Ascetical Theology ascetical神學

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Classically, ascetical theology has been defined as the branch of theology dealing with the ordinary means of Christian perfection, eg, the disciplined renunciation of personal desires, the imitation of Christ, and the pursuit of charity. 經典, ascetical神學已被界定為分行的神學處理,與一般的手段基督教的完善,例如,有紀律,放棄個人的私慾,模仿基督,追求公益慈善活動。 On this level it has been distinguished since the seventeenth century from moral theology (which deals with those duties essential for salvation and thus the avoidance of mortal and venial sins) and mystical theology (which deals with the extraordinary grace of God leading to infused contemplation and is thus a passive reception rather than an active pursuit). The borderline between moral and ascetical theology is hazy at best, while the distinction between it and mystical theology is often denied altogether.在這個層面上,它一直尊敬自17世紀從道德神學 (其中涉及這些職責所必需的救贖,從而避免凡人venial罪孽)和神秘神學 (其中涉及了不平凡的天主的恩典,導致注入沉思和因此是一個被動的接收,而不是一個主動追求) 。 之間的界限,道德和ascetical神學是煙霞在最好的,而區分它和神秘的神學是常常得不到完全的。

This fact becomes particularly clear when ascetical theology is divided in its usual manner into the purgative, illuminative, and unitive ways. The purgative way, which stresses the cleansing of the soul from all serious sin, clearly overlaps moral theology. 這一事實變得特別清楚,當ascetical神學分為其一貫的方式進入下法,照明,並統一方式。下法方式,它強調潔淨的靈魂,從所有嚴重的罪過,顯然重疊道德神學。 The unitive way, which focuses on union with God, can easily include mystical theology.統一的方式,其重點是聯盟與神,可以很容易,包括神秘的神學。 Only the illuminative way, the practice of positive Christian virtue, remains uncontested.只有照明方式,但這種做法的積極基督教美德,仍然無法企及的。 Yet this threefold division of ascetical theology has been firmly established since Thomas Aquinas, although its roots can be traced to Augustine and earlier. Thus it is wisest to take ascetical theology in its broadest sense, meaning the study of Christian discipline and the spiritual life.然而,這三方面的分工ascetical神學已牢牢確立以來,托馬斯阿奎那,雖然其根源可以追溯到奧古斯丁和更早, 因此它是最明智的採取ascetical神學,在其最廣泛的意義上,意思是研究基督教的紀律和精神生活。

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The basis of ascetical theology is in the NT根據ascetical神學是在新台幣

It was Jesus who spoke of fasting (Matt. 9:15; Mark 9:29), celibacy (Matt. 19:12), and the renunciation of possessions (Matt. 19:21; Mark 10:28; Luke 9:57 - 62; 12:33).這是耶穌的人以禁食。 ( 9:15 ;馬克9時29分) ,獨身。 ( 19時12分) ,並放棄家產。 ( 19時21分;大關10:28 ;路加福音9時57分-第6 2條; 1 2時3 3分) 。 More importantly Jesus called for a general self-renunciation, a "taking up" of one's "cross" in order to follow him (Mark 8:34).更重要的耶穌呼籲為一般自我放棄, "採取行動"的一個人的"十字架" ,以追隨他(馬克8時34分) 。 The Sermon on the Mount forms the directive for this lifestyle, closing with a call to a disciplined life (Matt. 7:13 - 27).山上寶訓形式的指令,為這種生活方式,而關閉與打電話給一個有紀律的生活。 ( 7點13分-2 7) 。 One must also include the call for constant watchfulness (Matt. 24:42; 25:13, or "abiding" in John).其中還必須包括要求政府不斷警惕。 ( 24:42 ; 25:13 ,還是"守法" ,在約翰) 。 Paul picked up this theme with his call for self discipline (1 Cor. 9:24 - 27), his exhortation to put off the "old man" (Eph. 4:22) or to put to death the flesh (Col. 3:5), and his demand that Christians walk by the Spirit (Rom.8; Gal. 5).保羅拿起這一主題與他的呼籲自律( 1肺心病。 9點24分-2 7) ,他的囑咐把小康"老男人" (以弗所書4時2 2分) ,或置於死亡的血和肉(歌三: 5 ) ,並且他要求基督徒走,由精神( rom.8 ;加爾5段) 。 Similar examples could be discovered in James, John, or Peter.類似的例子可以發現,在詹姆斯,約翰,或彼得。 It is the unified witness of the NT that the Christian life is a discipline, a struggle, and that success in this struggle is enabled by the grace of God or his Spirit.它是統一的見證新台幣認為基督徒生活是一門學科,一個鬥爭,而且要取得成功,在這場鬥爭中是啟用的天主的恩典或他的精神。

The postapostolic church, beginning, perhaps, with the Shepherd of Hermas, began producing works on how this discipline was to be pursued; that is, how the goal of perfect charity and fellowship with God was to be gained.該postapostolic教會,開始時,或許,與牧羊人的hermas ,開始生產工程,就如何完成這項工作紀律,是要追求的,這就是如何實現完美的慈善和團契與上帝是獲益良多。 Spiritual teaching was quickly connected first with martyrdom as its highest good and then, partially under the influence of Neoplatonism, with virginity as a type of living martyrdom.精神文明教學,是連接迅速先與殉道作為其最高好,然後,局部的影響下neoplatonism ,貞操作為一種生活殉難。 As the church became one with the Roman Empire, it was the monastic movement which took up and defended the rigor of the early period; this was to be the home of ascetical theology for much of the succeeding church history, producing the works of the desert fathers, Basil and the Eastern tradition of spiritual direction, and later the medieval monastic tradition, following in the steps of Augustine.由於教會成為一個與羅馬帝國,它是修道接手,捍衛了嚴謹的前期,這是為了家ascetical神學對大部分的接替教會的歷史中,產生了工程的沙漠父親,羅勒,以及東區的傳統精神方向,後來中世紀寺院的傳統,在以下步驟奧古斯丁。

In the Reformation period ascetical theology split into several different streams, some of which were more influenced by the medieval stress on the meditation on and identification with the human life of Christ and others more by the spiritual internalization of the life of Christ in the Devotio Moderna as seen especially in Thomas a Kempis's Imitation of Christ. The most radical stream was the Anabaptist one, which aimed at a disciplined church with primitive purity: the whole church fulfilled the monastic ideal of imitating Christ. The Catholic stream focused more upon a group of elect "first class" Christians (Francis de Sales, Ignatius's Spiritual Exercises), preserving the tradition of deep meditation on the human sufferings of Christ. Lutheran pietism and especially Calvinist Puritanism mediated ascetical theology to their respective traditions with their stress on holy lives (Richard Baxter, and in some respects William Law's Serious Call). 在改造期間ascetical神學分裂成幾個不同的溪流中,其中也有一些是更多地受到中世紀脅迫對冥想和鑑定與人的生命基督和他人,更受到了精神上的內在生命,基督在devotio moderna可見,特別是在托馬斯kempis的模仿基督。 最為激進流是anabaptist之一,其目的是一個有紀律的教會與原始純度:整個教會完成了寺院的理想,模仿基督,天主教流更注重後一組選出"一流"的基督徒 (弗朗西斯德銷售,伊格的精神運動) ,以維護傳統的深打坐對人的痛苦的喊聲。 路德pietism特別是calvinist清教導ascetical神學,以各自的傳統與他們脅迫對神聖生命 (理查德。巴克斯特,並在某些方面威廉法的嚴重呼叫) 。 Finally, there is the whole holiness tradition, beginning with John Wesley.最後,還有整個成聖的傳統,開始與約翰韋斯利。

If these are classified as radical, catholic, state church, and holiness, one can find a place within these categories for the Quakers and others who, knowingly or unconsciously, repeat the calls of spiritual directors and writers on ascetical theology down the ages (eg, Richard Foster, Watchman Nee, or George Verwer). 如果這些被歸類為激進組織,天主教,國家教會,成聖,就可以找到一個地方,這些類別為貴格會和其他人,在明知或不自覺地重複來電精神文明導演和作家對ascetical神學下來的年齡(如理查德寄養,看NEE向,或喬治verwer ) 。

The common themes of ascetical theology in whatever its clothing are the following:共同的主題ascetical神學不論其衣服有以下幾方面:

This last is the unitive way.最後這是統一的方式。 While all of this can become a very individualistic seeking of perfection, the best writers of the tradition are aware of the body of Christ and thus formed their own groups to jointly pursue the goal and / or expected that the pursuit of perfection would lead to a deeper service to the whole body of Christ (eg, Fenelon).而所有這一切都可以成為一個很個性化追求完美的,最好的作家的傳統認識基督的身體,從而形成了自己的團體,共同追求的目標和/或預期認為,追求完美的,將導致一場深層次服務,以整個基督的身體(如fenelon ) 。

In either its narrower classical sense or its broader sense including a large Protestant tradition ascetical theology is essentially that part of moral and pastoral theology which aims at the renewal of individuals and the church, deeper spiritual experience, and true holiness in primitive simplicity.無論是狹義的傳統意義上或其更廣泛的意義上,包括大型的新教傳統ascetical神學,主要是一部分道德和牧靈神學,其目的在重建個人和教會,更深的精神體驗,並真正成聖在原始簡單。 As such it is a theological discipline indispensable to the proper functioning of the church.因此,它是一個神學紀律不可缺少適當運作的教會。

PH Davids pH值戴維斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
P Brooks, Christian Spirituality; O Chadwick, Western Asceticism; E Cothenet, Imitating Christ; KR Davis, Anabaptism and Asceticism; A Devine, Manual of Ascetical Theology; R Foster, Celebration of Discipline; FP Harton, The Elements of the Spiritual Life; UT Holmes, A History of Christian Spirituality; KE Kirk, The Vision of God; J Linworsky, Christian Asceticism and Modern Man; R Lovelace, The Dynamics of Spiritual Life; Orthodox Spirituality; LC Shepherd, Spiritual Writers in Modern Times; M Thornton, English Spirituality; Dictionnaire de spiritualite ascetique et mystique; H von Campenhausen, Tradition and Life in the Church; R Williams, Christian Spirituality; O Wyon, Desire for God. p溪水,基督教靈性; o查德威克,西方禁慾主義;電子cothenet ,模仿基督;氪戴維斯, anabaptism和禁慾主義; Devine ) ,手動的ascetical神學與r培養,為慶祝紀律;計劃生育哈頓,要素的精神生活;當霍爾姆斯,歷史的基督教靈性;柯柯克,視覺神; j linworsky ,基督教禁慾主義和現代男子與r洛夫萊斯,富有活力的精神文化生活;東正教靈性;立法會牧羊人,精神作家在近代;米桑頓英語靈性;詞典spiritualite ascetique等神秘感; h馮坎彭豪森,傳統和生活中,教會與r威廉姆斯,基督教靈性; o懷恩,慾望為上帝。


Ascetical Theology ascetical神學

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of Christian asceticism.苦行者,作為一個分支,神學,可以簡單地定義為科學論斷的基督教禁慾主義。 Asceticism (askesis, askein), taken in its literal signification, means a polishing, a smoothing or refining.禁慾主義( askesis , askein ) ,在其字面含義,是指拋光,光滑或精煉。 The Greeks used the word to designate the exercises of the athletes, whereby the powers dormant in the body were developed and the body itself was trained to its full natural beauty.希臘人用這個詞來劃定演習的運動員,而權力休眠在人體內被發達國家和身體本身是訓練有素充分發揮其自然之美。 The end for which these gymnastic exercises were undertaken was the laurel-wreath bestowed on the victor in the public games.到底這些體操練習,承諾是勞雷爾-花圈的賜予的勝利者,在公共遊戲。 Now the life of the Christian is, as Christ assures us, a struggle for the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 11:12).現在的生活,基督教是,正如基督向我們保證,鬥爭,並有為天國(馬太11時12分) 。 To give his readers an object-lesson of this spiritual battle and moral endeavour, St. Paul, who had been trained in the Greek fashion, uses the picture of the Greek pentathlon (1 Corinthians 9:24).為了帶給讀者對象的教訓,這次戰鬥精神和道德努力,聖保羅,他們進行了培訓,在希臘時裝,用圖片的希臘五項( 1哥林多前書9時24分) 。 The exercises to be assumed in this combat tend to develop and strengthen the moral stamina, while their aim is Christian perfection leading up to man's ultimate end, union with God.演習假定,在此作戰,往往把發展和加強德育後勁,而他們的目標是基督教完善領導了以人的終極目的,聯盟與上帝。 Human nature having been weakened by original sin and ever inclining toward what is evil, this end cannot be reached except at the price of overcoming, with God's grace, many and serious obstacles.人性有被削弱原罪與以往任何時候都傾向什麼是邪惡,為此目的無法達成,除了在價格的克服,與上帝的恩典,有很多的嚴重障礙。 The moral struggle then consists first of all in attacking and removing the obstacles, that is the evil concupiscences (concupiscence of the flesh, concupiscence of the eyes, and pride of life), which effects of original sin serve to try and test man (Trid., Sess. V, De peccato originali).道德鬥爭,然後組成,首先是在打擊和消除阻礙的,那就是邪惡concupiscences ( concupiscence的血和肉, concupiscence的眼睛,和生命的傲慢) ,它的影響原罪服務的嘗試和測試男子( trid , sess第五節,德peccato originali ) 。 This first duty is called by the Apostle Paul the putting off of "the old man" (Ephesians 4:22).這個首要的責任是由所謂的使徒保祿二世是拖的"老男人" (以弗所書4時22分) 。 The second duty, in the words of the same Apostle, is to "put on the new man" according to the image of God (Ephesians 4:24).第二項職責,用同樣的使徒,是"提上了新好男人" ,根據形象的神(以弗所4點24分) 。 The new man is Christ.新好男人是基督。 It is our duty then to strive to become like unto Christ, seeing that He is "the way, and the truth, and the life" (John 14:6), but this endeavour is based on the supernatural order and, therefore, cannot be accomplished without Divine grace.這是我們義不容辭的責任,然後努力使自己成為像祂基督,看到他是"的方式,與真理,生命" (約翰福音14時06分) ,但這種努力是基於對超自然秩序的,因此,不能完成沒有神的恩典。 Its foundation is laid in baptism, whereby we are adopted as sons of God through the imparting of sanctifying grace.其基礎是擺在洗禮,讓我們通過,成為上帝的兒女,通過傳授sanctifying恩典。

Thenceforth, it must be perfected by the supernatural virtues, the gifts of the Holy Ghost, and actual grace.此後,就必須加以完善,由超自然的美德,這些禮品的聖靈,和實際的恩典。 Since, then, ascetics is the systematic treatise of the striving after Christian perfection, it may be defined as the scientific guide to the acquisition of Christian perfection, which consists in expressing within ourselves, with the help of Divine grace, the image of Christ, by practising the Christian virtues, and applying the means given for overcoming the obstacles.自話,那麼,修道者是有系統地論述的奮鬥後,基督教完善,它可以界定為科學指南,以獲取基督教完善,其中包括在內部表達自己,借助神的恩典,隊伍形象的基督,由執業基督教美德,並運用手段,給克服的障礙。 Let us subject the various elements of this definition to a closer examination.讓我們受到各種因素的這個定義,以更細緻的審查。

A. Nature of Christian Perfection答:大自然的基督教完善

(1) To begin with, we must reject the false conception of the Protestants who fancy that Christian perfection, as understood by Catholics, is essentially negative asceticism (cf. Seberg in Herzog-Hauck, "Realencyklopädie für prot. Theologie", III, 138), and that the correct notion of asceticism was discovered by the Reformers. ( 1 )首先,我們必須摒棄虛假概念的新教徒,他們花式認為基督教是十全十美,但由於理解的天主教徒,基本上是負面的禁慾主義(參見塞伯格在赫爾佐克- Hauck先生, " realencyklopädie f黵質子。 theologie " ,三, 138 ) ,並認為正確的概念禁慾發現改革者。 There can be no doubt as to the Catholic position, if we but hearken to the clear voices of St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure.不可能有任何懷疑,因為天主教會的立場,如果我們,但聞到清晰的聲音聖托馬斯和聖文德。 For these masters of Catholic theology who never tired of repeating that the ideal of asceticism upheld by them was the ideal of the Catholic past, of the Fathers, of Christ Himself, emphatically state that bodily asceticism has not an absolute, but only a relative, value.基於上述的主人,天主教神學,他們從來沒有厭倦再次說明,理想的禁慾主義,堅持他們是理想的天主教以往一樣,該父親,耶穌本身,強調指出,身體禁慾主義已經不是絕對的,但僅僅是相對的,價值。 St. Thomas calls it a "means to an end", to be used with discretion.聖托馬斯稱為"目的的手段" ,可以使用酌情權。 St. Bonaventure says that bodily austerities "prepare, foster, and preserve perfection" (ad perfectionem præparans et ipsam promovens et conservans; "Apolog. pauperum", V, c. viii).聖文德說,身體austerities "準備,寄養,並保存在完善" (專案perfectionem præparans等ipsam promovens等conservans " ; apolog 。 pauperum " ,第五章,長八) 。 In proof of his thesis, he shows that to put an absolute value on bodily asceticism would lead to Manichæism.在證明他的論斷,他的實踐證明:要付諸表決,以絕對價值對身體禁慾會導致manichæism 。 He also points to Christ, the ideal of Christian perfection, who was less austere in fasting than John the Baptist, and to the founders of religious orders, who prescribed fewer ascetic exercises for their communities than they themselves practised (cf. J. Zahn, "Vollkommenheitsideal" in "Moralprobleme", Freiburg, 1911, p. 126 sqq.).他還指出,基督,是理想的基督教完善,他們是那麼艱苦,在空腹比施洗約翰,並以創始國的宗教命令,誰明少苦行演習,為自己的社區,比他們自己的做法(參見j. zahn , " vollkommenheitsideal "中的" moralprobleme " ,弗賴堡, 1911年,第126頁sqq ) 。 On the other hand, Catholics do not deny the importance of ascetic practices for acquiring Christian perfection.在另一方面,天主教徒也不否認的重要性苦修做法,為獲取基督教和完善。 Considering the actual condition of human nature, they declare these necessary for the removal of obstacles and for the liberation of man's moral forces, thus claiming for asceticism a positive character.考慮到實際情況的人的本性,他們宣布,這些必要的,為排除障礙,並為解放人的道德力量,從而自稱為禁慾主義的積極性。 A like value is put upon those exercises which restrain and guide the powers of the soul.類似的價值是把那些練習,制約和引導權力的心靈。 Consequently, Catholics actually fulfil and always have fulfilled what Harnack sets down as a demand of the Gospel and what he pretends to have looked for in vain among Catholics; for they do "wage battle against mammon, care, and selfishness, and practise that charity which loves to serve and to sacrifice itself" (Harnack, "Essence of Christianity").因此,天主教實際上履行,並始終在履行什麼的Harnack固定下來,作為需求的福音和他的裝扮一直在尋找徒勞無功天主教徒,因為他們做的"打工對抗mammon ,護理和自私性,並實行慈善其中熱愛服務,並作出犧牲自己" (的Harnack , "基督教的本質" ) 。 The Catholic ideal, then, is by no means confined to the negative element of asceticism, but is of a positive nature.天主教理想的話,那麼,絕不是僅限於消極因素的禁慾主義,而且是一種積極的性質。

(2) The essence of Christian perfection is love. ( 2 )的本質,基督教完善的是愛。 St. Thomas (Opusc. de perfectione christ., c. ii) calls that perfect which is conformable to its end (quod attingit ad finem ejus).聖托馬斯( opusc.德perfectione基督,長二)的呼籲,就是完美的,是符合它的盡頭(和attingit專案finem ejus ) 。 Now, the end of man is God, and what unites him, even on earth, most closely with God is love (1 Corinthians 6:17; 1 John 4:16).現在,結束男子是上帝,什麼方式團結起他,甚至在地球上,最密切,與天主是愛( 1哥林多6時17分, 1約翰4點16分) 。 All the other virtues are subservient to love or are its natural prerequisites, as faith and hope; Love seizes man's whole soul (intellect, will), sanctifies it, and fuses new life into it.所有其他的美德,是屈從於愛情,是它的自然條件,為信念和希望;愛抓住人的整個靈魂(才智,將) , sanctifies它,導火索注入新的生命。 Love lives in all things and all things live in love and through love.熱愛生命,在一切事上的一切事,生活在愛與愛。 Love imparts to all things the right measure and directs them all to the last end.愛imparts所有事物的權利,衡量和指使他們都到最後結束。 "Love is thus the principle of unity, no matter how diversified are the particular states, vocations, and labours. There are many provinces, but they constitute one realm. The organs are many, but the organism is one" (Zahn, lc, p. 146). "愛情是因此統一的原則,無論怎樣多元化,是特定國家,職業,以及勞動力,有許多省份,但它們構成了一個境界。機關有很多,但生物體是一個" ( zahn ,信用證,第146頁) 。 Love has, therefore, rightly been called "the bond of perfection" (Colossians 3:14) and the fulfilment of the law (Romans 13:8).愛情,因此,正確地,被稱為"以認同感為紐帶的完善, "他們( 3時14分) ,並履行法律(羅馬書13時08分) 。 That Christian perfection consists in love has ever been the teaching of Catholic ascetical writers.即基督教完善相應的熱愛從未教學天主教ascetical作家。 A few testimonies may suffice.數證詞可能就夠了。 Writing to the Corinthians, Clement of Rome says (1 Corinthians 49:1): "It was love that made all the elect perfect; without love nothing is acceptable to God" (en te agape ateleiothesan pantes oi eklektoi tou theou dicha agapes ouden euareston estin to theo; Funk, "Patr. apost.", p. 163).以書面形式向科林蒂安,克萊門特的說,羅馬( 1哥林多前書49:1 )說: "這是愛,使全部選出十全十美,沒有什麼愛情是可以接受的,以神之名" (中文特愛德ateleiothesan pantes愛eklektoi鈄theou dicha agapes ouden euareston estin以西奧;畏縮, " patr 。 apost " ,第163條) 。 The "Epistle of Barnabas" insists that the way of light is "the love of him who created us" (agapeseis ton se poiesanta; Funk, lc, p. 91), "a love of our neighbour that does not even spare our own life" (agapeseis ton plesion sou hyper ten psychen sou), and it affirms that perfection is nothing else than "love and joy over the good works which testify to justice" (agape euphrosyns kai agalliaseos ergon dikaiosynes martyria). "墳墓的石碑" ,堅持認為單程光速是"愛他的人創造美" ( agapeseis噸硒poiesanta ;畏縮,立法會,第91頁) , "愛我們的鄰居說,甚至沒有備件我們自己的生活" ( agapeseis噸plesion守超10 psychen為SOU ) ,它肯定了完善的是什麼都沒有比"愛與喜悅的好作品,這證明了正義" (愛德euphrosyns啟agalliaseos ergon dikaiosynes martyria ) 。 St. Ignatius never wearies in his letters of proposing faith as the light and love as the way, love being the end and aim of faith ("Ad Ephes.", ix, xiv; "Ad Philad.", ix; "Ad Smyrn.", vi).聖伊格從未wearies在他的信,提出誠信為光愛,因為這樣,愛情是終結和目的的信仰( "專案ephes " ,第九,第十四, "專案philad " ,第九章" ;專案smyrn " ,第六章) 。 According to the "Didache", love of God and of one's neighbour is the beginning of the "way of life" (c. i), and in the "Epistle to Diognetus" active love is called the fruit of belief in Christ.要按照" didache " ,上帝的愛和一個人的鄰居是一開始的"生活的方式" (丙I ) ,並在"書信向diognetus "積極愛情是被稱為水果的信仰基督。 The "Pastor" of Hermas acknowledges the same ideal when he sets down "a life for God" (zoe to theo) as the sum-total of human existence. "牧師"的hermas承認,同樣的理想,當他訂下"終身為上帝" (我愛到西奧) ,作為總結,總的人的存在。 To these Apostolic Fathers may be added St. Ambrose (De fuga sæculi, c. iv, 17; c. vi, 35-36) and St. Augustine, who regards perfect justice as tantamount to perfect love.這些使徒父親,可補充聖劉漢銓(德風雅sæculi ,長四, 17人;丙六, 35-36 )和聖奧古斯丁的,他們對於完美的正義等於完美的愛情。 Both St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure speak the same language, and their authority is so overpowering that the ascetical writers of all subsequent centuries have faithfully followed in their footsteps (cf. Lutz, "Die kirchl. Lehre von den evang. Räten", Paderborn, 1907, pp. 26-99).既聖托馬斯和聖文德講同一種語言,他們的權力是如此壓倒認為ascetical作家其後所有百年忠實地遵循他們的後塵(參見魯茲,在"死kirchl 。教馮書齋埃旺。 räten "帕德博恩, 1907年,頁26-99 ) 。

However, though perfection is essentially love, it is not true that any degree of love is sufficient to constitute moral perfection.不過,儘管完善,基本上是愛,它是不真確的任何程度的愛情是足以構成道德完善。 The ethical perfection of the Christian consists in the perfection of love, which requires such a disposition "that we can act with speed and ease even though many obstacles obstruct our path" (Mutz, "Christl. Ascetik", 2nd ed., Paderborn, 1909).道德完美的基督教存在於一個完美的愛情,這需要這種處置" ,我們可以採取行動的速度和易用性,即使許多障礙,阻礙我們的道路" ( mutz , " christl 。 ascetik " ,第二版,帕德博恩, 1909年) 。 But this disposition of the soul supposes that the passions have been subdued; for if is the result of a laborious struggle, in which the moral virtues, steeled by love, force back and quell the evil inclinations and habits, supplanting them by good inclinations and habits.但這種處置的靈魂,是支撐這激情已被制服;如果是這樣一種結果,費力的鬥爭中,其中的道德品德,鍛煉所愛,部隊返回,並平息邪惡的傾向和習慣, supplanting他們良好的傾向習慣。 Only then has it really become "a man's second nature, as it were, to prove his love of God at certain times and under certain circumstances, to practise virtue and, as far as human nature may, to preserve his soul even from the slightest taints" (Mutz, lc, p. 43).只有這樣,它成為真正的"男人的第二個性質,因為它人,以證明他是上帝的愛,在某些時候,某些情況下,實行以德治國,對於人性的可能,以保存他的靈魂,即使從絲毫taints " ( mutz ,立法會,第43頁) 。 Owing to the weakness of human nature and the presence of the evil concupiscence (fomes peccati: Trid., Sess. VI, can. xxiii), a perfection that would exclude every defect cannot be attained in this life without a special privilege (cf. Proverbs 20:9; Ecclesiastes 7:21; James 3:2).由於人性的這個弱點和存在的邪惡concupiscence (木蹄peccati : trid , sess 。第六,可以的。二十三) ,完善這將排除一切缺損不能達到這輩子沒有特權(參見諺語20時09分;傳道書7時21分;詹姆斯3:2 ) 。 Likewise, perfection, on this side of the grave, will never reach such a degree that further growth is impossible, as is clear from the mind of the Church and the nature of our present existence (status vioe); in other words, our perfection will always be relative.同樣,完善,在這方面的墳墓,永遠都達不到這種程度進一步發展是不可能的,因為很明顯,從心的教會和性質,我們目前存在(地位vioe ) ;換句話說,我們的完善將永遠是相對的。 As St. Bernard says: "An unflagging zeal for advancing and a continual struggle for perfection is itself perfection" (Indefessus proficiendi studium et iugis conatus ad perfectionem, perfectio reputatur; "Ep. ccliv ad Abbatem Guarinum").正如聖伯納德說: "一個鍥而不捨的熱情,以推動和持續的鬥爭完美本身就是完美的" ( indefessus proficiendi studium等iugis conatus專案perfectionem , perfectio reputatur ; "的EP 。 ccliv專案abbatem guarinum " ) 。 Since perfection consists in love, it is not the privilege of one particular state, but may be, and has as a fact been, attained in every state of life (cf. PERFECTION, CHRISTIAN AND RELIGIOUS).自完善相應的愛,這不是特權,某個特定的國家,但可能,並已作為一個事實被,達到在每一個國家的生活方式(參見完善,基督教和宗教) 。 Consequently it would be wrong to identify perfection with the so-called state of perfection and the observance of the evangelical counsels.因此,這將是錯誤的,找出完善與所謂國家的完善和遵守福音律師。 As St. Thomas rightly observes, there are perfect men outside the religious orders and imperfect men within them (Summa theol., II-II, Q. clxxxiv, a. 4).正如聖托馬斯正確地觀察,有完美的男人以外的宗教命令和不完善的男子,他們(總結theol ,二-二,問: clxxxiv ,甲4 ) 。 True it is that the conditions for realizing the ideal of a Christian life are, generally speaking, more favourable in the religious state than in the secular avocations.的確,這是那些條件,為實現理想的基督徒生活,大體來說是更有利的,在宗教的國家,比在世俗avocations 。 But not all are called to the religious life, nor would all find in it their contentment (cf. COUNSELS, EVANGELICAL).但不是所有的都以宗教生活,也都將找到它自己的知足(參見律師,福音派) 。 To sum up, the end is the same, the means are different.概括起來,到底是一樣的,手段是不一樣的。 This sufficiently answers Harnack's objection (Essence of Christianity) that the Church considers the perfect imitation of Christ possible only for the monks, while she accounts the life of a Christian in the world as barely sufficient for the attainment of the last end.這已經夠回答的Harnack的異議(基督教的本質)表示,該教會認為完美模仿基督可能只為僧侶,而她戶口的生命是一個基督教在世界上作為僅夠為實現最後目標。

(3) The ideal, to which the Christian should conform and towards which he should strive with all his powers both natural and supernatural, is Jesus Christ. ( 3 )的理想,這是基督徒應當符合所爭取的,他要努力執行他的所有權力,自然和超自然的,是耶穌基督。 His justice should be our justice.他的正義應當成為我們的公義。 Our whole life should be so penetrated by Christ that we become Christians in the full sense of the word ("until Christ be formed in you"; Galatians 4:19).我們整個的生活應該如此,侵入基督,我們成為基督徒,在完整意義上的話語( "直到基督形成你" ;加拉太4時19分) 。 That Christ is the supreme model and pattern of the Christian life is proved from Scripture, as eg from John, xiii, 15, and I Peter, ii, 21, where imitation of Christ is directly recommended, and from John, viii, 12, where Christ is called "the light of the world".基督是國家的最高模式和格局基督徒生活的證明,從經文中,比如:由約翰,十三,十五,我和彼得,二, 21 ,而仿製的基督是直接推薦,由約翰,八,十二,如果基督是所謂的"世界之光" 。 Cf.比照。 also Rom., viii, 29, Gal., ii, 20, Phil., iii, 8, and Heb., i, 3, where the Apostle extols the excellent knowledge of Jesus Christ, for whom he has suffered the loss of all things, counting them but as dung, that he may gain Christ.此外,光碟,八, 29 ,半乳糖,二, 20日,哲學,三,八,和以弗所書,我, 3 ,凡使徒頌揚優秀知識的耶穌基督,而他所遭受的損失都事情,計數,但由於牛糞,他有可能贏得基督。 Of the numerous testimonies of the Fathers we only quote that of St. Augustine, who says: "Finis ergo noster perfectio nostra esse debet; perfectio nostra Christus" (PL, XXXVI, 628; cf. also "In Psalm.", 26, 2, in PL, XXXVI, 662).對眾多的證詞父親,我們只是引述說,聖奧古斯丁,他說: " finis號ETM noster perfectio諾斯特拉本質debet ; perfectio諾斯特拉基督" (特等,三十六,有628名;比照也"詩篇" , 26 , 2 ,特等,三十六, 662頁) 。 In Christ there is no shadow, nothing one-sided.在基督裡有沒有影子,沒有什麼會是片面的。 His Divinity guarantees the purity of the model; His humanity, by which He became similar to us, makes the model attractive.他的神性,保證純度的示範;了他的人性,他成了類似給我們,使得模型的吸引力。 But this picture of Christ, unmarred by addition or omission, is to be found only in the Catholic Church and, owing to her indefectibility, will always continue there in its ideal state.但這張照片的基督,沒有元件除或遺漏的,是要發現不僅在天主教教會,但由於她indefectibility ,將永遠繼續存在,在它的理想狀態。 For the same reason, the Church alone can give us the guarantee that the ideal of the Christian life will always remain pure and unadulterated, and will not be identified with one particular state or with a subordinate virtue (cf. Zahn, lc, p. 124).出於同樣的原因,教會僅能夠給我們保證理想的基督徒生活,永遠地留純潔十足,並不會認同一個特定國家或一個下屬美德(參見zahn ,信用證,頁124 ) 。 An unprejudiced.一個沒有偏見的。 examination proves that the ideal of Catholic life has been preserved in all its purity through the centuries and that the Church has never failed to correct the false touches with which individuals might have sought to disfigure its unstained beauty.檢驗證明,理想的天主教生活已被保存在其所有的純潔性,通過幾百年,並表示,教會還從未失敗過,以糾正錯誤,觸及與個體經營者也許已經尋求disfigure其不染之美。 The individual features and the fresh colours for outlining the living picture of Christ are derived from the sources of Revelation and the doctrinal decisions of the Church.個人特點和新鮮的顏色,概述生活圖片基督的是來自消息人士的啟示和教義決定了教堂。 These tell us about the internal sanctity of Christ (John 1:14; Colossians 2:9; Hebrews 1:9; etc.).這些告訴我們,對此事的內部神聖不可侵犯的基督(約翰1:14 ;歌羅西書2時09分;希伯來1時09分;等) 。 His life overflowing with grace, of whose fulness we have all received (John 1:16), His life of prayer (Mark 1:21, 35; 3:1; Luke 5:16; 6:12; 9:18; etc.), His devotion to His heavenly Father (Matthew 11:26; John 4:34; 5:30; 8:26, 29), His intercourse with men (Matthew 9:10; cf. 1 Corinthians 9:22), His spirit of unselfishness and sacrifice, His patience and meekness, and, finally, His asceticism as revealed in his fastings (Matthew 4:2; 6:18).他的生命充溢風度,其fulness我們都收到了(約翰福音1:16 ) ,他的生命祈禱(馬克1時21分,第35條; 3:1 ;路加福音5:16 ; 6時12分; 9時18分;等) ,他的奉獻,他在天上的父(馬太11:26 ;約翰4時34分; 5:30 ; 8:26 29日) ,他與男(馬太9時10分;比照哥林多前書9時22分) ,他的精神,無私奉獻和犧牲精神,他的耐心和完全證實,而且,最後,他的禁慾主義顯示,在他的fastings (馬太4時02分; 6:18 ) 。

B. Dangers of the Ascetical Life乙危險的ascetical生活

The second task of ascetical theology is to point out the dangers which may frustrate the attainment of Christian perfection and to indicate the means by which they can be avoided successfully.第二項任務的ascetical神學的,是要指出的危險這可能達不到程度的基督教完善,並表明該方法,使他們能成功地避免了。 The first danger to be noticed is evil concupiscence.第一危險中應注意的是邪惡的concupiscence 。 A second danger lies in the allurements of the visible creation, which occupy man's heart to the exclusion of the highest good; to the same class belong the enticements of the sinful, corrupt world (1 John 5:19), that is, those men who promulgate vicious and ungodly doctrines and thereby dim or deny man's sublime destiny, or who by perverting ethical concepts and by setting a bad example give a false tendency to man's sensuality.第二個危險是因為誘惑的,有形的創造,它佔據人的心交給排斥的最高理想;向同一類屬於誘惑的罪孽深重,舞弊世界( 1約翰5點19分) ,即是那些男人世衛組織頒布的惡性和ungodly理論,並從而暗淡或否認人的崇高的命運,或者由貪贓枉法的倫理觀念,並通過樹立了一個壞榜樣,讓虛假的傾向男子的性感。 Thirdly, ascetics acquaints us not only with the malice of the devil, lest we should fall a prey to his cunning wiles, but also with his weakness, lest we should lose heart.第三,苦行者acquaints我們不僅與惡意的魔鬼,否則我們應該蒙受其害,他狡獪狡猾,而且還與他的弱點,否則我們應該灰心。 Finally, not satisfied with indicating the general means to be used for waging a victorious combat, ascetics offers us particular remedies for special temptations (cf. Mutz, "Ascetik", 2nd ed., p. 107 sqq.).最後,而不是滿意,顯示一般是指被用來發動一場必勝的戰鬥,苦行者為我們提供了特別的補救措施,為特別的誘惑(參見mutz , " ascetik " ,第2版,第107頁sqq ) 。

C. Means for Realizing the Christian Ideal三是指為實現基督教的理想

(1) Prayer, above all, in its stricter meaning, is a means of attaining perfection; special devotions approved by the Church and the sacramental means of sanctification have a special reference to the striving after perfection (frequent confession and communion). ( 1 )祈禱,最重要的是,在其嚴格的意義,是一種手段,達到完善;特別奉獻批准的教會和聖事的手段成聖有一個特別提到了爭取經過完善(頻繁懺悔與交流) 。 Ascetics proves the necessity of prayer (2 Corinthians 3:5) and teaches the mode of praying with spiritual profit; it justifies vocal prayers and teaches the art of meditating according to the various methods of St. Peter of Alcantara, of St. Ignatius, and other saints, especially the "tres modi orandi" of St. Ignatius.苦行者證明的必要性祈禱( 2哥林多前書3時05分) ,並教導方式祈禱與精神文明的利潤,它是合理的聲樂祈禱並任教的藝術沉思根據各種方法的聖彼得的阿爾坎塔拉,聖伊格和其他聖人,尤其是" tres莫迪orandi "聖伊格。 An important place is assigned to the examination of conscience, and justly so, because ascetical life wanes or waxes with its neglect or careful performance.一個重要的地方,是分配給考試的良心,公正的,因為ascetical生命減弱或打蠟其疏忽或謹慎的表現。 Without this regular practice, a thorough purification of the soul and progress in spiritual life are out of the question.如果沒有這種慣常做法,徹底淨化靈魂和進步的精神文化生活都談不上。 It centres the searchlight of the interior vision on every single action: all sins, whether committed with full consciousness or only half voluntarily, even the negligences which, though not sinful, lessen the perfection of the act, all are carefully scrutinized (peccata, offensiones, negligentioe; cf. "Exercitia spiritualia" of St. Ignatius, ed. P. Roothaan, p. 3).該中心探照燈的內部視覺上的每一個行動:所有的罪孽,無論是在充分意識或只有一半是自願的,甚至negligences其中,雖然不是罪過,淡化完善該法的規定,所有正仔細審閱( peccata , offensiones , negligentioe ;比照" exercitia spiritualia "聖伊格版頁羅特漢,第3頁) 。 Ascetics distinguishes a twofold examination of conscience: one general (examen generale), the other special (examen particulare), giving at the same time directions how both kinds may be made profitable by means of certain practical and psychological aids.苦行者區別於雙重考試的良知:一個一般(的審查generale ) ,其他特殊( particulare的審查) ,使在同一時間,方向如何兩種可能取得贏利的方式在一定的實用價值和心理艾滋病。 In the general examination we recall all the faults of one day; in the particular, on the contrary, we focus our attention on one single defect and mark its frequency, or on one virtue to augment the number of its acts.在普通考試,我們記得所有故障的一天;中,特別是與此相反,我們把注意力集中在一個單一的缺陷及標誌,其頻率,或對一個美德,以增強它的一些行為。

Ascetics encourages visits to the Blessed Sacrament (visitatio sanctissimi), a practice meant especially to nourish and strengthen the divine virtues of faith, hope, and charity.苦行者鼓勵探訪聖( visitatio sanctissimi ) ,這種做法的意思,尤其是滋養和加強神聖的美德,信仰,希望,而慈善機構。 It also inculcates the veneration of the saints, whose virtuous lives should spur us on to imitation.它也inculcates架的聖人,其良性的生命應該促使我們對以仿製。 It is plain that imitation cannot mean an exact copying.這是平原說,模仿不能意味著一個準確的複製。 What ascetics proposes as the most natural method of imitation is the removal or at least the lessening of the contrast existing between our own lives and the lives of the saints, the perfecting, as far as is possible, of our virtues, with due regard to our personal disposition and the surrounding circumstances of time and place.什麼苦行者建議,作為最自然的方法,模仿是消除或至少減輕對比度之間存在的,我們自己的生命和生活的聖人,完善,對於可能的話,我們的美德,並適當考慮到我們個人的性情和周圍的情況,時間和地點。 On the other hand, the observation that some saints are more to be admired than imitated must not lead us into the mistake of letting our works be weighted with the ballast of human comfort and ease, so that we at last look with suspicion on every heroic act, as though it were something that transcended our own energy and could not be reconciled with the present circumstances.在另一方面,觀察一些聖人更要佩服比模仿絕不能帶領我們進入錯誤的,讓我們的作品予以加權與鎮流器的人體舒適度和易用性,讓我們在最後看看與猜疑,逢英雄舉,因為儘管它是一件超越我們自己的能源和無法調和與目前的情況下。 Such a suspicion would be justified only if the heroic act could not at all be made to harmonize with the preceding development of our interior life.這種猜疑會有道理,只有當英雄的行為不可能在所有取得協調與先前的發展,讓我們的生活。 Christian ascetics must not overlook the Blessed Mother of God; for she is, after Christ, our most sublime ideal.基督教修道者不可忽略有福了天主之母;因為她是經過基督,是我們最崇高的理想。 No one has received grace in such fulness, no one has co-operated with grace so faithfully as she.沒有人受過恩典在這種fulness ,沒有任何人合作經營的風度,所以忠實,因為她。 It is for this reason that the Church praises her as the Mirror of Justice (speculum justitioe).正是出於這個原因,教會稱讚她為鏡子司法( speculum justitioe ) 。 The mere thought of her transcendent purity suffices to repel the alluring charms of sin and to inspire pleasure in the wonderful lustre of virtue.僅僅想到她的超然純度足以擊退誘人魅力的罪過和激勵愉快,在美妙光澤的美德。

(2) Self-Denial is the second means which ascetics teaches us (cf. Matthew 16:24-25). ( 2 )自我否定是第二個途徑,其中苦行者教導我們(參見馬修16:24-25 ) 。 Without it the combat between spirit and flesh, which are contrary to each other (Romans 7:23; 1 Corinthians 9:27; Galatians 5:17), will not lead to the victory of the spirit (Imitatio Christi, I, xxv).沒有它的作戰之間的精神和肉體的,因為這違背了對方(羅馬書7時23分;哥林多前書9時27分;加拉太5時17分) ,將不會導致勝利的精神( imitatio基督教,我,二十五) 。 How far self-denial should extend is clear from the actual condition of human nature after the fall of Adam.多遠的自我否定,應該擴大是明確的,從實際情況人性後,亞當的墮落。 The inclination to sin dominates both the will and the lower appetites; not only the intellect, but also the outer and the inner senses are made subservient to this evil propensity.傾向單主宰雙方的意願和降低食慾,不僅智力,而且外層和異度空間都從屬於這一邪惡的傾向。 Hence, self-denial and self-control must extend to all these faculties.因此,自我否定和自我控制,必須擴大到所有這些院系。 Ascetics reduces self-denial to exterior and interior mortification: exterior mortification is the mortification of sensuality and the senses; interior mortification consists in the purification of the faculties of the soul (memory, imagination, intellect, will) and the mastering of the passions.苦行者降低了自我否定,以外觀和內部mortification :外部mortification是mortification的性感和感官;內部mortification組成,在分離純化院系的靈魂(記憶,想像,智慧,將)和掌握的激情。 However, the term "mortification" must not be taken to mean the stunting of the "strong, full, healthy" (Schell) life; what it aims at is that the sensual passions do not gain the upper hand over the will.但是, " mortification "不能走,是指發育不全的"強大,全面,健康的" (夏偉)生命是什麼,它的目的是感官激情不得勢超過意志。 It is precisely through taming the passions by means of mortification and self-denial that life and energy are strengthened and freed from cumbersome shackles.也正是通過興修激情的方式mortification和自我否定,生命和精力加強,並擺脫繁瑣的桎梏中解放出來。 But while the masters of asceticism recognize the necessity of mortification and self-denial and are far from deeming it "criminal to assume voluntary sufferings" (Seeberg), they are just as far from advocating the so-called "non-sensual" tendency, which, looking upon the body and its life as a necessary evil, proposes to avert its noxious effects by wilful weakening or even mutilation (cf. Schneider, "Göttliche Weltordnung u. religionslose Sittlichkeit", Paderborn, 1900, p. 537).不過,雖然主人禁慾主義認識到,有必要mortification和自我否定和遠離認為此舉是"犯罪承擔自願的苦難" ( seeberg ) ,他們只是盡量從倡導了所謂的"非感性"傾向,其中,看身體的影響和其壽命為必要之惡,建議,以避免其有害的影響,故意削弱甚至斷肢(參見施耐德, " göttliche weltordnung美國religionslose sittlichkeit " ,帕德博恩, 1900 ,頁537 ) 。 On the other hand, Catholics will never befriend the gospel of "healthy sensuality", which is only a pretty-sounding title, invented to cloak unrestricted concupiscence.在另一方面,天主教會從未建立友善關係,福音的"健康性感" ,這只是一個美麗動聽的名稱,發明了以斗篷無限制concupiscence 。

Special attention is devoted to the mastering of the passions, because it is with them above all else that the moral combat must be waged most relentlessly.特別值得注意的是,致力於掌握的激情,因為這是與他們高於一切,認為道德戰鬥力,必須與之進行最無情。 Scholastic philosophy enumerates the following passions: love, hatred, desire, horror, joy, sadness, hope, despair, boldness, fear, anger.士林哲學列舉了以下的激情:愛情,仇恨,慾望,恐懼,喜悅,悲傷,希望,絕望,勇氣,恐懼,憤怒。 Starting from the Christian idea that the passions (passiones, as understood by St. Thomas) are inherent in human nature, ascetics affirms that they are neither sicknesses, as the Stoics, the Reformers, and Kant maintain, nor yet harmless, as was asserted by the Humanists and Rousseau, who denied original sin.從基督教思想,即激情( passiones ,所理解的聖托馬斯) ,是固有的人性,修道者申明,他們既不是生病,因為stoics ,改革者,與康德維持,也不是無害的,正如有人斷言由人文主義與盧梭,他們否認的原罪。 On the contrary, it insists that in themselves they are indifferent, that they may be employed for good and for evil, and that they receive a moral character only by the use to which the will puts them.與此相反,它堅持認為,在自己的,他們都無動於衷,即他們可為善作惡,他們收到一份品德只有通過使用這會令他們。 It is the purpose of ascetics to point out the ways and means by which these passions can be tamed and mastered, so that, instead of goading the will to sin, they are rather turned into welcome allies for the accomplishment of good.它的目的是修道者指出,途徑和方法,使這些激情可以馴服和掌握,所以,與其goading意願單,他們是相當變成了歡迎的盟國為完成好。 And since the passions are inordinate in as far as they turn to illicit things or exceed the necessary bounds in those things which are licit, ascetics teaches us how to render them innocuous by averting or restraining them, or by turning them to loftier purposes.既然激情,是在過多據他們轉向非法事物或超過必要的範圍內,在這些事情都是合法,苦行者教導我們如何使他們招怨,避免或抑制它們,或者把他們崇高的目的。

(3) Labour, also, is subservient to the striving after perfection. (三)勞工,也就是屈從奮鬥後,更臻完美。 Untiring labour runs counter to our corrupt nature, which loves ease and comfort.不懈的勞動違背了我們的腐敗本質,熱愛享福。 Hence labour, if well-ordered, persistent, and purposeful, implies self-denial.因此,勞工,如果妥善有序,持久性,針對性,有說服力,就意味著自我否定。 This is the reason why the Catholic Church has always looked upon labour, both manual and mental, as an ascetic means of no small value (cf. Cassian, "De instit. coenob.", X, 24; St. Benedict, Rule, xlviii, li; Basil, "Reg. fusius tract." c. xxxvii, 1-3; "Reg. brevius tract.", c. lxxii; Origen, "Contra Celsum", I, 28).這就是為什麼天主教會一直期待後,勞工,無論是體力勞動者和腦力勞動者,作為一個修行的手段不小的價值(參見cassian , "德instit 。 coenob 。 " , X代表, 24歲;聖本篤,規則, 48 ,李;羅勒, "條例fusius道" ,長三十七, 1-3 , "條例brevius道" ,長lxxii ;淵源,成了" Contra celsum " ,我想, 28 ) 。 St. Basil is even of the opinion that piety and avoidance of labour are irreconcilable in the Christian ideal of life (cf. Mausbach, "Die Ethik des hl. Augustinus", 1909, p. 264).聖羅勒,甚至提出意見認為,孝道及避免勞工是不能在基督教的生活理想(參見毛斯巴赫, "死ethik萬的HL 。奧古斯丁" , 1909年,第264頁) 。

(4) Suffering, too, is an integral constituent of the Christian ideal and pertains consequently to ascetics. (四)痛苦,太,是個不可分割的組成部分基督教的理想和涉及因此,以苦行者。 But its real value appears only when seen in the light of faith, which teaches us that suffering makes us like unto Christ, we being the members of the mystic body of which He is the head (1 Peter 2:21), that suffering is the channel of grace which heals (sanat), preserves (conservat), and tests (probat).但其真正的價值,似乎只看到時,在信仰的光照下,它告訴我們,苦難,使我們像祂基督,我們作為成員的神秘團體,而他是一家之主( 1彼得2時21分) ,這種痛苦是該頻道的恩典,這是醫治(薩納特) ,保留( conservat ) ,並測試( probat ) 。 Finally, ascetics teaches us how to turn sufferings into channels of heavenly grace.最後,苦行者教導我們如何把痛苦轉化渠道天朝恩典。

(5) The Virtues are subjected to a thorough discussion. (五)美德已受到了深入的討論。 As is proved in dogmatic theology, our soul receives in justification supernatural habits, not only the three Divine, but also the moral virtues (Trid., Sess. VI, De justit., c. vi; Cat. Rom., p. 2, c. 2, n. 51).作為證明,在教條式的神學,我們的靈魂在收到理由超自然的習慣,而不是只有三個神聖的,但也是道德( trid. , sess 。六,德justit ,長六;貓。光碟,第2頁,長2 , 12月31日51 ) 。 These supernatural powers (virtutes infusoe) are joined to the natural faculties or the acquired virtues (virtutes acguisitoe), constituting with them one principle of action.這些超自然的權力( virtutes infusoe )加入到自然院系或後天美德( virtutes acguisitoe ) ,構成了與他們一原則的行動方案。 It is the task of ascetics to show how the virtues, taking into account the obstacles and means mentioned, can be reduced to practice in the actual life of the Christian, so that love be perfected and the image of Christ receive perfect shape in us.它的任務就是苦行者,顯示如何美德,同時考慮到各種障礙和手段提到,可降低至做法,在現實生活中的基督教,使愛情得到完善和形象的基督得到完美的形狀美。 Conformable to the Brief of Leo XIII, "Testem benevolentiæ" of 22 Jan., 1899, ascetics insists that the so-called "passive" virtues (meekness, humility, obedience, patience) must never be set aside in favour of the "active" virtues (devotion to duty, scientific activity, social and civilizing labour); for this would be tantamount to denying that Christ is the perpetual model.符合簡短的利奧十三世, " testem benevolentiæ " , 1899年1月22日,修道者堅持認為,所謂的"被動式"的美德(完全證實,謙恭,服從,忍耐) ,千萬不要被擱置贊成"積極"美德(忠於職守,科學活動,社會文明化和勞動力) ,而這將等於否認基督是永恆的模式。 Rather, both kinds must be harmoniously joined in the life of the Christian.相反,這兩種必須和諧地投身於生活的基督教。 True imitation of Christ is never a brake, nor does it blunt the initiative in any field of human endeavour.真正的模仿基督,是絕不會成為一個剎車,也沒有鈍主動在任何領域的人的努力。 On the contrary, the practice of the passive virtues is a support and aid to true activity.與此相反,在實踐中的被動的美德,是一種支持和援助,以真實的活動。 Besides, it not rarely happens that the passive virtues reveal a higher degree of moral energy than the active.此外,它不是很少出現被動的美德,揭示了更高程度的道德能量較活躍。 The Brief itself refers us to Matt., xxi, 29; Rom., viii, 29; Gal., v, 24; Phil., ii, 8; Heb., xiii, 8 (cf. also Zahn, lc, 166 sqq.).簡短本身是指我們的Matt , 21 , 29 ;光碟,八, 29人;加爾,五, 24歲;菲爾。第一,二,八;以弗所書,十三, 8 (參見也zahn ,信用證, 166 sqq ) 。

D. Application of the Means in the Three Degrees of Christian Perfection lmitation of Christ is the duty of all who strive after perfection.四應用的手段,在這三個程度的基督教完善lmitation基督的是,所有各方都有責任人,努力後,更臻完美。 It lies in the very nature of this formation after the image of Christ that the process is gradual and must follow the laws of moral energy; for moral perfection is the terminus of a laborious journey, the crown of a hard-fought battle.它是在很自然的,這以後形成的形象基督這個過程是漸進的,而且必須遵循法律,道德能量;道德完善總站一個費力的征程中,皇冠的硬打仗。 Ascetics divides those who strive after perfection into three groups: the beginners, the advanced, the perfect; and correspondingly sets down three stages or ways of Christian perfection: the purgative way, the illuminative way, the unitive way.苦行者劃分為那些追求完美後,分成三組:初學者,趕先進,完善;相應地規定了三個階段或方式基督教完善:瀉下的方式,照明方式,統一的方式。 The means stated above are applied with more or less diversity according to the stage which the Christian has reached.手段,以上所述都是適用較多或較少多樣性據該階段,其中一個基督徒都達成共識。 In the purgative way, when the appetites and inordinate passions still possess considerable strength, mortification and self-denial are to be practised more extensively.在瀉下的方式,當慾望和激情過多仍是具有相當實力, mortification和自我否定,是實行更加廣泛。 For the seeds of the spiritual life will not sprout unless the tares and thistles have first been weeded out.為種子的精神生活不會發芽,除非tares和thistles首先被淘汰。 In the illuminative way, when the mists of passion have been lifted to a great extent, meditation and the practice of virtues in imitation of Christ are to be insisted on.在照明方式,當迷霧,激情已經解除,以在相當程度上,冥想和實踐的美德,在模仿耶穌要堅持。 During the last stage, the unitive way, the soul must be confirmed and perfected in conformity with God's will ("And I live, now not I; but Christ liveth in me": Galatians 2:20).在最後的階段,統一的方式,一個是靈魂,我們必須先確定並完善了符合上帝的意志( "和我住,現在是不是,但基督liveth在我的" :加拉太2時20分) 。 Care must, however, be taken not to mistake these three stages for wholly separate portions of the striving after virtue and perfection.要小心,不過,應注意不要誤以為這三個階段為完全獨立的部分,奮鬥後,憑藉和完善。 Even in the second and the third stages there occur at times violent struggles, while the joy of being united with God may sometimes be granted in the initial stage as an inducement for further advance (cf. Mutz, "Aszetik," 2nd ed., 94 sq.).即使是在第二和第三階段有發生,有時暴力鬥爭,而喜悅的團結與上帝有時可能是理所當然的,在初始階段,作為一個誘因,進一步推進(參見mutz , " aszetik , "第二版, 94平方米) 。

E. Relation of Ascetics to Moral Theology and Mysticism體育關係的苦行者,以道德神學和神秘主義

All these disciplines are concerned with the Christian life and its last end in the next world; but they differ, though not totally, in their mode of treatment.所有這些學科所關注的基督徒生活與去年年底,在未來世界,但他們的不同之處,雖然並不完全在他們的模式治療。 Ascetical theology, which has been separated from moral theology and mysticism, has for its subject-matter the striving after Christian perfection; it shows how Christian perfection may be attained by earnestly exercising and schooling the will, using the specified means both to avoid the dangers and allurements of sin and to practise virtue with greater intensity. ascetical神學,它已經脫離道德神學和神秘主義,其主題事項而奮鬥後,基督教完善,它表明基督教如何完善,可達到的,切實行使及就學意願,用指定方式,以避免危險和誘惑的罪過和執業道德力度。 Moral theology, on the other hand, is the doctrine of the duties, and in discussing the virtues is satisfied with a scientific exposition.道德神學,但另一方面,是中庸的職責,並在討論的美德,是滿意的一個科學論斷。 Mysticism treats essentially of "union with God" and of the extraordinary, so-called mystic prayer.神秘主義對待本質上的"聯盟與上帝"的心理和非凡的,即所謂的神秘的禱告。 Though also those phenomena which are accidental to mysticism, such as ecstasy, vision, revelation, fall within its scope, yet they are by no means essential to the mystic life (cf. Zahn, "Einführung in die christl. Mystik", Paderborn, 1908).雖然也是這些現象是偶然的,以神秘主義,如搖頭丸,遠見,啟示,屬於其範圍,但他們卻決不是必不可少的神秘生活(參見zahn , " einführung在模具christl 。 mystik " ,帕德博恩, 1908年) 。 It is true that mysticism includes also matter of ascetics, such as the endeavour of purification, vocal prayer, etc.; but this is done because these exercises are looked upon as preparatory to the mystical life and must not be discarded even in its highest stage.這是事實的神秘主義,還包括事的苦行者,如努力淨化,聲樂禱告等,但這樣做的,因為這些演習都是看作為籌備到了神秘的生活,決不能丟,甚至在其最高階段。 Nevertheless, the mystical life is not merely a higher degree of the ascetical life, but differs from it essentially, the mystical life being a special grace granted to the Christian without any immediate merit on his part.然而,神秘的生活不單單是一個更高程度的ascetical生活,但不同,它本質上說,奧秘的生命作為一個特殊的恩典批給基督教沒有任何立即的好處就其本分。

F. Historical Development of Asceticism樓歷史發展的禁慾主義

(1) The Holy Bible ( 1 )聖經

Abounds in practical instructions for the life of Christian perfection.比比皆是,在實際的指示,為生活的基督教和完善。 Christ himself has drawn its outlines both as to its negative and positive requirements.基督本人已制訂它的輪廓都以它的消極和積極的要求。 His imitation is the supreme law (John 8:12; 12:26), charity the first commandment (Matthew 22:36-38; John 15:17); the right intention is that which imparts value to the exterior works (Matthew 5-7), while self-denial and the carrying of the cross are the conditions for His discipleship (Matthew 10:38; 16:24; Mark 8:34; Luke 9:23; 14:27).他的模仿是最高法(約翰8時12分; 12時26分) ,慈善第一誡命(馬太22:36-38 ;約翰15時17分) ;權利的意向是,其中imparts價值外牆工程(馬太五日-7 ) ,而自我否定和攜帶十字架是條件,為他的門徒(馬太10:38 ; 16時24分;馬克8時34分;路加福音9時23分; 14時27分) 。 Both by His own example (Matthew 4:2) and His exhortations (Matthew 17:20; Mark 9:28) Christ recommended fasting.這兩個由他自己的例子(馬太4時02分)和他的囑託(馬太17:20 ;馬克9時28分)基督建議禁食。 He inculcated sobriety, watchfulness, and prayer (Matthew 24:42; 25:13; 26:41; Mark 13:37; 14:37).他灌輸了清醒,警覺,並祈禱(馬太24:42 ; 25:13 ; 26:41 ;馬克13時37分; 14時37分) 。 He pointed to poverty as a means of gaining the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 6:19; 13:22; Luke 6:20; 8:14; 12:33; etc.) and counselled the rich youth to relinquish everything and to follow Him (Matthew 19:21).他指出,貧困作為一種手段贏得天國王朝(馬太6時19分; 13時22分;盧克6時20分; 8時14分; 12時33分;等) ,並輔導豐富青年放棄一切,並對其跟踪他(馬太19時21分) 。 That this was a counsel and not a strict command, given in view of the particular attachment of the youth to the things of this world, is shown by the very fact that the Master had twice said "keep the commandments", and that he recommended the renunciation of all earthly goods only on the renewed inquiry after the means that lead to perfection (cf. Lutz, lc, against the Protestants Th. Zahn, Bern, Weiss, Lemme, and others).這是一個律師,不嚴格的指揮,鑑於針對特定扣押青年到的東西,這個世界上,已經呈現出來,非常的事實師父曾兩次說: "保持戒律" ,並表示,他建議放棄世間的一切商品,不僅對重新調查後,是指導致完善(參見魯茲信用證支付的方式,對新教徒次。 zahn ,伯爾尼,魏斯, lemme ,和他人合著) 。 Celibacy for God's sake was praised by Christ as worthy of a special heavenly reward (Matthew 19:12).獨身為上帝而被稱讚,以基督為值得特別天朝獎勵(馬太19時12分) 。 Yet marriage is not condemned, but the words, "All men take not this word, but they to whom it is given", imply that it is the ordinary state, celibacy for God's sake being merely a counsel.但婚姻不是譴責,但換句話說, "所有男人沒有這個字,但他們的人,這是給予" ,暗示它是一個普通的國家,獨身為上帝而僅僅是一名律師。 Indirectly, Christ also commended voluntary obedience as a means for attaining the most intimate union with God (Matthew 18:4; 20:22, 25).間接的,基督也讚揚自願服從作為一種手段,以達到最親密的聯盟與上帝(馬太18時04分; 20時22分, 25 ) 。 What Christ had outlined in his teachings the Apostles continued to develop.什麼基督概述了他的教誨,使徒們繼續向前邁進。 It is especially in St. Paul that we find the two elements of Christian asceticism brought out in well-defined terms: mortification of inordinate desires as the negative element (Romans 6:8, 13; 2 Corinthians 4:16; Galatians 5:24; Colossians 3:5), union with God in all our thoughts, words, and deeds (1 Corinthians 10:31; Galatians 6:14; Colossians 3:3-17), and active love of God and our neighbour (Romans 8:35; 1 Corinthians 13:3) as the positive element.這是特別是在聖保羅說,我們發現這兩個因素的基督教禁慾主義帶出,在清楚界定的條件: mortification念慾望的負面因素(羅馬書6時08分, 13歲;哥林多4時16分;加拉太5時24分;歌羅西書3時05分) ,工會與上帝在我們所有的思想和言行( 1哥林多10時31分;加拉太6時14分;歌羅西書3:3-17 ) ,並積極上帝的愛和我們的鄰國(羅馬書八: 35 ;哥林多前書13時03分) ,作為積極的因素。

(2) Fathers and Doctors of the Church ( 2 )父親和醫生的教會

With the Bible as a basis, the Fathers and Doctors of the Church explained particular features of the Christian life in a more coherent and detailed manner.與聖經中,以此為基礎,父親和醫生的教會解釋,尤其是特色的基督徒生活在一個更加連貫和詳細匯報。 The Apostolic Fathers called the love of God and man the sun of Christian life, which, animating all virtues with its vital rays, inspires contempt of the world, beneficence, immaculate purity, and self-sacrifice.使徒教父叫做上帝的愛和男子太陽的基督徒生活的,而這些生動活潑的所有優點,其重要的射線,可以激勵蔑視的世界,功德,聖母無染原罪純潔性,犧牲自我。 The "Didache" (qv), which was intended to serve as a manual for catechumens, thus describes the way of life: "First, thou shalt love God, who created thee; secondly, thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself; whatever thou wishest that it should not be done to thee, do not to others." " didache " (請參閱) ,它的意圖是作為一本手冊,為慕道者,因此,描述了這樣的生活: "首先,你愛上帝,他們創造了祢;其次,你愛你的鄰居,因為你自己;不管你wishest ,認為不應該這樣做,以你的,不要給別人" 。 Following probably the "Didache", the so-called "Epistle of Barnabas", written at the end of the second century, represents the Christian life under the figure of the two ways, that of light and that of darkness.以下大概是" didache " ,即所謂的"墳墓的石碑" ,寫於去年底在公元二世紀,代表了基督教的生活在數字兩種方式,即輕,並表示,黑暗的。 Two Epistles, which purport to come from the pen of St. Clement, but were probably written in the third century, exalt the life of virginity, if grounded on the love of God and accompanied by the corresponding works, as heavenly, divine, and angelic.兩個教會中,其中的旨趣來自筆聖克萊門特,但很可能是寫在三世紀,發揚生命的童貞,如果停飛對上帝的愛,並伴隨著相應的工作,與天上的,神聖的,並天使。 We also mention St. Ignatius of Antioch, of whose letters St. Polycarp says that they contain "faith and patience and all edification in the Lord", and the "Pastor" of Hermas, who in the twelve commandments inculcates simplicity, truthfulness, chastity, meekness, patience, continence, confidence in God, and perpetual struggle against concupiscence.我們還提到聖伊格安提,誰的信,聖利卡爾普致斐利說,他們圍堵"的信念和耐心,一切教化在上主" , "牧師"的hermas ,他們在12個誡命inculcates簡單,真誠,貞潔完全證實,需要耐心,可控性,有信心在上帝和永恆的鬥爭concupiscence 。 With the third century the works on Christian asceticism began to show a more scientific character.與第三世紀工程對基督教禁慾主義,開始表現出更多的科學性。 In the writings of Clement of Alexandria and Gregory the Great ("Moral.", XXXIII, c. xxvii; cf. also Cassian, "Coll,", IX, XV) there may be observed traces of the threefold degree which was afterwards systematically developed by Dionysius the Areopagite.在該著作的克萊門特亞歷山大和格里高利大(下稱"道德" ,三十三,長二十七;比照也cassian , " coll " ,第九,十五) ,有可能觀察到的痕跡了三倍程度是事後系統開發狄奧尼修斯的areopagite 。 In his "Stromata" Clement sets forth the full beauty and grandeur of "true philosophy".在他的"基質"克萊門特提出了全面美容及宏偉的"真正的哲學" 。 It is particularly remarkable that this author delineates, even in its details, what is now known as ethical culture, and that he endeavours to harmonize it with the example given by Christ.這是特別了不起,筆者也界定了,即使是在它的細節,什麼是現在被稱為倫理文化,而他的努力,以使其與所舉的例子,是由基督。 The life of the Christian is to be ruled in all things by temperance.生命的基督教是要排除在一切事上所節制。 Following out this idea, he discusses in a casuistic form food and drink, dress and love of finery, bodily exercises and social conduct.下列出了這一思想,他大談在詭辯的形式,食品和飲料,服裝和愛戴finery ,身體動作練習和社會行為。 Beginning with the fourth century, a twofold line of thought is discernible in the works on Christian life: one speculative, laying stress on the union of the soul with God, the Absolute Truth and Goodness; the other practical, aiming principally at instruction in the practice of the Christian virtues.從第四世紀初,一個有兩個方面的思路是可以辨別的,在工程上的基督徒的生活:一是投機性,突出工會的靈魂與上帝,絕對真理和善良;其他實際,瞄準主要是在教學中實踐中的基督教美德。 The speculative element prevailed in the mystical school, which owes its systematic development to Pseudo-Dionysius and which reached its highest perfection in the fourteenth century.投機盛行的因素,在神秘的學校,應責無旁貸,系統化發展,以偽狄奧尼修斯,並達到最高的完善,在14世紀。 The practical element was emphasized in the ascetical school with St. Augustine as its chief representative, in whose footsteps followed Gregory the Great and St. Bernard.實際內容是強調在ascetical學校與聖奧古斯丁的,因為它的總代表,在他們的足跡,其次是格里高利大和聖伯納德。

It may suffice to detail the principal points on which the writers prior to the medieval-scholastic period dwelt in their instructions.它可能足以詳細首席點,即作家之前中世紀-學業期間住在他們的指示。 On prayer we have the works of Macarius the Egyptian (d. 385) and of Tertullian (d. after 220), who supplemented his treatise on prayer in general by an explanation of the Lord's Prayer.就禱告,我們的作品米加利阿斯埃及(四385 )和戴爾都良(四後220年) ,他補充,他的傷寒論,在祈禱一般,由一個解釋的主禱文。 To these two must be added Cyprian of Carthage (d. 258), who wrote "De oratione dominica", and St. Chrysostom (d. 407).這兩個必須加上塞浦路斯的迦太基(四258 ) ,他寫道: "德oratione多米尼克" ,和聖金口(四407 ) 。 Penance and the spirit of penance were treated by Tertullian (De poenitentia), Chrysostom ("De compunctione cordis", "De poenitentia"), and Cyril of Jerusalem (d. 386) in his second catechetical instruction.懺悔和精神懺悔治療戴爾都良(德poenitentia ) ,金口( "時點compunctione cordis " , "德poenitentia " ) ,並西里爾耶路撒冷(四386 ) ,在他的第二個catechetical指示。 That the life of the Christian is a warfare is amply illustrated in St. Augustine's (d. 430) "De agone christiano" and in his "Confessions".這生命的基督徒,是戰是充分說明在聖奧古斯丁(四430 ) "德agone christiano " ,並在他的"自白書" 。 Chastity and virginity were treated by Methodius of Olympus (d. 311) in his "Convivium", a work in which ten virgins, discussing virginity, demonstrate the moral superiority of Christianity over the ethical tenets of pagan philosophy.貞潔與童貞治療methodius奧林巴斯(四311 ) ,在他的" convivium " ,這是一個工作,其中10個處男,討論處女,表現出道德優越感的基督教超過倫理信條異教哲學。 The same subject is discussed by the following Fathers: Cyprian (d. 258); Gregory of Nyssa (d. 394) in his "De virginitate"; Ambrose (d. 397), the indefatigable eulogist and champion of the virginal life; Jerome in his "Adversus Helvidium de virginitate" and "Ad Eustachium"; Chrysostom (d. 407) in his "De virginitate", who, though extolling virginity as a heavenly life, yet recommends it only as a counsel; Augustine in his works "De continentia", "De virginitate", "De bono viduitatis".同一議題是討論由子承父業:塞浦路斯(四258 ) ;格雷戈里的nyssa (四394頁)他在"德virginitate " ;劉漢銓(四397 ) ,不知疲倦eulogist和冠軍的童貞的生活;杰羅姆在他的"相反helvidium德virginitate "及"專案eustachium " ;金口(四407頁)他在"德virginitate " ,他們雖然歌頌處女作為一個天朝生活,但建議,它只是作為一個律師;奧古斯丁在他的著作"德continentia " , "德virginitate " , "德博諾viduitatis " 。

On patience we have the works of Cyprian, Augustine, and Tertullian's "De patientia", in which he speaks of this virtue as an invalid might speak of health to console himself.關於耐心,我們有工程的塞浦路斯,奧古斯丁,戴爾都良的"去忍耐" ,其中他談到這個美德作為無效可能講衛生安慰自己。 Chrysostom's "De jejunio et eleemosyna" discusses fasting.金口的"時點jejunio等eleemosyna "論述禁食。 Almsgiving and good works are encouraged in Cyprian's "De opere et eleemosynis" and in Augustine's "De fide et operibus".救濟及好的作品是在鼓勵塞浦路斯的"時點opere等eleemosynis " ,在奧古斯丁的"時點正當等operibus " 。 The value of labour is explained in "De opere monachorum" by St. Augustine.勞動價值是在解釋"德opere monachorum " ,由聖奧古斯丁。 Nor are treatises on the different states of life wanting.也不是論文,對不同國家的生活希望。 Thus St. Augustine's "De bono conjugali" treats of the married state; his "De bono viduitatis" of widowhood.因此,聖奧古斯丁的"德博諾conjugali "待人的已婚狀態;他的"德博諾viduitatis "守寡。 A frequent subject was the priesthood.頻繁的主題是神職人員。 Gregory of Nazianzus, in his "De fuga", treats of the dignity and responsibility of the priesthood; Chrysostom's "De sacerdotio" exalts the sublimity of this state with surpassing excellence; St. Ambrose in his "De officiis", while speaking of the four cardinal virtues, admonishes the clerics that their lives should be an illustrious example; St. Jerome's "Epistola ad Nepotianum" discusses the dangers to which priests are exposed; finally, the "Regula pastoralis" of Gregory the Great inculcates the prudence indispensable to the pastor in his dealings with different classes of men.格雷戈里的nazianzus ,在他的"德風雅" ,待人的尊嚴和責任的神職人員;金口的"時點sacerdotio " exalts崇高的這種狀況與超越卓越;聖劉漢銓在他的"德officiis " ,而在談到有關堅持四項基本原則,品德,告誡教士,他們的生活應該是一個傑出的例子,聖杰羅姆的" epistola專案nepotianum "論述的危險,其中牧師暴露;最後, "規範pastoralis "的格里高利大inculcates審慎理財不可免牧師在他與不同類別的男人。 Of prime importance for the monastic life was the work "De institutis coenobiorum" of Cassian.最重要的修道生活,是工作的"德institutis coenobiorum " cassian 。 But the standard work from the eighth to the thirteenth century was the Rule of St. Benedict, which found numerous commentators.但標準工作,由第八至十三世紀,是法治的聖本篤,其中發現許多評論家。 Of the saint or rather his Rule St. Bernard says: "lpse dux noster, ipse magister et legifer noster est" (Serm. in Nat. S. Bened., n. 2).該聖或者更確切地說,他的統治聖伯納德說: " lpse dux noster , ipse magister等legifer noster預測" ( serm.在NAT的。 bened美國, 12月31日2 ) 。 Illustrations of the practice of Christian virtues in general were the "Expositio in beatum Job" of Gregory the Great and the "Collationes Patrum" of Cassian, in which the various elements of Christian perfection were discussed in the form of dialogues.插圖的實踐基督教美德,在一般人的" expositio在beatum工"的格里高利大和" collationes patrum " cassian ,其中的各種要素的基督教完善進行了討論,在形式的對話。

(3) The Medieval-Scholastic Period ( 3 )中世紀-學術期

The transition period up to the twelfth century exhibits no specially noteworthy advance in ascetical literature.在過渡期,以12世紀的展品沒有特別值得注意的進展ascetical文學。 To the endeavour to gather and preserve the teachings of the Fathers we owe Alcuin's "De virtutibus et vitiis".要努力蒐集和保存的遺訓父親,我們有責任阿爾昆的"時點virtutibus等vitiis " 。 But when in the twelfth century speculative theology was celebrating its triumphs, mystical and ascetical theology, too, showed a healthy activity.但是,當在12世紀投機神學是在慶祝勝利,神秘和ascetical神學,也表明一個健康的活動。 The results of the former could not but benefit the latter by placing Christian morality on a scientific basis and throwing ascetical theology itself into a scientific form.結果,前者未能受惠,但後者把基督教道德,以科學為依據,並投擲ascetical神學本身轉化為科學的形式。 The pioneers in this field were St. Bernard (d. 1156) and Hugh and Richard of St. Victor.先驅,在這個領域被聖伯納德(四1156 )和休和理查德聖勝利者。 St. Bernard, the greatest mystical theologian of the twelfth century, also holds a prominent place among ascetical writers, so that Harnack calls the "religious genius" of the twelfth century.聖伯納德,最大的神秘神學家的12世紀,還保持著突出地位,其中ascetical作家,使的Harnack所稱的"宗教天才"的12世紀。 The basic idea of his works, especially prominent in his treatise "De gratia et libero arbitrio", is that the life of the Christian should be a copy of the life of Jesus.其基本思想是他的作品,特別是突出在他的論文"德特惠等的Libero arbitrio " ,是生命的基督徒應該是一個副本,耶穌的生命。 Like Clement of Alexandria, he, too, lays down precepts for the regulation of the necessities of life, as food and dress, and for the implanting of God's love in man's heart, which would sanctify all things ("Apologia", "De præcepto et dispensatione").像克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,他也規定了戒律,為調節生活的必需品,食品和服裝,並為植入神的愛在人的心臟,這將聖化所有的東西( "縱容" , "德præcepto等dispensatione " ) 。 Many are the steps by which love ascends till it reaches its perfection in the love for God's sake.許多步驟,其中愛升入直至達到完美,在對上帝的愛的緣故。 Among his ascetical writings are: "Liber de diligendo Deo", "Tractatus de gradibus humilitatis et superbiæ", "De moribus et officio episcoporum", "Sermo de conversione ad clericos", "Liber de consideratione".他ascetical著作有: " liber德diligendo迪奧" , " tractatus德gradibus humilitatis等superbiæ " , "德moribus等守episcoporum " , " sermo德conversione專案clericos " , " liber德consideratione " 。

Frequent allusions to St. Augustine and Gregory the Great are scattered through the pages of Hugh of St. Victor (d. 1141), so much so that he earned the distinction of being called a second Augustine by his contemporaries.頻繁的典故,以聖奧古斯丁和格里高利大都是分散的,通過頁面的休聖維克多(第1141四) ,以致於他贏得了區別被稱為第二奧古斯丁他同時代的。 He was undoubtedly the first to give to ascetical theology a more or less definite, scientific character.他無疑是第一次給ascetical神學較為明確的,科學的品格。 The ever-recurring theme of his works is love.不斷反复出現的主題,他的作品是愛。 But what he aimed at above all in his writings was to lay bare the psychological bearings of mystical and ascetical theology.但他的目的,首先是在他的著作被揭出的心理軸承的神秘和ascetical神學。 Noteworthy are his works: "De vanitate mundi", "De laude caritatis", "De mode orandi", "De meditatione".值得一提的是他的作品: "德vanitate世界之" , "德成績仁愛" , "德模式orandi " , "德meditatione " 。 His pupil, Richard of St. Victor (d. 1173), though more ingenious and systematic, is yet less intent upon practical utility, except in his work "De exterminatione mali et promotione boni".他的瞳孔,理查德聖維克多(四1173 ) ,但更巧妙和系統性,是少,但意圖後,實際效用,除非在他的作品"德exterminatione馬里等promotione渤泥" 。 The great theologians of the thirteenth century, who were no less famous for their scholastic "Summæ" than for their ascetical and mystical writings, brought ascetical teaching to its perfection and gave it the definite shape it has retained as a standard for all future times.偉大的神學家的13世紀,誰沒有那麼有名,為他們的學業" summæ "比他們ascetical而神秘的著作,但也帶來ascetical教學,以完善和給予它一定的形狀,它仍然保留了作為標準,為所有未來的時代。 No other epoch furnishes such convincing proof that true science and true piety are rather a help than a hindrance to each other.沒有其他劃時代提供了這樣的令人信服的證據,證明真正的科學和真正的虔誠而是幫助比妨礙對方。 Albert the Great, the illustrious teacher of the great Thomas, who was the first to join Aristotelean philosophy with theology and to make philosophy the handmaid of theology, was at the same time the author of excellent works on ascetics and mysticism, as, eg, "De adhærendo Deo", the ripest fruit of his mystic genius, and "Paradisus animæ", which was conceived along more practical lines.何俊仁偉大的,傑出的老師偉大的托馬斯,誰是第一個加入aristotelean哲學與神學,使哲學handmaid的神學,是在同一時間,作者的優秀作品,對修道者和神秘主義,因為,如"德adhærendo迪奧" ,成熟的果實,他神秘的天才, " paradisus animæ " ,也就是構思沿更實際的線路。 To St. Thomas we owe the ascetic work "De perfectione vitæ spiritualis"; in it he explains the essence of Christian perfection so lucidly that his line of argumentation may even in our days serve as a model.聖托馬斯我們欠苦行工作的"德perfectione vitæ spiritualis " ,在它一方面說明本質的完善基督教如此清楚,他的路線,論證,甚至可能在我們這個時代,作為一個典範。 His other works, too, contain ample material of value both for ascetics and for mysticism.他的其他作品中也含有豐富的有價值的材料都為修道者和神秘主義。

The Seraphic Doctor, St. Bonaventure, "treats of mystic theology", to use the words of Leo XIII, "in a manner so perfect that the unanimous opinion of the most expert theologians regards him as the prince of mystic theologians".該seraphic醫生,聖文德" ,待人的神秘神學" ,沒有使用的話利奧十三世" ,在方式上如此完美表示,一致的意見最專家神學家對於他作為王子的神秘神學家" 。 Of his authentic works the following deserve to be mentioned: "De perfectione evangelica", "Collationes de septem donis Spiritus sancti", "Incendium amoris", "Soliloquium", "Lignum vitæ", "De præparatione ad Missam", "Apologia pauperum".他的作品真實以下方面值得一提: "德perfectione evangelica " , " collationes德septem donis spiritus sancti " , " incendium amoris " , " soliloquium " , " lignum vitæ " , "德præparatione專案missam " , "縱容pauperum " 。 From the pen of David of Augsburg, a contemporary of these great masters, we have an ascetic instruction for novices in his book entitled "De exterioris et interioris hominis compositione".從用筆大衛的奧格斯堡,現代這些大是大非的主人,我們有一個苦行教學生手,在其所著的"時點exterioris等interioris做一compositione " 。 He leads the reader along the three well-known ways, purgative, illuminative, and unitive, purposing to make the reader a spiritual man.他帶領讀者沿著三個著名的方式,瀉下,照明,以及統一, purposing使讀者一種精神的人。 By severely disciplining the faculties of the soul and subordinating the flesh to the spirit, man must restore the original order, so that he may not only do what is good, but likewise do it with ease.通過嚴厲管教院系的靈魂和服從,肉中刺,以精神,男子必須恢復原來的秩序,使他不僅可能做的是好的,但同樣做自如。 There remains to be mentioned the "Summa de vitiis et virtutibus" of Peraldus (dc 1270).仍有待提到"總結德vitiis等virtutibus " peraldus (直流1270 ) 。 The fourteenth century is characterized throughout by its mystical tendencies. 14世紀的特點是整個過程,其神秘的傾向。 Among the works which this period produced, Henry Suso's "Booklet of Eternal Wisdom deserves special mention on account of its highly practical value. Pre-eminent in the fifteenth century were Gerson, Dionysius the Carthusian, and the author of the "Imitation of Christ". Relinquishing the ideals of the mystic writers of the fourteenth century, Gerson attached himself again to the great scholastic writers, thus avoiding the vagaries which had become alarmingly frequent among the mystics. His "Considerationes de theologia mystica" shows that he belongs to the practical school of asceticism. Dionysius the Carthusian is esteemed as a highly gifted teacher of the spiritual life. Both mysticism properly so called and practical asceticism owe valuable works to his pen. To the latter category belong: "De remediis tentationum", "De via purgativa", "De oratione", "De gaudio spirituali et pace interna", "De quatuor novissimis".其中工程這一時期生產的,亨利suso的"小冊子的永恆智慧,值得特別一提的是考慮到它的實用價值很高的價值。預先傑出,在15世紀被gerson ,狄奧尼修斯的carthusian ,與作者的"模仿基督" 。放棄理想的神秘作家的14世紀, gerson附上本人再次向偉大的作家,在學術上,從而避免反复無常已變得驚人地頻繁之間的神秘,他的" considerationes德theologia mystica "表明,他屬於實用學校的禁慾主義。狄奧尼修斯的carthusian推崇的是作為一個高度資優教師的精神生活。既神秘主義妥善所謂實用的禁慾主義欠了寶貴的工程,以他的筆,為了後一類屬於: "德remediis tentationum " , "德經purgativa " , "德oratione " , "德高迪奧spirituali等國際步伐" , "德quatuor novissimis " 。

The "Imitatio Christi", which appeared in the middle of the fifteenth century, deserves special attention on account of its lasting influence. " imitatio聖體" ,這似乎是在中東的15世紀,是值得特別注意的是考慮到其持久的影響力。 "It is a classic in its ascetical unction and perfect in its artistic style" (Hamm, "Die Schönheit der kath. Moral", Munich-Gladbach, 1911, p. 74). "這是典型的在其ascetical unction和完善,在其藝術風格" (哈姆,在"死schönheit明鏡kath 。道義" ,慕尼黑- gladbach , 1911年,第74頁) 。 In four books it treats of the interior spiritual life in imitation of Jesus Christ.在四書,它對待的內部精神生活,在仿製的耶穌基督。 It pictures the struggle which man must wage against his inordinate passions and perverse inclinations, the indulgence of which sullies his conscience and robs him of God's grace: "Vanity of vanities and all is vanity, except to love God and serve Him alone" (Vanitas vanitatum et omnia vanitas præter amare Deum et illi soli servire: I, i).它拍照的鬥爭,這名男子要工資對他的過分熱情的和有害的傾向,放縱自己,其中sullies他的良心和他失去了上帝的恩典說: "虛榮的面盆和所有的是虛榮,除了熱愛上帝和他服務單" ( vanitas vanitatum等OMNIA公司vanitas præter阿瑪爾deum等illi固體servire :我,我) 。 It advises mortification and self-denial as the most efficacious weapons in this struggle.它勸告mortification和自我否定,認為是最有效的武器,在這場鬥爭中來。 It teaches man to establish God's kingdom in his soul by the practice of virtues according to the example of Jesus Christ.它教導人,以建立神的王國,在他的靈魂所實踐的美德,根據為例耶穌基督。 It finally leads him to union with Christ by exciting love for him as well as by pointing out the frailty of all creatures: "It is necessary to leave the beloved thing for the beloved, because Jesus wishes to be loved above all things" (Oportet dilectum propter dilectum relinquere, quia Jesus vult solus super omnia amari: II, xvii).這最終導致了他的聯盟已經與基督同由激動人心的愛為他以及所指出弱者的所有動物,說: "就是要離開心愛的東西,為心愛的,因為耶穌希望被愛,上述所有的東西" ( oportet dilectum propter dilectum relinquere , quia耶穌vult唯一超級OMNIA公司阿馬里:二,十七) 。 The thoughts of the "Imitation" are thrown into epigrams so simple that they are within the mental grasp of all.該思考的"模仿"都扔進epigrams這麼簡單,他們是內部的精神,抓緊一切。 Though the book betrays that the author was well versed not only in Scholastic philosophy and theology, but also in the secrets of the mystical life, yet this fact never obtrudes itself on the reader, nor does it obscure the meaning of the contents.雖然這本書暴露了該作者是熟悉業務,不僅在學術上的哲學和神學,而且也表現在機密的神秘生活,但這個事實永遠不會obtrudes本身就讀者,也沒有遮蔽的意思內容。 There are a number of quotations from the great doctors Augustine, Bernard, Bonaventure, and Thomas, from Aristotle, Ovid, and Seneca; yet these do not mar the impression that the whole work is the spontaneous outburst of an intensely glowing soul.有一些報價從大醫生奧古斯丁,伯納德,文德,和托馬斯,從亞里士多德,奧維德,塞涅卡,但這些都不磨滅的印象時表示,整個工作是自發突出的一個,緊鑼密鼓發光的靈魂。 It has often been said that the teachings of the "Imitation" are "unworldly" and show little appreciation for science.人們經常說的遺訓, "模仿"是" unworldly " ,並表明很少讚賞科學。 But, to judge the work aright, one must take into consideration the peculiar circumstances of the time.但是,法官的工作,端正時,我們必須考慮到特殊情況的時候。 Scholasticism had entered on a period of decline and had lost itself in intricate subtleties; mysticism had gone astray; all classes had been more or less infected with the spirit of licentiousness.士林已經進入一個時期的下降,並失去了自己在錯綜複雜的微妙關係;神秘主義曾誤入歧途;所有班級已較多或較少感染的精神licentiousness 。 It is conditions like these that give us the key to interpret phrases such as the following: "I would rather feel compunction than know how to define it" (Opto magis sentire compunctionem quam scire ejus definitionem) or "This is the highest wisdom: through contempt of the world to strive for the kingdom of heaven" (Ista est summa sapientia: per contemptum mundi tendere ad regna coelestia).這是條件,如這些,讓我們的主要解釋詞語,例如: "我寧可覺得compunction比知道如何界定它" (光電更多sentire compunctionem怎麼scire ejus definitionem )或" ,這是最高的智慧:通過藐視世界上精益求精,為天國" (土改預測總結sapientia :每contemptum世界之tendere專案雷格納coelestia ) 。

(4) Modern Times ( 4 )近代

During the sixteenth century St. Teresa and St. Ignatius of Loyola stand out most prominently owing to the wide-felt influence which they exerted upon the religion of their contemporaries, an influence that is still at work through their writings.在十六世紀的聖德肋撒和聖伊格的羅耀拉站出來,最突出的原因在於廣泛的影響,感受到他們所施加的宗教及其同時代的,是一個影響力,這仍然是在工作中,通過他們的著作。 The writings of St. Teresa arouse our admiration by the simplicity, clearness, and precision of her judgment.著述聖德肋撒引起我們的欽佩,由簡單,清晰,精確的,她的判斷。 Her letters show her to be an enemy of everything that smacks of eccentricity or singularity, sham piety or indiscreet zeal.她的信件顯示,她是一個敵人的一切帶有偏心或奇異,深水虔誠或無意中的狂熱。 One of her principal works, the "Way to Perfection", though written primarily for nuns, also contains apposite instructions for those who live in the world.她家的另一位主要工程外, "辦法完善" ,雖然寫主要是為尼姑,還載有apposite指令,為那些居住在世界各地。 While teaching the way to contemplation, she yet insists that not all are called to it and that there is greater security in the practice of humility, mortification, and the other virtues.而教學方式,以沉思,但她堅持認為,不是所有的都向它,並且有更大的保障,在實踐中,謙遜的態度, mortification ,和其他的美德。 Her masterpiece is the "Castle of the Soul", in which she expounds her theory of mysticism under the metaphor of a "castle" with many chambers.她的傑作,是"古堡的靈魂" ,她在其中闡述了她的理論的神秘主義下的一個比喻, "城堡"與很多商會。 The soul resplendent with the beauty of the diamond or crystal is the castle; the various chambers are the various degrees through which the soul must pass before she can dwell in perfect union with God.靈魂的燦爛與美麗的鑽石或水晶,是城堡;各大商會都不同程度通過它的靈魂,必須通過之前,她可以住在完善工會與上帝。 Scattered throughout the work are many hints of inestimable value for asceticism as applied in everyday life.分散在全國各地的工作,很多暗示的不可估量的價值,為禁慾主義作為應用在日常生活中。 This fact is undoubtedly due to the well-founded conviction of the saint that even in extraordinary states the ordinary means must not be set aside altogether, so that illusions may be guarded against (cf. J. Zahn, "Introduction to Mysticism" p. 213).這個事實無疑是因為要充分依據的信念聖表示,即使是在平凡的國家,一般是指必須在不設加起來,使幻想,可防範(參見j. zahn , "引進來,以神秘主義"頁213 ) 。

In his "Exercitia spiritualia" St. Ignatius has left to posterity not only a grand literary monument of the science of the soul, but also a method unparalleled in its practical efficacy of strengthening the willpower.在他的" exercitia spiritualia "聖伊格已經留給後人不僅是一個偉大的文學豐碑,科學的靈魂,也是一個方法無法比擬的,其實際效果的增強意志力。 The booklet has appeared in numberless editions and revisions and, "despite its modest guise, is in reality a complete system of asceticism" (Meschler).這本小冊子已出現在無數的版本和修改, "儘管其微薄的幌子,實際上這是一個完整的體系,對禁慾主義" ( meschler ) 。 The four weeks of the Exercises acquaint the exercitant with the three degrees of the spiritual life.四個星期的演習了解, exercitant與三度的精神生活。 The first week is taken up with cleansing the soul from sin and from its inordinate attachment to creatures.第一週採取的行動與清洗靈魂,從罪惡和其過度依戀,以海洋生物。 The second and third weeks lead the exercitant along the illuminative way.第二週和第三週帶領exercitant沿線的照明方式。 The portrait of Christ, the most lovable of all men, is outlined before his eyes, so that he can contemplate in the humanity the reflex of Divine light and the supreme model of all virtues.畫像基督,是最可愛的所有男人,是概述前他的眼睛,讓他可以沉思,在人類的反射性的神聖的光以及最高人民法院模型的所有美德。 The meditations of the fourth week, the subject of which are the resurrection etc., lead to union with God and teach the soul to rejoice in the glory of the Lord.該沉思的第四週,主題是復活等,有可能導致歐盟與上帝和教導靈魂雀躍,在榮耀上帝。 It is true, there are many rules and regulations, the sequence is most logical, the arrangement of the meditations follows the laws of psychology; yet these exercises do no violence to the free will, but are meant to strengthen the faculties of the soul.這是事實,有許多規則和規例的規定,順序是最合乎邏輯的,在這項安排下的沉思如下法律心理學,但這些演習做任何暴力行為,以自由意志,但都是為了加強學院的靈魂。 They do not, as has often been asserted, make the exercitant a powerless instrument in the hands of the confessor, nor are they a mystic flight to heaven, accomplished by means of a compulsion which intends a rapid advance in perfection by a mechanical process (Zöckler, "Die Tugendlehre des Christentums", Gütersloh, 1904, p. 335).他們不走,因為經常被人斷言,使exercitant無能的工具掌握在懺悔,也不是一神秘的飛行升天,完成了通過一項強迫打算快速推進,在完善,由一個機械過程( zöckler , "死tugendlehre萬christentums " , gütersloh , 1904年,第335頁) 。 Their marked intellectualism, so frequently objected to, in no way constitutes a hindrance to mysticism (Meschler, "Jesuitenaszese u. deutsche Mystik" in "Stimmen aus Maria-Laach", 1912).其顯著知識分子,所以經常有異議,在沒有辦法構成阻礙神秘主義( meschler , " jesuitenaszese美國德意志mystik "中的" stimmen澳大利亞瑪麗亞- laach " , 1912 ) 。 On the contrary, they make man's moral will truly free by removing the hindrances, while, by cleansing the heart and by accustoming the mind to meditative prayer, they are an excellent preparation for the mystical life.與此相反,他們使人的道德,將真正的自由,消除障礙,同時,淨化心,由accustoming一心想冥想禱告,他們是一個很好的準備了神秘的生活。 Louis of Granada, OP (d. 1588), also belongs to this period.路易的格拉納達,作品(四1588 ) ,也屬於這一時期。 His work "La guia de pecadores" may justly be styled a book full of consolation for the erring.他的作品"香格里拉東望洋德pecadores "可以理直氣壯地予以風格的一本書,充滿了安慰,對於出問題的。 His "El memorial de la vida cristiana" contains instructions which take the soul from the very beginning and lead her to the highest perfection.他的"厄爾尼諾紀念德香格里拉生活cristiana "載有指示,採取靈魂,從一開始就和她引向最高完美。 Louis of Blois (Blosius), OSB (d. 1566), is of a mind kindred to St. Bernard.路易的blois (布洛修斯) ,定向結構刨花板(四1566 ) ,是一記骨肉聖伯納德。 His "Monile spirituale" is the best known of his numerous works.他的" monile spirituale "是最出名的,他的許多作品。 Thomas of Jesus (d. 1582) wrote the "Passion of Christ" and "De oratione dominica".托馬斯的耶穌(四1582年)寫下了"激情的基督"和"去oratione多米尼克" 。

A great number of ascetical writers sprang up during the seventeenth century.大量的ascetical作家擺出來,在17世紀。 Among them St. Francis de Sales stands out most prominently.其中聖弗朗西斯德銷售脫穎而出最為突出。 According to Linsemann, the publication of his "Philothea" was an event of historical importance.據linsemann ,出版他的" philothea "是一件重要的歷史意義。 To make piety attractive and to adapt it to all classes whether living in Court circles, in the world, or in a monastery, this was his aim and in this he succeeded.為了使虔誠的吸引力,並使它適應各階層是否居住在法院圈子,在世界上,或在一個修道院,這已經是他的目標,並在這方面,他成功了。 Of a mild and sweet temperament, he never lost sight of the habits and particular circumstances of the individual.的一個溫和而甜美的氣質,他從不忽略的習慣和實際情況,就個別。 Though unwavering in his ascetical principles, he yet possessed an admirable facility for adapting them without constraint or rigidity.雖然堅定不移地在他的ascetical原則,但他擁有令人羨慕的設施,為適應他們無約束或僵化。 In the practice of mortification he recommends moderation and adaptation to one's state of life and to personal circumstances.在實踐中mortification他建議適度和適應一個人的狀態生活和個人情況而定。 Love of God and of man: this he puts down as the motive power of all actions.上帝的愛和男子:這個他所說下來作為動力的一切行動。 The spirit of St. Francis pervades the whole of modern asceticism, and even today his "Philothea" is one of the most widely read books on asceticism.精神的聖弗朗西斯貫穿於整個現代禁慾主義,直到今天,他的" philothea "是一個最廣泛閱讀書籍,禁慾主義。 "Theotimus", another work of his, treats in the first six chapters of the love of God, the rest being devoted to mystical prayer. " theotimus " ,另一種工作,他的,但是它把在首6個章節,上帝的愛,其餘正在致力於神秘的祈禱。 His letters, too, are very instructive.他的信,也都是非常有啟發性。 Attention may be called to the new edition of his works (Euvres, Annecy, 1891 sqq.).注意可能被要求到新版本的他的作品( euvres ,阿納西, 1891 sqq ) 。 "Il combattimento spirituale" of Scupoli (d. 1610) was spread very widely and earnestly recommended by Francis de Sales. "伊爾combattimento spirituale " scupoli (四1610 ) ,傳播的速度非常廣泛,認真推薦弗朗西斯德銷售。

To the same period belong the following authors and works.以同一時期屬於下列作家和作品。 Bellarmine, SJ (d. 1621): "Gemitus columbæ"; "De ascensione mentis in Deum"; "De arte bene moriendi". bellarmine ,律政司司長(四1621 )說: " gemitus columbæ " , "德ascensione mentis在deum " , "德的ARTE益處moriendi " 。 Alphonsus Rodriguez, SJ (d. 1616): "Exercicio de perfección y virtudes cristianas" (3 vols., Seville, 1609), which has frequently been re-edited and translated into nearly all languages.阿方羅德里格斯神父(四1616 )說: " exercicio德perfección y virtudes cristianas " ( 3卷,塞維利亞, 1609年) ,這常常被人們重新整理並翻譯成幾乎所有的語言。 John of Jesus-Mary, OCD (d. 1615): "Teologia Mistica" (Naples, 1607), highly esteemed by Bellarmine and Francis de Sales.約翰耶穌-瑪麗,強迫症(四1615 ) : " teologia mistica " (那不勒斯, 1607年) ,高度評價了由bellarmine和弗朗西斯德銷售。 Alvarez de Paz, SJ (d. 1620): "De vita spirituali ejusque perfectione" (1608); "De exterminatione mali et promotione boni" (1613); "De inquisitione pacis" (1617), which was frequently re-edited.阿爾瓦雷斯和平協定,律政司司長(四1620年) : "德履歷表spirituali ejusque perfectione " ( 1608 ) , "德exterminatione馬里等promotione渤泥" ( 1613 ) , "德inquisitione pacis " ( 1617 ) ,其中經常被重新編輯。 Gaudier, SJ (d. 1620): "De perfectione vitæ spiritualis" (1619; new ed., 3 vols., Turin, 1903-4). gaudier ,律政司司長(四1620年) : "德perfectione vitæ spiritualis " ( 1619年,新版, 3卷,都靈, 1903-4 ) 。 La Puente, SJ (d. 1624): "Guia espiritual" (Valladolid, 1609), containing, according to his own statement, a brief epitome of the spiritual life both active and contemplative (prayer, meditation, trials, mortification, practice of virtue); "De la Perfección del Cristiano en todos sus estados" (1612).香格里拉puente ,律政司司長(四第1624 )說: "東望洋espiritual " (巴利亞多利德, 1609年) ,其中載,據他自己的聲明,簡短的縮影精神生活,既活躍和contemplative (祈禱,打坐,審判, mortification ,實踐美德) , "德香格里拉perfección刪除克里斯恩所有避震estados " ( 1612 ) 。 Both works have ever been highly esteemed by all ascetical men and have been translated into many languages.兩項工程都得到高度評價了所有ascetical男子,並已被翻譯成多種文字。 Lessius, SJ (d. 1623): "De perfectionibus moribusque divinis", a work distinguished both for its scientific and ascetical spirit. lessius ,律政司司長(四1623個)說: "德perfectionibus moribusque divinis " ,這是一個傑出的工作,無論是它的科學和ascetical精神。 Nlcholas Lancicius, SJ (d. 1638), past-master in the spiritual life, whose saintly personality is reflected in his writings (new ed., Cracow, 1889 sqq.): "De exteriore corporis compositione"; "De quatuor viis perveniendi ad perfectionem"; "De humanarum passionum dominio": "De mediis ad virtutem"; "De causis et remediis in oratione". nlcholas lancicius ,律政司司長(四1638 ) ,過去主在精神生活,其聖潔的人格,是體現在他的著作(新版,克拉科夫, 1889年sqq )說: "德exteriore corporis compositione " , "德quatuor者perveniendi專案perfectionem " , "德humanarum passionum dominio " : "德mediis專案virtutem " , "德causis等remediis在oratione " 。 Greatly valued is his book of meditations: "De piis erga Deum et coelites affectibus"; it has been translated into several languages.極為寶貴的是他的著作的沉思: "德piis普遍deum等coelites affectibus " ,它已被翻譯成幾種語言。 Schorrer, SJ: "Synopsis theol. ascet." schorrer ,律政司司長說: "故事大綱theol 。 ASCET的" 。 (Dillingen, 1662; rare edition). ( dillingen , 1662年;珍稀版) 。 Godinez, SJ: "Práctica de la teologia mystica" (La Puebla de los Angeles, date-->1681), of which we have a Latin edition together with a commentary by de la Reguera, SJ (Rome, 1740). godinez ,律政司司長說: " práctica德香格里拉teologia mystica " (香格里拉普埃布拉德洛杉磯,日期-> " 1 681) ,其中我們有一個拉丁語版連同一評,由德香格里拉r eguera,律政司司長(羅馬, 1 740年) 。

Surin, SJ (d. 1665), wrote his important "Catéchisme spirituel" at a time when he was subject to interior trials (cf. Zahn, "Mystik", p. 441).素林時,律政司司長(四1665 ) ,寫了他的重要" catéchisme spirituel "在這個時候,他是受內部審判(參見zahn , " mystik " ,頁441 ) 。 The book appeared in many editions and translations, but was placed on the Index.書中出現了許多版本和譯本,但被放置於指數。 The edition of Fr.該版的神父。 Fellon, SJ (1730), and the latest edition of Fr.費隆,律政司司長( 1730 ) ,並使用最新版本的神父。 Bouix (Paris, 1882) probably do not fall under this prohibition, because in them the errors have been corrected. bouix (巴黎, 1882年) ,可能不屬於這一禁令,因為在他們的錯誤已被修正。 After Surin's death appeared: "Les fondements de la vie spirituelle" (Paris, 1667); "Lettres spirituelles" (ib., 1695); "Dialogues spirituels" (ib., 1704).之後,素林的死因出現了: "就業輔導組fondements德生命spirituelle " (巴黎, 1667年) ; " lettres spirituelles " ( ib. , 1695 ) ; "對話spirituels " ( ib. , 1704 ) 。 Gasper Druzbicki, SJ (d. 1662), is the author of a considerable number of ascetical works both in Polish and in Latin, many of which were translated into other languages. gasper druzbicki ,律政司司長(四1662 ) ,是作者的相當數量的ascetical工程無論是在波蘭和拉丁語,其中不少被翻譯成其他語文。 There are two complete editions of his works: one published at Ingolstadt (1732) in two folios, the other at Kalisz and Posen (1681-91).有兩個完整的版本,他的作品:一是公佈在Ingolstadt的( 1732 )在兩folios ,另一個則在kalisz和posen ( 1681至1691年) 。 Among his numerous works are: "Lapis lydius boni spiritus"; "Considerationes de soliditate veræ virtutis"; "De sublimitate perfectionis"; "De brevissima ad perfectionem via"; "Vota religiosa".他的許多作品分別是: "青金石lydius渤泥spiritus " , " considerationes德soliditate veræ virtutis " , "德sublimitate perfectionis " , "德brevissima專案perfectionem經" , " vota religiosa " 。 The "Mystica theologia Divi Thomæ" of Thomas à Vallgornera, OP (d. 1665), published at Barcelona, (1662 and 1672) and at Turin (1890), is almost exclusively made up of quotations from St. Thomas and is a rich storehouse of ascetical material. " mystica theologia劃分thomæ "托馬斯à vallgornera ,作品(四1665 ) ,出版於巴塞羅那, ( 1662和1672 )和都靈( 1890 ) ,是幾乎完全彌補了報價單,由聖托馬斯,是一個富有在庫房內的ascetical材料。 From the pen of Cardinal Bona, O. Cist.從用筆的樞機主教的真正意圖,澳中科院。 (d. 1674), we have: "Principia et documents vitæ christianæ" (Rome, 1673) and "Manuductio ad coelum" (Rome, 1672 and 1678), both of which works, remarkable for their simplicity and practical utility, were frequently re-edited; the still valuable "De sacrificio Missæ"; "De discretione spirituum"; "Horologium asceticum". (四1674 ) ,我們已: "原理等文件vitæ christianæ " (羅馬, 1673年)和" manuductio專案coelum " (羅馬, 1672年和1678年) ,這兩項研究工程,了不起的簡單和實際效用,常常重新整理;仍有寶貴的"德sacrificio missæ " , "德discretione spirituum " , " horologium asceticum " 。 Complete editions of his works appeared at Antwerp, Turin, Venice.完整版,他的作品出現在安特衛普,都靈,威尼斯。 Morotius, O. Cist., in his "Cursus vitæ spiritualis" (Rome, 1674; new ed., Ratisbon, 1891), follows closely the lead of St. Thomas. morotius ,澳中科院,在他的" cursus vitæ spiritualis " (羅馬, 1674年,新的版,拉蒂斯邦, 1891 ) ,緊隨帶頭的聖托馬斯。 The "Summa theologiæ mysticæ" (new ed., 3 vols., Freiburg, 1874) is the best and most widely read work of Philip of the Blessed Trinity (d. 1671), the philosopher among the mystic writers. "總結theologiæ mysticæ " (新版, 3卷,弗賴堡, 1874年)是最優秀和最廣泛閱讀的工作弘的祝福三一(四1671年) ,哲學家之間的神秘作家。 He wrote in the spirit of St. Thomas, following definite scientific principles and showing their practical application in the spiritual life.他寫道:在精神的聖托馬斯,以下一定的科學原則,並顯示它們的實際應用中的精神生活。 Anthony of the Holy Ghost, OCD (d. 1674), was a disciple of the author just named.安東尼的聖靈,強迫症(四1674 ) ,是一個大弟子的作者剛剛任命。 His "Directorium mysticum" (new ed., Paris, 1904), dominated by the spirit of.他的" directorium mysticum " (新版,巴黎, 1904年) ,佔主導地位的是精神。 his master, was written for the instruction of his pupils.他的主人,是寫給指示他的弟子。 He is also the author of the following works: "Seminarium virtutum" (3rd ed., Augsburg and Würzburg, 1750), "Irriguum virtutum" (Würzburg, 1723), "Tractatus de clericorum ac præcipue sacerdotum et pastorum dignitate", etc. (Würzburg, 1676).他也是作者的以下工程: " seminarium virtutum " (第3版,奧格斯堡和維爾茨堡, 1750年) , " irriguum virtutum " (維爾茨堡, 1723年) , " tractatus德clericorum交流præcipue sacerdotum等pastorum dignitate "等。 (維爾茨堡, 1676年) 。

In the course of the eighteenth century a number of valuable works on asceticism and mysticism were published.在這個過程中的十八世紀的一批具有重要價值的工程禁慾主義和神秘主義者公佈。 To Neumeyer, SJ (d. 1765), we owe the "Idea theol. ascet.", a complete, scientifically arranged epitome.以諾伊邁耶,律政司司長(四1765 ) ,現在我們有責任"的想法theol 。 ASCET的" ,一個完整,科學地安排縮影。 Rogacci, SJ (d. 1719), wrote "Del uno necessario", an instruction in the love of God, which ranks high in ascetical literature and was translated into several languages. rogacci ,律政司司長(四1719 ) ,上寫上"恢復起UNO necessario " ,指示要在上帝的愛,居高ascetical文獻,並翻譯成幾種語言。 Among the best literary productions, and widely read even today, is Scaramelli's (d. 1752) "Direttorio ascetico".其中最好的文藝演出,並廣泛閱讀即使到了今天,是斯卡拉梅利的(四1752名) " direttorio ascetico " 。 The author treats asceticism apart from mysticism.作者待人禁慾主義除了神秘主義。 A treatise on the virtues is contained in Dirkink, SJ, "Semita perfectionis" (new ed., Paderborn, 1890).一傷寒論美德載dirkink ,律政司司長, "映射perfectionis " (新版,帕德博恩, 1890 ) 。 Designed along broad lines is the "Trinum perfectum" (3rd ed., Augsburg, 1728) by Michael of St. Catherine.設計沿廣線,是" trinum perfectum " (第3版,奧格斯堡, 1728 ) ,由邁克爾的聖凱瑟琳。 Katzenberger, OFM, wrote "Scientia salutis" (new ed., Paderborn, 1901).卡曾伯格, ofm寫道, "科學salutis " (新版,帕德博恩, 1901年) 。 Schram's "Institutiones theol. mysticæ" (2 vols.) combines asceticism with mysticism, though the author is at his best in the ascetical parts.施拉姆的" institutiones theol 。 mysticæ " ( 2卷)相結合的禁慾主義與神秘主義,雖然作者是他最好在ascetical部分。 St. Alphonsus Liguori (d. 1787), rightly called the "Apostolic Man", published a large number of ascetic works, full of heavenly unction and tender-hearted piety.聖阿方liguori (四1787年) ,正確地稱為"使徒的人" ,出版了一大批苦行作品,充滿著天朝unction和招標愛心孝道。 The best-known and most important of them are: "Pratica di amar Gesù Cristo" (1768), "Visita al SS. Sacramento", perhaps the most widely read of all his ascetical works: "La vera sposa di Gesù Cristo" (1760), a sure guide to perfection for countless souls.最有名的和最重要的是: " pratica迪阿馬爾gesù Cristo的" ( 1768 ) , "參觀基地的SS 。薩克拉門托" ,也許是最被廣泛閱讀的他的所有ascetical著作: "香格里拉渾sposa迪gesù Cristo的" (器1760 ) ,讓你成為眾人指導,以完善,為無數的靈魂。

Complete treatises on asceticism, published during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, are the following: Grundkötter, "Anleitung zur christl. Vollkommenheit" (Ratisbon, 1896).完成論文就禁慾主義,發表在十九世紀和二十世紀,有以下幾方面: grundkötter , " anleitung zur christl 。 vollkommenheit " (拉蒂斯邦, 1896 ) 。 Leick, C. SS. leick ,長的SS 。 R., "Schule der christl. Vollkommenheit" (Ratisbon, 1886), inspired by the writings of St. Alphonsus Liguori.傳譯, " schule明鏡christl 。 vollkommenheit " (拉蒂斯邦, 1886 ) ,靈感來自著作的聖阿方liguori 。 Weiss, OP, "Philosophie der christl. Vollkommenheit" (vol. V of his "Apologie"; Freiburg 1898).魏斯,作品, "哲學明鏡christl 。 vollkommenheit " (第五卷他的"辯護" ;弗賴堡1898 ) 。 The author is extraordinarily well read, and his conception of the spiritual life is unusually deep.作者是出奇的好閱讀,以及他的構想的精神生活卻異常深厚。 Ribet, "L'ascétique chrétienne" (Paris, 1888).裡比特" , l' ascétique基督教" (巴黎, 1888 ) 。 Tissot, "La vie intérieure".天梭" ,對生命與int閞ieure " 。 Saudreau, "Les degrés de la vie spirituelle" (Angers, 1896 and 1897), a work full of unction.索德羅, "就業輔導組degrés德生命spirituelle " (昂熱, 1896年和1897年) ,一個工作充滿unction 。 His other works, "Les faits extraordinaires de la vie spirituelle" (1908) and "La vie d'union à Dieu" (1909), belong to mysticism properly so called.他的其他作品中的"就業輔導組既成事實extraordinaires德生命spirituelle " ( 1908年)和" La百舸爭流-聯盟à P art- D ieu" ( 1 909年) ,屬於神秘主義妥善所謂。 Poulain, SJ, "La grâce d'oraison", though of a mystic character, yet treats of the ordinary method of prayer. poulain ,律政司司長的" La gr鈉e -奧雷松" ,雖然一個神秘的字符,但待人的普通方法祈禱。 Saudreau and Poulain are reliable throughout and their works are among the best productions in this branch.索德羅和poulain是可靠的全國各地和他們的作品是其中最好的演出,在這個分支。 Rousset, OP, "Directorium asceticum" (Freiburg, 1893). rousset ,作品" , directorium asceticum " (弗賴堡, 1893 ) 。 Meynard, OP, "Traité de la vie intérieure" (Paris, 1899), based on St. Thomas.邁納爾德,作品" , traité德生命int閞ieure " (巴黎, 1899年)的基礎上,聖托馬斯。 Meyer, SJ, "First Lessons in the Science of the Saints" (2nd ed., St. Louis, 1903), translated into several languages.邁耶,律政司司長" ,先教訓,在科學的聖人" (第二版,聖路易斯, 1903年) ,翻譯成幾種語言。 Francis X. Mutz, "Die christliche Aszetik" (2nd ed., Paderborn, 1909).弗朗西斯十mutz , "死christliche aszetik " (第二版,帕德博恩, 1909 ) 。 Joseph Zahn, "Einführung in die christliche Mystik" (Paderborn, 1908), important also for asceticism.約瑟夫zahn , " einführung在模具christliche mystik " (帕德博恩, 1908年) ,重要的,也是禁慾主義。 Berthier, "De la perfection chrétienne et de la perfection religieuse d'après S. Thomas et S. François de Sales" (2 vols., Paris, 1901). berthier , "去香格里拉完善基督教等德香格里拉完善religieuse -鑣第托馬斯等美國弗朗索瓦德銷售" ( 2卷,巴黎, 1 901年) 。 A. Devine, "Manual of Ascetical Theology" (London).答: Devine ) , "手冊ascetical神學" (倫敦) 。 Ryan, "Groundwork of Christian Perfection" (London).賴恩"地基基督教完善" (倫敦) 。 Buchanan, "Perfect Love of God" (London).布坎南, "完美的上帝的愛" (倫敦) 。

An exhaustive list of Catholic ascetical writers is given in Migne, "Encycl. théologique", XXVI; "Dict. d'ascéticisme", II, 1467.詳盡地列出天主教ascetical作家,是由於在米涅, " encycl 。 théologique " , 26 " ;字典。 -a scéticisme" ,第二章, 1 467。 Non-Catholic authors: Otto Zöckler, "Die Tugendlehre des Christentums, geschichtlich dargestellt" (Gütersloh, 1904).非天主教作者:奧托zöckler , "死tugendlehre萬christentums , geschichtlich dargestellt " ( gütersloh , 1904年) 。 W. Hermann, "Der Verkehr des Christen mit Gott" (6th ed., Stuttgart, 1908), and "Die sittlichen Weisungen Jesu" (Göttingen, 1907).小赫爾曼, "明鏡verkehr萬命名麻省理工學院gott " (第六版,斯圖加特, 1908年) ,並在"死sittlichen weisungen jesu " (哥廷根, 1907年) 。 Kähler, "Verkehr mit Christo in seiner Bedeutung für das eigene Leben" (Leipzig, 1904). kähler , " verkehr麻省理工學院christo在圍網bedeutung f黵之eigene ,生活" (萊比錫, 1904年) 。 Peabody, "Jesus Christ and the Christian Character". Peabody的, "耶穌基督和基督教性質" 。 A. Ritschl, "Christiiche Vollkommenheit" (Göttingen, 1902).答:里奇爾, " christiiche vollkommenheit " (哥廷根, 1902 ) 。 Sheldon, "In his Steps -- What Would Jesus do?", widely read in England.謝爾頓, "在他的步驟-會有什麼耶穌做? " ,廣泛閱讀,在英格蘭。

Publication information Written by Franz X. Mutz.出版信息所作的Franz十mutz 。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯j.波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.奉獻給聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. nihil obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

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