Atonement贖罪

General Information 一般資料

The word atonement, constructed from at and one , means "to set at one" or "to reconcile."字贖罪,從興建於人 ,意味著"定於一"或"調和" 。 In Christian Theology, atonement denotes the doctrine of the reconciliation of God and man accomplished by the Crucifixion and death of Jesus Christ.在基督教神學,贖罪78中庸和解的人與上帝所完成在十字架上死亡的耶穌基督。

There have been three major theories of atonement: the ransom theory, the Anselmian theory, and the Abelardian theory. 已經有過三次重大理論的贖罪:贖金理論, anselmian理論和abelardian理論。

Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other Reformers developed the Anselmian theory in the direction of penal substitution. Liberal theologians have reverted to an Abelardian type of explanation.馬丁路德,約翰卡爾文,和其他改革者開發anselmian理論方向的刑法替代。自由神學家已回复到一個abelardian類型的解釋。 Gustav Aulen and other Swedish theologians have recently advocated a return to the ransom theory conceived in terms of victory over the powers of evil.古斯塔夫aulen和其他瑞典神學家最近主張回到贖金的理論構思而言,戰勝權力的邪惡。 Since the doctrine of the atonement has never been defined officially, Christian theologians consider themselves free to work out their own theory along lines consonant with the witness of Scripture.由於該學說的贖罪從未被正式界定的,基督教神學家認為自己是自由的工作,自己的理論一直線輔音與證人的經文。

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In Jewish theology, stress is placed on personal acts of atonement; vicarious atonement is given little importance.在猶太神學,強調的是對個人的行為贖罪;替代贖罪是很少的重要性。

Reginald H Fuller ( Reginald h更充分

Bibliography 參考書目
V Taylor, Jesus and His Sacrifice (1937) and The Atonement in New Testament Teaching (1940). v泰勒,耶穌和他的犧牲( 1937年)和贖罪,在新約聖經教學( 1940年) 。


Atonement贖罪

General Information 一般資料

Atonement, in Christian theology, is the expiation of sin and the propitiation of God by the incarnation, life, sufferings, and death of Jesus Christ; the obedience and death of Christ on behalf of sinners as the ground of redemption; in the narrow sense, the sacrificial work of Christ for sinners.贖罪,在基督教神學的,是犯罪被害人的單仲偕和propitiation上帝的化身,貼近生活,痛苦和死亡的耶穌基督;順從和死亡的基督代表的罪人,因為地面上的贖回;狹義,祭祀工作的基督為罪人。 In the theology of many, including nearly all Universalists and Unitarians, atonement signifies the act of bringing people to God, in contradistinction to the idea of reconciling an offended God to his creation.在神學的很多人,包括幾乎所有universalists和unitarians ,贖罪意味的行為使人們向上帝,在對比的想法調和一種冒犯上帝給他的創作風格。

The three principal theories by which theologians attempt to explain the atonement are the following: (1) the Anselmian or sacrificial, that the atonement consists fundamentally in Christ's sacrifice for the sins of humanity; (2) the remedial, that God, through the incarnation, entered into humanity so as to eliminate sin by the ethical process of Christ's life and death and make the human race at one with himself; and (3) the Socinian or moral influence, that Christ's work consists in influencing people to lead better lives.三個主要理論,其中神學家嘗試去解釋贖罪有以下幾方面: ( 1 ) anselmian或祭祀,即贖罪組成,從根本上,在基督的犧牲,為捷聯慣導系統的人性; ( 2 )修補,即上帝通過化身,進入人類藉以消除罪惡中的倫理過程中的基督的生命和死亡,使人類在一個與自己; ( 3 ) socinian或道義上的影響力,是基督的工作是在影響人,以更美好的生活。 The sacrificial theory takes two general forms: (a) the governmental, that Christ's work was intended to meet the demands of the law of God and make such a moral impression upon humans in favor of the divine government as to render their forgiveness safe; and (b) the satisfaction, that it was intended to satisfy divine justice and make the forgiveness of humanity possible and right.祭祀理論兩個一般形式: (一)政府組織,基督的工作,目的是要滿足上帝的法規,並作出這樣的道德印象後,對人類有利的神聖政府,以使他們的寬恕安全; (二)滿意度,它的用意是為了滿足神的公義,使寬恕人類的可能和權利。 Each of these theories has been further developed many times.每個這些理論得到了進一步發展了很多次。


Atone'ment atone'ment

Advanced Information 先進的信息

This word does not occur in the Authorized Version of the New Testament except in Rom.這個詞並不發生在授權版的新約聖經,除了在ROM 。 5:11, where in the Revised Version the word "reconciliation" is used. 5時11分,而在修訂版改為"和解"的運用。 In the Old Testament it is of frequent occurrence.在舊約這是經常發生。 The meaning of the word is simply at-one-ment, ie, the state of being at one or being reconciled, so that atonement is reconciliation.一詞的含義只是在一ment ,即該國正處於一個或正在重新修好,使贖罪是和解。 Thus it is used to denote the effect which flows from the death of Christ.因此,它是用來指效果,因為流動的,從死亡的基督。 But the word is also used to denote that by which this reconciliation is brought about, viz., the death of Christ itself; and when so used it means satisfaction, and in this sense to make an atonement for one is to make satisfaction for his offences (Ex. 32:30; Lev. 4:26; 5:16; Num. 6:11), and, as regards the person, to reconcile, to propitiate God in his behalf.但這個詞也可以用來指認為這是和解帶來的,即,死亡的基督本身;時,使用它意味著滿意度,並在此意義上,使一個贖罪,一是為了使滿意度為他的罪行(例如: 32:30 ;列弗。 4時26分; 5:16 ;序號。 6時11分) ,而且,至於人,以調和,以propitiate上帝在他的名義。

By the atonement of Christ we generally mean his work by which he expiated our sins.由贖罪的基督,我們通常意味著他的工作,其中他expiated我們的罪過。 But in Scripture usage the word denotes the reconciliation itself, and not the means by which it is effected.但在經文中使用這個詞是指和解本身,而不是手段,它的影響。 When speaking of Christ's saving work, the word "satisfaction," the word used by the theologians of the Reformation, is to be preferred to the word "atonement."在談到基督的拯救工作中, "滿意" ,所用的字眼是由神學家的改革,是值得推薦給字的"贖罪" 。 Christ's satisfaction is all he did in the room and in behalf of sinners to satisfy the demands of the law and justice of God.基督的滿意就是一切,他在房間內,並在代表的罪人,以滿足要求的法律和正義的神。 Christ's work consisted of suffering and obedience, and these were vicarious, ie, were not merely for our benefit, but were in our stead, as the suffering and obedience of our vicar, or substitute.基督的工作,其中的痛苦和服從性,並得到了這些替代,即不只是對我們有利,但在我們而起的,因為痛苦和服從我們的副主教,或替代品。 Our guilt is expiated by the punishment which our vicar bore, and thus God is rendered propitious, ie, it is now consistent with his justice to manifest his love to transgressors.我們的罪惡感是expiated受處罰,其中我國副主教口徑,因此,神是變得吉祥,也就是說,現在應該是一致的,與他的公義,以體現他的愛求。

Expiation has been made for sin, ie, it is covered.犯罪被害人已預留土地作單,即它被覆蓋。 The means by which it is covered is vicarious satisfaction, and the result of its being covered is atonement or reconciliation.手段,它涵蓋的是替代的滿意度,以及造成的,其涵蓋的是贖罪或和解。 To make atonement is to do that by virtue of which alienation ceases and reconciliation is brought about.作贖罪就是要做到這一點,據此,異化不再與和解帶來的。 Christ's mediatorial work and sufferings are the ground or efficient cause of reconciliation with God.基督的mediatorial工作和痛苦是地面上還是有效率和解的事業與上帝。 They rectify the disturbed relations between God and man, taking away the obstacles interposed by sin to their fellowship and concord.他們糾正不安關係人與上帝帶走障礙中間人一樣,由單仲偕,以自己的獎學金與和諧。 The reconciliation is mutual, ie, it is not only that of sinners toward God, but also and pre-eminently that of God toward sinners, effected by the sin-offering he himself provided, so that consistently with the other attributes of his character his love might flow forth in all its fulness of blessing to men.和解是相互的,即,它不僅是罪人,對神,而且還和前遙不可及,是上帝對罪人,是由單-提供了他本人提供的,所以,始終與其他屬性他的性格,他愛情可能會流出來,在其所有fulness的祝福男子。

The primary idea presented to us in different forms throughout the Scripture is that the death of Christ is a satisfaction of infinite worth rendered to the law and justice of God (qv), and accepted by him in room of the very penalty man had incurred.主要的想法提交給我們以不同的形式在全國各地的經文是死的基督是一個滿意的無窮價值給予了法律和正義的神(請參閱) ,並接受他的房間很罰款名男子曾招致的。 It must also be constantly kept in mind that the atonement is not the cause but the consequence of God's love to guilty men (John 3:16; Rom. 3:24, 25; Eph. 1:7; 1 John 1:9; 4:9).但也必須不斷地銘刻在腦海裡說,贖罪,是不是導致,但後果是上帝的愛有罪男子(約翰3:16 ;光碟。 3時24分,第25條;以弗所書1時07分;約翰一1時09分; 4:9 ) 。 The atonement may also be regarded as necessary, not in an absolute but in a relative sense, ie, if man is to be saved, there is no other way than this which God has devised and carried out (Ex. 34:7; Josh. 24:19; Ps. 5:4; 7:11; Nahum 1:2, 6; Rom. 3:5).贖罪也可能被視為必要的,而不是絕對的,但在一個相對的意義上,即,如果男子是被保存起來,有沒有其他的辦法,這比上帝已制定和執行的(例如: 34:7 ;喬什。 24:19 ;聚苯乙烯。 5時04分; 7時11分;公佈在1:2 , 6 ;光碟。 3時05分) 。 This is God's plan, clearly revealed; and that is enough for us to know.這是上帝的計劃,清楚地揭示了,並認為是足以讓我們知道。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Atonement贖罪

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The expression "to make atonement" is frequent in Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers, but rare in the rest of the Bible.表達" ,使贖罪" ,是經常在出埃及記,利未記,號碼,但很少在其餘的聖經。 The basic idea, however, is widespread.基本思路,不過,是普遍的現象。 The need for it arises from the fact that man is a sinner, a truth made plain throughout Scripture but infrequent outside the Bible.需要它產生於一個事實,即人是一個罪人,一個事實使整個平原的經文,但生疏以外的聖經。

In the OT sin is dealt with by the offering of sacrifice.在城市旅遊局單處理,由他提供的犧牲。 Thus the burnt offering will be accepted "to make atonement" (Lev. 1:4), as also the sin offering and the guilt offering (Lev. 4:20; 7:7) and especially the sacrifices on the day of atonement (Lev. 16).因此,燔會被接受" ,使贖罪" ( lev. 1:4 ) ,同時也作為單發售及罪惡感提供( lev. 4時20分; 7時07分) ,尤其是犧牲,就在贖罪日(列夫16段) 。 Of course, sacrifice is ineffective if offered in the wrong spirit.當然,犧牲是無效的,如果提供了錯誤的精神。 To sin "with a high hand" (Num. 15:30), ie, proudly and presumptuously, is to place oneself outside the sphere of God's forgiveness.以單" ,具有較高的手" ( num. 15:30 ) ,即驕傲presumptuously ,是把自己的範圍之外的神的寬恕。 The prophets have many denunciations of the offering of sacrifice as the expression of a repentant and trustful heart is to find atonement.先知們是有很多的解約提供的犧牲為表達一個懺悔和可以信賴的心,是要找出贖罪。 Atonement is sometimes made by means other than the sacrifices, such as the payment of money (Exod. 30:12-16) or the offering of life (II Sam. 21:3-6).贖罪,有時發了言手段以外的犧牲,如支付貨幣( exod. 30:12-16 ) ,或提供生活(二山姆。 21:3-6 ) 。 In such cases to make atonement means "to avert punishment, especially the divine anger, by the payment of a koper, a ransom,' which may be of money or which may be of life" (L. Morris, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross, 166).在這種情況下,使贖罪"的手段,避免處罰,特別是神聖的憤怒,由金某科佩爾,贖金, '這可能是金錢的或可能的生命" (第莫里斯宗徒傳教的跨, 166 ) 。 Throughout the OT sin is serious; it will be punished unless atonement is sought in the way God has provided.整個城市旅遊局單是嚴重的,它會受到懲罰,除非贖罪,是尋求在上帝的方式提供。

This truth is repeated and enlarged upon in the NT.這個真理是重複和放大後,在新台幣。 There it is made clear that all men are sinners (Rom. 3:23) and that hell awaits them (Mark 9:43; Luke 12:5).因此,它是明確表示,所有男人都是罪人(羅馬書3點23分) ,而且地獄等待他們(馬克9時43分;盧克12時05分) 。 But it is just as clear that God wills to bring salvation and that he has brought it in the life, death, resurrection, and ascension of his Son.但正是因為明確表示,上帝的意志,使救亡和說,他帶來了它在生命,死亡,復活,和阿森松他的兒子。 The love of God is the mainspring (John 3:16; Rom. 5:8).上帝的愛是主要動力(約翰3:16 ;光碟。 5時08分) 。 We are not to think of a loving Son as wringing salvation from a just but stern Father.我們並非想,一個充滿愛的兒子坐立不安救贖從社會公正的,但嚴厲的父親。 It is the will of the Father that men be saved, and salvation is accomplished, not with a wave of the hand, so to speak, but by what God has done in Christ: "God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself" (II Cor. 5:19), a reconciliation brought about by the death of Christ (Rom. 5:10).這是意志的父親認為,男性被保存,救恩是成就,而不是一浪的手,可以這麼說,而是由神所已經做了,在基督說: "上帝在基督裡調和世界,以自己" (二,肺心病。 5時19分) ,一個和解所帶來的死亡,基督(羅馬書17:10 ) 。 The NT emphasizes his death, and it is no accident that the cross has come to be accepted as the symbol of the Christian faith or that words like "crux" and "crucial" have come to have the significance that they possess.新台幣強調他的逝世,並沒有發生意外表示,兩岸關係已到了,可被接納為象徵的基督教信仰,或者換句話說, "癥結" , "關鍵"有來有重要意義,他們具備什麼條件。 The cross is absolutely central to salvation as the NT sees it.兩岸是絕對中央,以救亡為新台幣看來。 This is distinctive of Christianity.這是鮮明的基督教。 Other religions have their martyrs, but the death of Jesus was not that of a martyr.其他宗教有其烈士,但死亡的耶穌不是因為它是一個烈士。 It was that of a Savior.它是一個救世主。 His death saves men from their sins.他的逝世節省了官兵們的罪孽。 Christ took their place and died their death (Mark 10:45; II Cor. 5:21), the culmination of a ministry in which he consistently made himself one with sinners.基督了自己的位置和死亡,其死亡(馬克10:45 ;二,肺心病。 5時21分) ,經過一個部,其中他始終把自己與罪人。

The NT does not put forward a theory of atonement, but there are several indications of the principle on which atonement is effected.新台幣沒有提出一個理論的贖罪,但也有一些跡象的原則,對其中贖罪生效。 Thus sacrifice must be offered, not the sacrifice of animals, which cannot avail for men (Heb. 10:4), but the perfect sacrifice of Christ (Heb. 9:26; 10:5-10).因此犧牲必須給予,而不是犧牲的動物,而不能利用,為男人(希伯來書10:4 ) ,但完善的犧牲基督(希伯來書9時26分; 10:5-10 ) 。 Christ paid sin's due penalty (Rom. 3:25-26; 6:23; Gal. 3:13).基督支付單的應有懲罰(羅馬書3:25-26 ; 6時23分;加爾。 3時13分) 。 He redeemed us (Eph. 1:7), paying the price that sets us free (I Cor. 6:20; Gal. 5:1).他挽救了我們(以弗所書1時07分) ,付出代價,載明我們免費(我肺心病。 6時20分;加爾。 5:1 ) 。 He made a new covenant (Heb. 9:15).他作了一個新的盟約(希伯來書9:15 ) 。 He won the victory (I Cor. 15:55-57).他贏得了勝利, (我肺心病。 15:55-57 ) 。 He effected the propitiation that turns away the warth of God (Rom. 3:25), made the reconciliation that turns enemies into friends (Eph. 2:16).他成功地實現propitiation即輪流走warth上帝(羅馬書3點25分) ,取得了和解,可以將敵人變成朋友(以弗所書2:16 ) 。 His love and his patient endurance of suffering set an example (I Pet. 2:21); we are to take up our cross (Luke 9:23).他的愛和他的病人承受的痛苦樹立了榜樣(我的寵物。 2時21分) ,我們採取了交叉(路加福音9時23分) 。 Salvation is many-sided.救恩是許多片面的。 But however it is viewed, Christ has taken our place, doing for us what we could not do for ourselves.但無論怎樣,這是看的,基督採取了我們的地方,做了什麼,我們不能做,為我們自己。 Our part is simply to respond in repentance, faith, and selfless living.我們純粹是為了回應在悔過書,真誠,無私的生活。

L Morris升莫里斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
RS Franks, The Work of Christ; LW Grensted, A Short History of the Doctrine of the Atonement; G. Smeaton, The Doctrine of the Atonement According to Christ and The Doctrine of the Atonement According to the Apostles; V. Taylor, The Atonement in NT Teaching and Forgiveness and Reconciliation; J. Owen, The Death of Death in the Death of Christ; J. Denney, The Death of Christ; AA Hodge, The Atonement; JM Campbell, The Nature of the Atonement; R. Wallace, The Atoning Death of Christ; JK Mozley, The Doctrine of the Atonement; CR Smith, The Bible Doctrine of Salvation; L. Morris, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross; PT Forsyth, The Cruciality of the Cross.盧比弗蘭克斯,這項工作的基督; LW的格倫斯特德,歷史較短的學說贖罪; g. smeaton ,這個學說的贖罪根據基督和學說的贖罪根據使徒們;訴泰勒,贖罪在新台幣教學與寬恕與和解的J.歐文,死亡的死亡,在死亡的基督的J.丹尼,死亡的基督;機管局Hodge的,贖罪; jm坎貝爾,但性質贖罪;傳譯華萊士該atoning死亡的基督;金駿莫仕萊,這個學說的贖罪;鉻史密斯,聖經教義的救恩;屬莫里斯,教廷鼓吹的兩岸;鉑佛塞斯, cruciality的十字架。


Extent of the Atonement, Limited Atonement程度上的贖罪,有限的贖罪

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Although there are variations as to the basic ways in which this subject can be addressed, the choices boil down to two: either the death of Jesus was intended to secure salvation for a limited number or the death of Jesus was intended to provide salvation for everyone. The first view is sometimes called "limited atonement" because God limited the effect of Christ's death to a specific number of elect persons, or "particular redemption" because redemption was for a particular group of people.雖然也有變化,以基本方法,使這一問題都可得到解決,選擇可歸結為兩個: 要么死亡,耶穌的用意是安全得救數量有限或死亡耶穌的目的是為了提供救贖,為大家。第一種觀點有時被稱為"有限度的贖罪" ,因為上帝有限的影響,基督的死,以具體人數選出的人,或"特別贖回" ,因為贖回是為某一特定的一群人。 The second view is sometimes referred to as "unlimited atonement" or "general redemption" because God did not limit Christ's redemptive death to the elect, but allowed it to be for mankind in general.第二種看法是,有時被稱為"無限的贖罪""一般贖回" ,因為上帝沒有限制基督救贖的死給選出的,但允許它成為人類的一般問題。

Particular Redemption尤其是贖回

The doctrine that Jesus died for the elect in particular, securing their redemption, but not for the world, arose as the implications of the doctrine of election and the satisfaction theory of the atonement were developed immediately following the Reformation.該學說認為,耶穌的死為選舉,特別是確保他們贖回,但不能為世界,產生的影響,該學說的選舉及滿意理論的贖罪開發後立即改造。 A controversy arose that resulted in the Synod of Dort (1618-19) pronouncing that Christ's death was "sufficient for all but efficient for the elect."爭議出現,導致主教的dort ( 1618至1619年) ,宣告了基督的死"是足以讓所有的,但有效率為當選" 。 This did not satisfy many theologians, even some Calvinists, so the controversy has continued to this day.這不符合許多神學家,甚至一些calvinists ,所以爭論已持續到今天。

There are numerous arguments used to defend the doctrine of limited atonement, but the following represent some of the more frequently found. 有許多論據用來捍衛教義有限的贖罪,但下列代表的一些較常發現的。

General Redemption一般贖回

The doctrine of general redemption argues that the death of Christ was designed to include all mankind, whether or not all believe.該學說的一般贖回爭辯說,死亡的基督被設計,包括所有的人類,有沒有都相信。 To those who savingly believe it is redemptively applied, and to those who do not believe it provides the benefits of common grace and the removal of any excuse for being lost.那些savingly相信這是redemptively應用,並以那些不相信它提供的好處,共同恩典以及排除任何藉口,正在喪失。 God loved them and Christ died for them; they are lost because they refused to accept the salvation that is sincerely offered to them in Christ.上帝愛他們和基督死亡,為他們,他們失去了,因為他們拒絕接受救恩,就是誠懇地向他們提供在基督裡。

Summary摘要

Both points of view are trying to preserve something of theological importance.這兩點來看,正設法保存了一些神學的重要性。 The defenders of limited atonement are stressing the certainty of God's salvation and the initiative he took in offering it to man.維護者有限的贖罪都講確定性,上帝的救恩和主動權,他在提供該類型的人。 If salvation depended on our work, all would be lost.如果救贖取決於我們的工作,都將會消失。 The defenders of general redemption are attempting to preserve the fairness of God and what to them is the clear teaching of Scripture.捍衛者一般贖回正試圖維護公平的上帝,什麼對他們是非常明確的教學中的經文。 Salvation is no less certain because Christ died for all.救恩是不那麼肯定的,因為基督死去。 It is the decision to reject it that brings about condemnation, and faith that puts one in a saving relationship with Christ who died that we might live.它是決定拒絕它帶來的譴責,並真誠地表示了一個設在儲蓄關係,與基督同死的人,我們可能活。 EA Litton attempts to mediate the two views in this fashion: "And thus the combatants may not be in reality so much at variance as they had supposed. The most extreme Calvinist may grant that there is room for all if they will come in; the most extreme Arminian must grant that redemption, in its full Scriptural meaning, is not the privilege of all men" (Introduction to Dogmatic Theology, p. 236).環境倫試圖調解兩種觀點,在此時裝說: "因此,戰鬥可能不會在現實中這麼多的差異,因為他們假定。最極端calvinist可給予仍有待所有,如果他們會來;最極端的arminian必須給予贖回,在其全部聖經的意思,是不是特權,所有男人" (導言,以教條式的神學,第236頁) 。

WA Elwell佤族Elwell宣布
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
W. Rushton, A Defense of Particular Redemption; J. Owen, The Death of Death in the Death of Christ; AA Hodge, The Atonement; H. Martin, The Atonement; G. Smeaton, The Doctrine of the Atonement According to the Apostles and The Doctrine of the Atonement According to Christ; J. Davenant, The Death of Christ; NF Douty, The Death of Christ; AH Strong, Systematic Theology; J. Denney, The Death of Christ; JM Campbell, The Nature of the Atonement; L. Berkhof, Systematic Theology.小八個國家,一個防禦的,尤其是贖回的J.歐文,死亡的死亡,在死亡的基督;機管局Hodge的,贖罪;每小時馬丁贖罪; g. smeaton ,這個學說的根據贖罪向使徒和中庸贖罪根據基督的J.戴夫南特,死亡的基督的NF douty ,死亡的基督;啊強,有系統神學的J.丹尼,死亡的基督; jm坎貝爾,但性質贖罪;影響,伯克霍夫的,有系統的神學。


Theories of the Atonement理論贖罪

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Throughout the Bible the central question is, "How can sinful man ever be accepted by a holy God?"整個聖經中心的問題是, "怎樣才能罪孽深重的人將永遠不會接受一個神聖的上帝" ? The Bible takes sin seriously, much more seriously than do the other literatures that have come down to us from antiquity.聖經需單嚴重,更嚴重比其他文獻有所下調,我們從古物。 It sees sin as a barrier separating man from God (Isa. 59:2), a barrier that man was able to erect but is quite unable to demolish.它認為單作為屏障分隔男子從神(以賽亞書59:2 ) ,一個無障礙,該名男子得以豎立,但相當無法拆卸。 But the truth on which the Bible insists is that God has dealt with the problem.但事實上,對其中聖經堅持的是,上帝有處理問題的方法。 He has made the way whereby sinners may find pardon, God's enemies may find peace.他已經作出了這樣才是罪人,可能會覺得不好意思,上帝的敵人,可能會找到和平。 Salvation is never seen as a human achievement.救恩是從未見過作為一個人的成就。 In the OT sacrifice has a large place, but it avails not because of any merit it has of itself (cf. Heb. 10:4), but because God has given it as the way (Lev. 17:11).在城市旅遊局的犧牲有一個大的地方,但它援用不是因為任何好處,它本身(參見以弗所書10:4 ) ,而是因為上帝給了它作為未來路( lev. 17:11 ) 。 In the NT the cross plainly occupies the central place, and it is insisted upon in season and out of season that this is God's way of bringing salvation.在新台幣交叉赤裸裸地佔據中心地位,這是堅持在賽季出的季節,這是上帝的方式,使救贖。 There are many ways of bringing this out.有很多種方法,使這方面的資料。 The NT writers do not repeat a stereotyped story.新台幣作家不要重複千篇一律的故事。 Each writes from his own perspective.每次寫到他自己的觀點。 But each shows that it is the death of Christ and not any human achievement that brings salvation.但每次都表明,它是死的基督,並沒有任何人的成就,帶來了救贖。

But none of them sets out a theory of atonement.但是,他們中沒有訂出了理論的贖罪。 There are many references to the effectiveness of Christ's atoning work, and we are not lacking in information about its many - sidedness.有許多人提到的成效基督的atoning工作,我們並不缺少信息,它的許多-片面性。 Thus Paul gives a good deal of emphasis to the atonement as a process of justification, and he uses such concepts as redemption, propitiation, and reconciliation.因此,保羅給人一個很好的協議的重點,以贖罪的過程,作為理據,他用這樣的觀念作為贖回, propitiation ,與和解。 Sometimes we read of the cross as a victory or as an example.有時候,我們讀到的十字架是一個勝利還是作為一個例子。 It is the sacrifice that makes a new covenant, or simply a sacrifice.這是犧牲,這使得一個新的盟約,或者乾脆犧牲。 There are many ways of viewing it.有很多的方法來看待。 We are left in no doubt about its efficacy and its complexity.我們留在毫無疑問的,其療效和其複雜性。 View the human spiritual problem as you will, and the cross meets the need.鑑於人類的精神問題,因為你將和跨滿足了。 But the NT does not say how it does so.但新台幣並沒有說如何,它這樣做。

Through the centuries there have been continuing efforts to work out how this was accomplished.經過幾個世紀有繼續努力的工作如何,這是完成了。 Theories of the atonement are legion as men in different countries and in different ages have tried to bring together the varied strands of scriptural teaching and to work them into a theory that will help others to understand how God has worked to bring us salvation.理論的贖罪是軍團男子在不同的國家和不同時代的嘗試,把不同的方向進行的聖經教導,並努力使他們成為理論,這將幫助其他人認識神是怎麼工作,給我們帶來救贖。 The way has been open for this kind of venture, in part at least, because the church has never laid down an official, orthodox view.路已經開放,為這種風險,至少是部分的,因為教會從來沒有訂下的一個官員,正統的看法。 In the early centuries there were great controversies about the person of Christ and about the nature of the Trinity.我國早在幾百年,有很大的爭議關於人的基督和對大自然的三位一體。 Heresies appeared, were thoroughly discussed, and were disowned.異端邪說出現時,進行了透徹的討論,並分別六親不認。 In the end the church accepted the formula of Chalcedon as the standard expression of the orthodox faith.在年底前,教會接受的公式chalcedon為標準的表達東正教信仰。 But there was no equivalent with the atonement.不過,卻沒有相等於與贖罪。 People simply held to the satisfying truth that Christ saved them by way of the cross and did not argue about how this salvation was effected.人根本舉行以滿足真理基督救他們的方法,是根據兩岸關係,並沒有爭論如何,這是救國的影響。

Thus there was no standard formula like the Chalcedonian statement, and this left men to pursue their quest for a satisfying theory in their own way.因此,有沒有標準的公式一樣chalcedonian聲明,這給人們留下男人追求自己尋求一個令人滿意的理論,走自己的路。 To this day no one theory of the atonement has ever won universal acceptance.為了這一天,沒有任何一種理論的贖罪都贏得了普遍的接受。 This should not lead us to abandon the task.這不應當導致我們放棄任務。 Every theory helps us understand a little more of what the cross means and, in any case, we are bidden to give a reason of the hope that is in us (1 Pet. 3:15).每一個理論,有助於我們了解多一點的是什麼交叉的手段,而且在任何情況下,我們bidden給一個理由的,希望這是我們( 1寵物。 3:15 ) 。 Theories of the atonement attempt to do just that.理論贖罪試圖做到這一點。

It would be impossible to deal with all the theories of the atonement that have been formulated, but we might well notice that most can be brought under one or the other of three heads: those which see the essence of the matter as the effect of the cross on the believer; those which see it as a victory of some sort; and those which emphasize the Godward aspect.也就不可能應對各種理論的贖罪已制定的,但我們可能會看到,最能帶來下一個或其他的三國元首:那些現象看本質,對此事的影響,該十字架的信徒;那些視它為一個勝利的某種;以及那些強調godward方面。 Some prefer a twofold classification, seeing subjective theories as those which emphasize the effect on the believer, in distinction from objective theories which put the stress on what the atonement achieves quite outside the individual.有的寧願分為兩類,看到的主觀理論為那些強調,對信仰者,在區分,從客觀理論則把重點放在什麼贖罪達到相當境外個人。

The Subjective View or Moral Influence Theory主觀看法或道德理論的影響

Some form of the subjective or moral view is held widely today, especially among scholars of the liberal school.某種形式的主觀上或道德上的看法是比較普遍的今天,尤其是學者的開明派。 In all its variations this theory emphasizes the importance of the effect of Christ's cross on the sinner.在其所有的變化這一理論強調重要的影響,在十字架上的罪人。 The view is generally attributed to Abelard, who emphasized the love of God, and is sometimes called the moral influence theory, or exemplarism.這個觀點是普遍歸咎於阿貝拉爾,他強調上帝的愛,有時也被稱為道德理論的影響,或exemplarism 。 When we look at the cross we see the greatness of the divine love.當我們看兩岸,我們看到了偉大的神聖的愛。 this delivers us from fear and kindles in us an answering love.這也提供了我們免於恐懼和kindles在我們接聽的愛。 We respond to love with love and no longer live in selfishness and sin.我們響應愛心,用愛和不再生活在自私和罪惡。 Other ways of putting it include the view that the sight of the selfless Christ dying for sinners moves us to repentance and faith.其他途徑來把它列入認為忽略了無私的垂死基督為罪人的舉動,我們悔改和信念。 If God will do all that for us, we say, then we ought not to continue in sin.如果上帝將盡一切對我們來說,我們說的話,我們應該做什麼,不應繼續在單。 So we repent and turn from it and are saved by becoming better people.因此,我們有悔改表現,並把它和保存起來,成為更好的人。

The thrust in all this is on personal experience.主旨在所有這一切,就個人的經驗。 The atonement, seen in this way, has no effect outside the believer.贖罪,看到這樣,不影響外信徒。 It is real in the person's experience and nowhere else.而且是真實的,在人的經驗,在其他任何地方。 This view has been defended in recent times by Hastings Rashdall in The Idea of Atonement (1919).這種觀點已被辯護,最近一個時期,由黑斯廷斯拉斯達爾在構思贖罪( 1919年) 。

It should be said in the first instance that there is truth in this theory.應該說,在一審有真理,在這一理論。 Taken by itself it is inadequate, but it is not untrue.所採取的,它本身是不夠的,但它並不是不真實的。 It is important that we respond to the love of Christ seen on the cross, that we recognize the compelling force of his example.這是非常重要的,我們回應基督的愛看到在十字架上,我們要承認,令人信服的力量,他的榜樣。

Probably the best known and best loved hymn on the passion in modern times is "When I Survey the Wondrous Cross," a hymn that sets forth nothing but the moral view.大概是最著名和最喜愛的聖歌對激情在近代是: "當我調查奇觀交叉, "聖歌即闡明只是道義上的看法。 Every line of it emphasizes the effect on the observer of surveying the wondrous cross.每一行的,它強調了對觀察員的測量奇觀在十字架上。 It strikes home with force.它罷工在家中的力量。 What it says is both true and important.它的內容是什麼,是雙方真實而重要的。 It is when it is claimed that this is all that the atonement means that we must reject it.這是當它聲稱這是一切贖罪意味著我們必須拒絕它。 Taken in this way it is open to serious criticism.採取這種方式是公開嚴肅的批評。 If Christ was not actually doing something by his death, then we are confronted with a piece of showmanship, nothing more.如果耶穌是不是真正做一些對他的逝世,那麼,我們所面臨的一項表演,沒有更多的。 Someone once said that if he were in a rushing river and someone jumped in to save him, and in the process lost his life, he could recognize the love and sacrifice involved.有人曾說,如果他在大河奔湧不息,並有人跳樓,在救他,並在過程中失去了他的一生,他可以承認的愛情和犧牲。 But if he was sitting safely on the land and someone jumped into the torrent to show his love, he could see no point in it and only lament the senseless act.但如果他當時坐在旅客安全上的土地,有人跳入洪流,以顯示他的愛,他看不出有什麼一點,它只有悲嘆無聊的行為。 Unless the death of Christ really does something, it is not in fact a demonstration of love.除非死亡的基督是否真的一些東西,但事實上並非示威的愛。

The Atonement as Victory贖罪作為勝利

In the early church there seems to have been little attention given to the way atonement works, but when the question was faced, as often as not the answer came in terms of the NT references to redemption.在早期教會的存在似乎已很少注意考慮如何去贖罪的著作,但問題時,面對的,因為往往不是答案來計算,新台幣參考,以贖回權。 Because of their sin people rightly belong to Satan, the fathers reasoned.因為他們的罪過的人正確地屬於撒旦的父親講道理。 But God offered his son as a ransom, a bargain the evil one eagerly accepted.不過,上帝給予他的兒子當了贖金,討價還價邪惡急切地接受。 When, however, Satan got Christ down into hell he found that he could not hold him.但是,當撒旦得到基督下降到地獄,他發現,他無法將他扣留。 On the third day Christ rose triumphant and left Satan without either his original prisoners or the ransom he had accepted in their stead.至於在第三天基督玫瑰凱旋及左撒旦缺少任何一個他原來的戰俘或贖金,他已接受了在而起。 It did not need a profound intellect to see that God must have foreseen this, but the thought that God deceived the devil did not worry the fathers.它不需要一個深刻的理智地看到,上帝必須有預見到這一點,但是他們覺得上帝欺騙了魔鬼並不擔心父親。 than Satan as well as stronger.比撒旦以及堅強。 They even worked out illustrations like a fishing trip: The flesh of Jesus was the bait, the deity the fishhook.他們甚至出插圖像一個釣魚之旅:肉身的耶穌是誘餌,神了fishhook 。 Satan swallowed the hook along with the bait and was transfixed.撒旦吞下鉤隨餌料,是transfixed 。 This view has been variously called the devil ransom theory, the classical theory, or the fishhook theory of the atonement.這種觀點已被各種所謂的魔鬼贖金理論,經典理論,或fishhook理論贖罪。

This kind of metaphor delighted some of the fathers, but after Anselm subjected it to criticism it faded from view.這種比喻高興部分的父親,但經過anselm受到它批評它淡忘了,從看法。 It was not until quite recent times that Gustaf Aulen with his Christus Victor showed that behind the grotesque metaphors there is an important truth.但直到最近才收到倍古斯塔夫aulen與他的基督勝利者表明背後怪誕隱喻有一個重要的真理。 In the end Christ's atoning work means victory.在年底基督的atoning的工作,就是勝利。 The devil and all the hosts of evil are defeated.魔鬼和所有主持人的邪惡被我打敗了。 Sin is conquered.單是被征服。 Though this has not always been worked into set theories, it has always been there in our Easter hymns.雖然這並不是一直工作到一套理論,它一直存在於我們的復活節讚美詩。 It forms an important element in Christian devotion and it points to a reality which Christians must not lose.它形式的一個重要因素基督徒的奉獻,這點,以現實的基督徒絕不能輸。

This view must be treated with some care else we will finish up by saying that God saves simply because he is strong, in other words, in the end might is right.這一觀點必須處理一些護理,否則我們將完成了,他說上帝拯救簡單,因為他是強大的,換言之,在年底前可能是正確的。 This is an impossible conclusion for anyone who takes the Bible seriously.這是一個不可能的結論對任何人聖經重視。 We are warned that this view, of itself, is not adequate.我們正警告說,這種觀點認為,本身並不足夠。 But combined with other views it must find a place in any finally satisfying theory.但結合其他意見,就必須找到一個地方,在任何終於滿足理論。 It is important that Christ has conquered.這是非常重要的基督戰勝。

Anselm's Satisfaction Theory anselm的滿意理論

In the eleventh century Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, produced a little book called Cur Deus Homo?在11世紀anselm ,坎特伯雷大主教,製作了一小本名為當前deus骨頭嗎? ("Why did God become Man?"). ( "為什麼上帝成為男人嗎? " ) 。 In it he subjected the patristic view of a ransom paid to Satan to severe criticism.在它他遭受教父鑑於贖金支付給撒旦予以猛烈抨擊。 He saw sin as dishonoring the majesty of God.他看到單作為dishonoring莊嚴神聖的上帝。 Now a sovereign may well be ready in his private capacity to forgive an insult or an injury, but because he is a sovereign he cannot.現在是一個主權可能是準備在他的私人身份,以原諒的侮辱或傷害,而是因為他是一個主權,他卻不能。 The state has been dishonored in its head.國務院一直怠慢了,在它的頭部。 Appropriate satisfaction must be offered.適當的滿意度,必須提供。 God is the sovereign Ruler of all, and it is not proper for God to remit any irregularity in his kingdom.上帝是主權的統治者,這是不正確的,為上帝免去任何異常,在他的王國。 Anselm argued that the insult sin has given to God is so great that only one who is God can provide satisfaction. anselm爭辯說,侮辱單交給上帝是如此之大,只有一人是上帝,可提供滿意的。 But it was done by one who is man, so only man should do so.但它是由一個人是人,所以只有人類應該這樣做。 Thus he concluded that one who is both God and man is needed.因此,他得出結論認為,一個人,既是人與上帝是需要的。

Anselm's treatment of the theme raised the discussion to a much higher plane than it had occupied in previous discussions. anselm的治療為主題,提出討論,以高得多的飛機比它已佔領以前的討論中。 Most agree, however, that the demonstration is not conclusive.大多數人都同意,不過,示威活動是,並非定論。 In the end Anselm makes God too much like a king whose dignity has been affronted.在年底anselm使得上帝太像一個國王的尊嚴已affronted 。 He overlooked the fact that a sovereign may be clement and forgiving without doing harm to his kingdom.他忽略了這樣一個事實,即主權,可克萊門特和寬恕而不害了他的王國。 A further defect in his view is that Anselm found no necessary connection between Christ's death and the salvation of sinners.進一步缺損在他的看法是: anselm發現任何必要的聯繫基督的死和救贖的罪人。 Christ merited a great reward because he died when he had no need to (for he had no sin).基督值得偉大的獎賞,因為他去世時,他已沒有必要(他沒有單) 。 But he could not receive a reward, for he had everything.但他卻無法得到報酬,因為他的一切。 To whom then could he more fittingly assign his reward then to those for whom he had died?向誰,然後他可以更恰當地轉讓其報酬,然後向那些人,他已經死亡? This makes it more or less a matter of chance that sinners be saved.這使得較多或較少的問題,有機會的罪人得救。 Not very many these days are prepared to go along with Anselm.不多這幾天準備前往隨著anselm 。 But at least he took a very serious view of sin, and it is agreed that without this there will be no satisfactory view.但至少他的態度也很認真看待罪,大家一致表示,沒有這將不會有任何令人滿意的看法。

Penal Substitution刑法替代

The Reformers agreed with Anselm that sin is a very serious matter, but they saw it as a breaking of God's law rather than as an insult to God's honor.改革者同意anselm ,罪是一件很嚴肅的事,但他們認為這是一個打破了真主的法律,而不是作為一種侮辱上帝的榮耀。 The moral law, they held, is not to be taken lightly.道德法律,他們舉行,是不可掉以輕心。 "The wages of sin is death" (Rom. 6:23), and it is this that is the problem for sinful man. "罪的工價就是死" (羅馬書6時23分) ,這正是這就是問題所在,為罪孽深重的人。 They took seriously the scriptural teachings about the wrath of God and those that referred to the curse under which sinners lay.他們認真對待聖經的教義約上帝所憎惡的,以及那些所指的詛咒下罪人的責任。 It seemed clear to them that the essence of Christ's saving work consisted in his taking the sinner's place.似乎很清楚,以他們的本質,基督的拯救工作,在地中,他以罪人的地方。 In our stead Christ endured the death that is the wages of sin.在我們而起的基督忍受死亡,就是工資單。 He bore the curse that we sinners should have borne (Gal. 3:13).他無端背負了詛咒,我們的罪人,應該有傳染( gal. 3時13分) 。 The Reformers did not hesitate to speak of Christ as having borne our punishment or as having appeased the wrath of God in our place.改革者沒有猶豫發言,以基督為具有承擔我們的處罰或具有安撫上帝所憎惡的,在我們的地方。

Such views have been widely criticized.這些意見,受到普遍批評。 In particular it is pointed out that sin is not an external matter to be transferred easily from one person to another and that, while some forms of penalty are transferable (the payment of a fine), others are not (imprisonment, capital punishment).它特別指出,單是不是一種外在的問題,須移送很容易從一個人到另一個國家,雖然某些形式的刑罰可以轉讓(支付罰款) ,有的不(監禁,死刑) 。 It is urged that this theory sets Christ in opposition to the Father so that it maximizes the love of Christ and minimizes that of the Father.它呼籲,這一理論套基督教反對父親,以便使它最大限度地基督的愛和最小,即是父親。 Such criticisms may be valid against some of the ways in which the theory is stated, but they do not shake its essential basis.這樣的批評可能是對有效的一些方法,其中理論說明,但他們並沒有動搖其必要的基礎。 They overlook the fact that there is a double identification: Christ is one with sinners (the saved are "in" Christ, Rom. 8:1) and he is one with the Father (he and the Father are one, John 10:30; "God was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself," 2 Cor. 5:19).它們忽略了這樣一個事實,即雙重身份:基督是一個罪人(節省下來的是"中的"基督,光盤。 8:1 ) ,他是一個與父親(他與父原為一,約翰10:30 "上帝在基督裡,調和了世界,以自己的, " 2肺心病。 5時19分) 。 They also overlook the fact that there is much in the NT that supports the theory.他們還忽略了一個事實,即有許多在新台幣支持這一理論。 It is special pleading to deny that Paul, for example, puts forward this view.這是特別懇求否認保祿二世為榜樣,提出了這一觀點。 It may need to be carefully stated, but this view still says something important about the way Christ won our salvation.它可能需要加以仔細說明,但這種觀點似乎仍然表示,一些重要的關於基督獲得救贖。

Sacrifice犧牲

There is much about sacrifice in the OT and not a little in the NT.有很多犧牲,在城市旅遊局及創不小,在新台幣。 Some insist that it is this that gives us the key to understanding the atonement.有人堅持認為,這正是給我們的關鍵,以了解贖罪。 It is certainly true that the Bible regards Christ's saving act as a sacrifice, and this must enter into any satisfying theory.它的確聖經關於基督的儲蓄作為犧牲,這必須訂立任何令人滿意的理論。 But unless it is supplemented, it is an explanation that does not explain.但只要它是補充,這是一種解釋,即沒有解釋。 The moral view or penal substitution may be right or wrong, but at least they are intelligible.道德觀或刑法替代可能正確的或錯誤的,但至少他們都理解。 But how does sacrifice save?但如何犧牲救? The answer is not obvious.答案並不明顯。

Governmental Theory政府理論

Hugo Grotius argued that Christ did not bear our punishment but suffered as a penal example whereby the law was honored while sinners were pardoned.雨果格勞秀斯爭辯說,基督沒有承擔我們的處罰,但所遭受的刑罰,例如讓法律很榮幸,而罪人被赦免。 His view is called "governmental" because Grotius envisions God as a ruler or a head of government who passed a law, in this instance, "The soul that sinneth, it shall die."他的看法是所謂的"政府" ,因為格勞秀斯設想上帝作為一個統治者或政府首長出席,他們通過了一項法律,在這種情況下, "心靈sinneth ,它應必死" 。 Because God did not want sinners to die, he relaxed that rule and accepted the death of Christ instead.因為上帝不想罪人死了,他放鬆這一規則,並接受死亡的基督代替。 He could have simply forgiven mankind had he wanted to, but that would not have had any value for society.他本來可以簡單地原諒人類,他想,但不會有任何價值,為社會。 The death of Christ was a public example of the depth of sin and the lengths to which God would go to uphold the moral order of the universe.死亡的基督是一種公共的例子深度的單仲偕和長度,以真主會去維護道德秩序的宇宙。 This view is expounded in great detail in Defensio fidei catholicae de satisfactione Christi adversus F. Socinum (1636).這種觀點是闡明了非常詳細的在defensio信catholicae德satisfactione基督教相反樓socinum ( 1636 ) 。

Summary摘要

All the above views, in their own way, recognize that the atonement is vast and deep.所有上述看法,他們自己的方式,認識到贖罪是巨大和深刻。 There is nothing quite like it, and it must be understood in its own light.沒有什麼頗喜歡它,它必須被理解,在自己的光。 The plight of sinful man is disastrous, for the NT sees the sinner as lost, as suffering hell, as perishing, as cast into outer darkness, and more.困境,罪孽深重的人是災難性的,為新台幣看見罪人,因為失去了,因為苦難的地獄,因為其亡,作為演員到外層空間的黑暗,以及更多。 An atonement that rectifies all this must necessarily be complex.一個贖罪說,糾正這一切都必須以複雜的。 So we need all the vivid concepts: redemption, propitiation, justification, and all the rest.因此,我們需要各方面的生動概念:贖回, propitiation ,理由,以及所有的休息。 And we need all the theories.我們需要各方面的理論。 Each draws attention to an important aspect of our salvation and we dare not surrender any.每個提請注意的一個重要方面,我們的救恩,我們也不敢有任何投降。 But we are small minded sinners and the atonement is great and vast.不過,我們都是小志同道合的罪人和贖罪,是偉大的,具有廣闊的。 We should not expect that our theories will ever explain it fully.我們不應期望,我們的理論,將以往任何時候都解釋它充分。 Even when we put them all together, we will no more than begin to comprehend a little of the vastness of God's saving deed.甚至當我們把它們都在一起,我們將不會超過開始理解一點點了浩瀚的上帝的拯救之舉。

L Morris升莫里斯

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
DM Baillie, God Was in Christ; K Barth, The Doctrine of Reconciliation; E Brunner, The Mediator; H Bushnell, The Vicarious Sacrifice; JM Campbell, The Nature of the Atonement; S Cave, The Doctrine of the Work of Christ; RW Dale, The Atonement; FW Dillistone, The Significance of the Cross; J Denney, The Death of Christ and The Christian Doctrine of Reconciliation; RS Franks, The Work of Christ; PT Forsyth, The Cruciality of the Cross and The work of Christ; L Hodgson, The Doctrine of the Atonement; TH Hughes, The Atonement; J Knox, The Death of Christ; RC Moberly, Atonement and Personality; J Moltmann, The Crucified God; L Morris, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross and The Cross in the NT; RS Paul, The Atonement and the Sacraments; V Taylor, Jesus and His Sacrifice and The Atonement in NT Teaching; LW Grensted, A Short History of the Doctrine of the Atonement; R Wallace, The Atoning Death of Christ.馬克baillie ,上帝在基督裡; k巴特,這個學說的和解;電子布蘭,調解員; h布什內爾,替代犧牲; jm坎貝爾,但性質贖罪; s洞窟,中庸的工作,基督; rw戴爾,贖罪; FW的dillistone ,十字架的意義; j ,丹尼,死亡的基督和基督教教義的和解;盧比弗蘭克斯,這項工作的基督;鉑佛塞斯, cruciality的十字架上的工作,基督;升,惠普,這個學說的贖罪;次休斯,贖罪; j諾克斯,死亡的基督;鋼筋moberly ,贖罪和人格; j莫特曼,被釘十字架的上帝;升莫里斯,教廷鼓吹的交叉和跨中新台幣;盧比保羅,贖罪和聖禮; v泰勒,耶穌和他的犧牲和贖罪在新台幣教學; LW的格倫斯特德,歷史較短的學說贖罪與r華萊士, atoning死亡的基督。


Doctrine of the Atonement中庸贖罪

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

The word atonement, which is almost the only theological term of English origin, has a curious history.字贖罪,這幾乎是唯一的神學任期英語出身,有一個奇怪的歷史。 The verb "atone", from the adverbial phrase "at one" (ME at oon), at first meant to reconcile, or make "at one"; from this it came to denote the action by which such reconciliation was effected, eg satisfaction for all offense or an injury.動詞"贖罪" ,從狀語短語"在一" (我在潘議員) ,在第一次的意思調和,或作"一" ,從這個它是指行動,使這種和解的效力,如滿意所有進攻或傷害。 Hence, in Catholic theology, the Atonement is the Satisfaction of Christ, whereby God and the world are reconciled or made to be at one.因此,在天主教神學,贖罪是滿意的基督,即上帝和世界的調和或向設在一。 "For God indeed was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself" (2 Corinthians 5:19). "上帝的確是在基督裡,調和了世界,以自己的" (哥林多5時19分) 。 The Catholic doctrine on this subject is set forth in the sixth Session of the Council of Trent, chapter ii.天主教教義就這個問題提出的建議載於第六屆理事會本屆會議的遄達,第二章。 Having shown the insufficiency of Nature, and of Mosaic Law the Council continues:表現出功能不全的性質,並鑲嵌法安理會繼續:

Whence it came to pass, that the Heavenly Father, the Father of mercies and the God of all comfort (2 Corinthians 1, 3), when that blessed fullness of the time was come (Galatians 4:4) sent unto men Jesus Christ, His own Son who had been, both before the Law and during the time of the Law, to many of the holy fathers announced and promised, that He might both redeem the Jews, who were under the Law and that the Gentiles who followed not after justice might attain to justice and that all men might receive the adoption of sons.何時會有它來通過,即天父,在父親的慈悲和上帝的一切舒適( 2哥林多前書1 , 3 ) ,當有福豐滿的時候,是來(加拉太4時04分)發出祂男子耶穌基督,自己的兒子,他們一直是,雙方在法律面前,在當時的法律規定,許多聖教父宣布,並承諾,他可能既挽救猶太人的人,根據法律規定,並外邦人的人之後不經過司法可能達到繩之以法,並要求所有男子可能獲得通過的兒子。 Him God had proposed as a propitiator, through faith in His blood (Romans 3:25), for our sins, and not for our sins only, but also for those of the whole world (I John ii, 2).上帝對他提出了作為一個propitiator ,通過信仰他的血液裡(羅馬書3點25分) ,為我們的罪,而不是為我們的罪而已,但也為那些符合整個世界的(約翰二, 2 ) 。

More than twelve centuries before this, the same dogma was proclaimed in the words of the Nicene Creed, "who for us men and for our salvation, came down, took flesh, was made man; and suffered. "And all that is thus taught in the decrees of the councils may be read in the pages of the New Testament.超過十二世紀以來在這之前,同樣的教條被宣布在的話尼西亞信" ,他們為我們人類和我們的救恩,下來了肉,取得了男子和其苦。 "及一切就是因此教在該法令的,可以在閱讀網頁的新約聖經。 For instance, in the words of Our Lord, "even as the Son of man is not come to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give His life a redemption for many" (Matthew 20:28); or of St. Paul, "Because in him, it hath well pleased the Father that all fulness should dwell; and through him to reconcile all things unto himself, making peace through the blood of his cross, both as to the things that are on earth, and the things that are in heaven."例如,在的話我們的主" ,甚至作為人子,是不是來被ministered所不欲,但部長,並給他的生命,挽救了很多" (馬太20時28分) ;或聖保羅" ,因為在他的,它歸服好高興父親所有fulness應該糾纏;並通過他向調和一切事物祂自己,使和平的鮮血,他的十字架,既作為向東西,是在地球上,和事情是在天上" 。 (Colossians 1:19-20).他們( 1:19-20 ) 。 The great doctrine thus laid down in the beginning was further unfolded and brought out into clearer light by the work of the Fathers and theologians.偉大的學說,從而奠定了在一開始就進一步開展,並煥發出更清晰的光所擔當的工作,父親和神學家。 And it may be noted that in this instance the development is chiefly due to Catholic speculation on the mystery, and not, as in the case of other doctrines, to controversy with heretics.它可以指出,在這一點上的發展,主要是由於天主教炒賣的奧秘,而不是如目前在其他學說,爭議與異教徒。 At first we have the central fact made known in the Apostolic preaching, that mankind was fallen and was raised up and redeemed from sin by the blood of Christ.首先,我們有黨中央,其實有名,在使徒傳道,人類正下降,並提出了與贖回,從單由血液輸送的喊聲。 But it remained for the pious speculation of Fathers and theologians to enter into the meaning of this great truth, to inquire into the state of fallen man, and to ask how Christ accomplished His work of Redemption.但它仍是為虔誠的投機活動的父親和神學家進入含義這個偉大的真理,詢問到了國家的塌男子,並問如何復活完成他的工作的贖回權。 By whatever names or figures it may be described, that work is the reversal of the Fall, the blotting out of sin, the deliverance from bondage, the reconciliation of mankind with God.不管名稱或數字,它可形容,那工作,是逆轉的秋天,總結出的單仲偕,救我們脫離奴役,和解的人與神。 And it is brought to pass by the Incarnation, by the life, the sufferings, and the death of the Divine Redeemer.這是提請路過的化身,由生活中,痛苦和死亡的神聖的救贖。 All this may be summed up in the word Atonement.這一切都可以歸結起來,在這個詞贖罪。 This, is so to say, the starting point.這一點,是這樣說,為出發點。 And herein all are indeed at one.和這裡的一切確實是在一個。 But, when it was attempted to give a more precise account of the nature of the Redemption and the manner of its accomplishment, theological speculation took different courses, some of which were suggested by the various names and figures under which this ineffable mystery is adumbrated in Holy Scripture.但是,當它試圖作出一個更為精確的戶口性質,贖回和方式,其成績,神學投機採取了不同的課程,其中也有一些建議,由不同的名稱和數字下這無法形容的奧秘是在勾畫神聖的經文。 Without pretending to give a full history of the discussions, we may briefly indicate some of the main lines on which the doctrine was developed, and touch on the more important theories put forward in explanation of the Atonement.沒有假裝作出全面的歷史的討論,我們可以簡單地顯示一些主要線路上,該理論的發展,幾乎觸及到更重要的理論提出了解釋贖罪。

(a) In any view, the Atonement is founded on the Divine Incarnation. ( a )在任何角度來看,贖罪是建基於神的化身。 By this great mystery, the Eternal Word took to Himself the nature of man and, being both God and man, became the Mediator between God and men.通過這一偉大的奧秘,永恆的字了,以自己的本質,人,既是人與上帝,成為調停者與上帝的男人。 From this, we have one of the first and most profound forms of theological speculation on the Atonement, the theory which is sometimes described as Mystical Redemption.從此,我們第一個最深刻的形式神學投機就贖罪,理論有時被說成是神秘的贖回權。 Instead of seeking a solution in legal figures, some of the great Greek Fathers were content to dwell on the fundamental fact of the Divine Incarnation.而不是尋求解決辦法,在法律上的數字,其中一些偉大的希臘父親內容糾纏於基本事實的神聖的化身。 By the union of the Eternal Word with the nature of man all mankind was lifted up and, so to say, deified.由聯盟的永恆詞與自然的人是全人類的,是解嚴了,所以說,神化。 "He was made man", says St. Athanasius, "that we might be made gods" (De Incarnatione Verbi, 54). "他是男人" ,說聖athanasius說, "我們可能會被神" (德incarnatione verbi , 54 ) 。 "His flesh was saved, and made free the first of all, being made the body of the Word, then we, being concorporeal therewith, are saved by the same (Orat., II, Contra Arianos, lxi). And again, "For the presence of the Saviour in the flesh was the price of death and the saving of the whole creation (Ep. ad Adelphium, vi). "他的肉體被保存起來,並提出免費首先,正體的字,那我們作為concorporeal條文,是救相同( orat. ,二,矛盾arianos , LXI的) ,並再次表示"為在場的救世主,在肉體為代價的死亡和拯救整個創作( ep.專案adelphium ,六) 。 In like manner St. Gregory of Nazianzus proves the integrity of the Sacred Humanity by the argument, "That which was not assumed is not healed; but that which is united to God is saved" (to gar aproslepton, atherapeuton ho de henotai to theu, touto kai sozetai).同樣地,聖格雷戈里的nazianzus證明了完整的神聖人性的說法, "因為這是不假設是沒有癒合,但認為這是美國向上帝拯救" (明嘉aproslepton , atherapeuton何德henotai以theu , touto啟sozetai ) 。 This speculation of the Greek Fathers undoubtedly contains a profound truth which is sometimes forgotten by later authors who are more intent on framing juridical theories of ransom and satisfaction.這種猜測的希臘教父無疑包含了一個深刻的道理,這就是我們有時會忘記,後來作詞的人更熱衷於制定法律理論的贖金和滿足感。 But it is obvious that this account of the matter is imperfect, and leaves much to be explained.但很明顯,這個賬戶的事情是不完美的,仍有待解釋。 It must be remembered, moreover, that the Fathers themselves do not put this forward as a full explanation.但我們必須記得,而且,說,父親自己不提出,作為一個正式的解釋。 For while many of their utterances might seem to imply that the Redemption was actually accomplished by the union of a Divine Person with the human nature, it is clear from other passages that they do not lose sight of the atoning sacrifice.雖然他們的許多言論似乎在暗示,贖回,實際上是完成了由聯盟的一項神聖的人,與人的本性,它是明確的,從其他通道,表明他們並沒有忽視這一atoning犧牲。 The Incarnation is, indeed, the source and the foundation of the Atonement, and these profound thinkers have, so to say, grasped the cause and its effects as one vast whole.肉身是,事實上,從源頭和基礎贖罪,而這些深刻的思想家,所以說,抓住了事業和它的影響,作為一個龐大的整體。 Hence they look on to the result before staying to consider the means by which it was accomplished.因此,他們尋找到的結果,然後下榻考慮以何種方式,由它完成。

(b) But something more on this matter had already been taught in the preaching of the Apostles and in the pages of the New Testament. (二) ,但更多的東西就這件事已經被教導在鼓吹的使徒和在頁的新約聖經。 The restoration of fallen man was the work of the Incarnate Word.恢復塌名男子是工作的肉身字。 "God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself" (2 Corinthians 5:19). "上帝在基督裡調和世界,以自己的" (哥林多5時19分) 。 But the peace of that reconciliation was accomplished by the death of the Divine Redeemer, "making peace through the blood of His cross" (Colossians 1:20).但和平的和解是通過死亡的神聖救贖"的道路,使得通過和平的血,他的十字架"他們( 1:20 ) 。 This redemption by death is another mystery, and some of the Fathers in the first ages are led to speculate on its meaning, and to construct a theory in explanation.這贖回死刑是另一個謎,而有些父親在第一齊率領猜測它的含義,並建構一個理論解釋。 Here the words and figures used in Holy Scripture help to guide the current of theological thought.這裡的話,並用數字的聖經有助於指導當前的神學思想。 Sin is represented as a state of bondage or servitude, and fallen man is delivered by being redeemed, or bought with a price.單仲偕代表的是作為一個國家的勞役,或勞役,並跌至男子交付被贖回,或買一個價格。 "For you are bought with a great price" (1 Corinthians 6:20). "你是買了一個巨大的代價" (哥林多前書6時20分) 。 "Thou art worthy, O Lord, to take the book, and to open the seals thereof; because thou wast slain, and hast redeemed to God, in thy blood" (Revelation 5:9). "你的藝術價值,主啊,以這本書,並開啟封條;因為你廢殺害,並對贖回上帝,在你的血" (啟示5時09分) 。 Looked at in this light, the Atonement appears as the deliverance from captivity by the payment of a ransom.看過這個角度來說,贖罪似乎為救我們脫離囚禁通過支付贖金。 This view is already developed in the second century.這種觀點是已開發中的第二個世紀。 "The mighty Word and true Man reasonably redeeming us by His blood, gave Himself a ransom for those who had been brought into bondage. And since the Apostasy unjustly ruled over us, and, whereas we belonged by nature to God Almighty, alienated us against nature and made us his own disciples, the Word of God, being mighty in all things, and failing not in His justice, dealt justly even with the Apostasy itself, buying back from it the things which were His own" (Irenaeus Aversus Haereses V, i). "浩蕩Word和真正的男人,合理挽救我們,由他的血液,投案自首了贖金,為那些被帶進枷鎖,並自叛教不公正地統治著我們,而我們則屬於本質,以萬能的真主,疏遠了我們對性質,並提出我們自己的弟子,上帝的話,威武在一切事上,並未能不是在他的正義,公正處理,甚至與叛教本身,購回,從它的東西都是他自己的" (愛任紐aversus haereses v ,一) 。 And St. Augustine says in well-known words: "Men were held captive under the devil and served the demons, but they were redeemed from captivity. For they could sell themselves. The Redeemer came, and gave the price; He poured forth his blood and bought the whole world. Do you ask what He bought? See what He gave, and find what He bought. The blood of Christ is the price. How much is it worth? What but the whole world? What but all nations?"和聖奧古斯丁說,在著名的話: "男人被關押下,魔鬼和送達惡魔,但他們贖回,從圈養的,因為他們可以自我推銷。救世主來了,並給出了價格,他傾注了他的血液買下了整個世界。你想問什麼,他買了嗎?看看他,並找到他所買的。鮮血,是基督的價格是多少,是否值得?什麼,但對整個世界有什麼,但所有國家? " (Enarratio in Psalm xcv, n. 5). ( enarratio在詩篇xcv , 12月31日5 ) 。

It cannot be questioned that this theory also contains a true principle.它不能被訊問時,這一理論也包含了一個真實的原則。 For it is founded on the express words of Scripture, and is supported by many of the greatest of the early Fathers and later theologians.因為它是建基於表達的話,經文中,並得到許多最大的早期父親和後來的神學家。 But unfortunately, at first, and for a long period of theological history, this truth was somewhat obscured by a strange confusion, which would seem to have arisen from the natural tendency to take a figure too literally, and to apply it in details which were not contemplated by those who first made use of it.但不幸的是,在第一,並在相當長的一段歷史,神學,這個真理是有點模糊了一個奇怪的混亂,這似乎已出現了從自然傾向採取這一數字過於從字面上來看,並運用它在細節,其中爭議不是那些率先提出利用它。 It must not be forgotten that the account of our deliverance from sin is set forth in figures.我們絕不能忘記該帳戶的,我們救我們脫離罪惡,是所列數字。 Conquest, captivity, and ransom are familiar facts of human history.征服,圈養,並勒索贖金熟悉的事實,是人類歷史的。 Man, having yielded to the temptations of Satan, was like to one overcome in battle.男子屈服於誘惑,撒旦,是想克服一戰。 Sin, again, is fitly likened to a state of slavery.單仲偕,又是fitly比喻為一個國家的奴役。 And when man was set free by the shedding of Christ's precious Blood, this deliverance would naturally recall (even if it had not been so described in Scripture) the redemption of a captive by the payment of a ransom.當男子被釋放,是由脫落的基督的寶血,這救我們自然會記得(即使它沒有得到這麼描述的經文)贖回自保通過支付贖金。

But however useful and illuminating in their proper place, figures of this kind are perilous in the hands of those who press them too far, and forget that they are figures.不過,有益的和有啟發性,在適當的位置,數字的,這是一種危險的,在手裡的那些記者,他們太遙遠,忘記自己是數字。 This is what happened here.這是這裡所發生的事。 When a captive is ransomed the price is naturally paid to the conqueror by whom he is held in bondage.當一個俘虜是贖出的價格自然是支付給征服者由何人,他是在勞役。 Hence, if this figure were taken and interpreted literally in all its details, it would seem that the price of man's ransom must be paid to Satan.因此,如果這一數字被帶到和解釋,從字面上來看,在其所有的細節,似乎價格隨人的贖金,必須十分注重撒旦。 The notion is certainly startling, if not revolting.概念當然是驚人,如果不是厭惡。 Even if brave reasons pointed in this direction, we might well shrink from drawing the concluslon.即使勇敢的原因,指出這個方向走,我們可能會萎縮,從繪製concluslon 。 And this is in fact so far from being the case that it seems hard to find any rational explanation of such a payment, or any right on which it could be founded.這實際上是在這麼遠非如此說,似乎難以找到合理的解釋,這種款項,或任何權利,就可以成立。 Yet, strange to say, the bold flight of theological speculation was not checked by these misgivings.不過,說也奇怪,大膽飛行的神學投機並不核對這些疑慮。 In the above-cited passage of St. Irenæus, we read that the Word of God "dealt justly even with the Apostasy itself [ie Satan], buying back from it the things which were His own."在上述列舉的通過聖irenæus ,我們看到上帝的話"的處理,甚至理直氣壯地與叛教本身[即撒旦] ,買回來,它的東西都是他自己" 。 This curious notion, apparently first mooted by St. Irenæus, was taken up by Origen in the next century, and for about a thousand years it played a conspicuous part in the history of theology.這個奇怪的概念,顯然是第一次提出時,由聖irenæus ,是成立初期所採取的淵源,在下一世紀,大約是1000年,它起到了突出的一部分,在過去的歷史神學。 In the hands of some of the later Fathers and medieval writers, it takes various forms, and some of its more repulsive features are softened or modified.在政府手中的一些後來父親和中世紀的作家,它採取各種形式,和它的一些更醜惡嘴臉都軟化或改裝。 But the strange notion of some right, or claim, on the part of Satan is still present.但奇怪的概念,一些正確的,或宣稱,對部分撒旦依然存在。 A protest was raised by St. Gregory of Nazianzus in the fourth century, as might be expected from that most accurate of the patristic theologians.抗議活動是由聖格雷戈里的nazianzus在第四世紀,可以預料從這一最準確的教父神學家。 But it was not till St. Anselm and Abelard had met it with unanswerable arguments that its power was finally broken.但目前尚不到聖anselm和阿貝拉爾見過它無可辯駁的論據,其權力是終於打破了。 It makes a belated appearance in the pages of Peter Lombard.它使一個姍姍來遲地出現在頁面的彼得倫巴第。 (c) But it is not only in connection with the theory of ransom that we meet with this notion of "rights" on the part of Satan. (三) ,但它不僅是他涉嫌與理論的贖金,在這方面能夠符合這個概念的"權利" ,對部分撒旦。 Some of the Fathers set the matter in a different aspect.有些父親定下的事,在不同的方面。 Fallen man, it was said, was justly under the dominion of the devil, in punishment for sin.塌男子,有人說,這是根據公正的統治魔鬼,在處罰單。 But when Satan brought suffering and death on the sinless Saviour, he abused his power and exceeded his right, so that he was now justly deprived of his dominion over the captives.但是,當撒旦帶來的痛苦和死亡,對罪孽的救主,他濫用權力,並超過了他的權利,讓他現在理直氣壯地剝奪他的統治的俘虜。 This explanation is found especially in the sermons of St. Leo and the "Morals" of St. Gregory the Great.這個解釋是,發現特別是在布道的聖利奧和"道德"的聖格里高利大。 Closely allied to this explanation is the singular "mouse-trap" metaphor of St. Augustine.緊密結盟的這個解釋是奇異的"鼠標陷阱"隱喻的聖奧古斯丁。 In this daring figure of speech, the Cross is regarded as the trap in which the bait is set and the enemy is caught.在這一大膽的人物講話後,兩岸關係被視為是陷阱,其中誘餌,是集與敵捕獲。 "The Redeemer came and the deceiver was overcome. What did our Redeemer do to our Captor? In payment for us He set the trap, His Cross, with His blood for bait. He [Satan] could indeed shed that blood; but he deserved not to drink it. By shedding the blood of One who was not his debtor, he was forced to release his debtors" (Serm. cxxx, part 2). "救贖主來到和deceiver是克服什麼救世主,我們做我們的劫持者?付款為我們定下的陷阱,他在十字架上,他的血壓為誘餌,他[撒旦]確實可以棚血,但他不愧不要飲用它,通過脫落的鮮血,其中一人不是他的債務人,他被迫釋放他的債務人" ( serm. cxxx ,第2部分) 。

(d) These ideas retained their force well into the Middle Ages. (四)這些想法保留自己的部隊早已進入中世紀。 But the appearance of St. Anselm's "Cur Deus Homo?"但外表聖anselm的"當前deus骨頭" ? made a new epoch in the theology of the Atonement.作出了新的時代,在神學的贖罪。 It may be said, indeed, that this book marks an epoch in theological literature and doctrinal development.可以說,的確,這本書標誌著一個劃時代的,在神學和文學理論的發展。 There are not many works, even among those of the greatest teachers, that can compare in this respect with the treatise of St. Anselm.有沒有很多工程,即使那些最偉大的老師,可以比較,在這方面與傷寒聖anselm 。 And, with few exceptions, the books that have done as much to influence and guide the growth of theology are the outcome of some great struggle with heresy; while others, again, only summarize the theological learning of the age.而且,除了少數例外,書籍都要做的事很多,影響和引導的增長是神學的結果有些偉大鬥爭與異端,而其他人,同樣,只有總結神學學習的時代。 But this little book is at once purely pacific and eminently original.但是,這個小小的書,是一次純粹的太平洋和遙不可及,原來的。 Nor could any dogmatic treatise well be more simple and unpretending than this luminous dialogue between the great archbishop and his disciple Boso.也不能有任何教條式的論文,以及更加簡單和unpretending比這個夜光之間的對話,偉大的大主教和他的弟子房。 There is no parade of learning, and but little in the way of appeal to authorities.有沒有操的學習,但很少在阻礙呼籲當局。 The disciple asks and the master answers; and both alike face the great problem before them fearlessly, but at the same time with all due reverence and modesty.該弟子問及師父的答案;兩國都面臨著很大的問題面前,無所畏懼,但在同一時間,同一切應有的尊敬和謙虛。 Anselm says at the outset that he will not so much show his disciple the truth he needs, as seek it along with him; and that when he says anything that is not confirmed by higher authority, it must be taken as tentative, and provisional. anselm說,在開始的,他不會這麼多表現出他的大弟子的真相,他的需要,為尋求它一直與他和時,他說什麼這是不證實,由更高的權力,它必須被視為是暫時性的,並臨時數字。 He adds that, though he may in some measure meet the question, one who is wiser could do it better; and that, whatever man may know or say on this subject, there will always remain deeper reasons that are beyond him.他補充說,雖然他可能會在一定程度上滿足了問題,一個人,是較為明智的,可以做的更好,並認為,無論男人可以知道或者說,關於這個問題,將始終保持更深的原因是超越他。 In the same spirit he concludes the whole treatise by submitting it to reasonable correction at the hands of others.在同樣的精神,他的結論是整個論文一經遞交,它以合理的校正在別人的手裡。

It may be safely said that this is precisely what has come to pass.它可以安全地說,這也恰恰是我們已經到了通過。 For the theory put forward by Anselm has been modified by the work of later theologians, and confirmed by the testimony of truth.該理論所提出的anselm已經被修改,由工作後,神學家,並證實的證詞真理。 In contrast to some of the other views already noticed, this theory is remarkably clear and symmetrical.相比之下其他一些意見已察覺到,這個理論,這是明顯清晰和對稱的。 And it is certainly more agreeable to reason than the "mouse-trap" metaphor, or the notion of purchase money paid to Satan.這當然是比較認同的理由比"鼠標陷阱"的隱喻,或概念的購貨款支付給撒旦。 Anselm's answer to the question is simply the need of satisfaction of sin. anselm的問題的答案是簡單的需要滿意的罪過。 No sin, as he views the matter, can be forgiven without satisfaction.沒有罪過,因為他的意見,這個問題,是可以原諒的,沒有滿足感。 A debt to Divine justice has been incurred; and that debt must needs be paid.債務,以神聖的正義已招致;債務的需要,必須予以賠償。 But man could not make this satisfaction for himself; the debt is something far greater than he can pay; and, moreover, all the service that he can offer to God is already due on other titles.但是人不能做這種滿意為自己;債務是遠遠大於他能支付; ,而且所有服務,他可以提供給上帝已經因其他職稱。 The suggestion that some innocent man, or angel, might possibly pay the debt incurred by sinners is rejected, on the ground that in any case this would put the sinner under obligation to his deliverer, and he would thus become the servant of a mere creature.有人認為一些無辜的人,或天使,有可能償還債務招致的罪人,是否決了,理由是:在任何情況下,這會給罪人下的義務,他送的,他將因此成為僕人,只是造物。 The only way in which the satisfaction could be made, and men could be set free from sin, was by the coming of a Redeemer who is both God and man.唯一的出路,其中滿意度可以提出,男人可定,不受單,是由未來的救世主,他們既是上帝的人。 His death makes full satisfaction to the Divine Justice, for it is something greater than all the sins of all rnankind.他的去世使得完全滿意的,以神的公義,因為它是大於一切的罪過全部rnankind 。 Many side questions are incidentally treated in the dialogue between Anselm and Boso.很多副作用問題,現順便待遇之間的對話anselm和房。 But this is the substance of the answer given to the great question, "Cur Deus Homo?".不過,這是實質的答案給大問題, "當前deus骨頭嗎? " 。 Some modern writers have suggested that this notion of deliverance by means of satisfaction may have a German origin.一些現代作家曾建議這一概念的解脫的方式感到滿意,可有一個德國原產地。 For in old Teutonic laws a criminal might pay the wergild instead of undergoing punishment.為在舊teutonic法律刑事可能付出wergild而不是受處罰。 But this custom was not peculiar or to the Germans, as we may see from the Celtic eirig, and, as Riviere has pointed out, there is no need to have recourse to this explanation.不過,這種習俗是不奇怪的,還是向德國人,因為我們可能會看到從凱爾特eirig ,而且,正如維埃指出,有沒有必要求助於這個解釋。 For the notion of satisfaction for sin was already present in the whole system of ecclesiastical penance, though it had been left for Anselm to use it in illustration of the doctrine of the Atonernent.為概念的滿意度為單已經是目前在整個系統中的教會懺悔,但已離開anselm使用它在說明教義的atonernent 。 It may be added that the same idea underlies the old Jewish "sin-offerings" as well as the similar rites that are found in many ancient religions.可以說,理念一致,突顯舊猶太人"罪惡-產品" ,以及為類似的儀式被發現,在許多古老的宗教。 It is specially prominent in the rites and prayers used on the Day of Atonement.它是專門突出,在禮儀和祈禱用的上的贖罪日。 And this, it may be added, is now the ordinary acceptance of the word; to "atone" is to give satisfaction, or make amends, for an offense or an injury.這一點,它可能會增加,是目前普通接受的字眼; "贖罪" ,是給予滿意的,不作修改,為進攻或傷害。

(e) Whatever may be the reason, it is clear that this doctrine was attracting special attention in the age of St. Anselm. (五) ,無論可能的原因,很顯然,這種學說被吸引到特別注意在年齡聖anselm 。 His own work bears witness that it was undertaken at the urgent request of others who wished to have some new light on this mystery.他自己的工作證明了這是在緊急請求其他人士希望有一些新的光對這個謎。 To some extent, the solution offered by Anselm seems to have satisfied these desires, though, in the course of further discussion, an important part of his theory, the absolute necessity of Redemption and of satisfaction for sin, was discarded by later theologians, and found few defenders.在一定程度上,解決的辦法提供anselm似乎已感到滿意,這些慾望,雖然,在這個過程中進一步討論的一個重要組成部分,他的理論,絕對有必要的贖回及滿意度為罪過,被丟棄後,神學家,並發現數維護者。 But meanwhile, within a few years of the appearance of the "Cur Deus Homo?"但與此同時,在幾年內出現的"當前deus骨頭" ? another theory on the subject had been advanced by Abelard.另一種理論對此事已提前阿貝拉爾。 In common with St. Anselm, Abelard utterly rejected the old and then still prevailing, notion that the devil had some sort of right over fallen man, who could only be justly delivered by means of a ransom paid to his captor.在共同與聖anselm ,阿貝拉爾堅決反對舊的,然後仍普遍存在,概念,即魔鬼了某種權利,塌的男子,只可理直氣壯地交付方式贖金支付給他的劫持者。 Against this he very rightly urges, with Anselm, that Satan was clearly guilty of injustice in the matter and could have no right to anything but punishment.針對此,他非常正確地認識到,與anselm ,即撒旦顯然是犯了不公正在這件事的,並可能帶來無權什麼,但處罰。 But, on the other hand, Abelard was unable to accept Anselm's view that an equivalent satisfaction for sin was necessary, and that this debt could only be paid by the death of the Divine Redeerner.但是,在另一方面,阿貝拉爾無法接受anselm的看法,即相當於一個滿意為單是必要的,而且這種債務只能付出死亡的神聖redeerner 。 He insists that God could have pardoned us without requiring satisfaction.他堅持認為,上帝可以原諒,我們無需感到滿意。 And, in his view, the reason for the Incarnation and the death of Christ was the pure love of God. ,而在他看來,原因為化身和死亡的基督是純上帝的愛。 By no other means could men be so effectually turned from sin and moved to love God.沒有其他方法可男人如此有效地把從單移到愛上帝。 Abelard's teaching on this point, as on others, was vehemently attacked by St. Bernard.阿貝拉爾的教學在這一點上,為他人,被猛烈抨擊,由聖伯納德。 But it should be borne in mind that some of the arguments urged in condemnation of Abelard would affect the position of St. Anselm also, not to speak of later Catholic theology.但是,應該緊記的一些論點敦促譴責阿貝拉爾會影響地位的聖anselm同時,不要說後來的天主教神學。

In St. Bernard's eyes it seemed that Abelard, in denying the rights of Satan, denied the "Sacrament of Redemption" and regarded the teaching and example of Christ as the sole benefit of the Incarnation.在聖伯納德的眼睛,似乎阿貝拉爾,否認權利撒旦,否認"聖事的救贖" ,並把教學和實例,以基督為唯一受益的化身。 "But", as Mr. Oxenham observes, " ,而是" ,因為先生oxenham觀察,

he had not said so, and he distinctly asserts in his "Apology" that "the Son of God was incarnate to deliver us from the bondage of sin and yoke of the Devil and to open to us by His death the gate of eternal life."他並沒有這麼說,他鮮明地斷言,在他的"道歉" , "上帝的兒子,是肉身,以救我們脫離罪和枷鎖的魔鬼,並開放給我們對他的逝世大門的永恆的生命。 " And St. Bernard himself, in this very Epistle, distinctly denies any absolute necessity for the method of redemption chosen, and suggests a reason for it not so very unlike Abelard's.和聖伯納德自己,就在這個書信,鮮明地否認自己有任何絕對有必要的方法,贖回選擇,並提出了一個理由,因為它沒有那麼很不像阿貝拉爾的。 "Perhaps that method is the best, whereby in a land of forgetfulness and sloth we might be more powerfully as vividly reminded of our fall, through the so great and so manifold sufferings of Him who repaired it." "也許那個方法就是最好的,而在土地的健忘與懶惰,我們可能會更有力地作為生動地提醒我們秋天,透過如此之大等多方面的痛苦,他修理它" 。 Elsewhere when not speaking controversially, he says still more plainly: "Could not the Creator have restored His work without that difficulty? He could, but He preferred to do it at his own cost, lest any further occasion should be given for that worst and most odious vice of ingratitude in man" (Bern., Serm. xi, in Cant.).在其他地方時,不發言引起爭議,他說,更是赤裸裸地說: "不能造物主已經恢復他的工作,沒有這方面的困難,他能做到,但他寧願這樣做他自己的成本,否則,任何進一步的場合應考慮為最壞最可憎的副ingratitude在男子" ( bern. ,血清。璽,在斜面) 。 What is this but to say, with Abelard that "He chose the Incarnation as the most effectual method for eliciting His creature's love?"這是什麼,但說,阿貝拉爾說, "他選擇的化身,看作是最有效的方法,徵求他的造物的愛" ? (The Catholic Doctrine of the Atonement, 85, 86). (天主教教義的贖罪, 85 , 86 ) 。

(f) Although the high authority of St. Bernard was thus against them, the views of St. Anselm and Abelard, the two men who in different ways were the fathers of Scholasticism, shaped the course of later medieval theology. (六)雖然高權威的聖伯納德因此,對他們來說,意見的聖anselm和阿貝拉爾,這兩名男子,他們以不同的方式被父親士林,形過程後,中世紀的神學。 The strange notion of the rights of Satan, against which they had both protested, now disappears from the pages of our theologians.但奇怪的概念權利撒旦,對他們都提出抗議,現在消失了,從頁面我們的神學家。 For the rest, the view which ultimately prevailed may be regarded as a combination of the opinions of Anselm and Abelard.對於剩下的,還有人認為,其最終目的是普遍存在的,可被視為一個組合的意見anselm和阿貝拉爾。 In spite of the objections urged by the latter writer, Anselm's doctrine of Satisfaction was adopted as the basis.儘管反對敦促後者作家, anselm的學說的滿意度是通過為基礎。 But St. Thomas and the other medieval masters agree with Abelard in rejecting the notion that this full Satisfaction for sin was absolutely necessary.但聖托馬斯和其他中世紀主人同意阿貝拉爾拒絕意念,認為這完全滿意為單是絕對必要的。 At the most, they are willing to admit a hypothetical or conditional necessity for the Redemption by the death of Christ.在最,他們是願意承認的一個假設性的或有條件的必要性贖回所死亡的基督。 The restoration of fallen man was a work of God's free mercy and benevolence.恢復塌男子的工作,上帝的自由慈悲與仁愛。 And, even on the hypothesis that the loss was to be repaired, this might have been brought about in many and various ways.和中,即使假設,即損失是被修理,這可能會帶來很多,並以各種方式。 The sin might have been remitted freely, without any satisfaction at all, or some lesser satisfaction, however imperfect in itself, might have been accepted as sufficient.罪惡可能已匯出自由,沒有任何滿足感,或者一些較小的滿意度,但不完美的本身,可能已被採納為不夠的。 But on the hypothesis that God as chosen to restore mankind, and at the same time, to require full satisfaction as a condition of pardon and deliverance, nothing less than the Atonement made by one who was God as well as man could suffice as satisfaction for the offense against the Divine Majesty.但假設,即上帝選擇,以恢復人類,並在同一時間內,必須全部滿意不滿意作為一項條件的赦免和救贖,不啻為贖罪所作出的一個人是上帝以及人可能就夠了,因為滿意進攻,對神聖陛下。 And in this case Anselm's argument will hold good.在此情況下, anselm的說法將舉行精彩。 Mankind cannot be restored unless God becomes man to save them.人類不能恢復,除非上帝變成男子,以挽救他們。

In reference to many points of detail the Schoolmen, here as elsewhere, adopted divergent views.在參考了很多的詳細schoolmen ,這裡與其他地方一樣,採取了不同的意見。 One of the chief questions at issue was the intrinsic adequacy of the satisfaction offered by Christ.其中的行政問題,在問題,是內在的充實的滿意度所提供的基督。 On this point the majority, with St. Thomas at their head, maintained that, by reason of the infinite dignity of the Divine Person, the least action or suffering of Christ had an infinite value, so that in itself it would suffice as an adequate satisfaction for the sins of the whole world.關於這一點大多數人,與聖托馬斯在其頭,認為,因她無限的尊嚴,神聖的人,最起碼的行動或痛苦的基督了無限的價值,所以,這本身便已經足夠作為一個足夠滿意度為捷聯慣導系統的整個世界。 Scotus and his school, on the other hand, disputed this intrinsic infinitude, and ascribed the all-sufficiency of the satisfaction to the Divine acceptation. scotus和他的學校,但另一方面,有爭議的這種內在無窮,得益於全有足夠的滿意度,以神聖的驗收。 As this acceptation was grounded on the infinite dignity of the Divine Person, the difference was not so great as might appear at first sight.由於這驗收,是建基於無限的尊嚴,神聖的人,兩者的差別不是很大,可能會出現在第一在望。 But, on this point at any rate the simpler teaching of St. Thomas is more generally accepted by later theologians.不過,就這一點,在任何速率較簡單的教學中的聖托馬斯是更普遍接受後,神學家。 Apart from this question, the divergent views of the two schools on the primary motive of the Incarnation naturally have some effect on the Thomist and Scotist theology of the Atonement.除了這個問題上,意見分歧的兩所學校就主要動機的化身,自然有一定的影響就thomist和scotist神學贖罪。 On looking back at the various theories noticed so far, it will be seen that they are not, for the most part, mutually exclusive, but may be combined and harmonized.就回頭看,在各種理論注意到,到目前為止,可以看出,他們不是,在大多數情況下,互相排斥的,而是可以結合和統一。 It may be said, indeed, that they all help to bring out different aspects of that great doctrine which cannot find adequate expression in any human theory.可以說,事實上,他們都有助於帶出不同方面的這一偉大學說,不能找到足夠的表達任何人的理論。 And in point of fact it will generally be found that the chief Fathers and Schoolmen, though they may at times lay more stress on some favourite theory of their own, do not lose sight of the other explanations.並在點的,其實一般情況下會發現,行政父親和schoolmen ,儘管他們可能在什麼時候更強調,對一些理論喜愛他們自己的,不要忽略了其他解釋。

Thus the Greek Fathers, who delight in speculating on the Mystical Redemption by the Incarnation, do not omit to speak also of our salvation by the shedding of blood.因此,希臘教父,他們樂於猜測神秘贖回所化身,不省略發言,也對我們的拯救,由脫落的血液。 Origen, who lays most stress on the deliverance by payment of a ransom, does not forget to dwell on the need of a sacrifice for sin.淵源,他們奠定了最脅迫對解脫所支付的贖金,但仍不忘糾纏於需要的是一個犧牲的罪過。 St. Anselm again, in his "Meditations", supplements the teaching set forth in his "Cur Deus Homo?"聖anselm再次,在他的"沉思" ,補充教學闡述他的"當前deus骨頭" ? Abelard, who might seem to make the Atonement consist in nothing more than the constraining example of Divine Love has spoken also of our salvation by the Sacrifice of the Cross, in passages to which his critics do not attach sufficient importance.阿貝拉爾,他們似乎可以使贖罪構成,在沒有什麼比制約的例子神聖的愛發言,也挽救我們所犧牲的十字架上,在通道,而他的批評者不重視不夠。 And, as we have seen his great opponent, St. Bernard, teaches all that is really true and valuable in the theory which he condemned.而且,正如我們已經看到他的偉大對手,聖伯納德,教導所有這實在是真實而有價值的,在理論上,他的譴責。 Most, if not all, of these theories had perils of their own, if they were isolated and exaggerated.大部分,如果不是全部,這些理論已認識自己,如果他們被孤立和誇大。 But in the Catholic Church there was ever a safeguard against these dangers of distortion.但是,在天主教教會曾經有一種防範這些危險的失真。 As Mr. Oxenham says very finely,作為oxenham先生說,很細,

The perpetual priesthood of Christ in heaven, which occupies a prominent place in nearly all the writings we have examined, is even more emphatically insisted upon by Origen.永恆的司祭基督在天上,佔據著突出地位,在幾乎所有的著作中,我們已經研究,更是強調堅持由淵源。 And this deserves to be remembered, because it is a part of the doctrine which has been almost or altogether dropped out of many Protestant expositions of the Atonement, whereas those most inclining among Catholics to a merely juridical view of the subject have never been able to forget the present and living reality of a sacrifice constantly kept before their eyes, as it were, in the worship which reflects on earth the unfailing liturgy of heaven.這是值得記住的,因為它是一個部分的學說,其中已幾乎或完全退出了許多新教論述贖罪,而那些最傾斜天主教徒之間,一只是司法鑑於此事一直無法不忘本和生活現實的犧牲,一直在眼前,因為它有美國,崇拜這反映了地球上的鼎力禮儀中的天堂。 (p. 38) (第38頁)

The reality of these dangers and the importance of this safeguard may be seen in the history of this doctrine since the age of Reformation.現實的這些危險和重要性,但這一保障,可視為在歷史上的這一學說由於年齡的改造。 As we have seen, its earlier development owed comparatively little to the stress of controversy with the heretics.正如我們所看到的,其早期開發欠比較小,以脅迫的爭議與異教徒。 And the revolution of the sixteenth century was no exception to the rule.和革命的16世紀也不例外規則。 For the atonement was not one of the subjects directly disputed between the Reformers and their Catholic opponents.為贖罪是沒有一所學科之間有爭議的改革者和他們天主教對手。 But from its close connection with the cardinal question of Justification, this doctrine assumed a very special prominence and importance in Protestant theology and practical preaching.但是,從它的相結合,緊密結合的問題了理由,這一理論假設的一個非常特殊的突出地位和重要性,在基督教神學和實際的說教。 Mark Pattison tells us in his "Memoirs" that he came to Oxford with his "home Puritan religion almost narrowed to two points, fear of God's wrath and faith in the doctrine of the Atonement".馬克派特森告訴我們,在他的"回憶錄" ,他來到牛津與他的"家清教徒的宗教幾乎縮小至兩分,懼怕上帝的憤怒和信仰在教義的贖罪" 。 And his case was possibly no exception among Protestant religionists.他的案子可能也不例外,其中新教religionists 。 In their general conception on the atonement the Reformers and their followers happily preserved the Catholic doctrine, at least in its main lines.在他們的總體構想贖罪改革者及其追隨者愉快地保留了天主教教義,至少在其主要線路。 And in their explanation of the merit of Christ's sufferings and death we may see the influence of St. Thomas and the other great Schoolmen. ,並在其解釋的好處是基督的苦難和死亡,我們可能看到的影響,聖托馬斯和其他偉大schoolmen 。 But, as might be expected from the isolation of the doctrine and the loss of other portions of Catholic teaching, the truth thus preserved was sometimes insensibly obscured or distorted.但是,正如大家可以預料,從孤立主義和損失的其他部分天主教教學,真相得以保留,有時盲目遮蔽或扭曲。 It will be enough to note here the presence of two mistaken tendencies.它將足以說明這裡存在兩種錯誤傾向。

The first is indicated in the above words of Pattison in which the Atonement is specially connected with the thought of the wrath of God.首先是表示,在上述的話派特森其中贖罪,是專門與思想上帝所憎惡的。 It is true of course that sin incurs the anger of the Just Judge, and that this is averted when the debt due to Divine Justice is paid by satisfaction.這是事實,當然是單招致憤怒的正義判斷,並認為這是避免了當債務因神是公義付出的滿意度。 But it must not be thought that God is only moved to mercy and reconciled to us as a result of this satisfaction.但絕不能認為上帝是唯一提出以慈悲與調和,我們由於這種滿足感。 This false conception of the Reconciliation is expressly rejected by St. Augustine (In Joannem, Tract. cx, section 6).這個錯誤概念的和解與合作是明確拒絕了聖奧古斯丁( joannem ,呼吸道。國泰航空,第6條) 。 God's merciful love is the cause, not the result of that satisfaction.上帝的慈悲,愛情是事業,而不是結果表示滿意。

The second mistake is the tendency to treat the Passion of Christ as being literally a case of vicarious punishment.第二個錯誤是傾向對待激情以基督為中心正在從字面上一宗替代懲罰。 This is at best a distorted view of the truth that His Atoning Sacrifice took the place of our punishment, and that He took upon Himself the sufferings and death that were due to our sins.這是最好的一個扭曲的真相,他的atoning犧牲了地方,我們的處罰,並說,他上台後,自己的痛苦和死亡的原因是我們的罪過。

This view of the Atonement naturally provoked a reaction.這一觀點的贖罪自然挑起的一種反應。 Thus the Socinians were led to reject the notion of vicarious suffering and satisfaction as inconsistent with God's justice and mercy.因此socinians被帶往排斥的概念替代痛苦和滿意為不符合上帝的公義與慈悲。 And in their eyes the work of Christ consisted simply in His teaching by word and example.並在他們眼中的工作,基督構成簡單,在他的教學中通過語言和例子。 Similar objections to the juridical conception of the Atonement led to like results in the later system of Swedenborg.類似的反對意見,以法律觀贖罪導致的結果一樣,在後來的系統swedenborg 。 More recently Albrecht Ritschl, who has paid special attention to this subject, has formulated a new theory on somewhat similar lines.最近Albrecht其後里奇爾,他們已特別注意這個問題,制定了一個新理論,就有點類似線路。 His conception of the Atonement is moral and spiritual, rather than juridical and his system is distinguished by the fact that he lays stress on the relation of Christ to the whole Christian community.他的構想的贖罪是道德和精神,而不是法人和他的體系,就是以他的事實,側重於關係基督的整個基督教社區。 We cannot stay to examine these new systems in detail.我們不能留下來審視這些新的系統細節。 But it may be observed that the truth which they contain is already found in the Catholic theology of the Atonement.但可以看到的真相,其中包含的是已經找到了在天主教神學的贖罪。 That great doctrine has been faintly set forth in figures taken from man's laws and customs.這一偉大學說一直恍惚中所列的數字,採取從人的法律和習慣。 It is represented as the payment of a price, or a ransom, or as the offering of satisfaction for a debt.這是派代表作為支付代價,或贖金,或作為提供滿意的債務。 But we can never rest in these material figures as though they were literal and adequate.但我們絕不能休息,在這些材料的數字,因為雖然它們的字面和充足。 As both Abelard and Bernard remind us, the Atonement is the work of love.由於雙方阿貝拉爾和Bernard提醒我們,是贖罪的工作,愛情。 It is essentially a sacrifice, the one supreme sacrifice of which the rest were but types and figures.它本質上是一個犧牲,其中一個最大犧牲,其中,其餘的,但類型和數字。 And, as St. Augustine teaches us, the outward rite of Sacrifice is the sacrament, or sacred sign, of the invisible sacrifice of the heart.而且,正如聖奧古斯丁教導我們,外向成年禮的犧牲是聖餐,或神聖的跡象,無形的犧牲心。 It was by this inward sacrifice of obedience unto death, by this perfect love with which He laid down his life for His friends, that Christ paid the debt to justice, and taught us by His example, and drew all things to Himself; it was by this that He wrought our Atonement and Reconciliation with God, "making peace through the blood of His Cross".它是由這個外來的犧牲順從,以至於死,由這個完美的愛情,使他犧牲了,為他的朋友們,基督付債務,以正義,並教導我們,由他的榜樣,並提請一切事物,以自己的,它是由這一點,他緊張得要命,我們的贖罪與和解與上帝" ,使和平的鮮血,他的十字架" 。

Publication information Written by WH Kent.出版信息寫起肯特。 Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.轉錄由約瑟夫體育托馬斯。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全書,第二卷。 Published 1907. 1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, 1907. nihil obstat , 1907 。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約


Atonement贖罪

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

The setting at one, or reconciliation, of two estranged parties-translation used in the Authorized Version for "kapparah," "kippurim."設置在一,或和解,兩名失和各方翻譯用在授權版" kapparah " , " kippurim " 。 The root ("kipper"), to make atonement, is explained by W. Robertson Smith ("Old Testament in the Jewish Church," i. 439), after the Syriac, as meaning "to wipe out."根( " Kipper及" ) ,使贖罪,其原因是小羅伯遜史密斯( "舊約中的猶太人教堂, "一439 )後,敘利亞文,意思是"消滅" 。 This is also the view taken by Zimmern ("Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Babylonischen Religion," 1899, p. 92), who claims Babylonian origin for both the term and the rite.這也是這期採取zimmern ( " beiträge zur kenntniss明鏡babylonischen宗教" , 1899年,第92頁) ,他聲稱巴比倫的原產地均任期和數百人受傷。 Wellhausen ("Composition des Hextateuchs," p. 335) translates "kapparah" as if derived from "kapper" (to cover). wellhausen ( "組成萬hextateuchs " ,頁335 )翻譯" kapparah "猶如來自" kapper " (支付) 。 The verb, however, seems to be a derivative from the noun "kofer" (ransom) and to have meant originally "to atone."動詞,不過,似乎有一種衍生物,從名詞" kofer " (贖金) ,並有指本來是" 1945 " 。

Original Meaning.原來的含義。

Just as by old Teutonic custom the owner of a man or beast that had been killed was to be pacified by the covering up of the corpse with grain or gold ("Wergeld") by the offender (Grimm, "Deutsche Rechts-Alterthümer," p. 740), so Abimelech gives to Abraham a thousand pieces of silver as a "covering of the eyes," in order that his wrongdoing may be over-looked (Gen. xx. 16, RV; AV, incorrectly "he" for "it").正如老人teutonic定制的擁有人或獸已被打死的,以被擺平,所掩飾的屍體與糧食或黃金( " wergeld " ) ,由罪犯(格林, "德意志中心Rechts - alterthümer "頁740 ) ,使亞比米勒給人以亞伯拉罕千枚銀牌作為一個"涵蓋的眼睛, "為了他的錯誤行為可能會過度期待(創二十, 16 ,風疹病毒; AV的錯誤" ,他" "它" ) 。 "Of whose hand have I received any [kofer] bribe [AV, "taken a ransom"] to blind my eyes therewith?" "誰的手,我收到任何[ kofer ]行賄[ AV產品, "採取了贖金" ]盲我的眼睛條文" ? says Samuel (I Sam. xii. 3).塞繆爾說, (我心。十二。 3 ) 。

"Kofer" was the legal term for the propitiatory gift or ransom in case a man was killed by a goring ox: "If there be laid on him a [kofer] ransom [AV, inaccurately, "a sum of money"] (Ex. xxi. 30); but this "kofer nefesh" (ransom for the life) was not accepted in the case of murder (Num. xxxv. 31, 32). The dishonored husband "will not regard any ransom" ("kofer"; Prov. vi. 35). No man can give a kofer for his brother to ransom him from impending death (Ps. xlix. 8, Hebr.; AV 7). At the taking of the census "they shall give every man a ransom for his soul unto the Lord . " kofer "是法律術語,為propitiatory饋贈或贖金的情況下,一名男子被打死,由goring黃牛說: "如果有規定不能有他一個[ kofer ]贖金[ AV產品,失實, "一筆錢" ] (當然。 21 。 30 ) ,但這個" kofer nefesh " (贖金為終身)不被接受,在案件謀殺( num.三十五, 31 , 32 ) 。怠慢了丈夫"會不會把任何贖金" (下稱" kofer " ;省六, 35 ) ,沒有人能給予一個kofer為他的弟弟要脅他即將死亡(雅歌xlix 。 8 ,黑布爾;房室7 ) ,在錄取普查" ,他們應給予每人間贖金為他的靈魂所不欲主。 . . half a shekel" (Ex. xxx. 12, Hebr.). Similarly, Jacob, in order to make his peace with his brother Esau, says, "I will appease ["akapperah"] his [angry] face with the present" (Gen. xxxii. 21, Hebr. [AV 20]); that is, "I will offer a kofer." When the blood of the murdered Gibeonites cries to heaven for vengeance, David says: "Wherewith shall I make atonement ["bammah akapper"]?" that is, "With what kind of kofer shall I make atonement?" (II Sam. xxi. 3). "The wrath of a king is as messengers of death: but a wise man will [by some propitiatory offering or kofer] pacify it" (Prov. xvi. 14). Every sacrifice may be considered thus as a kofer, in the original sense a propitiatory gift; and its purpose is to "make atonement ["le kapper"] for the people" (Lev. ix. 7, x. 17).半年謝克爾" (如三十。 12 ,黑布爾) 。同樣地,雅各,為了使他的和平與他的兄弟以掃說, "我會安撫[ " akapperah " ]他的[憤怒]面對當前的" (創三十二。 21 ,黑布爾[影音20 ] ) ,即是: "我將提供一個kofer : "當血的謀殺gibeonites呼聲升天復仇,大衛說: "裡應我贖罪[ " bammah akapper " ] ? " ,即"以什麼樣的kofer我應該作贖罪" ? (二山姆。二十一, 3 ) , "憤怒的國王是作為信使的死亡:但聰明的人會[部分propitiatory提供或kofer ]安撫它" ( prov.十六14 ) 。一切犧牲,可以考慮,因此作為一個kofer ,在原來意義上propitiatory禮品,而且它的目的在於"使贖罪[ "樂kapper " ]為人" ( lev.九,七,十, 17 ) 。

Connection with Sacrifice.涉嫌與犧牲。

In the priestly laws, the priest who offers the sacrifice as kofer is, as a rule, the one who makes the Atonement (Lev. i.-v., xvi., etc.); only occasionally is it the blood of the sacrifice (Lev. xvii. 11), or the money offering ("kesef kippurim," Ex. xxx. 15, 16; Num. xxxi. 50), that makes Atonement for the soul; while the act of Atonement is intended to cleanse the person from his guilt ("meḥaṭato," Lev. iv. 26, v. 6-10).在司鐸的法律,神職人員,他們提供的犧牲作為kofer是,作為一項規則,誰使得贖罪( lev. i.-v. ,十六等) ;只是偶爾是血的犧牲( lev.十七11 ) ,或提供金錢( " kesef kippurim , "當然, XXX計劃15條,第16條;序號。三十一。 50 ) ,這使得贖罪,為靈魂,而行為贖罪,是為了清洗人,從他的罪惡感( " meḥaṭato , "列夫。四, 26 ,五6-10 ) 。

In the prophetic language, however, the original idea of the kofer offering had become lost, and, instead of the offended person (God), the offense or guilt became the object of the Atonement (compare Isa. vi. 7, Hebr.: "Thy sin ["tekuppar"] is atoned for [AV, "purged"]"; Isa. xxvii. 9, Hebr.: "By this, therefore, shall the iniquity of Jacob be atoned for [AV, "purged"]"; I Sam. iii. 14: "The iniquity of Eli's house shall not be atoned for [AV, "purged"] with sacrifice nor offering for ever"; Prov. xvi. 6: "By mercy and truth iniquity is atoned for [AV, "purged"]"); and, consequently, instead of the priest as the offerer of the ransom, God Himself became the one who atoned (Deut. xxi. 8, "Kapper le'amka Israel," "Atone thou for thy people Israel" [Driver, Commentary, "Clear thou thy people"; AV, "Be merciful, O Lord"]; compare Deut. xxxii. 43, "And he will atone for the land of his people [Driver, Commentary, "Clear from guilt"; AV, "will be merciful unto his land, and to his people"]; see also Jer. xviii. 23; Ezek. xvi. 63; Ps. lxv. 4, lxxviii. 38, lxxix. 9; II Chron. xxx. 18).在先知性的語言,然而,原來的想法的kofer提供已成為失傳,而不是該得罪的人(神) ,給予降級或者內疚成了物體的贖罪(比較伊薩六。 7 ,黑布爾: "你的罪過[ " tekuppar " ]是有血氣[ AV產品, "整肅" ] " ;伊薩。二十七。 9 ,黑布爾: "因此,這應不公正雅各布被有血氣[ AV產品, "整肅" ] "我心三。 14 : "不公正的艾力家的,不得有血氣[ AV產品, "整肅" ]與犧牲,也沒有提供永遠" ;省十六。 6 : "慈悲與真理的邪惡是有血氣[視聽, "整肅"]");和,因此,與其神父為offerer的贖金,天主自己成為一個誰填補(申命記二十一。 8 , " kapper le'amka以色列" , "贖罪あ為你的人民以色列"司機,評" ,明確你你的人" ; AV產品, "仁慈的主啊, " ] ;比較deut 。三十二。 43 " ,他將贖罪的土地上他的人[司機評" ,明確從罪惡感" ;房室" ,將在慈悲所不欲,他的土地,和他的人" ] ;又見張哲。十八, 23歲; ezek十六, 63 ;聚苯乙烯。 lxv 。 4 , lxxviii 38 lxxix 。 9 ;二,慢性XXX計劃18條) 。

Atonement Idea Spiritualized.贖罪的想法spiritualized 。

Thus there is in Scripture a successive spiritualization of the idea of Atonement.因此,在經文中連續開展精神文明的構思贖罪。 Following the common view, David says (I Sam. xxvi. 19): "If the Lord have stirred thee up against me, let him accept an offering [to appease the anger of God]."以下共同的看法,大衛說, (我心。二十六。十九日)表示: "如果上帝已經激起了你對我來說,讓他接受一個提供[為了安撫憤怒的上帝] " 。 But while this cruder view of sacrifice underlies the form of worship among all Semites (see Robertson Smith, "Religion of the Semites," pp. 378-388), the idea of Atonement in the priestly Torah is based upon a realizing sense of sin as a breaking-away from God, and of the need of reconciliation with Him of the soul that has sinned.不過,雖然這cruder鑑於犧牲突顯的形式崇拜所有閃米特人(見羅伯遜史密斯, "宗教的閃米特人, "頁378-388 ) ,構思贖罪,在司鐸誦讀經文,是基於一項實現意義上的罪過作為一個磨合遠離上帝,並認識到必須的和解與他的靈魂,即罪。 Every sin-whether it be "ḥeṭ."每單-無論是" ḥ eṭ" 。 a straying away from the path of right, or "'avon," crookedness of conduct, or "pesha',"-rebellious transgression-is aseverance of the bond of life which unites the soul with its Maker.一偏離道路的權利,或者"雅芳" ,彎曲的行為,或"佩沙河' , " -反叛侵-是aseverance的認同感為紐帶的生活,團結的靈魂,它的製造商。 "The soul that sinneth, it shall die," says Ezek. "靈魂sinneth ,它應死了,說: " ezek 。 xviii.十八。 20 (compare Deut. xxx. 15-19; Ps. i. 6; Jer. ii. 13). 20 (比較deut XXX計劃15-19 ;聚苯乙烯一6段;哲二。 13 ) 。 It is the feeling of estrangement from God that prompts the sinner to offer expiatory sacrifices-not only to appease God's anger by a propitiatory gift, but also to place his soul in a different relation to Him.這是感情的隔閡,由上帝促成罪人提供expiatory犧牲,不僅是為了安撫上帝的憤怒由propitiatory禮物,而且也有利於地方,他的靈魂在一個不同的關係給他。 For this reason the blood, which to the ancients was the life-power or soul, forms the essential part of the sacrificial Atonement (see Lev. xvii. 11).基於這個原因,血液中,其中以古人是生命權或靈魂,形式的重要組成部分,祭祀贖罪(見列弗。十七, 11 ) 。 This is the interpretation given by all the Jewish commentators, ancient and modern, on the passage; compare also Yoma 5a; Zeb.這是解釋所有猶太評論家,古老與現代,就通過;比較也yoma 5A條; zeb 。 6a, = "There is no Atonement except with blood," with the identical words in Heb. 6 , = : "絕對不存在贖罪除與血" ,與相同的話,在希伯來書。 ix.九。 22, RV: "Apart from shedding of blood there is no remission [of sins]." 22 ,風疹病毒: "除了從脫落的血是沒有減免[罪過] " 。 The life of the victim was offered, not, as has been said, as a penalty in a juridical sense to avert Heaven's punishment, not to have man's sins laid upon it as upon the scapegoat of the Day of Atonement, and thus to have the animal die in his place, as Ewald thinks ("Alterthümer," p. 68), but as a typical ransom of "life by life"; the blood sprinkled by the priest upon the altar serving as the means of a renewal of man's covenant of life with God (see Trumbull, "The Blood Covenant," p. 247).受害人的生命是給予,而不是如人們所說的,作為懲罰,在一個法律常識,以避免上天的懲罰,不會有人類的罪孽後,奠定了它作為當替罪羊的贖罪日,因此,有動物死在了自己的位置,作為埃瓦爾德認為( " alterthümer " ,第68頁) ,但作為一個典型的勒索贖金的"生命生命" ;鮮血灑由牧師後走下神壇,服務為手段的一個延續人的盟約生命與上帝(見trumbull , "血公約" ,第247頁) 。 In Mosaic ritualism the atoning blood thus actually meant the bringing about of a reunion with God, the restoration of peace between the soul and its Maker.在花葉禮該atoning血液,因此,實際上指的是實現了與親人團聚的上帝,恢復該國的和平與靈魂和它的製造商。 Therefore, the expiatory sacrifice was accompanied by a confession of the sins for which it was designed to make Atonement (see Lev. v. 5, xvi. 21; Num. v. 7; compare Maimonides, "Yad," Teshubah, i. 1): "no atonement without confession of sin as the act of repentance," or as Philo ("De Victimis," xi.) says, "not without the sincerity of his repentance, not by words merely, but by works, the conviction of his soul which healed him from disease and restores him to good health."因此, expiatory犧牲是伴隨著一次供認的罪孽,為此它是用來使贖罪(見列弗。五,五,十六, 21個;序號訴7項;比較邁蒙尼德, "亞得, " teshubah ,一。 1 )說: "不贖罪而不招供的罪過,作為該法的悔過書" ,或因為斐洛( "時點victimis , "十一)說, "不是沒有誠意,他的悔過書,而不是僅僅話,但由工務,被定罪的他的靈魂,其中治愈他的疾病和恢復他的健康狀況良好" 。

Atonement for the Whole People.贖罪,為全體人民。

The sacrificial Atonement, based as it was on the symbolic offering of life for life, assumed a more awful or somber character when a whole community was concerned in the blood-guiltiness to be atoned for.獻祭贖罪,因為它是象徵性提供生活生活中,假設一個更可怕的還是低沉的性格,當整個社會的關注,在血液罪被填補。 While, in the time of David, people in their terror had recourse to the pagan rite of human sacrifice (II Sam. xxi. 1-9), the Deuteronomic law prescribed in such a case a mild and yet rather uncommon form of expiation of the murder; namely, the breaking of the neck of a heifer as a substitute for the unknown murderer (Deut. xxi.1-9).同時,在時間的國寶,人們在其恐怖求助於這些異教徒成年禮的人犧牲(二山姆。二十一1-9 ) , deuteronomic法明在這種情況下,一個溫和,但並不常見形式的犯罪被害人謀殺,即打破了頸部一個小母牛作為替代未知的兇手(申命記xxi.1 - 9 ) 。 To the same class belongs the goat in the annual Atonement ritual (Lev. xvi. 7-22), which was to carry away all the sins of the children of Israel into an uninhabited land and was sent out to Azazel in the wilderness, while another goat was killed as usual, and its blood sprinkled to make Atonement for the sanctuary, cleansing it of the uncleanness of all the transgressions of the children of Israel.以同一類屬於山羊在每年的贖罪儀式( lev.十六, 7月22日) ,這是進行遠離所有的罪孽子女以色列成為一個無人居住的土地,並發給了阿撒瀉勒在荒無人煙的戈壁灘上,而另一山羊死亡如常,其血液灑,使贖罪,為聖殿,潔淨,它的腐壞的所有越軌的孩子們的以色列。 In the case of the one goat, the doom emanating from unknown and therefore unexpiated sins of the people was to be averted; in the other case the wrath of God at the defilement of His sanctuary -which often implied the penalty of death (Num. i. 53)-was to be pacified.在案件一個山羊,厄運源於未知,因此unexpiated罪過的人是為了避免在其他情況下,憤怒的上帝在污辱他的聖殿-這往往意味著判死刑( n um.一, 53 ) -是為了安撫。 The very idea of God's holiness, which made either the approach to Mt. Sinai, the seat of God (Ex. xix. 12), the Ark (II Sam. vi. 7), or even the mere sight of God (Isa. vi. 5; Judges xiii. 22), bring death, rendered the ritual of the Day of Atonement the necessary culmination of the whole priestly system of expiation of sin.非常的想法上帝的聖潔,這使得無論是辦法,以山西奈,所在地的上帝(如十九12 ) ,方舟(二山姆。六,七日) ,或什至僅僅看見神(以賽亞六,五;法官十三22 ) ,帶來死亡,使得祭祀的贖罪日,必要經過全體司鐸系統的犯罪被害人單。

Repentance and Atonement.懺悔和贖罪。

Yet, while the sacrificial rites were the only means of impressing upon the people God's holiness and the dreadful consequence of man's sinfulness, the idea of the Atonement assumed a far deeper and more spiritual aspect in the lives and teachings of the Prophets.然而,儘管祭祀人的唯一手段,留下深刻印象,當人們上帝的聖潔和不堪設想的後果,人的罪孽,構思贖罪擺出了迄今為止更深和更屬靈方面,在生活和教誨的先知。 Neither Hosea, Amos, and Micah, nor Isaiah recognizes the need of any means of reconciliation with God after estrangement by sin, other than repentance.既不何西阿,阿莫斯,彌迦,也以賽亞承認有必要的,任何方式的和解與上帝疏遠後,由單時,除了悔改之意。 "Take with you words, and turn to the Lord: say unto him, Take away all iniquity and receive us graciously: so will we render as bullocks the offerings of our lips" (Hosea xiv. 2, Hebr.; compare Amos v. 22-24; Isa. i. 13-17, and the well-known passage, Micah vi. 6-8): "Shall I come before him with burnt offerings, with calves of a year old? . . . Shall I give my first-born for my transgression, the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul? He hath shewed thee, O man, what is good; and what doth the Lord require of thee but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God?"). "帶著你的話,並把向上帝禱告:實實在在地告訴他,拿走所有不公正和接待我們寬宏大量:那麼,我們將提供作為bullocks獻我們的嘴唇" (何西阿十四。 2 ,黑布爾;比較阿莫斯五。 22-24 ;伊薩一, 13日至17日,著名的一段話,彌迦六6-8 )說: "由我來之前,他的燔祭,與犢牛的一歲? … … 。我將我的第一個出生的,為我的海侵,果的我的身體,為的罪惡我的靈魂嗎?祂所shewed你,人,什麼是好的,什麼doth主要求的,但你做的公正,並以慈悲的愛,和走路,謙虛,你用你的上帝? " ) 。

Ezekiel.以西結。

But the prophet Ezekiel-a priest and therefore more deeply penetrated with the sense of sin and purity than other prophets-is not satisfied with the mere negation of ritualism.但先知以西結-一名神父,因此,更深入地滲透與責任感,單仲偕和純潔性比其他先知-並不以此為滿足,僅僅是否定的禮。 Repudiating, like Jeremiah, the idea held by his contemporaries that men undergo punishment on account of their fathers' sins, he lays the greater stress on the fact that the fruit of sin is death, and exhorts the people to cast away their sin and, returning to God, to live (Ezek. xviii. 4-32).批判,如耶利米,構思舉行,由他的同時代的男性進行處罰是考慮到其父親的罪過,他奠定了更強調一個事實,即果實單是死刑,並勸告人們要擺脫單,並回神,以活( ezek.十八4-32 ) 。 For him Atonement is wrought by acquiring "a new heart and a new spirit" (ib. 31).他的贖罪是緊張得要命,通過收購"的一個新的心臟,並以新的精神風貌" ( ib. 31 ) 。 In striking contrast with the other prophets, Ezekiel combines the belief in a complicated atoning ritual (as mapped out in Ezek. xl.-xlvi.) with the prophetic, hope in the redeeming power of God's spirit which shall cleanse the people from their impurities and endow them with "a new heart and a new spirit" (xxxvi. 26).在鮮明對比的,與其他先知以西結相結合的信念,在錯綜複雜的atoning禮儀(如制定了在ezek 。 xl. -四十六)與先知性,希望在挽救上帝的力量的精神,應清除乾淨的人,從他們的雜質並賦予他們"一個新的心臟,並以新的精神風貌" ( xxxvi. 26 ) 。

Moses.摩西。

In no one, however, does the most elaborate ritualism of the Atonement sacrifice appear so closely intertwined with the profoundest spiritual conception of God's atoning powers as in Moses the lawgiver himself.在沒有人,但是,這最詳細禮的贖罪的犧牲似乎如此緊密交織在一起,最深刻的精神觀上帝的atoning權力,在摩西的lawgiver自己。 When the worship of the Golden Calf had provoked God's wrath to such a degree that He said to Moses, "Let me alone. . . . that I may consume them; and I will make of thee a great nation" (Ex. xxxii. 10), the latter, desirous of making an Atonement for their transgression, asked the Lord to forgive the people's sin, or else to blot Moses' own name out of His book (the book of life); and he persisted in imploring God's pardon even after He had said, "Whosoever hath sinned against me, him will I blot out of my book," until finally, in answer to Moses' entreaty, the full glory of God, His compassionate mercy, His long-suffering and forgiving love, were revealed and Moses' prayer for the people's pardon was granted (Ex. xxxiv. 1-9;Num. xiv. 17-20).當崇拜的金牛犢已挑起了上帝的憤怒到這種程度,他對摩西說, "讓我獨自… … 。表示,我可能會消耗他們,我會乞求,是一個偉大的國家" (如三十二。 10 ) ,而後者,切望作出了贖罪,為自己的越軌行為,問上帝寬恕人的罪過,否則,以印跡摩西以自己的名義出書(生命之書) ,以及他堅持在懇求上帝的赦免即使他說, "凡祂所罪指控我的證據,他的,我將印跡出我的書, "直到最後,在回答摩西entreaty ,充分神的榮耀,他值得同情憐憫,他的長期痛苦和寬恕的愛被發現和摩西祈禱,為人民的原諒,是理所當然的(例如:三十四。 1-9 ;序號。十四17-20 ) 。 There Moses' own self-abnegating love, which willingly offered up his life for his people, disclosed the very qualities of God as far as they touch both the mystery of sin and the divine forgiveness, and this became the key to the comprehension of the Biblical idea of Atonement.有摩西自身abnegating愛情,而心甘情願地提供了他的生命,為他的人透露,相當素質的神,據他們接觸,無論是神秘的單仲偕和神的寬恕,這成了關鍵要理解的聖經的想法贖罪。 The existence of sin would be incompatible with a good and holy God, but for His long-suffering, which waits for the sinner's return, and His condoning love, which turns man's failings into endeavors toward a better life.存在單將不符合一個良好的和神聖的上帝,但對他的長期痛苦,時不我待,為罪人的回報,並縱容他的愛,而變成人的通病成事業走向更美好的生活。 Each atoning sacrifice, therefore, must be understood both as an appeal to God's forgiving mercy, and as a monition to the sinner to repentance.每個atoning犧牲,因此,必須了解雙方作為一個上訴天主的仁慈憐憫,並作為monition向罪人悔改。 "Let the wicked forsake his way and the unrighteous man his thoughts: and let him return unto the Lord, and he will have mercy upon him; and to our God, for he will abundantly pardon" (Isa. lv. 7). "讓惡人拋棄他的方式和不義的男子,他的想法:讓他回到祂耶和華,他將請寬恕了他,並給我們的上帝,他將非常赦免" (以賽亞呂7段) 。

Substitutes for Sacrifice.代用品的犧牲。

It was quite natural that, during the Exile, when no sacrifice could be offered, other means of obtaining forgiveness and peace should be resorted to.這是很自然的說,在流亡的,當時並沒有犧牲,可以提供外,其他的手段獲得寬恕與和平應該訴諸。 First of all, prayer rose in value and prominence.首先,祈禱玫瑰價值和突出的位置。 As Moses interceded for his people, praying and fasting for forty days and forty nights in order to obtain God's pardon (Ex. xxxii. 30; Deut. ix. 18, 25), so did every prophet possess the power of obtaining God's pardon by his prayer.正如摩西交錯,為他的人民,祈禱和禁食40天40夜,以獲得上帝的赦免(例如三十二。 30 ; deut第九18日, 25日) ,所以當時每先知擁有的權力,獲得上帝的赦免,由他的禱告。 Abraham, as a prophet, prayed for the life of Abimelech (Gen. xx. 7); Pharaoh, after a confession of his sin, asked Moses and Aaron to pray to God for the withdrawal of the plague of hail (Ex. ix. 27, 28); acknowledging their sin, the people ask Samuel to intercede for them (I Sam. xii. 19); and Jeremiah is expressly warned: "Pray not thou for this people, neither lift up a cry or prayer for them" (Jer. xi. 14; compare ib. xv. 1).石禮謙,作為一個先知,開始祈禱,為生命的亞比米勒(創二十七日) ;老王後,供認他的罪過,問摩西和亞倫向上帝祈禱,為撤離的鼠疫冰雹(如九。 27 , 28 ) ;承認自己的罪過,有人問塞繆爾,以交涉,為他們(我心。十二, 19 ) ;耶利米是明確警告說: "祈禱,沒有你這個人,既不解除了哭泣或祈禱,為他們" ( jer.十一。 14 ;比較興業。十五, 1 ) 。 See Prayer.見禱告。

Fasting, Almsgiving, Suffering.齋戒,救濟,痛苦。

The great dedication prayer of King Solomon requires on the part of the sinner only a turning of the face in prayer in the direction of the Temple in order to meet with a response from heaven and with forgiveness of his sin (I Kings viii. 30, 33, 35, 48-50).偉大的奉獻禱告所羅門王的要求對部分的罪人只有一個轉折的臉在祈禱中的方向廟宇,以應付回應來自天堂與寬恕他的罪過(列王八30 , 33 , 35 , 48-50 ) 。 The very idea of sacrifice is spurned by the Psalmist (Ps. l. 8-14, li. 12-20 [AV 11-19]): "Sacrifice and offering thou dost not desire" (xl. 7 [AV 6]); "The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit" (li. 18 [AV 17]).非常的想法犧牲是唾棄的詩人(雅歌屬8-14 ,李12-20 [影音11-19 ] )說: "犧牲,並提供你多斯特不想要" ( xl. 7 [影音6 ] ) ; "犧牲神的是一個破碎的精神" ( li. 18 [視聽17 ] ) 。 Throughout the Psalms sincere repentance and prayer form the essentials to Atonement.整個詩篇真誠的懺悔和祈禱,組成要素,以贖罪。 Prayer is "as incense" and "the evening sacrifice" (Ps. cxli. 2); with the Lord is forgiveness, "He shall redeem Israel from all his iniquities" (Ps. cxxx. 4-8).祈禱是"香"和"黃昏犧牲" (詩篇cxli 2款) ;與主是寬恕, "他應贖回以色列從他的所有的罪孽" (詩篇cxxx 4-8 ) 。 Fasting especially appears to have taken the place of sacrifice (Isa. lviii. 1-3; Zach. vii. 5).空腹特別是似乎已經採取了地方的犧牲(以賽亞lviii 1-3 ;扎克。七。 5 ) 。 Another means of Atonement in place of sacrifice is offered to King Nebuchadnezzar by Daniel: "Break off thy sins by almsgiving ["ẓedakah" (AV, "righteousness")], and thine iniquities by showing mercy to the poor" (Dan. iv. 24, Hebr. [AV 27]).另一種方式的贖罪到位的犧牲是提供給國王nebuchadnezzar由丹尼爾說: "斷絕你的罪孽,由救濟[ " ẓedakah " ( AV產品, "義"字) ] ,你的罪孽所表現外開恩窮人" ( dan.四24 ,黑布爾[影音27 ] ) 。 Most efficacious seemed to be the atoning power of suffering experienced by the righteous during the Exile.最有效的似乎是atoning權力的痛苦經歷,由正義在流亡。 This is the idea underlying the description of the suffering servant of God in Isa.這是思路的描述苦難的僕人神伊薩。 liii. liii 。 4, 12, Hebr.: 4 , 12 ,黑布爾:

"The man of sorrows and acquainted with grief. . . he hath borne our pains [AV, "griefs"], and carried our sorrows. . . . But he was wounded for our transgressions, bruised for our iniquities . . ." "該名男子的血汗和熟悉的悲痛… … 。祂所承擔我們的陣痛[ AV產品, "憂患" ] ,背負我們的痛苦… … 。但他的受傷對我們的越軌,瘀傷,為我們的罪孽… … 。 " "The chastisement for [AV, "of"] our peace was upon him; and with his stripes were we [AV, "we are"] healed." "責罰[視聽" , " ] ,我們得平安後,他和他的條紋,我們[視聽" ,我們是" ]癒合" 。 "All we like sheep had [AV, "have"] gone astray; we had [AV, "have"] turned every one to his own way." "所有我們喜歡羊了[ AV產品, "有" ]誤入歧途的,我們做過[ AV產品, "有" ]原來每個人都以自己的方式" 。

"And the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all." "與主奠定了對他不公正的,我們所有" 。

"He was cut off out of the land of the living: for the transgression of my people was he stricken." "他被切斷了的土地上的生活:為侵我的人是他災區" 。 "He bare the sin of many and made intercession for the transgressors." "他裸多人的罪,並提出為罪犯代求。 "

Post-Biblical Atonement.後聖經贖罪。

Whoever may have formed the subject of this tragic song-whether Zerubbabel or some other martyr of the Babylonian Exile-the seer, in embodying it in his message of comfort to his people, desired to assure them that of greater atoning power than all the Temple sacrifices was the suffering of the elect ones who were to be servants and witnesses of the Lord (Isa. xlii. 1-4, xlix. 1-7, l. 6).誰可能已經形成了主題的這一悲慘宋是否所羅巴伯或其他一些烈士的巴比倫流亡-預言者,在體現了它在他的賀詞中的安慰,他的人,想要向他們保證,更大的a toning權力高於一切廟犧牲是痛苦的,選出那些被公務員和證人的主(以賽亞四十二, 1-4 , xlix 。 1-7 ,屬6 ) 。 This idea of the atoning power of the suffering and death of the righteous finds expression also in IV Macc.這一想法的atoning權力的痛苦和死亡的正義表現亦在四排雷。 vi.六。 27, xvii. 27 ,第十七章。 21-23; M. Ḳ. 21-23 ;米ḳ 。 28a; Pesiḳ.第28A ; pesiḳ 。 xxvii.二十七。 174b; Lev. 174b ;列弗。 R. xx.; and formed the basis of Paul's doctrine of the atoning blood of Christ (Rom. iii. 25).傳譯二十,並組建的基礎上保羅的教義的atoning血液中的基督(羅馬書三25 ) 。 It was the inspiration of the heroic martyrdom of the Ḥasidim or Essenes (Ps. xxix. 2, cxvi. 15; Philo, "Quod Omnis Probus Liber," § xiii.).這是靈感的英勇殉難的ḥasidim或essenes (詩篇二十九。 2 , cxvi 。 15 ;斐洛" ,並且omnis羅布斯liber , " §十三) 。 The principle of Atonement by sacrificial blood was, on the whole, adhered to during the second Temple.的原則,由贖罪祭祀血,就整體而言,堅持在第二聖殿。 Job's intercession on behalf of his friends is accompanied by their burnt offering, which is to atone for their sins (Job xlii. 8; compare i. 5).就業的干涉,就代表他的朋友,也伴隨著他們的燔祭,是為了贖罪,為他們的罪孽(職務四十二, 8 ;比較一5 ) 。 In the Book of Jubilees Noah and Abraham make Atonement for the earth and for man by means of sacrificial blood (vi. 2, vii. 3, xvi. 22).在這本書的jubilees挪亞和亞伯拉罕作贖罪,為地球和人類的方式祭祀血( vi. 2 ,七,三,十六, 22 ) 。 In Sibyllines iii.在sibyllines三。 626 et seq., the heathen are told to offer hecatombs of bulls and rams to obtain God's pardon for their sins (compare Ps. lxxvi. 12; Isa. lvi. 7); but in Sibyllines iv. 626段及以下各段,異教徒被告知提供hecatombs的公牛和公羊獲得上帝的赦免他們的罪(比較的PS 。 lxxvi 12條;伊薩。 56 。 7 ) ,但在sibyllines四。 29, 161, the Essene view, deprecating sacrifice, seems to be expressed. 29 , 161 , essene來看, deprecating犧牲,似乎是表示。 Nevertheless, the conception of Atonement underwent a great change.不過,構想贖罪經歷了巨大的變化。 The men of the Great Synagogue-disciples of the Prophets and imbued with the spirit of the Psalms-had made prayer an essential element of the Temple service; and whereas the Ḥasidean liturgy, accentuating divine forgiveness and human repentance, took little notice of sacrifice, the Levites' song and the prayers introduced as parts of the worship lent to the whole sacrificial service a more symbolic character.男人的偉大猶太教堂-弟子的先知和充滿精神的詩篇-取得了祈禱的一個基本要素廟服務;而ḥ asidean禮儀中,加劇神的寬恕和人的悔過書,少了預告犧牲,利'歌和禱告介紹,作為部分的崇拜借給整個祭祀服務更象徵性質。 Accordingly, each of the two lambs ("kebasim") offered every morning and evening as a burnt-offering (Num. xxviii. 3, 4) was declared by the school of Shammai to be "kobesh," intended "to subdue" the sins of Israel (see Micah vii. 19: "Yikbosh 'avonotenu" = "He will subdue our iniquities," AV) during the year until the Day of Atonement should do its atoning work.因此,每兩個羔羊( " kebasim " )所提供的,每天早上和傍晚,因為一具已燒焦的犯罪( num.二十八, 3日, 4日)宣布,由該校的shammai被" kobesh , "打算"征服"捷聯慣導系統的以色列(見彌迦七, 19 : " yikbosh ' avonotenu " = " ,他將征服我們的罪孽"的AV ) ,在這一年中,直到有一天在贖罪應該做的,其atoning工作。 By the school of Hillel the lamb was to be "kobes," "to wash Israel clean" from sin; see Isa.由學校的hillel羔羊是" kobes " , "洗以色列乾淨" ,由單;見伊薩。 i.一。 18; Jer. 18歲;哲。 ii.二。 22; Pesiḳ. 22 ; pesiḳ 。 vi.六。 61b; Pesiḳ. 61 B條; pesiḳ 。 R. 16 (ed. Friedmann, p. 84) and 81, p.傳譯16 (編輯弗里德曼,第84頁)和第81頁 195; and more especially the notes by Buber and Friedmann, ad loc. 195及更特別說明,布伯和弗里德曼,專案同上。 Compare also the expression "Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world" (John i. 29).比較,也表達"看哪,神的羔羊,其中去掉了罪惡的世界" (約翰福音一29 ) 。 "The morning sacrifice atoned for the sins committed during the previous night, the afternoon sacrifice for the sins committed in the daytime" (Tan., Pinḥas, 12). "早上犧牲有血氣的罪孽期間犯下的前一天晚上,下午犧牲,為罪孽在白天" ( tan. , pinḥas , 12 ) 。

The whole idea of sin was, in fact, deepened.整個構思的罪過,其實是加深了。 It was regarded rather as a breaking-away from theoriginal sinless state of man as the child of God-which state must be restored-than as a wrong committed against God needing covering up.它被認為是,而不是作為一個磨合遠離theoriginal罪孽國家的人當孩子的上帝哪一個國家必須恢復比作為一個錯誤的承諾,是對上帝的需要隱瞞。 The expressions "temimim" (spotless) and "ben shanah" (of the first year) (Num. xxviii. 3), suggested the thought that sin-laden man should become "spotless like a child of one year" (Pesiḳ. R. lc; compare Shab. 89b).一再提到" temimim " (一塵不染)和"奔shanah " (第一期) ( num.二十八。 3 )中,建議以為單-拉丹男子應該成為"一塵不染像一個孩子一年" ( pesiḳ. r 。信用證;比較沙巴。 89B , ) 。 Of course, as a symbolic rite, this mode of cleansing oneself from sin could be, and actually was, replaced by daily baptism and fasting such as were practised by the Ḥasidim-those heroes of prayer who in time of national distress made intercession for the people far more effectively than did the priests in the Temple (Josephus, "Ant." xiv. 2, § 1; xviii. 8, § 4; compare Ta'anit 19a, 20a, 23a).當然,作為一個象徵性的儀式,這種模式的清洗自己,從單可以,實際上是提出,取而代之的是由日常的洗禮和齋戒等人的做法,由ḥasidim -這些英雄祈禱的人在當時的民族危難作出干涉,為人們較目前更有效地做祭司在聖殿(約瑟夫, "螞蟻" 。十四, 2條第1款;十八。 8 , § 4 ;比較ta'anit 19A條, 20A條,第23 A ) 。 Still the words of Simon the Just, "The world rests on the Law, worship, and works of benevolence" (Ab. i. 2), retained their validity likewise for the Ḥasidim, who felt the need of an atoning sacrifice (Ned. 10a; Ker. vi. 3).還有的話,西蒙公正, "這個世界,就必須依法崇拜,和工程的善" ( ab.一,二) ,保留其有效性,同樣為ḥasidim ,誰覺得需要一個atoning犧牲(週一10 A條;因為六。 3 ) 。 It was especially owing to the assistance offered by the "ma'amadot," the chosen representatives of the people, with their fasts and prayers, that the daily sacrifice assumed a more spiritual character, so that to it was applied the passage (Jer. xxxiii. 25): "If my covenant be not maintained day and night [by the service] I would not have made the ordinances of heaven and earth" (Meg. 31b; Ta'anit 27b).這是特別是由於所提供的援助,由" ma'amadot , "所選的人民代表,他們的齋戒和祈禱,即每天的犧牲,承擔了更多的精神品格,從而給它的應用通過( jer.三十三。二十五日)說: "如果我的盟約不會保持夜以繼日[服務] ,我就不會作出條例的天地" ( meg. 31 B條; ta'anit 27 B款) 。

After the Fall of the Temple.淪陷後,該廟。

The cessation of sacrifice, in consequence of the destruction of the Temple, came, therefore, as a shock to the people.停止犧牲,後果會毀了廟,一來,因此,作為一個震驚於人民的事業。 It seemed to deprive them of the divine Atonement.它似乎剝奪了他們神聖的贖罪。 Hence many turned ascetics, abstaining from meat and wine (Tosef., Soṭah, xv. 11; Ab. RN iv.); and Joshua ben Hananiah, who cried out in despair, "Wo unto us! What shall atone for us?"因此,許多原來苦行者,自動棄權,肉和酒( tosef. , soṭah ,十五,第11條;抗體。氡四)和約書亞賁哈拿尼雅,誰喊了,在絕望中, "太和對待我們!應怎樣贖罪,為我們" ? only expressed the sentiment of all his contemporaries (IV Esd. ix. 36: "We are lost on account of our sins").僅是表達情緒的他的所有同時代(四公共服務電子化。九, 36 : "我們正在失去對戶口的,我們的罪過" ) 。 It was then that Johanan b.當時即約哈難乙 Zakkai, pointing to Hosea vi. zakkai ,指著何西阿六。 6 (RV), "I desire mercy and not sacrifice," to Prov. 6 ( RV )的, "我的願望,慈悲與不犧牲" ,以省。 xvi.十六。 6, "By mercy and truth iniquity is purged [atoned for]," and to Ps. 6 , "慈悲與真理的邪惡是整肅[有血氣] " ,並到PS 。 lxxxix. lxxxix 。 3 (AV 2), "The world is built upon mercy," declared works of benevolence to have atoning powers as great as those of sacrifice. 3 (視聽2 ) , "這個世界是建立在憐憫, "申報作品的善有atoning權力很大,因為那些犧牲的。

Christian Idea of Atonement.基督教理念的贖罪。

This view, however, did not solve satisfactorily for all the problem of sin-the evil rooted in man from the very beginning, from the fall of Adam (IV Esd. iii. 20, viii. 118).這種觀點,但是,並沒有解決好所有的問題,單-邪惡根植於人,從一開始,從亞當的墮落(四公共服務電子化。三, 20 ,八, 118 ) 。 Hence a large number of Jews accepted the Christian faith in the Atonement by the blood "shed for many for the remission of sins" (Matt. xxvi. 28; Heb. x. 12; Col. i. 20) or in Jesus as "the Lamb of God" (John i. 29; Apoc. of John vii. 14, and elsewhere).因此,大批猶太人接受基督教信仰在贖罪,由血液" ,為多罪得赦" 。 ( 26 。 28 ;以弗所書十, 12歲;上校一20 )或耶穌"上帝的羔羊" (約翰福音一29 ;載脂蛋白C 。約翰七, 14 ,和其它地方) 。 It was perhaps in opposition to this movement that the Jewish teachers, after the hope for the rebuilding of the Temple in the second century had ended in failure and wo, strove to develop and deepen the Atonement idea.它也許是在反對這項運動,猶太教師後,希望為重建該廟在公元二世紀已經以失敗告終,與禾,努力拓展和深化本贖罪的想法。 R. Akiba, in direct opposition to the Christian Atonement by the blood of Jesus, addressed his brethren thus: "Happy are ye, Israelites. Before whom do you cleanse yourselves, and who cleanses you? Your Father in heaven; for it is said: 'I will sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean; from all your filthiness . . . will I cleanse you. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you'" (Ezek. xxxvi. 26); and again it is said that the Lord, "the hope of Israel" (Jer. xiv. 8), is also a "fountain of water" (a play on the Hebrew word "miḳweh").傳譯秋葉,在直接反對基督教贖罪由血液輸送的耶穌,處理他的弟兄,因此: "快樂是葉,猶太人之前,誰做你淨化自己,並清潔你?你的父親在天堂,因為它仍是說: : '我還會灑潔淨水後,你和葉應清潔;您的一切臟… … 。我會清洗你的一個新的心臟,也將我給你,並以新的精神風貌,將我向你們心裡" ( ezek 。三十六,第26條) ;一再有人說,上帝" ,希望以色列" ( jer.十四8 ) ,其實也是一個"噴泉的水" (一出戲就希伯來語詞" miḳweh " ) 。 "As the fountain of water purifies the unclean, so does God purify Israel" (Yoma viii. 9). "由於噴泉水淨化不潔的,所以沒有上帝淨化以色列" ( yoma八,九日) 。 This doctrine, which does away with all mediatorship of either saint, high priest, or savior, became the leading idea of the Jewish Atonement.這種學說,它摒棄了一切mediatorship一方聖,高神父,或救世主,成了領導的思想猶太贖罪。

Elements of Atonement.內容贖罪。

Accordingly, Atonement in Jewish theology as developed by the Rabbis of the Talmud, has for its constituent elements: (a) on the part of God, fatherly love and forgiving mercy; (b) on the part of man, repentance and reparation of wrong.因此,贖罪,在猶太神學作為開發的拉比的猶太法典,它的構成要素: (一)對部分上帝,慈父般的愛與包容與慈悲; (二)對一部分人,有悔罪和賠償的錯。 The following exposition will serve to enlighten the reader on these elements:以下的論述,將有助於啟發讀者對這些內容:

(a) While God's quality of justice ("middat hadin"), which punishes the wrong-doing, would leave no hope for man, since "there is not a righteous man upon earth that doeth good and sinneth not" (Eccl. vii. 20, RV), God's quality of mercy ("middat haraḥamin") has from the very beginning provided repentance as the means of salvation (Gen. R. i, xii.; Pesiḳ. xxv. 158b; Pesiḳ. R. 44; Pes. 54a.) "Thou hast mercy upon all; thou condonest the sins of men in order that they should amend" (Wisdom xi. 23). (一) ,而上帝的司法質量(簡稱" middat hadin " ) ,該懲罰的不公正做法,將不留下任何希望,因為人的,因為"不是一個正義的男子後,地球上doeth好sinneth不是" (傳道書七20 , RV )的,上帝的質量憐憫( " middat haraḥamin " ) ,從一開始就提供了悔過書為手段的救贖(創答:我,十二; pesiḳ 。二十五。 158b ; pesiḳ 。傳譯44 ;聚醚砜。 54A條) "祢憐憫所有;あcondonest罪孽的男人,使他們應修改" (智慧十一, 23 ) 。 "Wherever there are sins and righteous deeds set against each other in the scale of justice, God inclines it toward mercy"(Pesiḳ. xxvi. 167a). "哪裡有罪孽和正義感的事蹟一套針對對方的規模,正義,上帝傾向,它向慈悲" ( pesiḳ.二十六。 167a ) 。

Divine Mercy.神聖的,決不手軟。

Far from being merely judicial compensation for an outward act, as Weber ("System der Alt-Synagogalen Theologie," pp. 252, 300-304) asserts, the divine mercy is expressly represented by Hillel as working in favor of pardoning those who have no merit: "He who is plenteous in mercy turns the scale of judgment toward mercy" (Tosef., Sanh. xiii. 3; RH 17a).遠遠不是純粹的司法賠償外之舉,因為韋伯(制"明鏡替代synagogalen theologie "頁252 , 300-304 )斷言,神聖慈悲是明文派hillel作為工作主張特赦那些沒有的優點: "他是充足的慈悲輪流規模判斷,對慈悲" ( tosef. , sanh 。十三。 3 ;銠17A條) 。 This quality of mercy is sure to prevail as soon as it is appealed to by the mention of the thirteen attributes with which the Lord appeared to Moses in response to his prayer for forgiveness after the sin of the Golden Calf (RH 17b).這種品質的慈悲是肯定佔上風,因為很快,因為這是呼籲所提到的13個屬性,其中主似乎摩西回應他的祈禱寬恕後,單仲偕的金犢(銠17B條) 。 No matter how vile the sinner-be he as wicked as Manasseh or as Ahab-the gate of repentance is open to him (Pesiḳ. xxv. 160b, 162a).(Pesiḳ. xxv. 158b; Yer. Mak. ii. 31d).不管如何,情節惡劣的罪人-被他視為十惡不赦,因為manasseh或作為ahab -門的懺悔是公開向他( pesiḳ.二十五。 160b , 162a ) 。 ( pesiḳ.二十五。 158b ;也門里亞爾。麥二。 31d ) 。

"Human Wisdom, when asked, 'What shall be done with the sinner?' "人類智慧的,當記者問,是什麼方式,我們將與罪人嗎? replieth, 'Evil pursueth sinners' (Prov. xiii. 21). Prophecy, when asked, 'What shall be done with the sinner?' replieth , '邪pursueth罪人』 ( prov.十三21 ) 。預言,當記者問,什麼是應當做千古罪人嗎? replieth, 'The soul that sinneth, it shall die' (Ezek. xviii. 4). The Law, when asked, 'What shall be done with the sinner?' replieth , 『靈魂sinneth ,它應死』 ( ezek.十八4 ) 。規律,當記者問,什麼是應當做千古罪人嗎? replieth, 'Let him bring a guilt-offering and the priest shall atone for him' (Lev. i. 4 [Hebr.]). God himself, when asked, 'What shall be done with the sinner?' replieth ' ,讓他把一個有罪的犯罪和牧師應贖罪,他說' ( lev.一4 [黑布爾。 ] ) 。上帝本人,當記者問,什麼是應當做千古罪人嗎? replieth, 'Let him repent, and he will be atoned for; was it not said: "Good and upright is the Lord: therefore will he teach sinners in the way of repentance" (Psalms xxv. 8). For, my children, what do I require of you? "Seek me and live"'" replieth ' ,讓他悔改,他的名字將被填補;難道不正是說: "好,正派是主:所以將他教導的罪人,在道路悔過書" (詩篇二十五。 8 ) 。供,我的孩子,我該怎麼辦,需要的,你呢? "求大同,我的生活" ' "

Upon these ideas, which can be traced through the entire Apocryphal literature, was based the liturgy of the fast-days, and that of the Day of Atonement in particular; they are probably best expressed in the Ne'ilah prayer of the latter, which, going much further back than the second century (seeYoma 87b, where Rab of Babylonia and R. Johanan of Palestine refer to some portions of it), contains such sentences as the following:基於這些想法,可以追查到整個猜測文學,是基於禮儀中的快速天,即贖罪日,尤其是,他們很可能是最好的表現在ne'ilah的禱告後,其中去得多早,比公元二世紀( seeyoma 87b ,那裡Rab的的巴比倫王國和R.約哈難的巴勒斯坦提及某些部分) ,載有這樣的句子為以下幾點:

"Thou offerest thy hand to transgressors, and Thy right hand is stretched out to receive the repentant" (Pes. 119a). "你offerest你的手transgressors ,和你的右手伸出接受懺悔" ( pes. 119a ) 。 "Not in reliance upon our merits do we lay our supplications before Thee, O Lord of all the world, but trusting in Thy great mercy. Thou dost not find delight in the perdition of the world, but Thou hast pleasure in the return of the wicked that they may live." "不依賴我們的優點,我們奠定我國supplications之前,你,所有的人的主世界,但信仰你的偉大,決不手軟。思多斯特找不到喜悅,在墜入萬劫不復的世界,但祢高興地返回了惡人說,他們可能活" 。

The saying of the Rabbis, "Higher is the station of the sinner who repenteth than that of him who has never sinned" (Ber. 34b; see Pes. 119a; Luke xv. 10), emanates from the same principle of God's redeeming grace:(Pesiḳ. ib. 162b).俗語的拉比, "更高,是該站的千古罪人,他們repenteth比的,他從來沒有犯罪" ( ber. 34 / B ,見狗。 119a ;路加福音十五, 10 ) ,源自同一原則,上帝的救贖恩典: ( pesiḳ.興業。 162b ) 。

"God says, 'Open for me a gate no wider than a needle's eye, and I will open for you a gate through which camps and fortifications can pass'" (Pesiḳ. xxv. 163b). "上帝說, '開放給我一個門,沒有比一個針頭的眼睛,而且我會向你們敞開著門,透過這營地和工事,可以通過' " ( pesiḳ.二十五。 163b ) 。 "When the angels wanted to shut the windows of heaven against the prayer of Menasseh, saying, 'Can a man who set an idol in the Temple repent?' "當天使想關閉天上的窗戶對禱告的menasseh ,說,你們可以一個人樹立一個偶像,在寺廟中有悔改表現嗎? God said, 'If I receive him not in his repentance, I shut the door upon all penitents'; and He bored a hole under His throne of Glory to hear his supplication"上帝說, '如果我接受他不要在他的悔過書,我關閉了大門後,所有penitents ' ;他鑽了一個洞,根據他的王位的榮耀,以聽取他supplication "

Repentance.悔改之意。

(b) On the part of man Atonement is obtained in the first place by repentance, which consists of an outward Confession Of Sins ("widdui," Lev. v. 5; xvi. 21) prescribed for the high priest on the Day of Atonement (Yoma 36b), and for the criminal before his execution, to expiate his sins (Sanh. vi. 2); and recited on penitential and fast days and by proselytes at the time of their admission into the Jewish fold (see "Prayers of Asenath," xiii.-xiv.) also by the dying ("Ebel Zuṭṭarti," in Brüll's "Jahrb." i. 11). (二)對部分人的贖罪,得到了擺在首位,由悔過書,其中的一個外向型招供的罪孽( " widdui , "列夫訴五日;十六, 21 )為高神父對天贖罪( yoma 36B條) ,並為刑事之前他的處決,以expiate他的罪孽( sanh.六, 2 ) ;和背誦對penitential與快餐天,由proselytes在的時候,他們獲准進入猶太倍(見"祈禱對阿塞納絲, " xiii. - 14 ) ,也由亡者( "埃貝爾zuṭṭarti " ,在brüll的" jahrb "一11 ) 。 This is to be the expression of self-reproach, shame, and contrition.這是值得的表達自我責備,羞辱和contrition 。 "They must feel shame throughout their whole soul and change their ways; reproaching themselves for their errors and openly confessing all their sins with purified souls and minds, so as to exhibit sincerity of conscience, and having also their tongues purified so as to produce improvement in their hearers" (Philo, "De Execratione," viii.). "他們必須感到羞恥在他們整個的靈魂和改變自己的方式;譴責自己,為自己的過失,並公開承認其所有的罪孽與純淨的心靈和頭腦,以展示誠意的良知,又舌頭純化等,以改善生產在他們hearers " (斐洛, "德execratione , "八) 。 The verse, "He who sacrifices thank-offerings [AV, "praise"] glorifies me" (Ps. 1. 23), is taken by the Rabbis as signifying, "He who sacrifices his evil desire while offering his confession of sin ["zobeaḥ todah"] honors God more than if he were praising Him in the world that now is and in the world to come" (Sanh. 43b).詩歌" ,他的人的犧牲,謝謝-產品[ AV產品, "讚美" ]美化我的" (詩篇1 。 23 ) ,是由拉比為表揚" ,他的人的犧牲,他的邪惡的願望,同時他的供詞,罪[ " zobeaḥ todah " ]榮譽上帝多,如果他是讚美他,在世界上說,現在是和世界的未來" ( sanh.第43條B ) 。 "He who feels bitter shame and compunction over his sins is sure of obtaining pardon" (Ber. 12b; Hag. 5a). "他的人感到痛苦和恥辱compunction超過他的罪孽是肯定的獲得赦免" ( ber. 12 B條; hag 。 5A )條。

Reparation of Wrong.賠償的錯。

But the main stress is laid upon the undoing of the wrong done.但主要強調的是,一經確定,搞不好錯誤的工作要做。 "No sin that still cleaves to the hand of the sinner can be atoned for; it is as if a man would cleanse himself in the water while holding the contaminating object in his hand; therefore it is said, 'He that covereth his sins shall not prosper, but whoso confesseth and forsaketh them shall have mercy" (Prov. xxviii. 13; Ta'anit 16a). "不說,單仍cleaves以手的千古罪人,可有血氣的,這是因為如果一個男人會清洗自己在水中,而控股污染物體在他手上,因此,它是說, '他說,他的覆捷聯慣導系統應沒有繁榮,但誰confesseth和forsaketh他們應具有慈悲" ( prov.二十八, 13歲; ta'anit 16A條) 。 If a man steal a beam and use it in building, he must tear down the building in order to return the stolen thing to its owner: thus of the men of Nineveh it is said, "Let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in [cleaves to] their hands" (Jonah iii. 8; Yer. Ta'anit ii. 65b; Bab. B. Ḳ. 66b).如果一個男人偷梁,並用它在建設時,必須拆掉建設,以歸還被盜的事,其所有人:所以的男性尼尼微有人說, "讓他們把每個人都從他的邪惡的方式,從暴力,這就是[ cleaves ]自己的手" (約拿三八;也門里亞爾。 ta'anit二65 B條; 2000年銀行業。乙ḳ 。 66b ) 。 Further, repentance consists in abandoning the old ways, and in a change of heart; for it is said "Rend your heart and not your garments, and turn unto the Lord your God" (Joel ii. 13); that is to say, "If you tear your heart, you need not tear your garments over a loss of sons and daughters" (Pesiḳ. xxv. 161b; Yer. Ta'anit, lc).此外,悔過書,綜合在摒棄舊的方式,而且在改變主意,因為它仍是說: " rend你的心,不是你的衣服,並把所不欲,耶和華你的上帝" (約珥二13 ) ;這就是說, "如果你撕裂你的心,你不用撕你的服裝超過損失的兒女" ( pesiḳ.二十五。 161B條;也門里亞爾。 ta'anit ,立法會) 。 "They poured out their hearts like water before God" (Yer. Ta'anit ii. 65d). "他們傾注了他們的心像水上帝面前" ( yer. ta'anit二。 65d ) 。 "He who says, 'I will sin and repent; I will sin again and repent again,' will never be allowed time to repent" (Yoma viii. 9). "他說, '我將罪過懺悔,我會用單再思悔改再次, '都是絕對不允許的時間來思悔改" ( yoma八,九日) 。 Repentance rests on selfhumiliation.悔過書,就必須selfhumiliation 。 "Adam was too proud to humiliate himself, and was therefore driven from Paradise" (Num. R. xiii. 3). "亞當過於自豪地羞辱自己,並因此被逐出樂園" ( num.傳譯十三3 ) 。 "Cain who humbled himself was pardoned" (Pesiḳ. xxv. 160ab; Gen. R. xi., xxii.). "狠心的人謙卑自己被赦免" ( pesiḳ.二十五。 160ab ;將軍傳譯十一,二十二) 。 "Great is the power of repentance; for it reaches up to the throne of God; it brings healing (Hosea xiv. 5 [AV 4]); it turns sins resulting from ill-will into mere errors (according to Hosea xiv, 2 [AV 1]); nay, into incentives to meritorious conduct" (Yoma 86ab). "的力量是多麼的偉大悔過書,因為它達到了王位上帝的,它帶來的癒合(何西阿十四5 [影音4 ] ) ;原來的罪孽造成的虐待,將成為單純的錯誤(根據何西阿十四, 2 [影音1 ] ) ;不僅如此,到獎勵有功行為" ( yoma 86ab ) 。 "He who sincerely repents is doing as much as he who builds temple and altar and brings all the sacrifices" (Lev. R. vii.; Sanh. 43b). "他誠懇地悔過,是做多,因為他的人建廟宇和神龕,並帶來了所有的犧牲" ( lev.傳譯七; sanh 。第43條B ) 。

Prayer, Fasting, and Charity.祈禱,齋戒,施捨。

Hand in hand with repentance goes prayer.牽手悔過書雲禱告。 "It takes the place of sacrifice" (Pesiḳ. xxv. 165b, according to Hosea xiv. 3 [AV 2]). "這需要地方的犧牲" ( pesiḳ.二十五。 165b ,根據何西阿十四3 [影音2 ] ) 。 When God appeared to Moses after the sin of the Golden Calf, He taught him how to offer prayer on behalf of the sinladen community (RH 17b).當上帝似乎比摩西之後,單仲偕的金犢,他教他如何提供祈禱代表該sinladen共同體(銠17B條) 。 That prayer is the true service ('Abodah) is learned from Dan.祈禱是真正的服務( '阿布達)據悉,從丹。 iv.四。 24, there having been no other service in Babylonia (Pirḳe R. El. xvi.; Ab. RN iv.). 24 ,有過,沒有其他服務,在巴比倫王國( pirḳe傳譯下午十六;抗體。氡四) 。 "As the gates of repentance are always open like the sea, so are [holds R. 'Anan] the gates of prayer" (Pesiḳ. xxv. 157b). "由於蓋茨的悔過書都是公開的,如海上,所以[持有傳譯'阿南]蓋茨的祈禱" ( pesiḳ.二十五。 157b ) 。

But repentance and prayer are as a rule combined with fasting as a token of contrition, as is learned from the action of King Ahab recounted in I Kings xxi.但懺悔和祈禱,是作為一項規則結合禁食作為一個象徵性的contrition ,據悉,從行動的國王ahab回憶說,在王二十一。 27, of the men of Nineveh referred to in Jonah iii. 27日,該男子的尼尼微提到,在約拿三。 7, and of Adam in Vita Adæ et Evæ, 6; Pirḳe R. El. 7 ,和亞當在履歷表adæ等evæ 6例; pirḳe傳譯下午。 xx.; 'Er.二十。 ; '呃。 18b. 18B條。 Fasting was regarded like "offering up the blood and fat of the animal life upon the altar of God" (Ber. 17a; compare Pesiḳ., ed. Buber, p. 165b, note).禁食,被認為是想" ,提供了血液和脂肪的動物生活的祭壇神" ( ber. 17A條;比較pesiḳ ,教育署。布伯,第165b ,注) 。 With these is, as a rule, connected charity, which is "more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice" (Prov. xxi. 3).這些是,作為一項規則,連通慈善,即是"更容易接受,向上帝禱告,比奉獻" ( prov.二十一3 ) 。 On every fastday charity was given to the poor (Sanh. 35a; Ber. 6b).對每一個fastday施捨給窮人( sanh. 35A條;誤碼率。 6B型) 。 "Prayer, charity, and repentance, these three together, avert the impending doom" (Yer. Ta'anit ii. 65b). "祈禱,慈善機構,並悔過書,這三種軟件結合起來,避免迫在眉睫的末日" ( yer. ta'anit二65 B條) 。 "Repentance and works of benevolence are together the paracletes [pleaders] for man before God's throne (Shab. 32a), and a shield against punishment" (Abot iv. 11). "悔過書及工程善是一起paracletes [ pleaders ]男子為上帝面前的寶座( shab. 32A條) ,並做擋箭牌,對懲罰" ( abot四11 ) 。

Suffering as Means of Atonement.痛苦的方式贖罪。

Another thing considered by the Rabbis as a means of Atonement is suffering.另一件事是由拉比作為一種手段,贖罪是痛苦。 Suffering is more apt than sacrifice to win God's favor and to atone for man (Mek., Yitro, 10; Sifre, Deut. 32; Ber. 5a).苦難是最適合不過的犧牲,以贏得上帝的青睞,並以1945年為文( mek. , yitro , 10歲; sifre , deut 。 32 ;誤碼率。 5A )條。 Poverty also, in so far as it reduces man's physical strength, has atoning power (Pesiḳ. xxv. 165a).貧困的同時,在目前為止,因為它降低了人的體力,已atoning功率( pesiḳ.二十五。 165a ) 。 Similar power was ascribed to exile (Sanh. 37b); also to the destruction of the Temple, which was held as a security-a play on the word -for Israel's life (Gen. R. xlii.; Ex. R. xxxi.; Lev. R. xi.).類似的權力是屬於流亡( sanh. 37 B ) ,也毀了廟,於當日舉行了一個安全遊戲,就用Word ,為以色列的生命(創傳譯四十二;特惠。傳譯三十一。 ;列弗。傳譯席) 。 Above all, death atones for sin (Sifre, Num. 112; Mek., Yitro, 7).最重要的是,死刑atones為單仲偕( sifre ,序號112段;人民聖戰者組織, yitro , 7 ) 。 "Let my death make atonement for all my sins," say men when dying or in peril (Ber. 60a; Sanh. vi. 2). "讓我的死贖罪我所有的罪孽, "說,男子臨終時,或處於危難( ber. 60A條; sanh六。 2 ) 。 Particularly the deathof the righteous atones for the sins of the people.尤其deathof正義atones為罪過的人。 "Like the sanctuary, he is taken as security ["mashkon"] for the life of the community" (Tan., Wayaḳhel 9; Ex. R. xxxv. 4; Lev. R. ii.). "就像避難所,他是作為安全的影響[ " mashkon " ] ,為社區生活" ( tan. , wayaḳhel 9 ;特惠。傳譯三十五。四日;列弗。傳譯二) 。

Suffering or Death of the Righteous.痛苦或死亡的正義。

That the death of the righteous atones is learned from II Sam.這起死亡的正義atones據悉,從二,三。 xxi.二十一。 14, which says that after the burial of Saul and Jonathan "God was entreated for the land" (Pesiḳ. xxvii. 174b). 14日,它說,經過埋葬掃羅和Jonathan "上帝是entreated為土地" ( pesiḳ.二十七。 174b ) 。 "Where there are no righteous men in a generation to atone for the people, innocent school-children are taken away" (Shab. 33b). "那裡沒有任何正義的男子在一代人的時間才能贖罪,為人民,無辜學校孩子帶走" ( shab. 33 B的) 。 So also does the suffering of the righteous atone; as in the case of Ezekiel (Sanh. 39a) and Job (Ex. R. xxi.).所以,也沒有痛苦的正義贖罪;情況正如以西結書( sanh. 39A條)及就業(如傳譯二十一) 。 R. Judah haNasi's suffering saved his contemporaries from calamities (Gen. R. 96).傳譯猶大哈納斯的痛苦,挽救了他的同時代的,從災難(創傳譯96 ) 。 God is the King whose wrath is, in Prov.上帝是國王的震怒的是,在省。 xvi.十六。 14, referred to "as messengers of death," and the wise man who makes Atonement for it is Moses, who pacifies Him by prayer (Ex. R. xliii.). 14 ,指的是"作為信使的死亡" ,和聰明的人誰贖罪,因為這是摩西,誰pacifies他祈禱(如傳譯四十三) 。 The death of Israel at the hands of his persecutors is an atoning sacrifice (Sifre, Deut. 333).死在以色列的手中,他的迫害者,是一個atoning犧牲( sifre , deut 333 ) 。

Study of the Torah.研究的律法。

Atoning powers are ascribed also to the study of the Law, which is more effective than sacrifice, especially when combined with good works (RH 18a; Yeb. 105a; Lev. R. xxv.). atoning權力,是認定的,也學習法律,這是更為有效的犧牲,特別是當結合的優秀作品(銠18A條; yeb 。 105a ;列弗。傳譯二十五) 。 The table from which the poor received their share atones for man's sins in place of the altar (see Altar); the wife being the priestess who makes Atonement for the house (Ber. 55a; Tan., Wayishlaḥ, vi.).下表從哪個窮人得到的份額atones人的罪過,以取代現時的祭壇(見的神龕) ;太太作為祭司誰贖罪,為家( ber.第55 A ;火炭, wayishlaḥ ,第六章) 。 The meritorious lives of the Patriarchs especially possess a great atoning power (Ex. R. xlix.).功勳生命的patriarchs尤其是擁有一個強大的atoning電源(如傳譯xlix ) 。 The Holy Land itself has atoning qualities for those who inhabit it or are buried in its soil, as is learned from Deut.聖地本身atoning素質,為那些居住或者是埋在土壤中,作為據悉,從deut 。 xxxii.三十二。 43, which verse is interpreted "He will make His land an Atonement for His people" (see Sifre, Deut. 333; Gen. R. xcvi.; Ket. 111a; Yer. Kil. ix. 32c). 43 ,這首詩的解釋是: "他將發表他的土地是一個贖罪,為自己的人民" (見sifre , deut 333 ;將軍傳譯xcvi ; KET的。 111a ;也門里亞爾。九龍內地段第九32 ) 。 On the other hand, the descent of the wicked (heathen) into Gehenna for eternal doom is, according to Isa.在另一方面,出身的惡人(異教徒)到地獄永恆的厄運是,按照伊薩。 xliii.四十三。 (AV), an atoning sacrifice for the people of Israel (compare Prov. xxi. 18). (影音) , atoning犧牲,為人民的以色列(比較省二十一, 18歲) 。 "I gave Egypt for thy ransom [kofer], Ethiopia and Seba for thee" (Sifre, Deut. 333; Ex. R. xi.). "我給埃及為你的贖金[ kofer ] ,埃塞俄比亞和施巴為你" ( sifre , deut 333 ;特惠。傳譯席) 。

Atonement Is Regeneration.贖罪是再生。

The whole idea underlying Atonement, according to the rabbinical view, is regeneration-restoration of the original state of man in his relation to God, called "teḳanah" (RH 17a; 'Ar. 15b).整個概念背後的贖罪,根據猶太教的觀點來說,再生修復到原來狀態的男子,在他的天主間的關係,所謂的" teḳanah " (銠17A條; '氬。 15B條) 。 "As vessels of gold or of glass, when broken, can be restored by undergoing the process of melting, thus does the disciple of the law, after having sinned, find the way of recovering his state of purity by repentance" (R. Akiba in Ḥag. 15a). "由於船隻的黃金或玻璃,破碎的時候,就可以恢復所經歷的過程中熔化,因此是否弟子的法律,之後去犯罪,找到出路收回他的國家的純度悔過書" (傳譯秋葉在ḥag 。 15A條) 。 Therefore he who assumes a high public office after the confession of his sins in the past is "made a new creature, free from sin like a child" (Sanh. 14a; compare Midr. Sam. xvii., "Saul was as one year old"; I Sam. xiii. 1, AV "reigned one year'" RV "was thirty years old").因此,他誰上台,高公職後,供認他的罪孽,在過去是"作出了新的受造物,不受單像一個孩子" ( sanh. A的;比較midr 。山姆。十七, "娑羅雙樹是因為一年舊" ,我心第十三1 , AV產品"在位一年"的RV " ,是30歲" ) 。 In fact, the Rabbis declare that the scholar, the bridegroom, and the Nasi, as well as the proselyte, on entering their new station in life, are freed from all their sins, because, having by confession of sins, fasting, and prayer prepared themselves for the new state, they are, as it were, born anew (Yer. Bik. iii. 65c, d; Midr. Sam. lc).事實上,在猶太教士宣布有關學者,新郎和納斯,以及作為proselyte ,在進入新站生活,擺脫所有的罪過,因為,由供述的罪孽,齋戒,禱告在準備為新的國家,他們是,因為它被重新出生( yer.公牛三。 65 C ,深; midr 。山姆。立法會) 。 This is the case also with the change of name or locality when combined with change of heart (Pesiḳ. xxx. 191a; RH 16b).在這種情況下,也與名稱的改變和任何地方的時候,再加上改變主意( pesiḳ.三十。 191a ;銠16B條) 。 The following classical passage elucidates the rabbinical view as taught by R. Ishmael (of the second century; Yoma, 86a):(compare Mishnah Shebu. i. 1-6).下列古典通過闡明了猶太教的看法,作為老師傳譯伊斯梅爾(公元二世紀; yoma , 86a ) : (比較mishnah shebu一1-6 ) 。

"There are four different modes of Atonement. If a man fails to fulfil the duty incumbent upon him in case of a sin of omission, for him repentance suffices, as Jeremiah (iii. 22) says, 'Return, ye backsliding children, and I will heal your backsliding.' "有4個不同的方式贖罪,如果一個人未能履行職責他有責任在案件罪過的無心之失,他的悔過書就夠了,正如耶利米( iii. 22 )說: '作為回報,葉開倒車的兒童,並我會治愈你的開倒車。 If he has transgressed a prohibitory law-a sin of commission-the Day of Atonement atones: of him the Löw says, 'On this day He shall atone for your sins to cleanse you' (Lev. xvi. 30). If he be guilty of crimes such as entail the death penalty and the like, repentance and the Day of Atone ment can not expiate them unless suffering works as a purifying factor: to this the Psalmist refers when he says, 'I will visit their transgressions with the rod and their iniquities with stripes' (Ps. lxxxix. 33 [AV 32]). And if the crime amount to a desecration of the name of God and the doing of great harm to the people at large, nothing but death can be the penalty; as Isaiah (xxii. 14) says, 'Surely this iniquity shall not be atoned for you [AV "purged from you"] till ye die, saith the Lord God of Hosts'" Whether the Day of Atonement atoned only for sins committed in error and ignorance or involuntarily (Heb. ix. 7), or also for those committed wilfully with a high hand (Num. xv. 26, 30), whether only after due repentance or without it, is discussed by the Rabbis (Shebu. 13a; Yoma 85b); and the resulting opinion is that just as the scapegoat atoned for all the sins of the nation, whether committed involuntarily or wilfully (Shebu. i. 6), so also does the Day of Atonement, true repentance having the power of turning all sins into mere errors, such as are forgiven to the whole congregation according to Num.如果他有transgressed一禁制法-一種罪過委員會-贖罪日atones :他löw說: '在這一天,他應贖罪,你的罪孽清洗你』 ( lev.十六30 ) ,但如果他被犯有刑事罪行,如涉及死刑和喜歡,有悔罪之日起從1945 ment不能expiate除非他們的苦難工程作為淨化因子:這是指詩人時,他說, '我還會訪問他們的越軌與棒和他們的罪孽與條紋(雅歌lxxxix 33 [視聽32 ] ) 。如果犯罪構成一種褻瀆真主的名義和做的危害極大,以人民大眾來說,沒有什麼,但死亡可以罰則正如以賽亞書( xxii. 14 )說, '這肯定不公平,不得填補為你們的AV "整肅你" ]到葉死了,仰上帝的主持人"是否贖罪日填補只為罪孽在錯誤和無知或不自願地(希伯來書九7 ) ,或還為那些有意與高手( num.十五, 26 , 30 ) ,是否只有經過適當的悔過書或沒有它,是討論由拉比( shebu 。 13A條; yoma 85 B ) ,以及由此而來的看法是,正如替罪羊有血氣的所有罪行,對民族,無論是自願性或故意( shebu.一6 ) ,所以也沒有贖罪日,真正的悔過書後,權力,把全部的罪過到單純的錯誤,例如有饒恕向全體會眾按序號。 xv.十五。 26. 26 。 All the greater emphasis is laid on sincere repentance, without which the Day of Atonement is inefficient (Maimonides, "Yad," Teshubah, i. 3).所有更大的重點在於對真誠悔罪,沒有它的贖罪日,是效率不高(邁蒙尼德, "亞得, " teshubah ,一3 ) 。

Annual Redintegration of Man.每年redintegration的男子。

All the various elements effecting Atonement are in a marked degree combined in the Day of Atonement, to make it the occasion of the great annual redintegration of man.所有各種元素的影響贖罪正處在一個顯著的程度結合起來,在贖罪日,以使值此偉大週年redintegration的男子。 It is called "Shabbat Shabbaton," the holiest of rest-days as the Shabbath of the Sabbatical month (Lev. xxiii. 32), because it was to prepare the people for the festival of harvest joy, the Succoth feast at the close of the agricultural season (Ex. xxiii. 16, xxxiv. 22; Lev. xxiii. 34, xxv. 9, 10; Ezek. xl. 1).這是所謂的" shabbat shabbaton , "神聖的休息天數為shabbath的休假一個月( lev.二十三, 32歲) ,因為它是準備的人,為藝術節的豐收喜悅, succoth宴結束農業季節(如:二十三, 16 ,三十四。 22 ;列弗。二十三,三十四,二十五, 9日, 10日; ezek 。四十, 1 ) 。 Whereas Ezekiel (xlv. 18-20) intended to have the first and the seventh day of the first month rendered days of Atonement for the year, the Mosaic law ordained that the new moon of the seventh month should be a Sabbath (Lev. xxiii. 24), heralding forth with the trumpet in more solemn sounds than on other new-moon days (Num. x. 10) the holy month; and this was to be followed by the day which was to consecrate both the nation and the sanctuary by imposing atoning rites.而以西結書( xlv. 18-20 )打算遇到的第一次和第7天的第一個月,使天的贖罪,為一年中,鑲嵌法受戒表示,新的月球的第7個月應該是一個安息日( lev.二十三24 ) ,預示著拿出了號角,在更嚴肅的聲音比其他新型月球天( num.十, 10 )聖月;這是應遵循的一天是consecrate兩個民族和避難所施加atoning儀式。 These rites were of a two-fold character.這些禮俗都是2倍性格。

Day of Atonement.贖罪日。

Atonement for the people was made in a form without any parallel in the entire sacrificial system, Lev.贖罪,為人民作出的一種形式,沒有任何並行,在整個祭祀制度,列弗。 xvi.十六。 7-22, or Deut. 7月22日,或deut 。 xxi.二十一。 4, perhaps excepted. 4 ,也許除外。 A scapegoat, upon which the high priest laid the sins of the people, was sent forth into the wilderness to Azazel (a demon,according to Ibn Ezra on Lev. xvi. 10, related to the goatlike demons, or satyrs, referred to in Lev. xvii. 7; compare Yoma 67b); and its arrival at the rock of Ḥadudo,where it was cast down the precipice, was signalized as the moment of the granting of pardon to the people by the waving of a wisp of snow-white wool in place of one of scarlet, over the Temple gate, crowds of young people waiting on the hills of Jerusalem to celebrate the event by dancing (Yoma iv. 1-8; Ta'anit iv. 8).一個替罪羊,從而大祭司奠定了罪孽的人,被送到了到曠野,以阿撒瀉勒(惡魔,據伊本以斯拉對列弗。十六, 10 ,涉及到goatlike魔,或satyrs範圍要廣列弗。十七,七;比較yoma 67b ) ,而且它的到來,在岩石的ḥadudo ,它被投下來的懸崖,是個燈號作為時刻給予赦免,以人民所揮舞著一個無線ISP的雪域白羊毛的地方之一,猩紅熱,在廟門口,大批年輕人排隊等候的小山耶路撒冷慶祝活動伴舞( yoma四, 1-8 ; ta'anit四8 ) 。

Obviously this primitive rite was not of late origin, as is alleged by modern critics, but was a concession rather to ancient Semitic practise, and its great popularity is shown by the men of rank accompanying it, by the cries with which the crowd followed it, and by tales of a miraculous character related in the Mishnah and the Gemara (Yoma 66a, 67a, 68b).顯然,這原始的成年禮,是不是太晚出身,因為據稱是由現代批評,但被特許權,而不是向古代閃族執業的能力和其強大的人氣已經呈現出來,男青年官兵的陪同,由呼聲與哪些人群其次,它,並通過童話的神奇的性格有關,在mishnah和gemara ( yoma 66 A條,第67A , 68 B條) 。 On the other hand, the sprinkling by the high priest of the blood of the bullock, the ram, and the second goat, consecrated to the Lord, was in full keeping with the usual Temple ritual, and distinguished itself from the sacrificial worship of other days only by the ministrations of the high priest, who, clad in his fine linen garb, offered the incense and sprinkled blood of each sin-offering upon the Holy of Holies and the veil of the Holy Place for the purification of the whole sanctuary as well as of his own household and the nation.在另一方面,噴灌由高級神職人員的牛血,羊,而第二山羊, consecrated向上帝禱告,是完全符合一貫廟祭祀,並尊敬自己,從祭祀崇拜其他天只能由ministrations的高級神職人員,他們穿他的細麻布外衣,提供了香火,灑鮮血的每一單犯罪後,神聖之神聖和神秘的聖所,為淨化整個庇護所作為以及他自己的家庭和國家。 The impressiveness of these functions, minutely described in Mishnah (Yoma ii.-vii.), has been vividly pictured by Ben Sira, whose words in Ecclus.該impressiveness這些職能時, minutely描述mishnah ( yoma ii.七件) ,已生動地描述,由Ben缺陷,其詞ecclus 。 (Sirach) 1. (西拉奇) 1 。 were embodied in the synagogue liturgy at the close of the 'Abodah.都體現在猶太教堂的禮拜儀式結束時, '阿布達。 But while, according to Scripture, the high priest made Atonement (Lev. xvi. 30), tradition transferred the atoning power to God, as was expressed in the high priest's prayer commencing, "Kapper na" (O Lord, atone Thou for the iniquities, the sins, and the transgressions," Yoma iii. 8, iv. 2, vi. 2); interpreting the verse (Lev. xvi. 30): "Through that day He, the Lord, shall atone for you" (Yoma iii. 8; Sifra, Aḥare Mot, viii.).但同時,根據經文,大祭司作了贖罪( lev.十六30 ) ,傳統轉讓atoning權力,以神的存在,因為有人在高牧師的祈禱展開, " kapper娜" (主啊, 1945年你為罪孽,罪孽,以及越軌" , yoma三,八,四,二,六, 2 ) ;詮釋韻文( lev.十六30 )說: "經歷過這一天他時,主,應贖罪,為你" ( yoma三八; sifra , aḥare摩托羅拉,第八條) 。

Great stress was laid on the cloud of incense in which the high priest was enveloped when entering the Holy of Holies; and many mystic or divinatory powers were ascribed to him as he stood there alone in the darkness, as also to the prayer he offered, to the Foundation Stone ("Eben Shetiyah"), on which he placed the censer, and to the smoke of the sacrifice (Yoma, 53a, b et seq.; Tan., Aḥare 3; Lev. R. xx., xxi.; compare Book of Jubilees xii. 16).壓力非常大,是乃雲香,它使高級神職人員被籠罩在進入神聖之神聖;不少神秘或divinatory權力歸因於他,因為他站在那裡,僅在夜色中,也以禱告他,以發展奠定了基礎( " Eben的shetiyah " ) ,對他寄予的香爐,並硝煙中的犧牲( yoma ,第53A ,乙等及以下各段;火炭, aḥare 3 ;列弗。傳譯二十,二十一。 ;比較易經jubilees十二16 ) 。 The prayer offered by the high priest (according to Yer. Yoma v. 2; Tan., 'Aḥare 4; Lev. R. xx.) was that the year might be blessed with rain, heat, and dew, and might yield plenty, prosperity, independence, and comfort to the inhabitants of the land.禱告所提供的高神父(據也門里亞爾。 yoma訴2 ;火炭, ' aḥare 4 ;列弗。傳譯二十)表示,今年可能是有福有雨,供熱,露水,並可能產生大量,繁榮,獨立和舒適性,以居民的土地。

In the course of time the whole Temple ritual was taken symbolically, and more stress was laid on the fasting, the prayers, and the supplications, to which the people devoted the whole day, entreating pardon for their sins, and imploring God's mercy.在這個過程中的時間,整個廟祭祀採取了象徵性,並更加注重奠定了就禁食,祈禱,並supplications ,這是人們用一整天, entreating赦免了他們的罪過,並懇求上帝的憐憫。 This at least is the view expressed by Philo ("De Septenario," 23), even if it was not yet shared by the people in general, when the Epistle to the Hebrews (ix.) and that of Barnabas (vii.) were written.這至少是所表達的觀點斐洛( "時點septenario " , 23人) ,即使是尚未人民的共同一般來說,當希伯來人書中( ix. ) ,並認為石碑( vii. )成文。 It was after the destruction of the Temple, and through the synagogue, that the Day of Atonement assumed its high spiritual character as the great annual regenerator of Jewish life in connection with New-Year's Day.它被摧毀後廟,並通過猶太教堂,即贖罪日就任其高精神品格,正如偉大的年度蓄熱室的猶太人生活在結合新的一年的一天。

Day of Sealing God's Decree.一天密封上帝的法令。

Down to the first century, in Apocalyptical as well as in New Testament writings, the idea of the divine judgment was mainly eschatological in character, as deciding the destiny of the soul after death rather than of men on earth.下至第一世紀,在apocalyptical以及在新約聖經的著作,重新認識神的判斷,主要是eschatological在性格,因為決定命運的靈魂在死後,而不是男人在地球上。 But under the influence of Babylonian mythology, which spoke of the beginning of the year-"zagmuk"-on the first day of Nisan, as the time when the gods decided the destiny of life (Jensen, "Kosmologie," pp. 84-86, 238), the idea developed also in Jewish circles that on the first of Tishri, the sacred New-Year's Day and the anniversary of Creation, man's doings were judged and his destiny was decided; and that on the tenth of Tishri the decree of heaven was sealed (Tosef., RH i. 13; RH 11a, 16a), a view still unknown to Philo ("De Septenario," 22) and disputed by some rabbis (RH 16a).但影響下巴比倫神話中,其中談到了今年初" zagmuk " -第一天就尼散月14日,隨著時間的時候,神明決定命運的人生(詹森, " kosmologie "頁84 - 86 , 238 ) ,這個想法也發達,在猶太人士表示,關於第一點的提斯利,神聖新的一年的國慶日和週年創作的人的所作所為判斷和自己的命運被決定,並認為對的十分之一提斯利法令天道是密封( tosef. ,銠一, 13歲;銠11A條, 16A條) ,以期仍是未知之以斐洛( "時點septenario , " 22 )和有爭議的一些拉比(銠16A條) 。 Thus, the first ten days of Tishri grew to be the Ten Penitential Days of the year, intended to bring about a perfect change of heart, and to make Israel like new-born creatures (Pesiḳ. xxiii., xxiv.; Lev. R. xxix.), the culmination being reached on the Day of Atonement, when religion's greatest gift, God's condoning mercy, was to be offered to man.因此,第一十天的提斯利長大成為10 penitential幾天的一年,旨在實現一個完美的改變主意,並讓以色列一樣,新出生的動物( pesiḳ.二十三,二十四。 ;列弗研發補助。二十九) ,高潮正在達成的贖罪日,當宗教的最大的禮物,上帝的寬容慈悲,是要提供給男子。 It was on this day that Moses came down from Mount Sinai with the Tables of the Law received in token of God's pardon of the sin of the golden calf, while the whole congregation fasted and prayed.這是這一天來到摩西從西奈山與桌的法律,在收到令牌上帝的原諒的罪過的金犢,而整個聚集禁食禱告。 The Day of Atonement was thenceforth made the annual day of divine forgiveness of sin, when Satan, the accuser, failed to find blame in the people of Israel, who on that day appeared pure from sin like the angels (see Seder 'Olam R. vi.; Tan., Ki Tissa, 4; Pirḳe R. El. xlvi.).贖罪日是此後作出年度一天神赦罪,當撒旦,原告,並沒有找到推卸責任,對以色列人民來說,這一天似乎純粹從罪孽像天使(見seder ' olam傳譯六;火炭,奇tissa , 4 ; pirḳe傳譯下午。四十六) 。 According to Pirḳe R. El.據pirḳe傳譯下午。 xxix., the circumcision of Abraham took place on the Day of Atonement, and the blood which dropped down on the very spot where the altar afterward stood in the temple on Moriah is still before the eyes of God to serve as means of Atonement.二十九,包皮環切亞伯拉罕發生在贖罪日和血液掉了下來,就非常的地點走下神壇之後,站在廟就moriah仍然是以前的眼中,上帝充當手段贖罪。

A Day of Confiding Joy.一天confiding喜悅。

Far from being the means of "pacifying an angry God," as suggested by Cheyne ("Encyc. Bibl." sv), or from leaving a feeling of uncertainty and dread of suspense concerning God's pardoning love in the heart, as Weber ("Altsynagogale Theologie," p. 321) maintains, these ten days are the days of special grace when the Shekinah is nigh, and God longs to grant pardon to His people (Pesiḳ. xxiv.).遠遠不是手段"擺平憤怒的上帝"的建議進益( " encyc 。 bibl " sv ) ,或離開的感覺,不確定性和恐懼的懸念關於上帝的赦免愛在心裡,正如韋伯( " altsynagogale theologie " ,頁321 )保持,這十天來,是天的特別恩典時,舍吉拿的是要來臨,與神的渴望和赦免他的人( pesiḳ.二十四) 。 The Day of Atonement is the "one day" prepared from the beginning to unite the world divided between the light of goodness and the darkness of sin (Gen. R. ii., iii.), "a day of great joy to God" (Tanna debe Eliyahu Ri).贖罪日是"一天" ,準備從一開始就是要團結世界分為輕的善良和罪惡的黑暗(創傳譯二,三) , "一天的歡樂之中,以神之名" ( tanna debe eliyahu RI )等。 "Not depressed and in somber garments as the suppliant appears before the earthly judge and ruler should Israel on New-Year's Day and on the Day of Atonement stand before the Ruler and the Judge on high, but with joy and in white garments betokening a cheerful and confiding spirit" (Yer. RH i. 57b). "不要沮喪,在低沉的服裝作為suppliant出現之前俗世的判斷和統治者,如果以色列對新的一年的一天,就在贖罪日站前統治者和法官,對高,但與喜悅,並在白色服裝betokening樂觀和confiding精神" ( yer.銠一57 B條) 。 Only later generations regarded these white garments, the Sargenes-in which also the dead were dressed in order to appear before the Judge of all flesh full of gladsome hope-as shrouds, and considered them as reminders of death (Yer. RH lc; Eccl. R. ix. 7; Gen. R. lc; Brueck, "Pharisäische Volkssitten," 1368).只是後人把這些白色服裝, sargenes -其中還死者身著為了出庭,法官的所有肉充滿gladsome希望-因為整流罩,並認為他們為催問死刑( yer.銠立法會; eccl 。傳譯九,七;將軍傳譯立法會; brueck , " pharisäische volkssitten " , 1368 ) 。 "The firstday of Succoth is called the first day [Lev. xxiii. 35] because on it a new record begins, the sins of the year having been wiped off on Atonement Day" (Tan., Emor., 22). " firstday的succoth是所謂的第一天[列弗。二十三, 35 ] ,因為它一種新的記錄的開始,我國的罪孽,今年被抹掉就贖罪日" ( tan. , emor , 22 ) 。 The sins of the preceding year therefore, unless they have been repeated, should not be confessed anew (Tosef., Yoma, v. 15; Yoma 86b; Ex. R. lii.).(Yoma viii. 9).罪孽的前一年,因此,除非他們已經反复,不應該重新供認( tosef. , yoma ,訴15人; yoma 86b ;特惠。傳譯第五十二) 。 ( yoma八,九日) 。

"He who says, 'I will sin, and the Day of Atonement shall make atonement for me,' for him the Day of Atonement is of no avail. Only such sins as concern man's relation to God will be pardoned. Sins committed by man against his fellow man are pardoned only after his fellow man's pardon has been obtained; for it is said: 'From all your sins before the Lord ye shall be cleansed' (Lev. xvi. 30), thus excluding sins before man" "他說, '我還會罪,在贖罪日應作贖罪,為我說: 『為他的贖罪日,是無濟於事的,只有這樣的罪孽,因為關注人的關係,以上帝會赦免。罪孽犯下的男子對他的同胞男子赦免後,只有他的同胞男子的赦免,已獲得,因為它仍是說: '您的一切罪孽之前,葉公應清洗' ( lev.十六30 ) ,因而排除了罪孽之前,男子"

Both Fast-Day and Festal Day.無論是快速為期一天的節日。

The Day of Atonement has thus a double character; it is both a fast-day and a festal day.贖罪日就此雙重性格;它既是一個快速,日內著節日的喜慶日。 It comprises the elements of the great fast-day of the year, on which are prohibited all those things from which the people abstained on any other public fast-day, such as eating and drinking, bathing and anointing, the wearing of sandals or shoes, etc. (Yoma 76b and 77a).它包含的內容大快一天的一年,就被禁止,所有這些事情,從哪些人投了棄權票,任何其他公共快一天,如吃,喝,洗澡和anointing ,穿著涼鞋或皮鞋等( yoma 76b和77 A條) 。 Another mode of affliction or penitence, however, is prohibited (Yoma 74b; Sifra, Aḥare, vii.).另一種折磨或懺悔,但禁止( yoma 74 B ; sifra , aḥare ,第七章) 。 There were likewise embodied in the liturgy of the Day of Atonement all those forms of supplications and portions of the liturgy used on public fast-days (Ta'anit iv. 1), including the most characteristic portion recited at sunset, Ne'ilah ("the closing of the gates of the sun").有同樣體現在禮儀中的贖罪日,所有這些形式的supplications和部分的禮儀中使用的公共快餐天( ta'anit四, 1 ) ,其中包括最有特色的部分背誦在日落, ne'ilah ( "關閉大門的太陽" ) 。 Of these the confession of sins forms the oldest and most prominent part of each portion of the day's liturgy, the alphabetical order in the catalogue of sins having originated in Ḥasidic circles (Rom. i. 29 et seq.; Didache v.; Shab. 54a) rather than in the Temple liturgy (Sifra i.; Yoma iii. 8).這些供認的罪過形式最古老和最突出的部分,每個部分當天的禮儀中,按字母順序排列,在中央定價目錄的罪孽過起源於ḥasidic界(羅馬書一, 29段及以下各段; didache訴;沙巴。 54A條) ,而不是在寺廟禮拜儀式( sifra一; yoma三8 ) 。 This is to be followed by the "Seliḥot," the appeals to God's forgiveness as expressed in the thirteen Attributes of God as He appeared to Moses on Sinai, promising "Salaḥti," "I have forgiven" (Num. xiv. 18-20).這是值得其次是" seliḥot " ,呼籲上帝的寬恕的表現在13個屬性的上帝,因為他似乎對摩西在西奈,有前途" salaḥti " , "我已經原諒" ( num.十四18-20 ) 。 The reading from the Law of the chapter on the Atonement sacrifice in Lev.閱讀從法律的一章贖罪的犧牲列弗。 xvi., in the morning portion, is followed by the reading from the prophet Isaiah (lvii. 15-lviii. 14) as Hafṭarah, which has been significantly chosen to impress the worshipers with the lesson that the external rite of fasting is valueless without the works of righteousness and beneficence.十六,在上午的部分,其次是閱讀,從先知以賽亞( lvii. 15 lviii 14 ) hafṭarah ,這已大大選擇打動眾與教訓,知道外部成年禮的禁食是毫無價值無該工程是正義的功德。

Differing in this respect from any other fast-day, and resembling all Sabbath and festival days, the celebration of the Day of Atonement begins in the synagogue on the preceding evening, in conformity with Lev.不同的,在這方面,從任何其它快速增長的一天,相似的所有安息日及節日中,慶祝贖罪日開始在猶太教會堂前面的傍晚,在符合列弗。 xxiii.二十三。 32 (Yoma 81b). 32 ( yoma 81b ) 。 It probably did so during the time of the Temple (Yoma 19b), but not in the Temple itself (Yoma i. 2).它可能是這樣做在時間的廟( yoma 19B條) ,而不是在寺廟本身( yoma一2 ) 。 This evening service-called Kol-Nidre from its opening formula, which canceled rash vows-with its strongly marked melodies and songs, assumed in the course of time a very impressive character.今晚的服務,所謂" Kol - nidre由開幕式,其中取消了皮疹誓言-其強烈顯著的旋律和歌曲,假設在這個過程中的時間,一個非常令人印象深刻的特點。 On the Day of Atonement itself, the noon or "musaf" (additional) service-presenting as its chief feature the 'Abodah, a graphic description of the whole Atonement service of the Temple-is followed by the afternoon or "Minḥah" service, which begins with the reading from the Law of the chapter on incestuous marriages, with a side-reference, as it were, to Azazel, the seducer to lewdness (Meg. 31a; Tos. ad loc.; Yoma 67b), and as Hafṭarah, the Book of Jonah, containing the great lesson of God's forgiving love extended to Gentiles as well as to Jews.就在贖罪日本身,中午或" musaf " (附加)服務呈遞為主要特徵的'阿布達,一個生動的描述整個贖罪服務的廟宇-其次是下午或" minḥah "的服務理念,開始同讀,從法律的一章亂倫婚姻,以方參考,因為它被,以阿撒瀉勒,說笑話,以lewdness ( meg. 31 A條;指引。專案同上。 ; yoma 67b ) ,並作為hafṭarah ,這本書的約拿,載有很大的教訓,上帝的寬恕的愛延伸到外邦人以及為猶太人。 This is followed by the Ne'ilah service, in which the main ideas of the day are especially emphasized-repentance conditioning forgiveness, and God's sealing the decree of man for the ensuing year.這是其次是ne'ilah服務,其中主要的想法一天都是特別強調-悔罪調理寬恕與上帝的密封法令的男子,隨後的一年。 The service ends with a solemn invocation of God's name, the Shema', and the sevenfold exclamation, "The Lord, He is God" (compare I Kings xviii. 39), forming the climax of the continuous devotions of the day.服務結束了隆重的祈禱上帝的人的姓名,該架構' ,並七倍驚嘆號, "主啊,他是上帝" (比較王十八39 ) ,最終形成了高潮,不斷奉獻的一天。 As a signal of the close of the sacred day, so that the people may know that they can work or eat (Tos. to Shab. 114b), or for other reasons (see Kol Bo, lxx.; Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 623, 6; Ṭur Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 624), the trumpet is blown once, or, as in Palestine, four times-"Teḳi'ah, Shebarim, Teru'ah, Teḳi'ah" (see Maḥzor Vitry, pp. 345, 356; Abudrahim, "Seder Tef. Yom Kippurim.").作為一個信號,結束了神聖的節日,讓市民可知道,他們可以工作,或吃( tos.到沙巴。 114b ) ,或為其它原因(見" Kol公報, lxx ; shulḥan ' aruk , oraḥ ḥayyim , 623 6例; ṭur oraḥ ḥayyim , 624 ) ,小號吹一次,或者,如同在巴勒斯坦, 4倍- " teḳi'ah , shebarim , teru'ah , teḳi'ah " (見maḥzor vitry ,第345 356 ; abudrahim , " seder tef 。贖罪kippurim " ) 。 Either in the Kol-Nidre service, as in Jerusalem, before the main prayers (Schwartz, "Das Heilige Land," p. 336), or after the morning service (Maḥzor Vitry, p. 353; Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 621, 6), the dead are commemorated, and gifts are offered for their salvation (see Tan., Haazinu, i. ed. Vienna, 1853, p. 28; Pesiḳ. xxvii. 174b, and Roḳeaḥ, quoted in Beth Joseph to Ṭur Oraḥ Ḥayyim, lc)-a custom which in the Reform liturgy has been made a more prominent part of the service.無論是在" Kol - nidre服務,因為在耶路撒冷,前主祈禱(施瓦茨, "之heilige土地" ,頁336 ) ,或以後早上服務( maḥzor vitry ,第353名; shulḥan ' aruk , oraḥ ḥayyim , 621 , 6人) ,死者中有紀念和禮品優惠,他們的救贖(見譚, haazinu ,一版維也納, 1853年,第28頁; pesiḳ 。二十七。 174b ,並roḳeaḥ ,引述在什麼約瑟夫,以ṭur oraḥ ḥayyim ,立法會) -一種習俗,在禮儀中的改革已經取得了更加突出的部分服務。 In preparation for the Day of Atonement it is usual to offer gifts of charity, according to Prov.為了籌備這次的贖罪日,這是一貫的,以提供贈品的慈善事業,據省。 x.十。 2, "Righteousness [charity] delivereth from death," and to go to the cemetery to visit the graves of the dead, a practise taken over from the fast-days (Ta'anit 16a; Yer. Ta'anit ii. 65a). 2 , "義[慈善]救從死神" ,並前往該墳場訪問墓的死者,實行接管,從快餐天( ta'anit 16A條;也門里亞爾。 ta'anit二。 65a ) 。

The custom of bringing candles to burn in the synagogue the whole day, in memory of the dead, may have originated in the desire to light up the otherwise dark synagogue for the recital of prayers and psalms by the pious during the entire night.風俗使蠟燭燃燒的猶太教堂,整個一天,以悼念死者,可能是起源於渴望照亮了黑暗,否則猶太教堂,為演奏會的祈禱和詩篇,由虔誠的,在整個夜晚。 This is the one view expressed in Kol Bo lxviii.; but other reasons of a mystic nature are given for it there as well as in Maḥzor Vitry, p.這是一個表達的觀點, " Kol公報lxviii 。 ;但其他原因而一個神秘的性質,給出了它存在以及在maḥzor vitry頁 340; Abudrahim, lc; and Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 610. 340個; abudrahim ,立法會; shulḥan ' aruk , oraḥ ḥayyim , 610 。

Very significant, as showing a deep-rooted desire for some form of atoning sacrifice, is the custom-known already in the time of the Geonim, and found in Asia and Africa (see Benjamin II., "Acht Yahre in Asien und Africa," 1858, p. 273), as well as in Europe (Asheri Yoma viii. 23; Maḥzor Vitry, p. 339; Kol Bo lxviii.; Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 605), though disapproved by Naḥmanides, Solomon ben Adret, and Joseph Caro (Ṭur Oraḥ Ḥayyim, lc)-of swinging over one's head, on or before the eve of Atonement Day, a fowl, usually a rooster or hen; solemnly pronouncing the same to be a vicarious sacrifice to be killed in place of the Jew or Jewess who might be guilty of death by his or her sin.非常重要,因為顯示一個根深蒂固的願望,為某種形式的atoning犧牲,是定制眾所周知,已在時間的geonim ,並發現,在亞洲和非洲(見本傑明二, "阿赫特yahre在asien und非洲, " 1858年,第273頁) ,以及在歐洲(阿舍裡yoma八, 23歲; maḥzor vitry ,第339名; " Kol公報lxviii ; shulḥan ' aruk , oraḥ ḥayyim , 605 ) ,雖然不贊成naḥmanides ,索羅門賁adret和約瑟夫卡羅( ṭur oraḥ ḥayyim ,立法會) -擺動超過一個人的頭部,或以前前夕的贖罪日,禽,通常是公雞還是母雞;莊嚴宣告了同樣是一個替代犧牲被殺害到位對猶太人或jewess那些可能犯的死刑,他或她的罪過。 Fishes and plants, also (see Rashi, Shab. 81b), perhaps originally only these, were used in the gaonic time.魚類和植物,也(見rashi ,沙巴。 81b ) ,也許原本只是這些,都是用在gaonic時間。 The slaughtered animal or its equivalent was then given to the poor (see Kapparot).屠宰動物或其等值,然後給窮人(見kapparot ) 。 Another custom of similar character is the receiving on the eve of Atonement Day, either in the synagogue or at home-the latter is usually the place in Jerusalem (see Schwartz, lc)-of thirty-nine stripes at the hand of a neighboras penalty for one's sins, according to Deut.另一個習俗相似的性格是接受對即將到來的贖罪日,有的在猶太教堂或家中-後者通常是發生在耶路撒冷(見施瓦茨,立法會)的39星條旗上的手一neighboras罰款對於一個人的罪過,根據deut 。 xxv.二十五。 3, while reciting the Confession of Sins. 3 ,而背誦供認的罪孽。 (See Maḥzor Vitry, p. 344; Kol Bo, lxviii.; Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 607.) According to Benjamin II., lc, people in Persia strip themselves to the loins in order to receive these stripes on the naked body (see Malḳut Schlagen). (見maḥzor vitry ,第344名; " Kol公報, lxviii ; shulḥan ' aruk , oraḥ ḥayyim , 607 )據本傑明二,信用證,人們在波斯帶自己到loins以期獲得這些條紋就赤身裸體體(見malḳut schlagen ) 。 This is followed by bathing, so that man may appear pure in both body and soul before God on "the great day."這是其次洗澡,讓男方也可以出現純均身體與靈魂在上帝面前對"偉大的一天" 。

The Karaite Day of Atonement with its liturgy is to a great extent similar to that of the Rabbinite Jews.該karaite的贖罪日,其禮儀中,是一個偉大的程度相似,是由rabbinite猶太人。 It also begins half an hour before sunset of the preceding day, and lasts until half an hour after sunset of the day itself (see Karaites).它也開始一個半小時前,夕陽的前一天,並持續到一個半小時後,夕陽的一天本身(見卡拉) 。 The Samaritans, also, adopted the custom of preparing for the day by a purificative bath and of spending the night and the day in the synagogue with prayer and fasting, singing hymns, and reading from the Law (See Samaritans).撒瑪利亞會,同時,通過定制的籌備之日起,由purificative浴和消費晚間和白天在猶太教堂祈禱和禁食,唱聖歌,讀,從法律(見撒瑪利亞) 。

Kaufmann Kohler考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版1901年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Hamburger, RBT i., under Versöhnung und Versöhnungstag; Zunz, SP pp.漢堡包,隨機呼氣測試一,根據versöhnung und versöhnungstag ;聰茨, SP和聚丙烯。 76-80; Sachs, Die Religiöse Poesic der Juden in Spanien, 1845, pp. 76-80 ;薩克斯,模具religiöse poesic明鏡juden在西班牙, 1845年,頁。 172 et seq.; Brueck, Pharisäische Volkssitten, 1855, pp. 172頁起; brueck , pharisäische volkssitten , 1855 ,頁。 135-146.K. 135 146.k 。


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