Tribulation苦難

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General Biblical Meaning一般聖經的意義

"Tribulation" is the general term in the Bible to denote the suffering of God's people. “苦難”是聖經中表示神的人的痛苦的總稱。 In the OT the words sara and sar ("straits" or "distress") pertain variously to intense inner turmoil (Pss. 25:17; 120:1; Job 7:11), the pain of childbirth (Jer. 4:31; 49:24), anguish (Job 15:24; Jer. 6:24), and punishment (I Sam. 2:32; Jer. 30:7).在OT的話,薩拉和特別行政區(“海峽”或“苦惱”)屬於不同的強烈的內心風暴(詩25:17; 120:1;工作7點11分),分娩時的痛苦(耶利米書4點31。 49:24),痛苦(伯15:24;耶6:24),和處罰(我心。2時32分;耶30:7)。 The Greek thlipsis from thlibo ("to press" or "to hem in") often serves to translate sara in the LXX, and refers generally to the oppression and affliction of the people of Israel or the righteous (Deut. 4:30; Ps. 37:39), while in the NT thlipsis is usually translated "tribulation" or "affliction."希臘thlipsis從thlibo(“按下”或“中”到下擺)往往是翻譯薩拉在lxx,是指一般的壓迫和苦難以色列人民的正義(申4:30;詩。37:39),而在NT thlipsis是通常譯為“苦難”或“痛苦”。

Varieties of Tribulation品種災難

In the NT tribulation is the experience of all believers and includes persecution (I Thess. 1:6), imprisonment (Acts 20:23), derision (Heb. 10:33), poverty (II Cor. 8:13), sickness (Rev. 2:22), and inner distress and sorrow (Phil. 1:17; II Cor. 2:4).在NT苦難是所有信徒的經驗,其中包括迫害(帖前1:6),監禁(使徒行傳20:23),嘲笑(希伯來書10:33),貧困(哥林多後書8:13),疾病(啟2:22),內遇險和悲傷(腓立比書1:17;哥林多後書2:4)。 Frequently tribulation is connected with deliverance, which implies that it is a necessary experience through which God glorifies himself in bringing his people to rest and salvation.常見苦難與拯救,這意味著它是一個必要的經驗,通過神榮耀他把他的休息和救贖的人。

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Tribulation in the Purpose of God苦難中神的旨意

Tribulation may be a means by which God disciplines his people for their unfaithfulness (Deut. 4:30).災​​難可能是一種手段,神管教他的人對自己的不忠(申4:30)。 More often, especially in the NT, tribulation occurs in the form of persecution of believers because of their faithfulness (John 16:33; Acts 14:22; Rev. 1:9).更多的時候,尤其是在NT,患難中發生的形式迫害的信徒,因為他們的忠誠(約翰福音16:33,使徒行傳14:22;啟示錄1:9)。

The sufferings of Christ provide the model for the believer's experience (I Pet. 2:21-25), and in some sense they participate thus in the sufferings of Christ (Col. 1:24).痛苦的基督信徒的經驗模型(彼前2:21-25),在某種意義上因此,他們參與基督的苦難(歌羅西書1:24)。 Tribulations are viewed by Scripture as entirely within the will of God, serving to promote moral purity and godly character (Rom. 5:3-4).磨難,由經文,被視為完全在神的旨意中,服務促進道德上的純潔和虔誠的字符(羅5:3-4)。 As such, they must be endured with faith in the goodness and justice of God (see James 1:2-4, where "trials" or "temptations" labels what appears to be the same experience), thus serving as a test of the believer's faith and leading to greater stability and maturity.因此,他們必須忍受與信仰的善良和正義的上帝(見雅各書1:2-4,“試驗”或“誘惑”的標籤似乎是同樣的經歷),作為測試的信徒的信心,並導致更高的穩定性和成熟度。

Jesus promised tribulation as the inevitable consequence of his followers' presence in the evil kosmos (John 16:33), something they could expect as a way of life.耶穌應許苦難邪惡的宇宙(約翰福音16:33),作為一種生活方式的東西,他們可以指望他的追隨者的存在的不可避免的後果。 The Apostle Paul echoes this viewpoint when he warns that godly believers will certainly suffer persecution (II Tim. 3:12-13).使徒保羅這樣的觀點相呼應時,他警告說,虔誠的信徒,也必然受到迫害(二添。3:12-13)。 Jesus nevertheless encouraged his followers through his overcoming of the world to seek their victory through the application of his victory.耶穌不過鼓勵他的追隨者通過他戰勝的世界,以尋求他們的勝利,通過應用他的勝利。

The Great Tribulation大災難

The Teaching of Jesus耶穌的教導

The precise expression, "great tribulation" (Matt. 24:21; Rev. 2:22; 7:14, Gr. thlipsis megale), serves to identify the eschatological form of tribulation.精確的表達,“大災難”(太24:21啟示錄2:22,7:14,一年級thlipsis megale),用來識別的末世論的磨難。 These words are Jesus' caption for a worldwide, unprecedented time of trouble that will usher in the parousia, Jesus' return to earth in great glory (see parallels Mark 13:19, "tribulation," and Luke 21:23, "great distress"; also Rev. 3:10, "hour of trial").這些話是耶穌的標題為全球性的,前所未有的麻煩,將迎來中圓滿,耶穌返回地球,巨大的榮耀(見平行馬克13:19,“苦難”,路加福音21:23,“很大的困擾“牧師3:10,”試煉“)。

This period of time will be initiated by the "abomination of desolation" (Matt. 24:15) predicted in Dan.這一段時間內將發起“行毀壞可憎的”(太24:15)於丹預測。 9:27, a desecration of the "holy place" by one whom many scholars believe is the same as the "man of lawlessness" of II Thess. 9:27,其中許多學者認為是相同的人“無法無天”的第二帖的褻瀆“神聖的地方”。 2:3, 4. 2:3,4。 Jesus gives specific instructions to inhabitants of Judea for their escape and warns that the intensity of its calamities would almost decimate all life (Matt. 24:15-22).耶穌給出了具體的指示,他們逃生的猶太居民,並警告說,其災害的強度幾乎可以摧毀一切生命(太24:15-22)。

Views of the Great Tribulation大災難的意見

Though some modern interpreters, along with many ancient commentators and early fathers, are inclined to regard Jesus' predictions as totally fulfilled during the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70, the words of Matt.雖然有些現代口譯,隨著許多古代評論家和早期的父親,傾向於把耶穌的預言完全應驗在公元70年的話,馬特在耶路撒冷的毀滅。 24:29, "But immediately after the tribulation of those days," seem to connect them with the parousia. 24:29,“但後立即磨難的那些日子”,似乎將它們連接的圓滿。 Jesus' words in verse 21 are probably an allusion to Dan.在21節耶穌的話,很可能暗指丹。 12:1 because of the reference there to unparalleled trouble (LXX, thlipsis). 12:1因為那裡無與倫比的麻煩(LXX,thlipsis)的參考。 The Daniel passage strengthens the case for the eschatological view of the great tribulation, because it places this period prior to the resurrection of Daniel's people.丹尼爾通過加強的情況下,從大患難中的末世論的觀點,因為它把這一時期之前的復活丹尼爾的人。

Since Jesus made this prophecy, major wars, catastrophes, and cosmic phenomena have stimulated belief in the presence of the great tribulation.因為耶穌這個預言,大的戰爭,災難和宇宙現象激發了信仰的存在偉大的磨難。 Such a tendency is typified by Hesychius of Jerusalem in some correspondence with Augustine.這種傾向是典型的赫西基奧斯耶路撒冷的一些書信與奧古斯丁。 Augustine disagreed, preferring to interpret such things instead as characteristics of history as a whole with no particular eschatological significance.奧古斯丁不同意,寧願去解釋這樣的事情,而不是為特徵的歷史作為一個整體,沒有特別的末世論的意義。 In modern times some premillennialists have speculated on the trend of current events as possible precursors of the great tribulation, some even attempting to identify the antichrist with such candidates as Kaiser Wilhelm II and Mussolini.在近代,一些premillennialists紛紛猜測可能的前體,偉大的磨難,有的甚至試圖找出敵基督與德皇威廉二世和墨索里尼的候選人時事的趨勢。

Adherents of the major millennial views place the great tribulation at different points in relation to the millennium. Both postmillennialists and amillennialists regard it as a brief, indefinite period of time at the end of the millennium, usually identifying it with the revolt of Gog and Magog of Rev. 20:8-9. Postmillennialists view history as moving toward the Christianization of the world by the church and a future millennium of undetermined length on earth culminating in the great tribulation and final return of Christ. 遺民的主要千年的意見偉大的磨難,放置在不同的點在千年,這兩個postmillennialists和amillennialists把它當成一個短暫的,不確定的一段時間在千禧年結束,通常確定它的反抗歌革和瑪各啟示錄20:8-9。Postmillennialists查看歷史走向世界的基督教教會和未來的千年地球上最後的不確定的長度在巨大的苦難和基督的最後返回。 In contrast, amillennialists consider the millennium to be a purely spiritual reality from the first advent to the second, a period lasting already two thousand years and to culminate in the great tribulation, a somewhat less optimistic view of history and the progress of the gospel witness.相反,amillennialists考慮千年來的第一次降臨到現實,一個純粹的精神第二,持續已2000年的時期,並最終在巨大的苦難,少了幾分樂觀的歷史觀和進步的福音見證。

To premillennialists the millennium is a future, literal thousand years on earth, and the great tribulation a chaotic period toward which history is even now moving, a decline, ie, to be terminated by the return of Christ before the millennium. One group, which describes itself as "historic" premillennialists, understands the great tribulation to be a brief but undetermined period of trouble. premillennialists的千禧年是一個未來,1000年地球上的文字,和巨大的苦難,對其中的歷史是一個混亂的時期,即使是現在移動的下降,即基督的再來千年之前 ,將被終止其中一組,把自己描述為“歷史性”的premillennialists,了解偉大的磨難,是一個簡短,但一段不明確的麻煩。 Another group, dispensational premillennialists, connects it with the seventieth week of Dan.另一組, 時代論premillennialists第七週丹,將其連接。 9:27, a period of seven years whose latter half pertains strictly to the great tribulation. 9:27,為期七年的下半年屬於嚴格巨大的苦難。

Within the premillennial movement another issue, the time of the rapture of the church, has given rise to three views. Pretribulationists (rapture prior to the seventieth week) and midtribulationists (rapture at the middle of the seventieth week) perceive the great tribulation as characterized by the wrath of God upon an unbelieving world from which the church is necessarily exempt.另外一個問題,當時的狂喜的教會,在千禧年前運動引起的三視圖。Pretribulationists(狂喜的第七十週前)和midtribulationists的狂喜在第七週中感知偉大的磨難,因為其特點神的忿怒時,教會是一個不信的世界必然免除。

Posttribulationists believe that the great tribulation is merely an intensification of the kind of tribulation the church has suffered throughout history, through which the church logically must pass. Posttribulationists相信,偉大的磨難,只是在歷史的長河中,通過教會的邏輯必須通過教會遭受什麼樣的苦難強化。 A more recent, novel view in the posttribulation camp seeks to maintain the imminence of the rapture despite the fact that notable tribulational events would necessarily intervene.一個更近的,新穎的觀點在posttribulation營旨在保持迫切的狂喜,儘管顯著的大災難事件的事實,一定會干預。 In order to do so, the events of the great tribulation would be "potential" but uncertain in their fulfillment.為了做到這一點,從大患難中的事件將是“潛在的”,但不確定其履行。 Jesus could come at any moment, and one could look back into recent history to see events that fulfilled the great tribulation.耶穌可以在任何時刻,人們可以看回最近的歷史事件,完成了巨大的苦難。

WH Baker WH貝克
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
R. Anderson, The Coming Prince; L. Boettner, The Millennium; MJ Erickson, Contemporary Options in Eschatology; RN Gundry, The Church and the Tribulation; SN Gundry, "Hermeneutics or Zeitgeist as the Determining Factor in the History of Eschatology," JETS 20:45-55; AA Hoekema, The Bible and the Future; JE Hartley, TWOT, II, 778-79; R. Schippers, NIDNTT, II, 807-9; H. Schlier, TDNT, III, 140-48; T. Weber, Living in the Shadow of the Second Coming; D. Wilson, Armageddon Now! R.安德森,即將到來的王子;·伯特納,千年MJ埃里克森,在末世的當代選項; RN岡德里,教會和大災難,SN根德里,“詮釋學或時代精神的決定因素在末世論的歷史,” AA赫克瑪,聖經和未來; JE哈特利,TWOT,II,778-79; R. Schippers,NIDNTT,II,807-9; H. Schlier,TDNT,III,140-48 JETS 20:45-55; T.韋伯,在第二次降臨的陰影下生活; D.威爾遜,世界末日! The Premillenarian Response to Russia and Israel Since 1917; J. Walvoord, The Rapture Question. Premillenarian響應俄羅斯和以色列自1917年以來,J. Walvoord,被提的問題。


Tribulation苦難

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Tribulation is trouble or affiction of any kind (Deut. 4:30; Matt. 13:21; 2 Cor. 7:4).災​​難是任何種類的的麻煩或affiction的(申4:30;太13:21;哥林多後書7:4)。 In Rom.在ROM中。 2:9 "tribulation and anguish" are the penal sufferings that shall overtake the wicked. 2:9“苦難和痛苦”是刑法的苦難,超越邪惡的。 In Matt.在馬特。 24:21, 29, the word denotes the calamities that were to attend the destruction of Jerusalem. 24:21,29,這個詞是指參加耶路撒冷的毀滅的災難。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報字典)



Also, see:此外,見:
Second Coming of Christ 耶穌第二次來
Eschatology 末世
Dispensation, Dispensationalism 配藥, dispensationalism
Views of the Millennium 意見千年
Last Judgment 最後審判
Rapture of the Church 破裂的教堂

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