall lose his life for me shall find it" (verse 39).教會理由,她認為,在療效的洗禮,血的事實基督作一般性發言的節省電力的殉道,在第十章中的聖馬太說: "每個人都因此表示,應坦白,我以前男人,我會也供認他之前我的父親究竟是誰在天堂" (新詩32 ) ; : "他說,應喪失自己的生命,我會發現它" (新詩39 ) 。 It is pointed out that these texts are so broadly worded as to include even infants, especially the latter text.據指出,這些案文措詞過於廣泛,以甚至包括嬰幼兒,尤其是後者,文字。 That the former text also applies to them, has been constantly maintained by the Fathers, who declare that if infants can not confess Christ with the mouth, they can by act.說,前文也適用於對他們來說,已經不斷保持的父親,他宣布說,如果嬰兒不能懺悔基督與口耳相傳,他們可以通過行為。 Tertullian (Adv. Valent., ii) speaks of the infants slaughtered by Herod as martyrs, and this has been the constant teaching of the Church.戴爾都良( adv.價,二)說話的嬰幼兒,由屠宰希律為烈士,這已被不斷教學的教會。

Another evidence of the mind of the Church as to the efficacy of the baptism of blood is found in the fact that she never prays for martyrs.另一個證據心中的教會,以效能的洗禮,血是發現事實,即她從不祈禱,為烈士。 Her opinion is well voiced by St. Augustine (Tr. lxxiv in Joan.): "He does an injury to a martyr who prays for him."她認為是好聲音聖奧古斯丁( tr. lxxiv在鄧務滋女士)說: "他確實是一個傷害烈士祈禱,為他" 。 This shows that martyrdom is believed to remit all sin and all punishment due to sin.這說明殉相信免去所有罪過和處罰都因單。 Later theologians commonly maintain that the baptism of blood justifies adult martyrs independently of an act of charity or perfect contrition, and, as it were, ex opere operato, though, of course, they must have attrition for past sins.後來神學家普遍認為,洗禮的血液有理由成人烈士獨立做善事或完善contrition ,而且,正如它,當然opere operato ,雖然,當然,他們也必須有自然減員,為過去的罪孽。 The reason is that if perfect charity, or contrition, were required in martyrdom, the distinction between the baptism of blood and the baptism of desire would be a useless one.原因是,如果完美的慈善機構,或contrition ,保險公司須在殉難,兩者之間的區別的洗禮,用鮮血和洗禮的願望,將是一個無用的一個。 Moreover, as it must be conceded that infant martyrs are justified without an act of charity, of which they are incapable, there is no solid reason for denying the same privilege to adults.此外,因為它必須承認,嬰兒烈士有道理,沒有做善事,使他們沒有能力,有沒有堅實理由否認,同時特權,以成人為對象。 (Cf. Francisco Suárez, De Bapt., disp. xxxix.) (參見弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯德bapt ,位移。三十九)

XI.十一。 UNBAPTIZED INFANTS unbaptized兒

The fate of infants who die without baptism must be briefly considered here.命運的嬰兒死亡,沒有洗禮必須簡要審議了這裡。 The Catholic teaching is uncompromising on this point, that all who depart this life without baptism, be it of water, or blood, or desire, are perpetually excluded from the vision of God.天主教教學,是不妥協就這一點,即所有的人離開人世,沒有洗禮,它的水,或血,或慾望,會被永久排除在視野的上帝。 This teaching is grounded, as we have seen, on Scripture and tradition, and the decrees of the Church.這種教學是接地,正如我們所看到的,對經文和傳統,以及政令的教會。 Moreover, that those who die in original sin, without ever having contracted any actual sin, are deprived of the happiness of heaven is stated explicitly in the Confession of Faith of the Eastern Emperor Michael Palæologus, which had been proposed to him by Pope Clement IV in 1267, and which he accepted in the presence of Gregory X at the Second Council of Lyons in 1274.此外,那些死在原罪,從來沒有承辦過任何實際的罪過,是剝奪了幸福的天堂,是很明確表示,在自白的信念東部皇帝邁克爾palæologus ,已經向他提出由羅馬教皇克萊門特四在1267 ,而他在接受在場的格雷戈里第十第二屆理事會萊昂斯在1274年。 The same doctrine is found also in the Decree of Union of the Greeks, in the Bull "Lætentur Caeli" of Pope Eugene IV, in the Profession of Faith prescribed for the Greeks by Pope Gregory XIII, and in that authorized for the Orientals by Urban VIII and Benedict XIV.同樣的學說是還發現在該法令的聯盟的希臘人,在牛市" , lætentur caeli "教皇尤金四,在醫學界的信心,為希臘人由羅馬教皇格雷戈里十三,並在此授權為東方人市區第八條和本篤十四。 Many Catholic theologians have declared that infants dying without baptism are excluded from the beatific vision; but as to the exact state of these souls in the next world they are not agreed.許多天主教神學家都宣稱嬰兒自生自滅的洗禮,被排除在beatific視覺;但至於確切的狀態,這些靈魂,在未來世界,他們不同意。

In speaking of souls who have failed to attain salvation, these theologians distinguish the pain of loss (paena damni), or privation of the beatific vision, and the pain of sense (paena sensus).在談到心靈的人都沒有達到救贖,這些神學家區分疼痛的損失( paena damni ) ,或窮困的beatific視野,疼痛的感覺( paena感覺) 。 Though these theologians have thought it certain that unbaptized infants must endure the pain of loss, they have not been similarly certain that they are subject to the pain of sense.雖然這些神學家都以為它一定unbaptized嬰兒必須忍受的痛苦損失,他們並沒有得到同樣肯定的是,他們受到的痛苦感。 St. Augustine (De Pecc. et Mer., I, xvi) held that they would not be exempt from the pain of sense, but at the same time he thought it would be of the mildest form.聖奧古斯丁(德太平洋經濟合作理事會。等市場匯率,我十六)舉行,因為他們不能免於疼痛的感覺,但在同一時間,他認為這將是對是最溫和的形式。 On the other hand, St. Gregory Nazianzen (Or. in S. Bapt.) expresses the belief that such infants would suffer only the pain of loss.在另一方面,聖格雷戈里nazianzen ( or.第bapt )表示,他們相信這些嬰兒會受損,只是疼痛的損失。 Sfondrati (Nod. Prædest., I, i) declares that while they are certainly excluded from heaven, yet they are not deprived of natural happiness. sfondrati ( nod. prædest 。我,我)宣告雖然他們肯定被排除在天堂,但他們卻沒有被剝奪的自然幸福。 This opinion seemed so objectionable to some French bishops that they asked the judgment of the Holy See upon the matter.這種看法似乎是那麼令人反感的一些法語主教表示,他們要求的判斷教廷後,這件事。 Pope Innocent XI replied that he would have the opinion examined into by a commission of theologians, but no sentence seems ever to have been passed upon it.教宗無辜璽回答說,他會有意見納入研究的一個委員會的神學家,但沒有判刑,似乎以往任何時候都需要獲得通過,付諸實行。 Since the twelfth century, the opinion of the majority of theologians has been that unbaptized infants are immune from all pain of sense.自12世紀,大多數人的意見的神學家一直認為unbaptized嬰兒免受一切痛苦的感覺。 This was taught by St. Thomas Aquinas, Scotus, St. Bonaventure, Peter Lombard, and others, and is now the common teaching in the schools.這是由教聖托馬斯阿奎那, scotus ,聖文德,彼得倫巴第等多個城市,並正在共同教學中的學校。 It accords with the wording of a decree of Pope Innocent III (III Decr., xlii, 3): "The punishment of original sin is the deprivation of the vision of God; of actual sin, the eternal pains of hell."它與措辭一項法令,教宗無辜三(三下降, ,四十二, 3 )說: "該處罰的原罪,是剝奪了視覺的上帝;的實際單,永恆的痛苦的地獄" 。 Infants, of course, can not be guilty of actual sin.嬰幼兒的,當然不能承認的實際單。

Other theologians have urged that, under the law of nature and the Mosaic dispensation, children could be saved by the act of their parents and that consequently the same should be even more easy of attainment under the law of grace, because the power of faith has not been diminished but increased.其他神學家曾呼籲說,根據該法的性質和花葉配藥,兒童可挽救該法令的父母,並因此同時應更容易實現的,根據國際法的恩典,因為權力的信仰不被減少,但增加了。 Common objections to this theory include the fact that infants are not said to be deprived of justification in the New Law through any decrease in the power of faith, but because of the promulgation by Christ of the precept of baptism which did not exist before the New Dispensation.共同反對這一理論,包括事實,即嬰兒不說,被剝奪的理由,在新的法律通過任何下降的力量,信仰,但由於頒布了基督的言教的洗禮,這是不存在的前新省卻。 Nor would this make the case of infants worse than it was before the Christian Church was instituted.也不會,這使案件的嬰兒不如以前基督教教堂被提起。 While it works a hardship for some, it has undoubtedly improved the condition of most.而運作的困難,有些人來說,這無疑是改善條件最。 Supernatural faith is now much more diffused than it was before the coming of Christ, and more infants are now saved by baptism than were justified formerly by the active faith of their parents.超自然的信仰是,現在更瀰漫比以前未來的救世主,更是嬰幼兒,現在救洗禮較合理,由以前的積極信念,他們的父母。 Moreover, baptism can more readily be applied to infants than the rite of circumcision, and by the ancient law this ceremony had to be deferred till the eighth day after birth, while baptism can be bestowed upon infants immediately after they are born, and in case of necessity even in their mother's womb.此外,洗禮,可以更容易地適用於嬰幼兒較成年禮的包皮環切術,以及由古代法律這個儀式不得不推遲到第八天,在出生後,雖然洗禮,可賦予兒立刻出生後,並在案件必要時,甚至在其母親的子宮內。 Finally it must be borne in mind that unbaptized infants, if deprived of heaven, would not be deprived unjustly.最後,它必須緊記unbaptized兒,如果被剝奪了天堂,不會被剝奪冤枉。 The vision of God is not something to which human beings have a natural claim.遠見的,神是不是哪個人有一種自然的索賠。 It is a free gift of the Creator who can make what conditions He chooses for imparting it or withholding it.這是一項免費的禮物造物者可以作出什麼樣的條件,他選擇了為傳授或扣壓。 No injustice is involved when an undue privilege is not conferred upon a person.沒有正義,是涉及不正當的特權,是沒有賦予任何人。 Original sin deprived the human race of an unearned right to heaven.原罪剝奪了人類的一種非勞動權利得以升天。 Through the Divine mercy this bar to the enjoyment of God is removed by baptism; but if baptism be not conferred, original sin remains, and the unregenerated soul, having no claim on heaven, is not unjustly excluded from it.透過神聖慈悲這個酒吧,以享受神是拆除的洗禮,但如果洗禮,不授予,原罪仍然存在,並unregenerated靈魂,沒有索賠天吃飯的局面,是不是不公正地排除在外。

As to the question, whether in addition to freedom from the pain of sense, unbaptized infants enjoy any positive happiness in the next world, theologians are not agreed, nor is there any pronouncement of the Church on the subject.由於上述問題,無論是在除免於疼痛的感覺, unbaptized嬰兒享有任何正面的幸福,在未來世界,神學家們不同意,也沒有任何的聲明,教會對此事的意見。 Many, following St. Thomas (De Malo, Q. v, a. 3), declare that these infants are not saddened by the loss of the beatific vision, either because they have no knowledge of it, and hence are not sensible of their privation; or because, knowing it, their will is entirely conformed to God's will and they are conscious that they have missed an undue privilege through no fault of their own.不少,繼聖托馬斯(德聯絡辦公室,問五答3 ) ,申報,這些嬰兒是不是感到難過,失去了beatific遠見,或者是因為他們不知道它,因此是不理性的,他們窮困;或者因為,在不知不覺中,他們的意志,是完全符合上帝的意願,他們都意識到他們錯過了不應有的特權的命令,通過自己的過錯。 In addition to this freedom from regret at the loss of heaven, these infants may also enjoy some positive happiness.除了這個免於遺憾失去的天堂,這些嬰兒也可享受一些積極的幸福。 St. Thomas (In II Sent., dist. XXXIII, Q. ii, a. 5) says: "Although unbaptized infants are separated from God as far as glory is concerned, yet they are not separated from Him entirely. Rather are they joined to Him by a participation of natural goods; and so they may even rejoice in Him by natural consideration and love," Again (a. 2) he says: "They will rejoice in this, that they will share largely in the divine goodness and in natural perfections."聖托馬斯(二派,區三十三,問:二A 5 )說: "雖然unbaptized嬰兒脫離上帝據榮耀,是關注,但他們卻不能脫離他完全相反,他們加入給他一個參與的天然品;等,他們甚至可能為之欣喜,在他的自然審議和愛情, "再一次( 2 ) ,他說: "他們將欣喜在此,他們將分享主要集中在神的良善和天然完善" 。 While the opinion, then, that unbaptized infants may enjoy a natural knowledge and love of God and rejoice in it, is perfectly tenable, it has not the certainty that would arise from a unanimous consent of the Fathers of the Church, or from a favorable pronouncement of ecclesiastical authority.而民意,那麼, unbaptized兒,可享有一個自然知識和上帝的愛而憂,在這,是完全站不住腳的,它沒有確定性,這將產生一個一致同意的,教會的神父們,還是從有利於公判大會的宗教權威。

[Editor's note: On this subject, the 1992 Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "As regards children who have died without Baptism, the Church can only entrust them to the mercy of God, as she does in her funeral rites for them. Indeed, the great mercy of God who desires that all men should be saved, and Jesus' tenderness toward children which caused him to say: "Let the children come to me, do not hinder them," allows us to hope that there is a way of salvation for children who have died without Baptism. All the more urgent is the Church's call not to prevent little children coming to Christ through the gift of holy Baptism."] [編者按:在這個問題上, 1992年講授的天主教教會指出: "至於孩子的人都死了洗禮,教會只能託付給仁慈的天主,因為她沒有在她的葬禮儀式為他們的確,大慈悲的上帝的人的慾望,所有男人應該被保存,並為耶穌的溫柔,對孩子造成的,他說: "讓孩子來找我,不妨礙他們, "讓我們希望,有出路拯救兒童的人已經死亡,沒有洗禮。時候都更迫切的是,教會的召喚而不是要阻止小孩子來基督通過禮品的神聖洗禮。 " ]

We may add here some brief remarks on the discipline of the Church in regard to unbaptized persons.我們可以在這裡補充一些簡短的發言中對紀律的教會對於unbaptized人。 As baptism is the door of the Church, the unbaptized are entirely without its pale.由於洗禮是大門教會, unbaptized是完全沒有它的蒼白。 As a consequence:作為一個後果:

Such persons, by the ordinary law of the Church, may not receive Catholic funeral rites.這種人,由普通法律的教會,也不得接受天主教葬禮。 The reason of this regulation is given by Pope Innocent III (Decr., III, XXVIII, xii): "It has been decreed by the sacred canons that we are to have no communion with those who are dead, if we have not communicated with them while alive."因為這個規例是由教宗無辜三( decr. ,三,第二十八,第十二章)說: "它已頒布的神聖炮,我們是為沒有共融與那些已經死了,如果我們還沒有溝通過他們雖然活著" 。 According to Canon Law (CIC 1183), however, catechumens "are to be considered members of the Christian faithful" as regard funeral rites.根據教會法物( CIC 1183 ) ,但是,慕道者" ,都是要考慮成員的基督教信徒"至於葬禮。 The Plenary Council of Baltimore also decrees (No. 389) that the custom of burying the unbaptized relatives of Catholics in the family sepulchers may be tolerated.國務院全體會議的巴爾的摩還法令(第389名)的習俗埋葬unbaptized親屬的天主教徒在家庭sepulchers可容忍的。 [Editor's note: The 1983 Code of Canon Law excepts an unbaptized child of Catholic parents, if the parents had intended to have him baptized.] [編者按: 1983年守則教會法excepts一個unbaptized兒童的天主教父母,如果父母本來打算讓他受洗。 ]

A Catholic may not marry an unbaptized person without dispensation, under pain of nullity.天主教可能不會嫁給unbaptized人未經特許,根據疼痛無效。 This impediment, as far as illiceity is concerned, is derived from the natural law, because in such unions the Catholic party and the offspring of the marriage would, in most cases, be exposed to the loss of faith.這個障礙,據illiceity來說,是來自於自然法,因為在這樣的工會天主教黨和後代的婚姻會,在大多數情況下,接觸到了喪失信心。 The invalidity of such marriage, however, is a consequence only of positive law.無效婚姻,不過,這是一個後果,只有正面的法律。 For, in the beginning of Christianity, unions between the baptized and unbaptized were frequent, and they were certainly held valid.為,在一開始的基督教,工會之間的洗禮和unbaptized頻繁,而他們肯定是召開有效。 When, then, circumstances arise where the danger of perversion for the Catholic party is removed, the Church dispenses in her law of prohibition, but always requires guarantees from the non-Catholic party that there will be no interference with the spiritual rights of the partner of the union.時,則情況會出現危險的曲解為天主教黨是移走後,教會免除她在法律禁止的,但總是需要保證從非天主教的黨,將不會有任何干擾與精神權利的合作夥伴該聯盟。 (See IMPEDIMENTS OF MATRIMONY.) (見障礙的婚姻關係。 )

In general, we may state that the Church claims no authority over unbaptized persons, as they are entirely without her pale.總的來講,我們可以說,教會聲稱無權unbaptized人,因為他們是完全沒有,她面色蒼白。 She makes laws concerning them only in so far as they hold relations with the subjects of the Church.她提出有關法律,他們只是在目前為止,因為他們持有與科目的教會。

XII.十二。 EFFECTS OF BAPTISM影響洗禮

This sacrament is the door of the Church of Christ and the entrance into a new life.這是聖門的基督的教會,以及進入新的生活。 We are reborn from the state of slaves of sin into the freedom of the Sons of God.我們重生,從國家的奴隸單到新聞自由的神的兒子。 Baptism incorporates us with Christ's mystical body and makes us partakers of all the privileges flowing from the redemptive act of the Church's Divine Founder.洗禮包含了我們與基督的奧體,並促使我們partakers的一切特權流向從救贖的行為,教會的神的創始人。 We shall now outline the principal effects of baptism.我們現在綱要的主要影響的洗禮。 (1) The Remission of All Sin, Original and Actual This is clearly contained in the Bible. ( 1 )減免一切罪過,原來和實際,這顯然是包含在聖經中。 Thus we read (Acts 2:38): "Be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of your sins; and you shall receive the Holy Ghost. For the promise is to you and to your children and to all that are far off, whomsoever the Lord our God shall call."因此,我們讀到(使徒2時38分)說: "受洗,每個人都在你的名字耶穌基督,為緩解你的罪惡;你應接受聖靈,為承諾,是向你和你的兒女令所有人都為期不遠了,是何人所耶和華我們的神會請" 。 We read also in the twenty-second chapter of the Acts of the Apostles (verse 16):我們也看過在二十一世紀的第二章行為的使徒(新詩16 ) :

Be baptized, and wash away thy sins." St. Paul in the fifth chapter of his Epistle to the Ephesians beautifully represents the whole Church as being baptized and purified (5:25 sq.): "Christ loved the Church, and delivered Himself up for it: that he might sanctify it, cleansing it by the washing of water in the word of life: that he might present it to Himself a glorious Church, not having spot or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish.受洗,洗去你的罪孽" 。聖保祿在第五章,他的書信,以以弗所精美,代表了整個教會被洗禮和淨化( 5時25平方)說: "基督愛教會,並發表自己為:他有可能聖化,潔淨,它是由洗滌水字的生活:他有可能它呈現給觀眾自己是一個光榮的教堂,沒有現貨或起皺,或任何這類的事情,但它應神聖的,沒有污點。

The prophecy of Ezechiel (36:25) has also been understood of baptism: "I will pour upon you clean water, and you shall be cleansed from all your filthiness (inquinamentis), where the prophet is unquestionably speaking of moral defilements.預言的ezechiel ( 36:25 )也已經理解的洗禮: "我一定會倒,你乾淨的水了,你應予以清洗,從您的所有臟( inquinamentis ) ,而先知無疑是講道德的污穢。

This is also the solemn teaching of the Church.這也是莊嚴的教學中的教會。 In the profession of faith prescribed by Pope Innocent III for the Waldensians in 1210, we read: We believe that all sins are remitted in baptism, both original sin and those sins which have been voluntarily committed." The Council of Trent (Sess. V., can. v) anathematizes whomsoever denies that the grace of Christ which is conferred in baptism does not remit the guilt of original sin; or asserts that everything which can truly and properly be called sin is not thereby taken away. The same is taught by the Fathers. St. Justin Martyr (Apol., I, Ixvi) declares that in baptism we are created anew, that is, consequently, free from all stain of sin. St. Ambrose (De Myst., iii) says of baptism: "This is the water in which the flesh is submerged that all carnal sin may be washed away.在醫學界的信心,由教宗無辜第三,為waldensians在1210 ,我們讀到:我們認為,所有的罪過都在匯款的洗禮,無論是原罪與捷聯慣導系統已自願承諾" 。安理會的遄達( sess. v ,可以第五節) anathematizes何人所否認的恩典基督是授予在洗禮並不匯往有罪的原罪;或聲稱盡了一切可真真正正地和適當地被稱為單是不是從而拿走。同樣是教由父親,聖賈斯汀烈士( apol. ,我, ixvi )宣布,在洗禮,我們正在創造新的,也就是因此,不受任何污點的罪過,聖劉漢銓(德神秘島,三)說的洗禮說: "這是水,其中肉淹沒所有肉慾單可能被沖走。 Every transgression is there buried." Tertullian (De Bapt., vii) writes: "Baptism is a carnal act in as much as we are submerged in the water; but the effect is spiritual, for we are freed from our sins." The words of Origen (In Gen., xiii) are classic: "If you transgress, you write unto yourself the handwriting [chirographum] of sin.每一個海侵是有埋葬了"戴爾都良(德bapt ,七)中寫道: "洗禮是一個肉慾的行為正如我們都被淹沒在水中,但效果是精神的,因為我們擺脫了我們的罪過"換言之的淵源(上將,十三) ,是典型的: "如果你超越,你寫祂自己的筆跡[ chirographum ]罪惡的。 But, behold, when you have once approached to the cross of Christ and to the grace of baptism, your handwriting is affixed to the cross and blotted out in the font of baptism." It is needless to multiply testimonies from the early ages of the Church. It is a point on which the Fathers are unanimous, and telling quotations might also be made from St. Cyprian, Clement of Alexandria, St. Hilary, St. Cyril of Jerusalem, St. Basil, St. Gregory Nazianzen, and others.但是,你看,當你曾逼近到基督的十字架,並在寬限期的洗禮,你的筆跡,是貼在十字架上,並不能抹殺的,在字體的洗禮, "這是毋庸再乘以證詞,從早期的教堂,它是一個點上,父親是一致的,並告訴報價,也可能是由聖塞浦路斯,克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,聖希拉蕊,聖西里爾耶路撒冷,聖羅勒,聖格雷戈里nazianzen ,和其他人。

(2) Remission of Temporal Punishment ( 2 )減免顳處罰

Baptism not only washes away sin, it also remits the punishment of sin.洗禮不僅沖走單外,還職權處罰單。 This was the plain teaching of the primitive Church.這是平原教學的原始教會。 We read in Clement of Alexandria (Pædagog., i) of baptism: "It is called a washing because we are washed from our sins: it is called grace, because by it the punishments which are due to sin are remitted."我們在閱讀克萊門特亞歷山大( pædagog. ,我)的洗禮: "這是被稱為洗,因為我們都是衝離我們的罪過:這是所謂的恩典,因為它的處分,這是因為單是匯出" 。 St. Jerome (Ep. lxix) writes: "After the pardon (indulgentiam) of baptism, the severity of the Judge is not to be feared."聖杰羅姆( ep. lxix )寫道: "經過赦免( indulgentiam )的洗禮,嚴重程度,法官是不可怕" 。 And St. Augustine (De Pecc. et Mer., II, xxviii) says plainly: "If immediately [after baptism] there follows the departure from this life, there will be absolutely nothing that a man must answer for [quod obnoxium hominem teneat], for he will have been freed from everything that bound him."和聖奧古斯丁(德太平洋經濟合作理事會。等市場匯率。第一,二,二十八)說,赤裸裸地說: "如果立即[經過洗禮]有如下離開這個生活中,將有絕對沒有任何一個人,必須先回答[和obnoxium hominem teneat ] ,因為他已經擺脫一切約束他" 。 In perfect accord with the early doctrine, the Florentine decree states: "No satisfaction is to be enjoined upon the baptized for past sins; and if they die before any sin, they will immediately attain to the kingdom of heaven and to the vision of God."在完美的,符合早期學說,佛羅倫薩法令規定: "沒有滿意的是要受命後,受洗為過去的罪孽;如果他們死之前,任何單,他們會立即實現向天國的,並以遠見的上帝" In like manner the Council of Trent (Sess. V) teaches: "There is no cause of damnation in those who have been truly buried with Christ by baptism . . . Nothing whatever will delay their entrance into heaven."同樣地,安理會的遄達( sess.五)教導: "沒有事業的damnation在那些已真正埋在基督的洗禮… … 。毫不相干,將延誤了他們通向天堂的大門" 。

(3) Infusion of Supernatural Grace, Gifts, and Virtues ( 3 )輸液的超自然的恩典,禮物和美德

Another effect of baptism is the infusion of sanctifying grace and supernatural gifts and virtues.另一種效應的洗禮,是輸液的sanctifying恩典和超自然的禮物和美德。 It is this sanctifying grace which renders men the adopted sons of God and confers the right to heavenly glory.正是這種sanctifying恩典,使官兵通過的是上帝的兒女,並賦予權利,以天朝榮耀。 The doctrine on this subject is found in the seventh chapter on justification in the sixth session of the Council of Trent.該學說對這個課題是發現在第七章的理由,在第六屆理事會的會議的遄達。 Many of the Fathers of the Church also enlarge upon this subject (as St. Cyprian, St. Jerome, Clement of Alexandria, and others), though not in the technical language of later ecclesiastical decrees.許多教會的神父也放大後,這個議題(如聖塞浦路斯,聖杰羅姆,克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,和其他人) ,雖然不是在技術語言後來教會的法令。

(4) Conferral of the Right to Special Graces (四)賦予的權利受到特別的青睞

Theologians likewise teach that baptism gives man the right to those special graces which are necessary for attaining the end for which the sacrament was instituted and for enabling him to fulfill the baptismal promises.神學家同樣教導洗禮,讓男子的權利,這些特殊的青睞,這是必要的,為達到目的,即聖餐被提起,並為使他能夠履行洗禮的承諾。 This doctrine of the schools, which claims for every sacrament those graces which are peculiar and diverse according to the end and object of the sacrament, was already enunciated by Tertullian (De Resurrect., viii).這種學說的學校,自稱為每聖餐者青睞,這是奇特多樣據到去年底,與物體的聖餐,已經闡明了由戴爾都良(德復活,第八節) 。 It is treated and developed by St. Thomas Aquinas (III:62:2).它是治療和發展的聖托馬斯阿奎那(三: 62:2 ) 。 Pope Eugene IV repeats this doctrine in the decree for the Armenians.教皇尤金四,不斷重複這一學說在該法令為亞美尼亞人。 In treating of the grace bestowed by baptism, we presume that the recipient of the sacrament puts no obstacle (obex) in the way of sacramental grace.在治療的恩典賜予的,由洗禮,我們假定,即受援國的聖餐了,沒有障礙(閂) ,在路的聖事的恩典。 In an infant, of course, this would be impossible, and as a consequence, the infant receives at once all the baptismal grace.在嬰兒時期,當然,這將是不可能的,因此,嬰幼兒接收當所有的洗禮的恩典。 It is otherwise in the case of an adult, for in such a one it is necessary that the requisite dispositions of the soul be present.這是在其他方面的情況就成人而言,在這樣一個有必要把必要的處置靈魂在場。

The Council of Trent (Sess. VI, c. vii) states that each one receives grace according to his disposition and co-operation.安理會的遄達( sess.六,長七)國家,每一個獲得寬限期據他的性情和合作。 We are not to confound an obstacle (obex) to the sacrament itself with an obstacle to the sacramental grace.我們不是混淆障礙(閂) ,以聖事本身與障礙的聖事的恩典。 In the first case, there is implied a defect in the matter or form, or a lack of the requisite intention on the part of minister or recipient, and then the sacrament would be simply null.在首宗案件中,有隱含的弊端在這件事或形式,或缺乏必要的意圖對部分部長或受贈人,然後聖餐會根本無效。 But even if all these essential requisites for constituting the sacrament be present, there can still be an obstacle put in the way of the sacramental grace, inasmuch as an adult might receive baptism with improper motives or without real detestation for sin.但即使所有的這些必要條件,他們構成了聖餐予以目前,可以仍然是一個障礙,在路的聖事的恩典,因為一個成年人可能得到洗禮與不正當的動機或沒有真正detestation為單。 In that case the person would indeed be validly baptized, but he would not participate in the sacramental grace.在這種情況下,該人確實是有效的洗禮,但他將不參加在聖事的恩典。 If, however, at a later time he made amends for the past, the obstacle would be removed and he would obtain the grace which he had failed to receive when the sacrament was conferred upon him.不過,如果在以後的時間,他作出了修訂,在過去,障礙將會被拆除,他將獲得的恩典,他未能獲得當聖餐被賦予他的。 In such a case the sacrament is said to revive and there could be no question of rebaptism.在這種情況下,聖餐是說,恢復並不可能有任何的問題rebaptism 。

(5) Impression of a Character on the Soul ( 5 )的印象,一對性格的靈魂

Finally, baptism, once validly conferred, can never be repeated.最後,洗禮,一次有效授予,絕不能重演。 The Fathers (St. Ambrose, Chrysostom, and others) so understand the words of St. Paul (Hebrews 6:4), and this has been the constant teaching of the Church both Eastern and Western from the earliest times.父親(聖劉漢銓,金口,和其他人) ,所以了解的話聖保祿(希伯來六四) ,而這已成為恆教學的教會都東部和西部,從最早的時候。 On this account, baptism is said to impress an ineffaceable character on the soul, which the Tridentine Fathers call a spiritual and indelible mark.對這個帳戶,洗禮,據說打動了不可磨滅的性格靈魂,其中德律但丁的父親打電話精神和不可磨滅的印記。 That baptism (as well as Confirmation and Holy orders) really does imprint such a character, is defined explicitly by the Council of Trent (Sess. VII, can. ix).這洗禮(以及確認和神聖命令)的確印記這樣的性格,是界定明確,由理事會的遄達( sess.七,可以第九節) 。 St. Cyril (Præp. in Cat.) calls baptism a "holy and indelible seal", and Clement of Alexandria (De Div. Serv., xlii), "the seal of the Lord".聖西里爾( præp.在CAT )呼籲洗禮的"神聖和不可磨滅的印章" ,而克萊門特亞歷山大(德理學系serv ,四十二) , "蓋主" 。 St. Augustine compares this character or mark imprinted upon the Christian soul with the character militaris impressed upon soldiers in the imperial service.聖奧古斯丁相比,這個字或標記印跡後,基督教的靈魂與品格militaris留下深刻印象後,士兵在帝國服務。 St. Thomas treats of the nature of this indelible seal, or character, in the Summa (III:63:2).聖托馬斯待人的這種特性,不可磨滅的印章,或性質,有利於總結(三: 63:2 ) 。

The early leaders of the so-called Reformation held very different doctrines from those of Christian antiquity on the effects of baptism.早期的領導人以所謂改革進行了非常不同的學說,從這些基督徒對文物的影響洗禮。 Luther (De Captiv. Bab.) and Calvin (Antid. C. Trid.) held that this sacrament made the baptized certain of the perpetual grace of adoption.路德(德captiv 。為BAB )和卡爾文( antid.長trid )認為,這聖餐了洗禮的某些永恆的恩典通過。 Others declared that the calling to mind of one's baptism would free him from sins committed after it; others again, that transgressions of the Divine law, although sins in themselves, would not be imputed as sins to the baptized person provided he had faith.其他人宣稱這次通話想起一個人的洗禮,將免費由他犯下的罪孽後,其他人,這越軌的神聖法則,雖然捷聯慣導系統本身,而不會歸罪於作為捷聯慣導系統向受洗的人,只要他有信心。 The decrees of the Council of Trent, drawn up in opposition to the then prevailing errors, bear witness to the many strange and novel theories broached by various exponents of the nascent Protestant theology.該法令安理會的趨勢,制定了反對當時的錯誤,見證了許多陌生和小說理論broached各指數的新生新教神學。

XIII.十三。 MINISTER OF THE SACRAMENT部長的聖餐

The Church distinguishes between the ordinary and the extraordinary minister of baptism.教會區分普通和平凡部長的洗禮。 A distinction is also made as to the mode of administration.區別是也發了言,以管理模式。 Solemn baptism is that which is conferred with all the rites and ceremonies prescribed by the Church, and private baptism is that which may be administered at any time or place according to the exigencies of necessity.莊嚴的洗禮的是,這是賦予所有的儀式和典禮訂明由教會和私人的洗禮,是可以加以管理,在任何時間或地點,根據需要來必要性。 At one time solemn and public baptism was conferred in the Latin Church only during the paschal season and Whitsuntide.在同一時間的莊嚴和公眾的洗禮,被授於拉丁教會只有在逾越節賽季whitsuntide 。 The Orientals administered it likewise at the Epiphany.該東方人經管的,它同樣在頓悟。

(1) Ordinary Minister ( 1 )普通部長

The ordinary minister of solemn baptism is first the bishop and second the priest.普通部長莊嚴的洗禮,首先是主教和第二神父。 By delegation, a deacon may confer the sacrament solemnly as an extraordinary minister.由團時,有執事,可授予聖餐鄭重作為一個不平凡的大臣。

Bishops are said to be ordinary ministers because they are the successors of the Apostles who received directly the Divine command: "Go and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost."Priests are also ordinary ministers because by their office and sacred orders they are pastors of souls and administrators of the sacraments, and hence the Florentine decree declares: "The minister of this Sacrament is the priest, to whom it belongs to administer baptism by reason of his office."主教說是普通的部長們,因為他們是接班人的使徒們,他們直接收到神的命令: "你們要去教導所有國家,他們的洗禮,在父親的姓名和子和聖靈" 。牧師也有一般的部長,因為他們的辦公室和神聖的命令,他們是牧師的心靈和管理者的聖禮,因此佛羅倫薩法令宣稱: "部長,這聖餐是神父,向誰提出,它屬於管理的洗禮,因他的辦公室" As, however, bishops are superior to priests by the Divine law, the solemn administration of this sacrament was at one time reserved to the bishops, and a priest never administered this sacrament in the presence of a bishop unless commanded to do so.作為,不過,主教都是優於神父所神聖的法律,嚴肅的管理,這聖餐是在同一時間保留給主教,神父從未經管這個聖餐,在出席會議的一位主教,除非指揮若這樣做。 How ancient this discipline was, may be seen from Tertullian (De Bapt., xvii):如何古代這一學科是,可以看出從戴爾都良(德bapt ,十七) :

The right to confer baptism belongs to the chief priest who is the bishop, then to priests and deacons, but not without the authorization of the bishop.有權授予洗禮屬於政務司鐸,他是主教,然後到牧師和執事,但不是未經授權的主教。

Ignatius (Ep. ad Smyr., viii): "It is not lawful to baptize or celebrate the agape without the bishop."伊格( ep.專案smyr ,八) : "這是不合法的,以baptize或慶祝愛德沒有主教" 。 St. Jerome (Contra Lucif., ix) witnesses to the same usage in his days: "Without chrism and the command of the bishop, neither priest nor deacon has the right of conferring baptism."聖杰羅姆(矛盾lucif ,九)證人,以相同的使用在他的日子: "如果沒有chrism和指揮的主教,神父沒有,也沒有執事有權利授予洗禮" 。

Deacons are only extraordinary ministers of solemn baptism, as by their office they are assistants to the priestly order.執事只是平凡的部長們莊嚴的洗禮,因為他們的辦公室,他們都是助理向司鐸秩序。 St. Isidore of Seville (De Eccl, Off., ii, 25) says: "It is plain that baptism is to be conferred by priests only, and it is not lawful even for deacons to administer it without permission of the bishop or priest."聖伊西多爾的塞維利亞(德eccl ,起飛。第一,二, 25 )說: "我非常清楚表明的洗禮,是必須由祭司只,它是不合法,甚至為執事來管理它未經允許的主教或神父" That deacons were, however, ministers of this sacrament by delegation is evident from the quotations adduced.這執事,不過,部長的這聖餐由代表團是顯而易見的,從報價引證。 In the service of ordination of a deacon, the bishop says to the candidate: "It behooves a deacon to minister at the altar, to baptize and to preach."在服務的統籌執事,這位主教說,以該候選人說: "這behooves執事部長在祭壇上,以baptize和傳教" 。 Philip the deacon is mentioned in the Bible (Acts 8) as conferring baptism, presumably by delegation of the Apostles.弘執事提到聖經(使徒8 )授予的洗禮,相信通過代表團的使徒。

It is to be noted that though every priest, in virtue of his ordination is the ordinary minister of baptism, yet by ecclesiastical decrees he can not use this power licitly unless he has jurisdiction.這是值得注意的是,雖然每一個神父,在憑藉其排序是普通部長的洗禮,但到宗教法令,他就不能使用這項權力licitly除非他擁有司法管轄權。 Hence the Roman Ritual declares: The legitimate minister of baptism is the parish priest, or any other priest delegated by the parish priest or the bishop of the place." The Second Plenary Council of Baltimore adds: "Priests are deserving of grave reprehension who rashly baptize infants of another parish or of another diocese." St. Alphonsus (n. 114) says that parents who bring their children for baptism without necessity to a priest other than their own pastor, are guilty of sin because they violate the rights of the parish priest. He adds, however, that other priests may baptize such children, if they have the permission, whether express, or tacit, or even reasonably presumed, of the proper pastor. Those who have no settled place of abode may be baptized by the pastor of any church they choose.因此,羅馬的儀式宣布:合法部長的洗禮,是教區牧師,或任何其他牧師下放,由教區神父或主教的地方"的第二次全體會議,會議的巴爾的摩補充說: "神父,是值得嚴重reprehension誰貿然baptize嬰兒的另一個教區或另一教區的"聖阿方( 12月31日114 )說,父母帶子女的洗禮,沒有必要向其他牧師比對自己的牧師,是犯了罪,因為他們違反人權的本堂司鐸,他補充說,但是,其他的神父可能baptize這類兒童,他們如果有足夠的許可,不論明示或默示,甚至合理地推定,對妥善牧師。那些沒有解決的居住地方,可洗禮牧師任何教會他們選擇。

(2) Extraordinary Minister ( 2 )不平凡的大臣

In case of necessity, baptism can be administered lawfully and validly by any person whatsoever who observes the essential conditions, whether this person be a Catholic layman or any other man or woman, heretic or schismatic, infidel or Jew.在案件的必要性,洗禮,可以依法管理和有效任何人,無論誰觀察到了必不可少的條件,不論這個人是一個天主教門外漢或任何其他男人還是女人,邪教組織或者schismatic ,異教徒或猶太人。

The essential conditions are that the person pour water upon the one to be baptized, at the same time pronouncing the words: "I baptize thee in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost."基本條件是該人傾訴水後,一至受洗,在同一時間內,宣告了話: "我baptize祢在父親的姓名和子和聖靈" 。 Moreover, he must thereby intend really to baptize the person, or technically, he must intend to perform what the Church performs when administering this sacrament.此外,他還必須有打算真的要baptize的人,還是在技術上,他必須打算履行什麼教堂演出時,管理這聖餐。

The Roman Ritual adds that, even in conferring baptism in cases of necessity, there is an order of preference to be followed as to the minister.羅馬祭祀補充說,即使是在授予的洗禮,在案件的必要性,是有優先順序應遵循以部長。 This order is: if a priest be present, he is to be preferred to a deacon, a deacon to a subdeacon, a cleric to a layman, and a man to a woman, unless modesty should require (as in cases of childbirth) that no other than the female be the minister, or again, unless the female should understand better the method of baptizing.這項命令是:如果一個牧師在場,他是被推薦到一個執事,執事,一subdeacon ,一名教士,以一個門外漢,一男一女,除非謙虛應要求(如在案件分娩)沒有其他比女性成為部長,或再次,除非女性應該更好地了解法的洗禮。 The Ritual also says that the father or mother should not baptize their own child, except in danger of death when no one else is at hand who could administer the sacrament.祭祀也說,父親或母親,不應該baptize他們自己的孩子,除了在危險的死因時,沒有其他人在眼前的人能治聖餐。 Pastors are also directed by the Ritual to teach the faithful, and especially midwives, the proper method of baptizing.牧師也是導演出來的禮儀教導信徒們,特別是助產士,正確的方法洗禮。 When such private baptism is administered, the other ceremonies of the rite are supplied later by a priest, if the recipient of the sacrament survives.當這些私人洗禮管理外,其他儀式的成年禮是供應後,由一名牧師,如果受贈人的聖餐生存。

This right of any person whatsoever to baptize in case of necessity is in accord with the constant tradition and practice of the Church.這一權利的任何人去baptize在危急情況是符合一貫的傳統和慣例的教會。 Tertullian (De Bapt., vii) says, speaking of laymen who have an opportunity to administer baptism: "He will be guilty of the loss of a soul, if he neglects to confer what he freely can," St. Jerome (Adv. Lucif., ix): "In case of necessity, we know that it is also allowable for a layman [to baptize]; for as a person receives, so may he give," The Fourth Council of the Lateran (cap. Firmiter) decrees: "The Sacrament of Baptism . . . no matter by whom conferred is available to salvation," St. Isidore of Seville (can. Romanus de cons., iv) declares: "The Spirit of God administers the grace of baptism, although it be a pagan who does the baptizing," Pope Nicholas I teaches the Bulgarians (Resp, 104) that baptism by a Jew or a pagan is valid.戴爾都良(德bapt ,七)說,在講外行的人有機會來管理的洗禮: "他將犯喪失了靈魂,如果他忽略了賦予他的自由交流, "聖杰羅姆( adv. lucif ,第九)說: "在危急情況,我們知道,這也是允許的,為一個門外漢[ baptize ] ;為作為一個人收到,因此,他給"第四屆理事會的lateran (第firmiter )政令說: "聖事的洗禮… … 。無論由何人所賦予的,可向救國, "聖伊西多爾的塞維利亞( can. romanus德意見後,四)宣稱: "上帝的精神管理的恩典的洗禮,雖然這是一個異教的人是否洗禮, "教皇尼古拉i教導保加利亞人(比例分別為, 104 )的洗禮,由一個猶太人或異教徒是有效的。

Owing to the fact that women are barred from enjoying any species of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, the question necessarily arose concerning their ability to bestow valid baptism.由於這一事實,即女性不准享受任何物種的教會管轄,這個問題一定會引起他們的能力賜給有效的洗禮。 Tertullian (De Bapt., xvii) strongly opposes the administration of this sacrament by women, but he does not declare it void.戴爾都良(德bapt ,十七)強烈反對政府的這一聖餐由婦女,但他沒有宣布作廢。 In like manner, St. Epiphanius (Hær., lxxix) says of females: "Not even the power of baptizing has been granted to them", but he is speaking of solemn baptism, which is a function of the priesthood.同樣地,聖epiphanius ( hær. , lxxix )說,女性說: "甚至沒有權力的洗禮已經給予他們的" ,但他是在談到莊嚴的洗禮,這是一個功能的神職人員。 Similar expressions may be found in the writings of other Fathers, but only when they are opposing the grotesque doctrine of some heretics, like the Marcionites, Pepuzians, and Cataphrygians, who wished to make Christian priestesses of women.類似的表述可以發現,在寫作的其他父親,但只有當他們反對怪誕學說的一些異端,像marcionites , pepuzians , cataphrygians ,他們希望使基督教priestesses婦女地位的提高。 The authoritative decision of the Church, however, is plain.據權威人士的決定,教會,但是,是平原。 Pope Urban II (c. Super quibus, xxx, 4) writes, "It is true baptism if a woman in case of necessity baptizes a child in the name of the Trinity."教宗城市第二(丙超級quibus了XXX , 4 )寫道, "這是真正的洗禮,如果一個女人在危急情況baptizes孩子的名字三位一體" 。 The Florentine decree for the Armenians says explicitly: "In case of necessity, not only a priest or a deacon, but even a layman or woman, nay even a pagan or heretic may confer baptism."佛羅倫薩法令,為亞美尼亞人說,明確地說: "在案件的必要性,不僅是一個牧師或執事,但即使外行人都還是女人,甚至連異教或異教徒,可授予洗禮" 。

The main reason for this extension of power as to the administration of baptism is of course that the Church has understood from the beginning that this was the will of Christ.造成這種情況的主要原因擴建電廠,以政府的洗禮,這當然是說,教會也已認識到從一開始就表示,這是將基督的復活。 St. Thomas (III:62:3) says that owing to the absolute necessity of baptism for the salvation of souls, it is in accordance with the mercy of God, who wishes all to be saved, that the means of obtaining this sacrament should be put, as far as possible, within the reach of all; and as for that reason the matter of the sacrament was made of common water, which can most easily be had, so in like manner it was only proper that every man should be made its minister.聖托馬斯(三: 62:3 )表示,由於絕對有必要的洗禮,為救贖的靈魂,它是按照與慈悲的上帝,他希望所有被保存,這意味著獲得這個聖餐應落實,盡量內部達成的一切,並且隨著基於這一原因,此事的聖餐了共同的水,這是最容易了,所以在喜歡的方式,這是唯一正確的,每個人應作出了自己的部長。 Finally, it is to be noted that, by the law of the Church, the person administering baptism, even in cases of necessity, contracts a spiritual relationship with the child and its parents.最後,它是值得一提的是,通過法的教會,因人制管理的洗禮,即使是在案件的必要性,合約精神與孩子的關係,以及其父母。 This relationship constitutes an impediment that would make a subsequent marriage with any of them null and void unless a dispensation were obtained beforehand.這種關係構成了一個障礙這將使其後的婚姻與他們任何人無效,除非免除獲得事前。 See AFFINITY.見親和力。

XIV.十四。 RECIPIENT OF BAPTISM受贈人的洗禮

Every living human being, not yet baptized, is the subject of this sacrament.每一個住人,還沒有洗,就是我今天聖餐。

(1) Baptism of Adults ( 1 )洗禮的成年人

As regards adults there is no difficulty or controversy.至於成年人,有沒有遇到困難或爭議。 Christ's command excepts no one when He bids the Apostles teach all nations and baptize them.基督的指揮excepts沒有人當他出價使徒保羅也教導所有國家和baptize他們。

(2) Baptism of Infants ( 2 )洗禮的嬰兒

Infant baptism has, however, been the subject of much dispute.嬰兒的洗禮,但是,一直受到很大的爭論。 The Waldenses and Cathari and later the Anabaptists, rejected the doctrine that infants are capable of receiving valid baptism, and some sectarians at the present day hold the same opinion.該瓦勒度派和卡塔利後來anabaptists ,拒絕中庸表示,嬰幼兒是能夠接收到有效的洗禮,有的sectarians在現今社會上持相同的看法。

The Catholic Church, however, maintains absolutely that the law of Christ applies as well to infants as to adults.天主教教會,但是,保持著絕對的法律適用基督以及向嬰兒作為以成人為對象。 When the Redeemer declares (John 3) that it is necessary to be born again of water and the Holy Ghost in order to enter the Kingdom of God, His words may be justly understood to mean that He includes all who are capable of having a right to this kingdom.當救世主聲明(約翰3 )表示,要生出來的水和聖靈以進入神的國度,他的話可能會理直氣壯地理解為是指他包括了所有的人都能夠有一個正確的這個王國。 Now, He has asserted such a right even for those who are not adults, when He says (Matthew 19:14): "Suffer the little children, and forbid them not to come to me: for the kingdom of heaven is for such."如今,他已斷言,這種權利,即使是那些沒有大人,當他說(馬太19時14分)說: "天下之老吾老以及人之老,幼吾幼以及人之幼,並嚴禁他們不來對我說:有為天國是這樣。 " It has been objected that this latter text does not refer to infants, inasmuch as Christ says "to come to me".它一直反對,認為這後者文本並不是指嬰幼兒,因為耶穌說: "來我的" 。 In the parallel passage in St. Luke (18:15), however, the text reads: "And they brought unto him also infants, that he might touch them"; and then follow the words cited from St. Matthew.在平行通道聖盧克( 18:15 ) ,不過,答复全文: "他們帶來了祂也兒,他有可能接觸" ;然後沿著話引自聖馬太。 In the Greek text, the words brephe and prosepheron refer to infants in arms.在希臘文,字brephe和prosepheron是指嬰兒在武器。

Moreover, St. Paul (Colossians 2) says that baptism in the New Law has taken the place of circumcision in the Old.此外,聖保祿他們( 2 )表示,洗禮,在新的法律已經採取地方割包皮在舊。 It was especially to infants that the rite of circumcision was applied by Divine precept.它是特別為兒說,成年禮的包皮環切術是應用,以神於言教。 If it be said that there is no example of the baptism of infants to be found in the Bible, we may answer that infants are included in such phrases as: "She was baptized and her household" (Acts 16:15); "Himself was baptized, and all his house immediately" (Acts 16:33); "I baptized the household of Stephanus" (1 Corinthians 1:16).如果說有沒有例子洗禮的嬰兒被發現在聖經中,我們可以回答這個嬰兒被列入此類的短語: "她是洗禮和她的家庭" (使徒行16:15 ) ; "自己受洗禮,而所有他的房子馬上" (使徒16時33分) ; "我的洗禮,家庭的斯特凡努斯" (哥林多前書1:16 ) 。 The tradition of Christian antiquity as to the necessity of infant baptism is clear from the very beginning.傳統的基督教文物,以必要性,嬰兒的洗禮,顯然從一開始的。 We have given many striking quotations on this subject already, in dealing with the necessity of baptism.我們已給許多驚人的報價單就這個問題已經在處理與必要性的洗禮。 A few, therefore, will suffice here.數,因此,將足以在這裡。

Origen (in cap. vi, Ep. ad Rom.) declares: "The Church received from the Apostles the tradition of giving baptism also to infants".淵源(章第六節的EP 。專案光碟) 。宣稱: "教會收到了來自使徒的傳統給予的洗禮,也給嬰兒" 。 St. Augustine (Serm. xi, De Verb Apost.) says of infant baptism: "This the Church always had, always held; this she received from the faith of our ancestors; this she perseveringly guards even to the end."聖奧古斯丁( serm.喜,德動詞apost )說,嬰兒的洗禮,說: "這教會一直,始終;為此,她收到了來自信仰,我們的祖先;為此,她持之以恆,警衛連到底" 。 St. Cyprian (Ep. ad Fidum) writes: "From baptism and from grace . . . must not be kept the infant who, because recently born, has committed no sin, except, inasmuch as it was born carnally from Adam, it has contracted the contagion of the ancient death in its first nativity; and it comes to receive the remission of sins more easily on this very account that not its own, but another's sins are forgiven it."聖塞浦路斯( ep.專案fidum )寫道: "從洗禮,並從恩典… … 。絕不能把嬰兒的人,因為最近誕生的時候,已承諾並沒有罪過,除根據,因為它出生的肉體關係,從亞當,它已承包風蔓延的古代死亡,在第一nativity ;來得到緩解的罪孽更容易對這個非常帳戶,而不是自己,而是另一種的罪過是原諒它" 。

St.Cyprian's letter to Fidus declares that the Council of Carthage in 253 reprobated the opinion that the baptism of infants should be delayed until the eighth day after birth. st.cyprian奇摩信fidus聲明指出,安理會的迦太基在253 reprobated認為洗禮的嬰兒應推遲到第八天,在出生後。

The Council of Milevis in 416 anathematizes whosoever says that infants lately born are not to be baptized.安理會的milevis 416 anathematizes凡說,近來嬰幼兒出生,是不被洗禮。

The Council of Trent solemnly defines the doctrine of infant baptism (Sess. VII, can. xiii).安理會的遄達鄭重界定學說的嬰兒洗禮( sess.七,可以的。十三) 。 It also condemns (can. xiv) the opinion of Erasmus that those who had been baptized in infancy, should be left free to ratify or reject the baptismal promises after they had become adult.它也譴責( can.十四)意見的伊拉斯謨說,那些被洗禮,在起步階段,應留給免費批准或否決這些洗禮的承諾後,他們已成為成人。

Theologians also call attention to the fact that as God sincerely wishes all men to be saved, He does not exclude infants, for whom baptism of either water or blood is the only means possible.神學家,也請注意一個事實,即作為上帝真誠地祝愿所有男人才能得救,他並不排斥嬰兒,為其中的洗禮,無論是水或血液中,是唯一可能的手段。 The doctrines also of the universality of original sin and of the all-comprehending atonement of Christ are stated so plainly and absolutely in Scripture as to leave no solid reason for denying that infants are included as well as adults.該學說還普遍性的原罪和全地理解了贖罪的基督是以如此赤裸裸且絕對在經文中,以不留下任何固體理由是無可否認的嬰兒在內,以及成年人。

To the objection that baptism requires faith, theologians reply that adults must have faith, but infants receive habitual faith, which is infused into them in the sacrament of regeneration.向反對的洗禮,需要信仰,神學答复中表示,成人必須有信心,但嬰兒獲得慣常的信念,這是融入他們在聖再生。 As to actual faith, they believe on the faith of another; as St. Augustine (De Verb. Apost., xiv, xviii) beautifully says: "He believes by another, who has sinned by another."至於實際的信仰,他們相信信仰的另一種選擇;正如聖奧古斯丁(德動詞。 apost ,十四,十八)美麗說: "他認為,由另一名罪被另一" 。

As to the obligation imposed by baptism, the infant is obliged to fulfill them in proportion to its age and capacity, as is the case with all laws.至於所規定義務的洗禮,嬰兒是有責任去完成比例,其年齡和能力的情況一樣,與所有的法律。 Christ, it is true, prescribed instruction and actual faith for adults as necessary for baptism (Matthew 28; Mark 16), but in His general law on the necessity of the sacrament (John 3) He makes absolutely no restriction as to the subject of baptism; and consequently while infants are included in the law, they can not be required to fulfill conditions that are utterly impossible at their age.基督的,這是事實,明指示和實際的信仰為成年人所必需的洗禮(馬太28日;馬克16 ) ,但在他的一般法的必要性聖(約翰3 ) ,使他完全沒有限制,以主題洗禮以及因此而嬰兒在內,在法律上,不能要求它們履行的條件,是根本不可能的,在他們的年齡。 While not denying the validity of infant baptism, Tertullian (De Bapt., xviii) desired that the sacrament be not conferred upon them until they have attained the use of reason, on account of the danger of profaning their baptism as youths amid the allurements of pagan vice.雖然不否認的有效性,嬰兒的洗禮,戴爾都良(德bapt ,十八)想要說聖餐被沒有賦予他們,直到他們有足夠的使用理由,是考慮到危險profaning他們的洗禮,作為青年中的誘惑異教副主席。 In like manner, St. Gregory Nazianzen (Or. xl, De Bapt.) thought that baptism, unless there was danger of death, should be deferred until the child was three years old, for then it could hear and respond at the ceremonies.同樣地,聖格雷戈里nazianzen ( or. xL的德bapt )認為洗禮,除非有危險,死亡的,應推遲到孩子3歲了,那能聽到回應在儀式。 Such opinions, however, were shared by few, and they contain no denial of the validity of infant baptism.這些意見,不過,也有同感少數,他們並沒有拒絕的有效性,嬰兒的洗禮。 It is true that the Council of Neocæsarea (can. vi) declares that an infant can not be baptized in its mother's womb, but it was teaching only that neither the baptism of the mother nor her faith is common to her and the infant in her womb, but are acts peculiar to the mother alone.這是事實,即安理會的neocæsarea ( can.六)宣布嬰兒不能受洗,在其母親的子宮內,但它是只教導的是,無論是洗禮的母親也不是她的信仰是共同的,她和嬰兒在她的子宮,但行為特有的母親。

(3) Baptism of Unborn Infants ( 3 )的洗禮,未出生的嬰兒

This leads to the baptism of infants in cases of difficult delivery.這導致洗禮嬰幼兒案件難以執行。 When the Roman Ritual declares that a child is not to be baptized while still enclosed (clausus) in its mother's womb, it supposes that the baptismal water can not reach the body of the child.當羅馬祭祀宣稱孩子是不受洗,同時仍然密封(法定原則) ,在其母親的子宮內,它是支撐該洗禮水不能達到身體的孩子。 When, however, this seems possible, even with the aid of an instrument, Benedict XIV (Syn. Diaec., vii, 5) declares that midwives should be instructed to confer conditional baptism.但是,當這似乎是可能的,即使是與援助的一個工具,本篤十四( syn. diaec ,七,五)宣稱助產士應指示賦予有條件的洗禮。 The Ritual further says that when the water can flow upon the head of the infant the sacrament is to be administered absolutely; but if it can be poured only on some other part of the body, baptism is indeed to be conferred, but it must be conditionally repeated in case the child survives its birth, It is to be noted that in these last two cases, the rubric of the Ritual supposes that the infant has partly emerged from the womb.祭祀進一步說,當水流經主管嬰兒的聖餐是要絕對經管的,但如果能澆,只有在其他一些身體的一部分,洗禮,實在是被賦予的,但它必須有條件反复的情況下兒童生存它的誕生,它是要指出的是,在這兩種情況下,標題祭祀假設認為,嬰兒已經出現了部分從子宮裡。 For if the fetus was entirely enclosed, baptism is to be repeated conditionally in all cases (Lehmkuhl, n, 61).如果胎兒是完全密封的,洗禮是要重演有條件在所有情況下( lehmkuhl ,氮, 61 ) 。

In case of the death of the mother, the fetus is to be immediately extracted and baptized, should there be any life in it.在死亡的情況下,母親胎兒是立即提取和洗禮,如果有任何生命。 Infants have been taken alive from the womb well after the mother's death.嬰兒已採取活著從子宮好後,母親去世。 After the Cæsarean incision has been performed, the fetus may be conditionally baptized before extraction if possible; if the sacrament is administered after its removal from the womb the baptism is to be absolute, provided it is certain that life remains.後cæsarean切口已演出,胎兒可能有條件受洗前提取可能的話,如果聖餐管理後,其清除出子宮洗禮,是要絕對的,只要是有一定的生命依然存在。 If after extraction it is doubtful whether it be still alive, it is to be baptized under the condition: "If thou art alive".如果拔除後,這是令人懷疑是否仍活著,就是要受洗,根據其條件是: "如果你是藝術大展" 。 Physicians, mothers, and midwives ought to be reminded of the grave obligation of administering baptism under these circumstances.醫師,母親,和助產士必須提醒的墳墓義務管理的洗禮,在這種情況下。 It is to be borne in mind that according to the prevailing opinion among the learned, the fetus is animated by a human soul from the very beginning of its conception.這是必須牢記,據當時的民意之間的了解,從胎兒是動畫片,由一個人的靈魂,從一開始的,其構想。 In cases of delivery where the issue is a mass that is not certainly animated by human life, it is to be baptized conditionally: "If thou art a man."在案件交付那裡的問題,是一項群眾性,這不是一定的動畫是由人的生命,它是要有條件的洗禮,說: "如果祢一名男子" 。

(4) Baptism of Insane Persons ( 4 )的洗禮,精神錯亂者

The perpetually insane, who have never had the use of reason, are in the same category as infants in what relates to the conferring of baptism, and consequently the sacrament is valid if administered.該沒完沒了地瘋了,他們從來沒有使用的原因,是在同一類別的嬰兒在哪些涉及到授予的洗禮,因此聖事是有效的,如果管理。

If at one time they had been sane, baptism bestowed upon them during their insanity would be probably invalid unless they had shown a desire for it before losing their reason.如果在同一時間,他們一直正常,賜予的洗禮後,他們在其精神失常的,將可能是無效的,除非他們表現出的願望,它才失去其理由。 Moralists teach that, in practice, this latter class may always be baptized conditionally, when it is uncertain whether or not they had ever asked for baptism (Sabetti, no. 661).道德教育,在實踐中,這個階級後者總是可以受洗有條件時,它的不確定他們是否曾經要求洗禮(這套,沒有。 661 ) 。 In this connection it is to be remarked that, according to many writers, anyone who has a wish to receive all things necessary to salvation, has at the same time an implicit desire for baptism, and that a more specific desire is not absolutely necessary.在這方面,是要指出,根據許多作家,任何人如想獲得一切必要的救助,已在同一時間,一個隱含的慾望洗禮,並表示,一個更具體的願望,也並非絕對必要。

(5) Foundlings ( 5 )棄兒

Foundlings are to be baptized conditionally, if there is no means of finding out whether they have been validly baptized or not.棄兒是受洗,有條件的,如果我們沒有辦法了解他們是否有有效的洗禮,或不是。 If a note has been left with a foundling stating that it had already received baptism, the more common opinion is that it should nevertheless be given conditional baptism, unless circumstances should make it plain that baptism had undoubtedly been conferred.如果注意到已經只剩下一個棄兒指出,它已接獲的洗禮,其中較普遍的看法是,它仍然應該是有條件的洗禮,除非情況,應作出明確表示的洗禮,無疑又被賦予。 O'Kane (no. 214) says that the same rule is to be followed when midwives or other lay persons have baptized infants in case of necessity.奧凱恩(第214號)說,同樣的規則,是應遵循的時候,助產士或其他非法律專業人士已受洗嬰兒的情況危急。

(6) Baptism of the Children of Jewish and Infidel Parents ( 6 )的洗禮,孩子們的猶太人和異教徒父母

The question is also discussed as to whether the infant children of Jews or infidels may be baptized against the will of their parents.問題是,還討論,以決定是否嬰兒的猶太人或異教徒,可洗禮的意志背道而馳的,他們的父母。 To the general query, the answer is a decided negative, because such a baptism would violate the natural rights of parents, and the infant would later be exposed to the danger of perversion.以通用查詢,答案是決定否定的,因為這樣的洗禮,將違反天賦人權的家長和嬰兒稍後會接觸到危險的曲解。 We say this, of course, only in regard to the liceity of such a baptism, for if it were actually administered it would undoubtedly be valid.我們這樣說,當然,只有在考慮到liceity這樣一個洗禮,因為如果它實際上是管理,這無異於有效的。 St. Thomas (III:68:10) is very express in denying the lawfulness of imparting such baptism, and this has been the constant judgment of the Holy See, as is evident from various decrees of the Sacred Congregations and of Pope Benedict XIV (II Bullarii).聖托馬斯(三: 68:10 ) ,是非常明確否認的合法性傳授這種洗禮,而這一直是不斷的判斷教廷,是顯而易見的,由各種法令的神聖教會和教宗本篤十四(二bullarii ) 。 We say the answer is negative to the general question, because particular circumstances may require a different response.我們說,答案是否定的,以一般問題,因為特定的情況下可能需要一個不同的反應。 For it would undoubtedly be licit to impart such baptism if the children were in proximate danger of death; or if they had been removed from the parental care and there was no likelihood of their returning to it; or if they were perpetually insane; or if one of the parents were to consent to the baptism; or finally, if, after the death of the father, the paternal grandfather would be willing, even though the mother objected.為,這無異於合法灌輸這樣的洗禮,如果孩子們在近似危險的死亡;或者他們已被拆掉,由父母照顧的,不存在的可能性,他們回國;或者,如果他們長期患精神病或如父母之一者,以同意接受洗禮;或最後,如果,去世後,父親,祖父會願意,即使母親反對。 If the children were, however, not infants, but had the use of reason and were sufficiently instructed, they should be baptized when prudence dictated such a course.如果孩子們,然而,並非嬰兒,但已使用的原因,並有足夠的指示,他們應受洗的時候,為了謹慎起見,這樣一個過程。

In the celebrated case of the Jewish child, Edgar Mortara, Pius IX indeed ordered that he should be brought up as a Catholic, even against the will of his parents, but baptism had already been administered to him some years before when in danger of death.在慶祝案件的猶太兒童,埃德加mortara ,比約九的確下令他應該拿出作為一名天主教徒,甚至反對,將他的父母,但洗禮已經經管他的一些前幾年的時候,在危險的死亡。

(7) Baptism of the Children of Protestant Parents ( 7 )的洗禮,孩子們的家長新教

It is not licit to baptize children against the will of their Protestant parents; for their baptism would violate parental right, expose them to the danger of perversion, and be contrary to the practice of the Church.這是不合法,以baptize子女反對將他們的新教家長為他們的洗禮,將違反親權,他們面臨的危險反常,違背慣例的教會。 Kenrick also strongly condemns nurses who baptize the children of Protestants unless they are in danger of death.肯里克萊還強烈譴責護士誰baptize孩子的新教徒,除非他們是危險的死因。

(8) Baptism with the Consent of Non-Catholic Parents ( 8 )的洗禮徵得非天主教的父母

Should a priest baptize the child of non-Catholic parents if they themselves desire it?應一名牧師baptize兒童的非天主教的父母,如果連他們自己的願望呢? He certainly can do so if there is reason to hope that the child will be brought up a Catholic (Conc. Prov, Balt., I, decr, x).他當然可以這樣做,如果有理由希望孩子將被繩之以法了天主教( conc.省, balt 。來說,我和下降, ,第十節) 。 An even greater security for the Catholic education of such child would be the promise of one or both parents that they themselves will embrace the Faith.更安全,為天主教教育這類兒童會的承諾,父母一方或雙方表示,他們自己會樹立信心。

(9) Baptism of the Dead ( 9 )洗禮死亡

Concerning baptism for the dead, a curious and difficult passage in St. Paul's Epistle has given rise to some controversy.關於洗禮,為死者,好奇和難以通過在聖保祿的書信已經引起了一些爭議。 The Apostle says: "Otherwise what shall they do that are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not again at all? Why are they then baptized for them?"使徒保羅說: "否則,怎麼他們這樣做是受洗為死人,如果死崛起不會又在各?他們為什麼那麼受洗為他們" ? (1 Corinthians 15:29). (哥林多前書15時29分) 。 There seems to be no question here of any such absurd custom as conferring baptism on corpses, as was practiced later by some heretical sects.似乎沒有任何問題,在這裡的任何這種荒謬的習俗作為授予洗禮,對屍體,由於是實行後,一些異端教派。 It has been conjectured that this otherwise unknown usage of the Corinthians consisted in some living person receiving a symbolic baptism as representing another who had died with the desire of becoming a Christian, but had been prevented from realizing his wish for baptism by an unforeseen death.它一直猜測說,這個未知的,否則使用該哥林多前書構成,在一些生活的人接受一個象徵性的洗禮,作為代表另一人死於與渴望成為一個基督徒,但被阻止他實現願望的洗禮,由一個突發死亡。 Those who give this explanation say that St. Paul merely refers to this custom of the Corinthians as an argumentum ad hominem, when discussing the resurrection of the dead, without approving the usage mentioned.那些作出這一解釋說,聖保祿僅僅是指這種風俗的科林蒂安作為淺議專案hominem ,當討論到死人復活,未經批准使用提及。

Archbishop MacEvilly in his exposition of the Epistles of St. Paul, holds a different opinion.大主教macevilly在他的論述,教會中的聖保羅,持有不同的看法。 He paraphrases St. Paul's text as follows: "Another argument in favor of the resurrection. If the dead will not arise, what means the profession of faith in the resurrection of the dead, made at baptism? Why are we all baptized with a profession of our faith in their resurrection?"他段是聖保祿文如下: "另一個論點主張復活,如果死會不會出現,什麼樣的方法界的信仰在死中復活,取得洗禮?為什麼大家都受洗同一個專業我們的信仰在其復活" ? The archbishop comments, as follows:

It is almost impossible to glean anything like certainty as to the meaning of these very abstruse words, from the host of interpretations that have been hazarded regarding them (see Calmet's Dissertation on the matter).這幾乎是不可能的,以收集什麼確定性,以所指的這些非常艱澀,換句話說,從東道國的解讀已hazarded對於他們(見calmet的論文就此事) 。 In the first place, every interpretation referring the words 'baptized', or 'dead' to either erroneous or evil practices, which men might have employed to express their belief in the doctrine of the resurrection, should be rejected; as it appears by no means likely that the Apostle would ground an argument, even though it were what the logicians call an argumentum ad hominem, on either a vicious or erroneous practice.擺在首位,每一個解釋指改為'洗禮' ,或'死'要么錯誤或邪惡的做法,其中男性有可能聘請表達自己的信仰在教義的復活,應予以拒絕;因為它似乎沒有手段可能是使徒,將地面的一個說法,即使它被什麼logicians稱為淺議專案hominem ,無論是惡性或錯誤的做法。

Besides, such a system of reasoning would be quite inconclusive.此外,這種系統的推理,將相當有定論。 Hence, the words should not be referred to either the Clinics, baptized at the hour of death, or to the vicarious baptisms in use among the Jews, for their departed friends who departed without baptism.因此,換句話說,不應該提交要么診所,受洗於新加坡時間當天凌晨死亡的,或有代受洗儀式,在使用當中,猶太人,他們離開的朋友辦理的洗禮。

The interpretation adopted in the paraphrase makes the words refer to the Sacrament of Baptism, which all were obliged to approach with faith in the resurrection of the dead as a necessary condition.釋義採用了意譯,使得詞是指以神聖的洗禮,這一切不得不的做法與信仰,在死中復活的一個必要條件。 'Credo in resurrectionem mortuorum'. '信條,在resurrectionem mortuorum ' 。 This interpretation -- the one adopted by St. Chrysostom -- has the advantage of giving the words 'baptized' and 'dead' their literal signification.這個解釋-一個通過聖金口-具有的優勢在於提供了'洗禮'和'死'其字面意義。

The only inconvenience in it is that the word resurrection is introduced.唯一不便,那就是兩個字復活介紹。 But, it is understood from the entire context, and is warranted by a reference to other passages of Scripture.不過,據了解,從整個背景下,是需要由一個參考其他段落的經文。 For, from the Epistle of the Hebrews (6:2) it appears that a knowledge of the faith of the resurrection was one of the elementary points of instruction required for adult baptism; and hence the Scriptures themselves furnish the ground for the introduction of the word.因為從墳墓的希伯來人( 6點02分) ,它似乎是一個知識的信仰的復活是一個初級點的指示要求,為成人的洗禮;因此經文本身提供了理由,使引進的字。 There is another probable interpretation, which understands the words 'baptism' and 'dead' in a metaphorical sense, and refers them to the sufferings which the Apostles and heralds of salvation underwent to preach the Gospel to the infidels, dead to grace and spiritual life, with the hope of making them sharers in the glory of a happy resurrection.也有另一種可能的解釋,理解字'洗禮'和'死'在一個隱喻意義上說,並指他們的痛苦,其中使徒和預示著救恩的經歷,以傳福音給異教徒,這些死者都是恩典和精神生活,並希望使他們合住在榮耀的一個愉快的復活。 The word 'baptism' is employed in this sense in Scripture, even by our divine Redeemer Himself -- 'I have a baptism wherewith to be baptized', etc. And the word 'dead' is employed in several parts of the New Testament to designate those spiritually dead to grace and justice.字'洗禮'是受僱從這個意義上講,在經文中,即使是我們的神聖救贖自己-'我有一個洗禮去受洗, '等等,並字'死'是受僱於幾個部分,新的佐證候任那些精神上死者的恩典和正義。 In the Greek, the words 'for the dead', uper ton nekron that is, on account of or, in behalf of the dead, would serve to confirm, in some degree, this latter interpretation.在希臘文,字'死' , uper噸nekron是,在戶口的,或在代表死者,將有助於確認,在一定程度上,這後一種解釋。

These appear to be the most probable of the interpretations of this passage; each, no doubt, has its difficulties.這些似乎是最有可能的解釋中的這段話,每個毫無疑問,是有其困難。 The meaning of the words was known to the Corinthians at the time of the Apostle.這些字的意義是眾所周知的,以本書系在時間的傳道者。 All that can be known of their meaning at this remote period, can not exceed the bounds of probable conjecture.所有可知道它們的含義,在這偏遠的時期,不能超越界限可能猜想。

(loc. cit., chap. xv; cf. also Cornely in Ep. I Cor.) ( loc.引文中,第十五章;比照也cornely據EP ,我肺心病) 。

XV.十五。 ADJUNCTS OF BAPTISM輔助的洗禮

(1) Baptistery ( 1 )洗禮

According to the canons of the Church, baptism except in case of necessity is to be administered in churches (Conc. Prov. Balt., I, Decree 16).據該炮的教堂,洗禮,除在必要時是要加以管理,在教堂( conc.省balt 。來說,我和法令16 ) 。 The Roman Ritual says: "Churches in which there is a baptismal font, or where there is a baptistery close to the church".羅馬禮說: "教堂,其中有一個洗禮字體,而有些則是有一個洗禮接近教會" 。 The term "baptistery" is commonly used for the space set aside for the conferring of baptism.術語"洗禮" ,是常用的空間預留,為賦予的洗禮。 In like manner the Greeks use photisterion for the same purpose -- a word derived from St. Paul's designation of baptism as an "illumination".同樣地,希臘人使用photisterion為了相同的目的-一言以蔽之來自聖保羅的指定的洗禮,作為"照明" 。

The words of the Ritual just cited, however, mean by "baptistery", a separate building constructed for the purpose of administering baptism.話祭祀剛剛提到的,但所指的"洗禮" ,這是一個獨立的建築物為目的的管理的洗禮。 Such buildings have been erected both in the East and West, as at Tyre, Padua, Pisa, Florence, and other places.這類建築物已經擺放雙方在東部和西部,截至輪胎,帕多瓦,比薩,佛羅倫斯等地。 In such baptisteries, besides the font, altars were also built; and here the baptism was conferred.在這種baptisteries ,除了字體,神壇也建立起來;這裡的洗禮,被授。 As a rule, however, the church itself contains a railed-off space containing the baptismal font.作為一項規則,但是,教會本身含有共軌小康太空載洗禮的字體。 Anciently fonts were attached only to cathedral churches, but at the present day nearly every parish church has a font.古代字體所附只大教堂教堂,但在目前每天幾乎每個教區教堂有一種字體。 This is the sense of the Baltimore decree above cited.這是常識的巴爾的摩法令以上表彰。 The Second Plenary Council of Baltimore declared, however, that if missionaries judge that the great difficulty of bringing an infant to church is a sufficient reason for baptizing in a private house, then they are to administer the sacrament with all the prescribed rites.第二次全體會議,會議的巴爾的摩宣布,但是,如果法官傳教士,這是偉大的困難,使一個嬰兒以教會是一個充足的理由洗禮,在一所私人住宅,然後,他們以管理聖餐與所有處方儀式。

The ordinary law of the Church is that when private baptism is conferred, the remaining ceremonies are to be supplied not in the house but in the church itself.普通法律的教會,就是當私人的洗禮,是賦予外,其餘的儀式,以供應不會在眾議院中,但在教會本身。 The Ritual also directs that the font be of solid material, so that the baptismal water may be safely kept in it.祭祀,也指示字體予以固體物質,因此,只要洗禮的水可以安全地存放在它。 A railing is to surround the font, and a representation of St. John baptizing Christ should adorn it.欄杆是包圍著的字體,和一個代表性的聖約翰基督的洗禮,應該修飾它。 The cover of the font usually contains the holy oils used in baptism, and this cover must be under lock and key, according to the Ritual.封面上的字體通常含有聖油使用的洗禮,而這封面必須鎖和鑰匙,根據我的例行公事。

(2) Baptismal Water ( 2 )洗禮水

In speaking of the matter of baptism, we stated that true, natural water is all that is required for its validity.在談到此事的洗禮,我們曾指出,真正的,天然水,是所有需要它的有效性。 In administering solemn baptism, however the Church prescribes that the water used should have been consecrated on Holy Saturday or on the eve of Pentecost.在管理莊嚴的洗禮,但教會明表示,所用的水應已consecrated聖週六或對即將到來的五旬。 For the liceity (not validity) of the sacrament, therefore, the priest is obliged to use consecrated water.為liceity (不有效性)的聖事,因此,牧師是不得不使用consecrated水。 This custom is so ancient that we can not discover its origin.這種習俗是如此古老,我們不能發現它的原產地。 It is found in the most ancient liturgies of the Latin and Greek Churches and is mentioned in the Apostolic Constitutions (VII, 43).它是在發現最古老的liturgies的拉丁語和希臘語教會,並提到,在使徒憲法(第七章, 43條) 。 The ceremony of its consecration is striking and symbolic.儀式上,其consecration是引人注目和具有象徵意義。 After signing the water with the cross, the priest divides it with his hand and casts it to the four corners of the earth.簽署後的水與十字架,神父鴻溝,它與他的手,並蒙上它的四個角地球。 This signifies the baptizing of all the nations.這標誌著洗禮的所有國家。 Then he breathes upon the water and immerses the paschal candle in it.然後他呼吸後,水浸入和逾越蠟燭,它的僱員。

Next he pours into the water, first the oil of catechumens and then the sacred chrism, and lastly both holy oils together, pronouncing appropriate prayers.明年他無異入水中,首先是石油的慕道者,然後再神聖chrism ,最後都聖地油脂一起,曾以適當的祈禱。 But what if during the year, the supply of consecrated water should be insufficient?但如果在這一年裡,供應consecrated水應足夠? In that case, the Ritual declares that the priest may add common water to what remains, but only in less quantity.在這種情況下,禮儀,聲稱該名神父,可放入普通水,以什麼仍然存在,但只在少數量。 If the consecrated water appears putrid, the priest must examine whether or not it is really so, for the appearance may be caused only by the admixture of the sacred oils.如果consecrated水出現腐爛,牧師必須研究它是否是真的如此,對於外觀可能造成只能由外加劑的神聖油。 If it has really become putrid, the font is to be renovated and fresh water to be blessed by a form given in the Ritual.如果它真的成為腐爛,字體是裝修及淡水,以祝福的一種形式由於在例行公事。 In the United States, the Holy See has sanctioned a short formula for the consecration of baptismal water (Conc. Plen. Balt., II).在美國,教廷認可的短期公式為consecration的洗禮水( conc. plen 。 balt ,二) 。

(3) Holy Oils ( 3 )聖油

In baptism, the priest uses the oil of catechumens, which is olive oil, and chrism, the latter being a mixture of balsam and oil.在洗禮,神父利用石油的慕道者,這是橄欖油,並chrism ,後者被混合苦瓜和石油。 The oils are consecrated by the bishop on Maundy Thursday.該食油consecrated由主教就maundy週四。 The anointing in baptism is recorded by St. Justin, St. John Chrysostom, and other ancient Fathers.該anointing在受洗記錄,由聖的Justin ,聖約翰金口,和其他古代父親。 Pope Innocent I declares that the chrism is to be applied to the crown of the head, not to the forehead, for the latter is reserved to bishops.教宗無辜i聲明,該chrism是適用於官方的頭部,而不是向前額,後者是保留給主教。 The same may be found in the Sacramentaries of St. Gregory and St. Gelasius (Martene, I, i).同時,可在上sacramentaries聖格雷戈里和聖gelasius ( martene ,我,我) 。 In the Greek Rite the oil of catechumens is blessed by the priest during the baptismal ceremony.在希臘語成年禮石油的慕道者,是有福了,由牧師在洗禮儀式。

(4) Sponsors ( 4 )贊助商

When infants are solemnly baptized, persons assist at the ceremony to make profession of the faith in the child's name.當嬰兒隆重洗禮,協助者在頒獎典禮上,使行業的信念,在孩子的名字。 This practice comes from antiquity and is witnessed to by Tertullian, St. Basil, St. Augustine, and others.這種做法來自於古代,並目睹了由戴爾都良,聖羅勒,聖奧古斯丁和等。 Such persons are designated sponsores, offerentes, susceptores, fidejussores, and patrini.這些人被指定sponsores , offerentes , susceptores , fidejussores , patrini 。 The English term is godfather and godmother, or in Anglo-Saxon, gossip.英語用語,是教父和教母,或在盎格魯-撒克遜人,說閒話。

These sponsors, in default of the child's parents, are obliged to instruct it concerning faith and morals.這些贊助者,在默認的兒童的父母,有責任責成有關,它的信仰和道德。 One sponsor is sufficient and not more than two are allowed.一個贊助商,是充分和不超過兩獲准。 In the latter case, one should be male and the other female.在後一種情況下,應對於男性和其他女性。 The object of these restrictions is the fact that the sponsor contracts a spiritual relationship to the child and its parents which would be an impediment to marriage.對象的這些限制是事實,那就是贊助合約精神關係到孩子和其家長將妨礙婚姻。 Sponsors must themselves be baptized persons having the use of reason and they must have been designated as sponsors by the priest or parents.贊助商本身必須受洗的人使用的原因,而且他們必須被指定為贊助商,由牧師或父母。 During the baptism they must physically touch the child either personally or by proxy.在洗禮,他們一定要肢體碰觸兒童親自或委派代表出席。 They are required, moreover, to have the intention of really assuming the obligations of godparents.他們必須,而且,有意向的真正承擔義務的godparents 。 It is desirable that they should have been confirmed, but this is not absolutely necessary.可取的做法是,他們應該已得到了確認,但也不是絕對必要的。 Certain persons are prohibited from acting as sponsors.某些禁止任何人採取行動,以此作為提案國。 They are: members of religious orders, married persons in respect to each other, or parents to their children, and in general those who are objectionable on such grounds as infidelity, heresy, excommunication, or who are members of condemned secret societies, or public sinners (Sabetti, no. 663).他們分別是:成員和宗教界人士,已婚者在尊重對方,或者像父母對待子女,並在總體上那些令人反感的就這些理由不忠,異端,禁教,或者誰是大家的譴責,秘密結社,或公開罪人(這套,沒有。 663 ) 。 Sponsors are also used in the solemn baptism of adults.贊助商還用在莊嚴的洗禮的成年人。 They are never necessary in private baptism.他們從來沒有必要在私人的洗禮。

(5) Baptismal Name ( 5 )洗禮名稱

From the earliest times names were given in baptism.從最早的時候名字被給予的洗禮。 The priest is directed to see that obscene, fabulous, and ridiculous names, or those of heathen gods or of infidel men be not imposed.神父是針對地看到,淫穢,壯觀,可笑的名字,或那些異教徒或神的異教徒男人沒有強加於人。 On the contrary the priest is to recommend the names of saints.與此相反的神職人員,是推薦的名字聖人。 This rubric is not a rigorous precept, but it is an instruction to the priest to do what he can in the matter.這個題目是不是一個嚴格的戒律,但它是一項指示,向神父做什麼,他能在這件事的。 If parents are unreasonably obstinate, the priest may add a saint's name to the one insisted upon.如果父母是不合理的頑固,神父也可以增添聖人的名稱,將其中的堅持。

(6) Baptismal Robe ( 6 )洗禮長袍

In the primitive Church, a white robe was worn by the newly baptized for a certain period after the ceremony (St. Ambrose, De Myst., c. vii).在簡陋的教堂,白色長袍,是穿新的洗禮,為在一定期限內簽約儀式後(聖劉漢銓,德神秘島,長七) 。 As solemn baptisms usually took place on the eves of Easter or Pentecost, the white garments became associated with those festivals.作為莊嚴的洗禮,通常發生於eves的復活節或五旬,白色服裝,成為與這些節日。 Thus, Sabbatum in Albis and Dominica in Albis received their names from the custom of putting off at that time the baptismal robe which had been worn since the previous vigil of Easter.因此, sabbatum在albis和多米尼克在albis收到他們的名字從定制的是拖在那個時候,受洗袍已磨損,自上次晚會的復活節。 It is thought that the English name for Pentecost -- Whitsunday or Whitsuntide, also derived its appellation from the white garments of the newly baptized.據認為,英文名稱為五旬-w hitsunday或w hitsuntide,還源自其稱謂從白色服裝的新的洗禮。 In our present ritual, a white veil is placed momentarily on the head of the catechumen as a substitute for the baptismal robe.在我國目前的儀式中,白色的面紗,是暫時放置於頭部的catechumen視為取代了洗禮長袍。

XVI.十六。 CEREMONIES OF BAPTISM儀式的洗禮

The rites that accompany the baptismal ablution are as ancient as they are beautiful.儀式伴隨洗禮洗盥都是一樣古老,他們是美麗的。 The writings of the early Fathers and the antique liturgies show that most of them are derived from Apostolic times.著述早期父親和古董liturgies顯示,他們大多是來自使徒時代。

The infant is brought to the door of the church by the sponsors, where it is met by the priest.嬰兒送到門口的教堂,由保薦人,而這是由牧師。 After the godparents have asked faith from the Church of God in the child's name, the priest breathes upon its face and exorcises the evil spirit.後godparents問信仰,從神的教會,在孩子的姓名,該名神父呼吸後,其面部及exorcises惡靈。 St. Augustine (Ep. cxciv, Ad Sixtum) makes use of this Apostolic practice of exorcising to prove the existence of original sin.聖奧古斯丁( ep. cxciv ,專案sixtum )利用本使徒實踐儺證明存在著原罪。 Then the infant's forehead and breast are signed with the cross, the symbol of redemption.然後,嬰兒的額頭和乳房都與該公司簽訂的十字架,象徵贖回權。 Next follows the imposition of hands, a custom certainly as old as the Apostles.明年如下強加的手,一個定制一定的歷史一樣長的使徒。 Some blessed salt is now placed in the mouth of the child.一些有福鹽,現在擺在嘴巴的孩子。 "When salt", says the Catechism of the Council of Trent "is put into the mouth of person to be baptized, it evidently imports that, by the doctrine of faith and the gift of grace, he should be delivered from the corruption of sin, experience a relish for good works, and be delighted with the food of divine wisdom." "當鹽" ,說,講授了安理會的遄達" ,是放進嘴巴的人受洗,它顯然是進口的,該學說的信仰和禮品的恩典,他應該是從腐敗的罪惡,體驗津津樂道的,為優秀作品,並樂於與食物神聖的智慧" 。

Placing his stole over the child the priest introduces it into the church, and on the way to the font the sponsors make a profession of faith for the infant.把他偷了超過兒童的神父介紹了它變成教會,並就未來路向的字體為提案人,使一個專業的信念,為嬰幼兒。 The priest now touches the ears and nostrils of the child with spittle.神父現在牽動著耳朵和鼻孔的兒童與唾沫。 The symbolic meaning is thus explained (Cat. C. Trid.) "His nostrils and ears are next touched with spittle and he is immediately sent to the baptismal font, that, as sight was restored to the blind man mentioned in the Gospel, whom the Lord, after having spread clay over his eyes, commanded to wash them in the waters of Siloe; so also he may understand that the efficacy of the sacred ablution is such as to bring light to the mind to discern heavenly truth."象徵意義,因此解釋( cat.長trid ) " ,他的鼻孔和耳朵都在下感動與唾沫和他立即被送往聖洗字型,即,由於視線被恢復到失明男子提到的福音,其中主,後蔓延粘土超過他的眼睛,指揮者洗手,他們在該水域的siloe ,所以他也可能知道療效的神聖洗盥是如攜帶輕,以心去發現天朝真理" 。 The catechumen now makes the triple renunciation of Satan, his works and his pomps, and he is anointed with the oil of catechumens on the breast and between the shoulders: "On the breast, that by the gift of the Holy Ghost, he may cast off error and ignorance and may receive the true faith, 'for the just man liveth by faith' (Galatians 3:11); on the shoulders, that by the grace of the Holy Spirit, he may shake off negligence and torpor and engage in the performance of good works; 'faith without works is dead' (James 2:26)", says the Catechism.該catechumen現在使得三重放棄撒旦,他的作品和他的pomps ,他就是不信任與油的慕道者對乳腺癌之間的肩膀說: "對乳腺癌,即由禮品的聖靈,他可投小康錯誤和無知,並可能得到真正的信仰,為正義男子liveth信仰』 (加拉太3時11分) ;肩膀,即由聖靈的恩典,他可以擺脫疏忽和停滯狀態,並進行表現好的作品;信心,沒有表現便是死』 (詹姆斯2時26分) " ,表示理講授。 The infant now, through its sponsors, makes a declaration of faith and asks for baptism.嬰兒現在,通過它的贊助者,作出了一項聲明,信仰,並要求洗禮。 The priest, having meantime changed his violet stole for a white one, then administers the threefold ablution, making the sign of the cross three times with the stream of water he pours on the head of the child, saying at the same time: "N___, I baptize thee in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost."神父,同時改變了他的紫偷走了,白色,然後管理三倍,洗盥,使標誌的十字架的3倍,與溪流的水,他無異於頭部的孩子說,在同一時間內說: " n___ ,我baptize祢在父親的姓名和子和聖靈" 。 The sponsors during the ablution either hold the child or at least touch it.提案國在洗盥可選擇持有兒童或至少觸及它。 If the baptism be given by immersion, the priest dips the back part of the head three times into the water in the form of a cross, pronouncing the sacramental words.如果洗禮給予浸泡,神父發放後面部份的頭3次入水,在形成一個交叉,宣告了聖事的話。 The crown of the child's head is now anointed with chrism, "to give him to understand that from that day he is united as a member to Christ, his head, and engrafted on His body; and therefore he is called a Christian from Christ, but Christ from chrism" (Catech.).官方的孩子的頭部,現在選定與chrism " ,讓他明白,從那天起,他是聯合國的一員,以基督的,他的頭部,並嫁接於他的身體,因此,他被稱為是一個基督教從基督,但是基督從chrism " ( catech. ) 。 A white veil is now put on the infant's head with the words: "Receive this white garment, which mayest thou carry without stain before the judgment seat of Our Lord Jesus Christ, that thou mayest have eternal life. Amen."白色的面紗,現在提上了嬰兒的頭部的話: "獲得這個白色服裝,其中mayestあ進行未經染色前座椅判斷我們的主耶穌基督,你是mayest永生。阿民" 。 Then a lighted candle is placed in the catechumen's hand, the priest saying: "Receive this burning light, and keep thy baptism so as to be without blame. Observe the commandments of God; that, when Our Lord shall come to His nuptials, thou mayest meet Him together with all the Saints and mayest have life everlasting, and live for ever and ever. Amen."然後點燃蠟燭,是擺在catechumen的手,牧師說: "獲得這個燃輕,並保持你的洗禮,從而為無責任。遵守誡命的神,即,當我們的主會來他的婚禮,你mayest與他會晤,連同所有的聖人和mayest有生命永恆的,生活永遠到永遠。阿民" 。 The new Christian is then bidden to go in peace.新的基督信仰是那麼bidden去在和平之中。

In the baptism of adults, all the essential ceremonies are the same as for infants.在洗禮的成年人,所有重要的儀式是一樣的嬰兒。 There are, however, some impressive additions.然而,存在一些令人印象深刻的補充。 The priest wears the cope over his other vestments, and he should be attended by a number of clerics or at least by two.牧師戴了應付超過他的另一項總有一套,而且他應該參加一些教士或至少由兩名。 While the catechumen waits outside the church door, the priest recites some prayers at the altar.而catechumen等待外界教堂大門,神父朗誦一些禱告的祭壇。 Then he proceeds to the place where the candidate is, and asks him the questions and performs the exorcisms almost as prescribed in the ritual for infants.然後,他前往的地方,候選人,並要求他的問題,並進行了驅魔儀式,幾乎明在儀式的嬰兒。 Before administering the blessed salt, however, he requires the catechumen to make an explicit renunciation of the form of error to which he had formerly adhered, and he is then signed with the cross on the brow, ears, eyes, nostrils, mouth, breast, and between the shoulders.前治得天獨厚之處,不過,他要求catechumen作出了明確放棄的形式錯誤,因為他以前曾堅持,而且他是當時與該公司簽訂過上眉頭,耳朵,眼睛,鼻孔,口腔,乳房之間,以及在肩上。 Afterwards, the candidate, on bended knees, recites three several times the Lord's Prayer, and a cross is made on his forehead, first by the godfather and then by the priest.之後,他們的候選人,對彎曲膝蓋,朗誦三個數倍主禱文,並跨了他的前額,首先由教父,然後由牧師。 After this, taking him by the hand, the priest leads him into the church, where he adores prostrate and then rising he recites the Apostles' Creed and the Lord's Prayer.在此之後,以他的手,牧師,領他到教會,在那裡他崇拜頂禮膜拜,然後再上升,他朗誦使徒們的信念和主禱文。 The other ceremonies are practically the same as for infants.其他儀式是幾乎一樣的嬰兒。 It is to be noted that owing to the difficulty of carrying out with proper splendor the ritual for baptizing adults, the bishops of the United States obtained permission from the Holy See to make use of the ceremonial of infant baptism instead.這是值得注意的是,由於難以進行適當的光彩儀式,為成人洗禮,主教是美國獲得批准,由羅馬教廷的市民,盡量使用禮節性的嬰兒洗禮。 This general dispensation lasted until 1857, when the ordinary law of the Church went into force.這個一般省卻一直持續到1857年,當普通法律的教堂前往生效。 (See COUNCILS OF BALTIMORE.) Some American dioceses, however, obtained individual permissions to continue the use of the ritual for infants when administering adult baptism. (見議會的巴爾的摩)美國一些教區,然而,獲得個人權限,以繼續使用該儀式,為嬰幼兒的時候,管理成年的洗禮。

XVII.十七。 METAPHORICAL BAPTISM隱喻的洗禮

The name "baptism" is sometimes applied improperly to other ceremonies.取名"洗禮" ,有時應用不當給其他儀式。

(1) Baptism of Bells ( 1 )洗禮的鐘聲

This name has been given to the blessing of bells, at least in France, since the eleventh century.這個名稱一直給予祝福的鐘聲,至少在法國,自11世紀。 It is derived from the washing of the bell with holy water by the bishop, before he anoints it with the oil of the infirm without and with chrism within.它是從洗衣機的鐘聲與聖水,由主教,然後他意味著它與油的體弱者,並沒有與chrism以內。 A fuming censer is then placed under it. 1福明香爐,然後在其下。 The bishop prays that these sacramentals of the Church may, at the sound of the bell, put the demons to flight, protect from storms, and call the faithful to prayer.主教祈禱,這些sacramentals的教堂,可在聲鐘聲,把魔飛行,可以保護免受風浪,並呼籲信徒們禱告。

(2) Baptism of Ships ( 2 )洗禮船舶

At least since the time of the Crusades, rituals have contained a blessing for ships.至少從當時的十字軍東征,禮儀載有一大福音船。 The priest begs God to bless the vessel and protect those who sail in it, as He did the ark of Noah, and Peter, when the Apostle was sinking in the sea.神父不禁問道:上帝保佑船隻和保護那些在船帆,像他那樣方舟的諾亞,和彼得,當使徒是沉沒在海中。 The ship is then sprinkled with holy water.該船是那麼大灑聖水。

Publication information Written by William HW Fanning.出版信息寫威廉華文激化。 Transcribed by Charles Sweeney, SJ.轉錄由查爾斯Sweeney ) ,律政司司長。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全書,第二卷。 Published 1907. 1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, 1907. nihil obstat , 1907 。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約


Baptism洗禮

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

A religious ablution signifying purification or consecration.宗教洗盥表揚淨化或consecration 。 The natural method of cleansing the body by washing and bathing in water was always customary in Israel (see Ablution, Bathing).自然方法清洗身體洗手和洗澡在水中,總是習慣在以色列(見沐浴,洗澡) 。 The washing of their clothes was an important means of sanctification enjoined on the Israelites before the Revelation on Mt. Sinai (Ex. xix. 10).清洗自己的衣服是一個重要的手段成聖是受命於以色列人面前啟示噸。西奈(例如十九10 ) 。 The Rabbis connect with this the duty of bathing by complete immersion ("ṭebilah," Yeb. 46b; Mek., Baḥodesh, iii.); and since sprinkling with blood was always accompanied by immersion, tradition connects with this immersion the blood lustration mentioned as having also taken place immediately before the Revelation (Ex. xxiv. 8), these three acts being the initiatory rites always performed upon proselytes, "to bring them under the wings of the Shekinah" (Yeb. lc).拉比連接這個責任洗澡完全沉浸( " ṭebilah , " yeb 。 46b ;人民聖戰者組織, baḥodesh ,三) ;和自噴水,用鮮血,總是伴隨著浸泡,傳統連接著這個沉浸血液淨化提及由於又發生了,立即前的啟示(如二十四。 8 ) ,這三個行為被啟蒙禮記總是演出後, proselytes " ,以使它們在機翼下的舍吉拿" ( yeb.立法會) 。

With reference to Ezek.參考ezek 。 xxxvi.三十六。 25, "Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean," R. Akiba, in the second century, made the utterance: "Blessed art thou, O Israel! Before whom dost thou cleanse thyself? and who cleanses thee? Thy Father in heaven!" 25 " ,那麼,我將灑潔淨水後,你和葉應乾淨, "傳譯秋葉,在公元二世紀,作出了話語: "祝福裡,鄰以色列!面前,其中多斯特あ清洗你自己嗎?而又清潔祢?你的父親在天堂" ! (Yoma viii. 9). ( yoma八,九日) 。 Accordingly, Baptism is not merely for the purpose of expiating a special transgression, as is the case chiefly in the violation of the so-called Levitical laws of purity; but it is to form a part of holy living and to prepare for the attainment of a closer communion with God.因此,洗禮不是僅僅為目的expiating一個特殊侵的情況一樣,主要是在違反了所謂levitical法律的純潔性,但它是一個組成部分聖地生活,並作好準備,為實現更密切的交流與上帝。 This thought is expressed in the well-known passage in Josephus in which he speaks of John the Baptist ("Ant." xviii. 5, § 2): "The washing would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away of some sins, but for the purification of the body; supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness."這一思想體現在著名的通道約瑟夫其中他談到施洗約翰(下稱"螞蟻" 。十八。 5 , § 2 )說: "該洗衣機能夠接受他,如果他們利用了它,而不是為了果嶺以外的一些罪過,但對於淨化身體;假設仍然是靈魂被徹底淨化事前由義" 。

John symbolized the call to repentance by Baptism in the Jordan (Matt. iii. 6 and parallel passages); and the same measure for attaining to holiness was employed by the Essenes, whose ways of life John also observed in all other respects.約翰象徵呼籲悔改,由洗禮,在約旦。 (三,六及平行通道) ,以及同樣措施,為實現成聖是受僱於該essenes ,其方式和生活方式約翰還觀察到,在所有其他方面。 Josephus says of his instructor Banus, an Essene, that he "bathed himself in cold water frequently, both by night and by day" ("Vita," § 2), and that the same practise was observed by all the Essenes ("BJ" ii. 8, § 5).約瑟夫說,他的導師banus , essene ,他"自己沐浴在冷水頻繁,無論是夜晚和白天" (下稱"履歷表" , § 2 ) ,並同時練習觀察所有essenes ( " BJ的"二,八, § 5 ) 。 The only conception of Baptism at variance with Jewish ideas is displayed in the declaration of John, that the one who would come after him would not baptize with water, but with the Holy Ghost (Mark i. 8; John i. 27).唯一的概念洗禮的差異猶太人的思想,是擺在宣言的約翰,即一個人來後,他將不會baptize與水,但與聖靈(馬克一8 ;約翰一27 ) 。 Yet a faint resemblance to the notion is displayed in the belief expressed in the Talmud that the Holy Spirit could be drawn upon as water is drawn from a well (based upon Isa. xii. 3; Yer. Suk. v. 1, 55a of Joshua b. Levi).但隱約相似的概念是表現在信念體現在猶太法典說,聖靈可以借鑒,因為水是取自井(基於ISA的。十二。 3 ;也門里亞爾。淑訴1 ,對第55 A約書亞乙利維) 。 And there is a somewhat Jewish tinge even to the prophecy of the evangelists Matthew (iii. 11) and Luke (iii. 16), who declare that Jesus will baptize with fire as well as with the Holy Ghost; for, according to Abbahu, true Baptism is performed with fire (Sanh. 39a).有一個有點猶太色彩甚至預言的福音馬修( iii. 11 )和盧克( iii. 16 ) ,世衛組織宣布,耶穌會baptize與消防以及與聖靈;據abbahu ,真正的洗禮,是與火警( sanh. 39A條) 。 Both the statement of Abbahu and of the Evangelists must of course be taken metaphorically.雙方的聲明abbahu和福音,當然必須要採取的比喻。 The expression that the person baptized is illuminated (φωτισθείς, Justin, "Apologiæ," i. 65) has the same significance as is implied in telling a proselyte to Judaism, after his bath, that he now belongs to Israel, the people beloved of God (Yeb. 47a; Gerim i.).表達,那人受洗,是發亮( φωτισθείς ,賈斯汀, " apologiæ , "一65 )具有相同的意義,因為這是隱含在講述一個proselyte猶太教後,他洗澡,他現在屬於以色列,對人民的摯愛神( yeb. 47A條;熱林一) 。

According to rabbinical teachings, which dominated even during the existence of the Temple (Pes. viii. 8), Baptism, next to circumcision and sacrifice, was an absolutely necessary condition to be fulfilled by a proselyte to Judaism (Yeb. 46b, 47b; Ker. 9a; 'Ab. Zarah 57a; Shab. 135a; Yer. Kid. iii. 14, 64d).根據猶太教教義,其中佔主導地位,即使是在存在該廟( pes.八, 8 ) ,洗禮,旁邊割禮和犧牲,是一個絕對必要的條件得到履行,由proselyte猶太教( yeb. 46b , 47b ;因為。 9A條; '抗體。 zarah 57A條;沙巴。 135a ;也門里亞爾。孩子。三, 14 , 64d ) 。 Circumcision, however, was much more important, and, like baptism, was called a "seal" (Schlatter, "Die Kirche Jerusalems," 1898, p. 70).包皮環切術,但是,更為重要的,並像洗禮,被稱為"印章" ( schlatter , "死kirche jerusalems " , 1898年,第70頁) 。 But as circumcision was discarded by Christianity, and the sacrifices had ceased, Baptism remained the sole condition for initiation into religious life.但由於割禮被丟棄的是基督教,並犧牲已經停止,洗禮,依然是唯一的條件,為啟動到宗教生活。 The next ceremony, adopted shortly after the others, was the imposition of hands, which, it is known, was the usage of the Jews at the ordination of a rabbi.下一個儀式上,通過後不久,其他人,是強加的手中,其中,這是眾所周知的,是使用的猶太人在統籌一名猶太拉比。 Anointing with oil, which at first also accompanied the act of Baptism, and was analogous to the anointment of priests among the Jews, was not a necessary condition. anointing石油,其中在第一,也伴隨著該法的洗禮,並類似於向anointment的神職人員之間的猶太人,是不是一個必要的條件。 The new significance that Christianity read into the word "Baptism," and the new purpose with which it executed the act of Baptism, as well as the conception of its magical effect, are all in the line of the natural development of Christianity.新的意義基督教讀成字"洗禮" ,並在新的目的,與它簽行為的洗禮,以及觀,其神奇的效果,都在網上的天然基督教的發展。 The original form of Baptism-frequent bathing in cold water-remained in use later among the sects that had a somewhat Jewish character, such as the Ebionites, Baptists, and Hemerobaptists (compare Ber. iii. 6); and at the present day the Sabeans and Mandeans deem frequent bathing a duty (compare Sibyllines, iv. 164, in which, even in Christian times, the heathens are invited to bathe in streams).原始形式的洗禮頻繁冷水洗澡-仍然在使用後,各支派了一個有點猶太特性,如以ebionites ,浸信會,並hemerobaptists (比較誤碼率。三,六) ;或在目前一天sabeans和曼底安認為,頻繁洗澡責任(比較sibyllines ,四164 ,在其中,即使是在基督教時代, heathens請洗澡,在溪流) 。

Baptism was practised in ancient (Ḥasidic or Essene) Judaism, first as a means of penitence, as is learned from the story of Adam and Eve, who, in order to atone for their sin, stood up to the neck in the water, fasting and doing penance-Adam in the Jordan for forty days, Eve in the Tigris for thirty-seven days (Vita Adæ et Evæ, i. 5-8).洗禮是實行古代( ḥasidic或essene )猶太教,首先是作為一種手段,懺悔,因為據悉,從故事的亞當和夏娃,因為他們在為了贖罪,為自己的罪過,站了起來,向頸部,在水,禁食做懺悔-亞當在約旦為四十天,夏娃在底格里斯河為37天(履歷表adæ等evæ ,一5-8 ) 。 According to Pirḳe R. El.據pirḳe傳譯下午。 xx., Adam stood for forty-nine days up to his neck in the River Gihon.二十,亞當主張49天了他的脖子,在河由基紅。 Likewise is the passage, "They drew water and poured it out before the Lord and fasted on that day, and said, 'We have sinned against the Lord'" (I Sam. vii. 6), explained (see Targ. Yer. and Midrash Samuel, eodem; also Yer. Ta'anit ii. 7, 65d) as meaning that Israel poured out their hearts in repentance; using the water as a symbol according to Lam.同樣是通過" ,他們制定的水倒出來,在主面前禁食這一天,我說: '我們去犯罪對上帝' " (我薩姆七。 6 ) ,解釋(見targ 。也門里亞爾。和midrash薩穆埃爾, eodem ;也是也門里亞爾。 ta'anit二, 7 , 65d ) ,因為這意味著以色列傾注了他們的心,在悔過書;利用水作為一種象徵,根據林。 ii.二。 19, "Pour out thine heart like water before the Lord." 19 , "傾訴你的心像水主面前" 。 Of striking resemblance to the story in Matt.罷工極為相似的故事,在馬特。 iii.三。 1-17 and in Luke iii. 1-17 ,並在路加三。 3, 22, is the haggadic interpretation of Gen. i. 3 , 22 ,是haggadic解釋上將一。 2 in Gen. R. ii. 2將軍傳譯二。 and Tan., Buber's Introduction, p.譚悅,布伯的導言,頁 153: "The spirit of God (hovering like a bird with outstretched wings), manifested in the spirit of the Messiah, will come [or "the Holy One, blessed be He! 153 : "上帝的精神(懸停像一隻鳥與outstretched翅膀) ,主要表現在精神彌賽亞,將[或"聖地之一,被祝福他! will spread His wings and bestow His grace"] upon Israel," owing to Israel's repentance symbolized by the water in accordance with Lam.將散佈在他的翅膀,並賜給他的恩典" ]後,以色列, "由於以色列的悔過書,標誌著由水按照林。 ii.二。 19. 19 。 To receive the spirit of God, or to be permitted to stand in the presence of God (His Shekinah), man must undergo Baptism (Tan., Meẓora', 6, ed. Buber, p. 46), wherefore in the Messianic time God will Himself pour water of purification upon Israel in accordance with Ezek.接受上帝的恩典,或可獲准以站在在場的上帝(他的舍吉拿) ,男子必須經歷的洗禮( tan. , meẓora ' , 6 ,教育署。布伯,第46頁) ,人哪,在救世主的時候上帝將自己倒的水淨化後,以色列按照ezek 。 xxxvi.三十六。 25 (Tan., Meẓora', 9-17, 18, ed. Buber, pp. 43, 53). 25 ( tan. , meẓora ' , 9月17日, 18日,海關。布伯,第43 , 53 ) 。 In order to pronounce the name of God in prayer in perfect purity,the Essenes () underwent Baptism every morning (Tosef., Yad. ii. 20; Simon of Sens to Yad. iv. 9; and Ber. 22a; compare with Ḳid. 70a, "The Name must be guarded with purity").為了宣告上帝的名義祈禱,在完美的純度, essenes ( )經歷了洗禮,每天早上( tosef. ,亞得二。 20 ;西蒙的靈敏度,以亞得四。九日;誤碼率。 22A條;比較ḳid 。 70A條"的名字,必須加以防護與純潔" ) 。 Philo frequently refers to these acts of purification in preparation for the holy mysteries to be received by the initiated ("De Somniis," xiv.; "De Profugis," vii.; "Quis Rerum Divinarum Heres Sit?" xviii. xxiii.; "Quod Deus Sit Immutabilis," ii.; "De Posteritate Caini," xiv., xxviii.).斐洛經常是指這些行為的分離純化,準備為神聖的奧秘,到時將收到由啟動( "時點somniis , "十四, "德profugis , "七" ;什麼rerum divinarum這裡的坐嗎? "十八。二十三。 ; "並且deus坐在immutabilis , "二" ;德posteritate caini , "十四,二十八) 。

The Baptism of the proselyte has for its purpose his cleansing from the impurity of idolatry, and the restoration to the purity of a new-born man.洗禮的proselyte已為它的目的,他從清洗雜質的偶像崇拜,並恢復以純度一個新出生的男子。 This may be learned from the Talmud (Soṭah 12b) in regard to Pharaoh's daughter, whose bathing in the Nile is explained by Simon b.這可能是記者從猶太法典( soṭah 12 B條)對於老王的女兒,他們沐浴在尼羅河上的解釋是西蒙乙 Yoḥai to have been for that purpose. yoḥai已被用於這一目的。 The bathing in the water is to constitute a rebirth, wherefore "the ger is like a child just born" (Yeb. 48b); and he must bathe "in the name of God"-"leshem shamayim"-that is, assume the yoke of Gcd's kingdom imposed upon him by the one who leads him to Baptism ("maṭbil"), or else he is not admitted into Judaism (Gerim. vii. 8).沐浴在水是構成一個重生,人哪, "毛入學率就像一個孩子剛剛出生的" ( yeb. 48b ) ,以及他必須洗澡" ,在上帝的名義" -" l eshems hamayim" -也就是承擔枷鎖的最大公因數的英國強加於他的一個人,導致他的洗禮( " maṭbil " ) ,否則,他就是不承認到猶太教( gerim.七,八日) 。 For this very reason the Israelites before the acceptance of the Law had, according to Philo on the Decalogue ("De Decalogo," ii., xi.), as well as according to rabbinical tradition, to undergo the rite of baptismal purification (compare I Cor. x. 2, "They were baptized unto Moses [the Law] in the clouds and in the sea").為了這個原因,猶太人才接受這項法律,據以斐洛對十誡(下稱"德decalogo , "二,十一) ,以及根據猶太教傳統,進行成年禮的洗禮淨化(比較林前。十2 " ,他們的洗禮,祂摩西[法律]在雲層中海" ) 。

The real significance of the rite of Baptism can not be derived from the Levitical law; but it appears to have had its origin in Babylonian or ancient Semitic practise.真正意義的成年禮的洗禮,不能來自levitical法,但它似乎有它的原產地在巴比倫或古代閃族練習。 As it was the special service administered by Elisha, as prophetic disciple to Elijah his master, to "pour out water upon his hands" (II Kings iii. 11), so did Elisha tell Naaman to bathe seven times in the Jordan, in order to recover from his leprosy (II Kings v. 10).因為它是特殊的服務管理,艾莉莎,因為先知性大弟子,以利亞他的主人,以"傾訴水經他的手" (二國王三11 ) ,所以沒有萊沙告訴naaman洗澡7倍,在約旦,為了收回他的麻風病(二國王訴10 ) 。 The powers ascribed to the waters of the Jordan are expressly stated to be that they restore the unclean man to the original state of a new-born "little child."權力歸因於該水域的約旦是明文規定,以可能使他們恢復了不潔的男子到原來狀態的一個新出生的"小朋友" 。 This idea underlies the prophetic hope of the fountain of purity, which is to cleanse Israel from the spirit of impurity (Zech. xiii. 1; Ezek. xxxvi. 25; compare Isa. iv. 4).這個概念強調了預言的希望噴泉的純潔性,這是清洗以色列從精神的雜質( zech.十三。一日; ezek 。三十六,第25條;比較伊薩四。 4 ) 。 Thus it is expressed in unmistakable terms in the Mandean writings and teachings (Brandt, "Mandäische Religion," pp. 99 et seq., 204 et seq.) that the living water in which man bathes is to cause his regeneration.因此,它主要體現在無誤,在mandean著作和教誨(凌志" , mandäische宗教" ,第99頁起, 204頁起)表示,生活用水,其中男子洗澡是導致他的再生能力。 For this reason does the writer of the fourth of the Sibylline Oracles, lines 160-166, appeal to the heathen world, saying, "Ye miserable mortals, repent; wash in living streams your entire frame with its burden of sin; lift to heaven your hands in prayer for forgiveness and cure yourselves of impiety by fear of God!"基於這個原因,並撰寫了第四本知未來的簽,線條160-166 ,上訴至異教徒世界,他說: "葉可憐的凡人,有悔改表現;洗手,在生活的溪流你的整個框架結構,其負擔的罪過;升降機上天堂你的雙手在祈禱寬恕和治愈你自己的不虔誠恐懼上帝" ! This is what John the Baptist preached to the sinners that gathered around him on the Jordan; and herein lies the significance of the bath of every proselyte.這是什麼施洗約翰傳福音給罪人說,聚集在他的周圍對約旦;於此意義的浴缸都proselyte 。 He was to be made "a new creature" (Gen. R. xxxix).他將被作出了"新動物" (創傳譯三十九) 。 For the term φωτιςθεῖς (illuminated), compare Philo on Repentance ("De Pœnitentia," i.), "The proselyte comes from darkness to light."對於任期φωτιςθεῖς (發亮) ,比較斐洛對懺悔( "時點pœnitentia , "一) , " proselyte來,從黑暗走向光明" 。 It is quite possible that, like the initiates in the Orphic mysteries, the proselytes were, by way of symbolism, suddenly brought from darkness into light.這是非常有可能的,像發起在orphic奧秘, proselytes人,透過象徵,突然帶來了從黑暗走向光明。 For the rites of immersion, anointing, and the like, which the proselyte has or had to undergo, see Proselyte, Ablution, and Anointing.為禮記浸泡, anointing ,等等,其中proselyte已經或不得不接受,見proselyte ,洗盥,並anointing 。 K. k.

Kaufmann Kohler, Samuel Krauss考夫曼柯勒塞繆爾克勞斯
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版1901年至1906年之間。

Bibliography 參考書目

: EG Bengel, Ueber das Alter der Jüd. -例如: b engel, u eber之改變明鏡j üd。 Proselytentaufe, Tübingen, 1814; M. Schneckenburger, Ueber das Alter der Jüd. proselytentaufe ,蒂賓根, 1814年;米施奈肯伯格, ueber之改變明鏡jüd 。 Proselytentaufe, Berlin, 1828; E. Renan, Les Evangiles, 2d ed., p. proselytentaufe ,柏林, 1828年;五, Renan ,就業輔導組evangiles ,第2版,頁 167; idem, Les Apôtres, p. 167個;同上,就業輔導組apôtres頁 96; idem, Marc-Aurèle, p. 96 ;同上,馬克-奧里略頁 527; Schechter, in Jewish Quarterly Review, 1900, xii. 527個; Schechter已在猶太評論季刊, 1900年,第十二章。 421; Schürer, Gesch. 421 ; schürer , gesch 。 3d ed., iii.三維版,三。 129; Edersheim, The Jewish Messiah, ii. 129 ; edersheim ,猶太彌賽亞,二。 745.KS Kr. 745.ks氪。


Baptism洗禮

Orthodox Viewpoint Information 正統的觀點信息

Prayers for the New Born祈禱,為新出生

Upon the birth of a child, the parish priest should be invited to the home or hospital to offer prayers for the mother and child.當一個孩子的出生,教區牧師,應邀請到家裡或醫院提供的祈禱,為母親和兒童。 It is the responsibility of the father or the grandparents to notify the priest at the time of birth.它是有責任的父親或爺爺奶奶要通知神父在該子女出生時。 Your parish priest depends upon your courtesy so that he may make the proper visitation.你的教區牧師取決於你的禮貌,讓他可以作適當的探視。 On the fortieth day after birth, the mother brings the child to church where the priest conducts the service of "40-Day Blessing" or "Sarantismos" for the mother and child.就40天出生後,母親帶兒童去教堂當牧師進行服務的" 40天之福"或" sarantismos " ,為母親和兒童。 "The ritual of the 'churching of women after childbirth has its origin in the Middle Ages. This was the time when the liturgical life of the Church was beginning to expand and develop in imitation of the Biblical patterns. The "Church" must not be understood in an antiquated way (from the Old Testament) in the sense of a legalistic practice. (For further Old Testament knowledge, read the Book of Leviticus, Chapter 12). Rather, the ceremony of churching marks the time when the mother, having recovered physically and emotionally from the birth of her child, and having re-ordered her life around the child's care, will resume her life in the community of the Church again. She comes to the church with her child (and accompanied by her husband) to offer her thanksgiving for her child, and coming to contact with the life-giving glory of God, she asks for the forgiveness of her sins, despite her human weakness, so that she may be 'worthy to partake, uncondemned, of the Holy Mysteries," (that is Holy Communion) once again. "祭祀的' churching婦女分娩後有其原產地在中世紀,這是時間的時候,禮儀教會的生活正開始擴大和發展,在仿製的聖經模式,使"教會"必須是不理解,在一個陳舊的方式(從舊約)在感覺到一個法律性的做法。 (進一步舊約知識,閱讀這本書的利未記,第12章) ,而頒獎典禮的churching標誌的時候,母親因收回的肉體和精神上都從出生到她的孩子,並經重新排序,她的生命圍繞孩子的照顧,將恢復她的生活在國際社會中,教會再次,她到了教堂,她的孩子(和陪同她的丈夫)提供,她的感恩節,為她的孩子,說來接觸生命賦予神的榮耀,她要求政府為寬恕她的罪過,儘管她的人的弱點,使她可能'值得參與,無可譴責的聖地奧秘, " (即聖餐)一遍。

This ceremony, in imitation of the Old Testament ceremony to which the Mother of God submitted, was done on the fortieth day after the child's birth, but may also take place as close to the fortieth day as possible.這個儀式上,在仿製的舊約儀式,其中天主之母提交的,是做對了40天之後,孩子的出生,但也可能發生接近40天的情況。 Some request that this take place prematurely to facilitate their personal needs and desire to attend social engagements.有的要求將這一發生過早,以方便他們的個人需求和願望,參加應酬。 God in His wisdom ordained that a period of six weeks lapse following childbirth before the mother resumes her life.上帝在他的智慧受戒即六個星期內失效後,在分娩前,母親恢復她的生命。 Good advice is not to hasten this process.良好的忠告是:不要以加快這一進程。 During the churching, the priest, in imitation of the elder Simeon (Luke, Chapter 2), takes the child up to the sanctuary, making the sign of the Cross with it and reciting the prayer of St. Simeon (Luke 2:28-32).在churching ,神父,在仿製的老西蒙(盧克,第2章) ,採取孩子到避難所,使標誌的十字架與它背誦祈禱的聖西蒙(路加福音2時28分- 32 ) 。 Again, inspired by the example of Simeon's encounter with the infant Messiah, for each child has the potential to be great in the sight of the Lord, the act of churching recognizes this and also serves, as with the mother, to introduce the child to the community of faith."再次,靈感的例子西麥的遭遇與嬰兒彌賽亞,為每個孩子有可能成為偉大的,在看不到主說,該法案的churching認識到這一點,也極大,由於與母親,介紹兒童社會上的信仰" 。

On the day of churching, the parents and the child are invited to wait in the narthex of the church where they will be greeted by the priest.在當天的churching ,父母和孩子,請等候在narthex的教會他們將在那裡迎接神父。 This takes place after the antidoron has been distributed following the Divine Liturgy.這個發生後, antidoron已分發後,神禱告儀式中。 A call to the church office will help things run smoothly.打電話給教會辦公室將無補於事順利進行。

Baptisms受洗儀式

In the Sacrament of Holy Baptism, a person is incorporated into the crucified, resurrected, and glorified Christ and is reborn to participate in the divine life.在聖潔的洗禮中,一個人被納入被釘十字架,復活,並歌頌基督,是重生,以參與在神聖的生命。 Baptism is necessary for salvation (Mark 16:15-16) and in accordance with Holy Tradition must be performed by triple immersion in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit (Matthew 28:18-20), according to the rubrics in the Prayer Book.洗禮是必要的救贖(標記16:15 ) ,並按照神聖的傳統,必須由三重沉浸在父親的姓名,兒子,和聖靈(馬太28:18-20 ) ,根據這個總主題,在祈禱書。 It is conferred only once.它是賦予只有一次。


Also, see:此外,見:
Re-Baptism 重新洗禮
Sacrament 聖餐
Confirmation 確認

This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


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