Scripture聖經

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The rendering of graphe, a Greek term occurring in the NT in reference to the canonical OT literature.渲染graphe,希臘來說,在NT中發生參考的規範OT文學。 Its plural form denotes the entire collection of such compositions (Matt. 21:42; I Cor. 15:3-4), but when used in the singular, graphe can mean either a specified passage (Mark 12:10) or the constituent body of writings (Gal. 3:22).它的複數形式表示整個集合,這樣的組合物(馬太福音21:42;哥林多前書15:3-4),但是,當用單數,graphe可以指的是一個特定的通道(馬可福音12:10)或構成身體的著作(加拉太書3:22)。 The (Holy) Scriptures were referred to by the term hiera grammata on one occasion (II Tim. 3:15), while in the Pauline literature the word gramma ("writing") refers consistently to the Hebrew Torah or law. (神聖的)聖經中所提到的上一次的長期hiera grammata(提摩太前書3:15),而在寶蓮文學這個詞的伽馬(“書面”)是指一貫的希伯來文聖經或法律。 The content of a particular verse, or group of verses, is sometimes described as to gegrammenon (Luke 20:17; II Cor. 4:13).的內容有時被描述為一個特定的詩句,或一組詩句,gegrammenon(路加福音20:17;哥林多後書4:13)。

The term "book" can describe a single composition (Jer. 25:13; Nah. 1:1; Luke 4:17), while the plural could indicate a collection of prophetic oracles (Dan. 9:2; II Tim. 4:13), both forms being used as a general designation of Scripture. “書”這個詞可以描述一個單一的組成(耶25:13;羅1:1;路加福音4:17),而複數表示的集合預言的預言(但以理書9:2;提摩太。 :13),這兩種形式被用作一個指定的聖經。 The divine author of this material is the Holy Spirit (Acts 28:25), and the writings that are the result of divine revelation and communication to the various biblical authors are said to be inspired (theopneustos, II Tim. 3:16).這種材料是神聖的作者聖靈(使徒行傳28:25),是神的啟示和通信的各種聖經的作者的著作,說是啟發(theopneustos,提摩太後書3:16)。 Though grammatically passive, this term is dynamic in nature, meaning literally "God-breathed" in an outward rather than an inward direction.語法被動,但這個詞在本質上是動態的,這意味著字面意思是“神所默示的”向外,而不是向內的方向。 God has "breathed out" Scripture as a function of his creative activity, making the revealed word of God authoritative for human salvation and instruction in divine truth.神“呼吸”聖經作為他的創作活動的功能,為拯救人類和指令,在神聖的真理啟示的神的話語權威。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
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RK Harrison RK哈里森
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
EJ Young, Thy Word Is Truth; R. Mayer, NIDNTT, III, 482-97. EJ年輕,你的話是真理·梅耶,NIDNTT,三,482-97。


Scripture聖經

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Scripture invariably in the New Testament denotes that definite collection of sacred books, regarded as given by inspiration of God, which we usually call the Old Testament (2 Tim. 3:15, 16; John 20:9; Gal. 3:22; 2 Pet. 1:20).在“新約”聖經總是表示收集神聖的書籍是明確的,視為神所默示的,這是我們通常所說的舊約聖經(提摩太前書3:15,16;約翰福音20:9;加拉太書3:22; 2寵物。1:20)。 It was God's purpose thus to perpetuate his revealed will.這是神的目的,從而延續他的啟示。 From time to time he raised up men to commit to writing in an infallible record the revelation he gave.他不時提出的男人做出一個可靠的記錄寫在他的啟示。 The "Scripture," or collection of sacred writtings, was thus enlarged from time to time as God saw necessary.因此,“聖經”,或收集的神聖writtings,擴大不時,神看著必要。 We have now a completed "Scripture," consisting of the Old and New Testaments.現在,我們有一個完整的“聖經”,包括舊約和新約。 The Old Testament canon in the time of our Lord was precisely the same as that which we now possess under that name.舊約正典的時候,我們的主是完全一樣的,我們現在擁有這個名字下。 He placed the seal of his own authority on this collection of writings, as all equally given by inspiration (Matt. 5:17; 7:12; 22:40; Luke 16: 29, 31).他把他自己的權威著作在此集合,同樣的啟示(馬太福音5:17; 7:12; 22:40;路加福音16:29,31)密封。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報字典)


Scripture聖經

Catholic Information 天主教信息

Sacred Scripture is one of the several names denoting the inspired writings which make up the Old and New Testament.聖經是表示的靈感著作,從而彌補了舊約和新約的幾個名字之一。

I. USE OF THE WORD一,使用Word

The corresponding Latin word scriptura occurs in some passages of the Vulgate in the general sense of "writing"; eg, Ex., xxxii, 16: "the writing also of God was graven in the tables"; again, II Par., xxxvi, 22: "who [Cyrus] commanded it to be proclaimed through all his kingdom, and by writing also".相應的拉丁字聖經發生在一些段落的vulgate在一般意義上的“書面形式”,如例三十二,16:“上帝的寫作也銘刻在表中”;再次,II標準桿。,三十六,22:“誰[賽勒斯吩咐宣布通過他的王國,並通過寫作也”。 In other passages of the Vulgate the word denotes a private (Tob., viii, 24) or public (Ezra 2:62; Nehemiah 7:64) written document, a catalogue or index (Ps. lxxxvi, 6), or finally portions of Scripture, such as the canticle of Ezechias (Isaiah 38:5), and the sayings of the wise men (Ecclus., xliv, 5).在其他段落的武加大這個詞是指一個私人“(Tob.,八,24)或公共(以斯拉記2:62,尼希米記7:64)的書面文件,目錄或索引”(詩LXXXVI,6),或最後部分“聖經”,如頌歌埃澤希亞甚(以賽亞書38:5),和智者的名言(Ecclus.,四十四,五)。 The writer of II Par., xxx, 5, 18, refers to prescriptions of the Law by the formula "as it is written", which is rendered by the Septuagint translators kata ten graphen; para ten graphen, "according to Scripture". II參數,XXX,5,18,指的是作家的“公式”,因為它是書面“,所呈現的譯本翻譯的kata 10 graphen第10 graphen的處方,”聖經“。 The same expression is found in I Esdr., iii, 4, and II Esdr., viii, 15; here we have the beginning of the later form of appeal to the authority of the inspired books gegraptai (Matthew 4:4, 6, 10; 21:13; etc.), or kathos gegraptai (Romans 1:11; 2:24, etc.), "it is written", "as it is written".相同的表達式在我Esdr。,三,四,II Esdr,八,15;在這裡,我們有形式的上訴後開始的權威的啟發書gegraptai的(馬太福音4:4,6, 10 21:13等),或kathos gegraptai(羅馬書1:11; 2:24等),“寫入”,“寫入”。

As the verb graphein was thus employed to denote passages of the sacred writings, so the corresponding noun he graphe gradually came to signify what is pre-eminently the writing, or the inspired writing.由於的動詞graphein因此表示神聖的著作通道,所以相應的名詞,他graphe逐步來表示什麼是超群絕倫的寫作,或啟發寫作。 This use of the word may be seen in John, vii, 38; x, 35; Acts, viii, 32; Rom., iv, 3; ix, 17; Gal., iii, 8; iv, 30; II Tim., iii, 16; James, ii, 8; I Pet., ii, 6; II Pet., i, 20; the plural form of the noun, ai graphai, is used in the same sense in Matt., xxi, 42; xxii, 29; xxvi, 54; Mark, xii, 24; xiv, 49; Luke, xxiv, 27, 45; John, v, 39; Acts, xvii, 2, 17; xviii, 24, 28; I Cor., xv, 3, 4.這一詞的使用可以看出,在約翰,七,38,X,35歲,徒,八,32;羅,四,三,九,17加侖,三,八,四,30;提摩太。 16,三,詹姆斯,二,8,我的寵物。,二,六二,我的寵物。,20在同一意義上使用的名詞的複數形式,艾graphai,在馬特。,21,42 29二十二,二十六,54馬克,十二,24;十四,第49章,路加福音,二十四,27,45,約翰,五,39;行為,十七,二十七,十八,24,28,我肺心病。 ,十五,3,4。 In a similar sense are employed the expressions graphai hagiai (Romans 1:2), ai graphai ton propheton (Matthew 26:56), graphai prophetikai (Romans 16:26).在類似的意義上被使用的表達式graphai hagiai(羅1:2),AI graphai:噸propheton(馬太福音26:56),graphai prophetikai(羅馬書16:26)。 The word has a somewhat modified sense in Christ's question, "and have you not read this scripture" (Mark 12:10).這個詞有一個有點修訂的意義,在基督的問題,“你有沒有讀過這段經文”(馬可福音12:10)。 In the language of Christ and the Apostles the expression "scripture" or "scriptures" denotes the sacred books of the Jews.在語言的基督和使徒的“聖經”或“經文”代表的神聖書籍的猶太人。 The New Testament uses the expressions in this sense about fifty times; but they occur more frequently in the Fourth Gospel and the Epistles than in the synoptic Gospels.新約聖經使用表達式,在這個意義上約50倍,但他們更頻繁地出現在第四福音和書信的天氣福音。 At times, the contents of Scripture are indicated more accurately as comprising the Law and the Prophets (Romans 3:21; Acts 28:23), or the Law of Moses, the Prophets, and the Psalms (Luke 24:44).有時,聖經的內容更準確地顯示,包括律法和先知(羅馬書3:21;使徒行傳28:23),摩西的法律,先知和詩篇(路加福音24:44)。 The Apostle St. Peter extends the designation Scripture also to tas loipas graphas (2 Peter 3:16), denoting the Pauline Epistles; St. Paul (1 Timothy 5:18) seems to refer by the same expression to both Deuteronomy 25:4 and Luke 10:7.使徒聖彼得擴大了指定的聖經的,塔斯loipas graphas(彼得後書3:16),表示保羅書信,聖保羅(提摩太前書5:18)似乎是指由同一個表達式都申命記25:4路加福音10:7。

It is disputed whether the word graphe in the singular is ever used of the Old Testament as a whole.在單數的字graphe是否被使用過的舊約作為一個整體,是有爭議的。 Lightfoot (Galatians 3:22) expresses the opinion that the singular graphe in the New Testament always means a particular passage of Scripture.萊特富特(加拉太書3:22)表示的奇異graphe的總是意味著一個特定的經文在新約中的意見。 But in Rom., iv, 3, he modifies his view, appealing to Dr. Vaughan's statement of the case.但在ROM中,四,3,他修改他的看法,呼籲沃恩博士的聲明的情況下。 He believes that the usage of St. John may admit a doubt, though he does not think so, personally; but St. Paul's practice is absolute and uniform.他認為,使用聖約翰承認一個疑問,雖然他不這麼認為,個人的,但聖保羅的做法是絕對的,統一的。 Mr. Hort says (1 Peter 2:6) that in St. John and St. Paul he graphe is capable of being understood as approximating to the collective sense (cf. Westcott, "Hebr.", pp. 474 sqq.; Deissmann, "Bibelstudien", pp. 108 sqq., Eng. tr., pp. 112 sqq., Warfield, "Pres. and Reform. Review", X, July, 1899, pp. 472 sqq.).園藝說先生(彼得前書2:6),在聖約翰和保羅,他graphe是能夠被理解為近似的集體意識(參見韋斯科特,“黑布爾。”,第474 SQQ。戴斯曼,“Bibelstudien”,第108 SQQ,英,數,第112 SQQ,沃菲爾德,“壓力和改革回顧”,X,7月,1899年,第472 SQQ)。 Here arises the question whether the expression of St. Peter (II, Pet., iii, 16) tas loipas graphas refers to a collection of St. Paul's Epistles.這裡出現的問題表達的聖彼得(II,寵物,三,16)塔斯loipas graphas是否指的是一個集合聖保羅的書信。 Spitta contends that the term graphai is used in a general non-technical meaning, denoting only writings of St. Paul's associates (Spitta, "Der zweite Brief des Petrus und der Brief des Judas", 1885, p. 294).施皮塔辯稱,的長期graphai,用於一般非技術含義,表示只有聖保羅的聯營公司的著作(施皮塔,“明鏡zweite簡介DES佩特魯斯之和簡要德猶大”,1885年,第294頁)。 Zahn refers the term to writings of a religious character which could claim respect in Christian circles either on account of their authors or on account of their use in public worship (Einleitung, pp. 98 sqq., 108).贊恩是指一詞具有宗教性質的著作中可以聲稱在基督教界的尊重,無論是在其作者或考慮它們在公眾崇拜(導論,第98 SQQ,108)。 But Mr. FH Chase adheres to the principle that the phrase ai graphai used absolutely points to a definite and recognized collection of writings, ie, Scriptures.不過,FH大通堅持的原則,短語愛graphai的絕對點,明確和公認的集合著作,即聖經。 The accompanying words, kai, tas loipas, and the verb streblousin in the context confirm Mr. Chase in his conviction (cf. Dict. of the Bible, III, p. 810b).隨附的話,單仲偕,助教loipas,和動詞streblousin的大通先生在他的信念(參見字典的情況下確認。“聖經”,III,P。810B)。

II. II。 NATURE OF SCRIPTURE聖經的性質

A. According to the Jews答:根據對猶太人

Whether the terms graphe, graphai, and their synonymous expressions to biblion (Nehemiah 8:8), ta biblia (Dan., ix, 2), kephalis bibliou (Psalm 39:8), he iera biblos (2 Maccabees 8:23), ta biblia ta hagia (1 Maccabees 12:9), ta iera grammata (2 Timothy 3:15) refer to particular writings or to a collection of books, they at least show the existence of a number of written documents the authority of which was generally accepted as supreme.無論是的條款graphe,graphai,和他們的同義表達(尼希米記8:8),TA biblia(但以理書,九,2),biblion kephalis bibliou(詩篇39:8),他iera比布羅斯(2馬加比8:23) ,打biblia TA聖(1馬加12:9)的,TA iera grammata(提摩太後書3:15)是指特定的文字或藏書,他們至少表明存在的一些書面文件的權威被普遍接受為最高。 The nature of this authority may be inferred from a number of other passages.這種權力的性質可以推斷,從其他通道。 According to Deut., xxxi, 9-13, Moses wrote the Book of the Law (of the Lord), and delivered it to the priests that they might keep it and read it to the people; see also Ex., xvii, 14; Deut., xvii, 18-19; xxvii, 1; xxviii, 1; 58-61; xxix, 20; xxx, 10; xxxi, 26; 1 Samuel 10:25; 1 Kings 2:3; 2 Kings 22:8.據申,三十一,9-13,摩西寫的律法書(主),它交付給祭司,他們可能保持它,讀它的人也前。,十七,14申,十七18-19;二十七,1,二十八,1,58-61,29,20,XXX,10;三十一,26;撒母耳記上10:25,列王紀上2:3 2國王22: 8。 It is clear from 2 Kings 23:1-3, that towards the end of the Jewish kingdom the Book of the Law of the Lord was held in the highest honour as containing the precepts of the Lord Himself.很明顯,從列王紀下23:1-3,接近尾聲的猶太王國中的最高榮譽,其中包含主自己的戒律書的法主。 That this was also the case after the Captivity, may be inferred from II Esdr., viii, 1-9, 13,14, 18; the book here mentioned contained the injuctions concerning the Feast of Tabernacles found in Lev., xxiii, 34 sq.; Deut., xvi, 13 sq., and is therefore identical with the pre-Exilic Sacred Books. ,這也是後,圈養的情況下,可以推斷出從II Esdr。,八,1-9,13,14,18,這裡提到的這本書包含了injuctions的節日住棚節列弗。,二十三,34平方米;申,十六,13平方米,與前放逐神聖的書籍,因此相同。 According to I Mach., i, 57-59, Antiochus commanded the Books of the Law of the Lord to be burned and their retainers to slain.據我馬赫,我,57-59,安條克的法主吩咐書籍被燒毀,他們的家丁殺害了。 We learn from II Mach., ii, 13, that at the time of Nehemias there existed a collection of books containing historical, prophetical, and psalmodic writings; since the collection is represented as unifrom, and since the portions were considered as certainly of Divine authority, we may infer that this characteristic was ascribed to all, at least in some degree.我們從二馬赫,二,13日,在時間內赫米亞斯有存在一個集合包含著歷史,預言,和psalmodic的著作的書籍,因為收藏品都是作為unifrom表示,由於部分肯定被認為是神聖的權威,我們可以推斷,這種特性被歸因於,至少在一定程度上。 Coming down to the time of Christ, we find that Flavius Josephus attributes to the twenty-two protocanonical books of the Old Testament Divine authority, maintaining that they had been written under Divine inspiration and that they contain God's teachings (Contra Appion., I, vi-viii).即將下來的基督時,我們發現,弗拉菲烏斯約瑟夫屬性的22 protocanonical書籍的舊約聖經的神聖權威,維護神的啟示下,他們已經書面和它們包含神的教導(魂斗羅Appion。,我, VI-VIII)。 The Hellenist Philo too is acquainted with the three parts of the sacred Jewish books to which he ascribes an irrefragable authority, because they contain God's oracles expressed through the instrumentality of the sacred writers ("De vit. Mosis", pp. 469, 658 sq.; "De monarchia", p. 564).三個部分的神聖猶太人的書籍,他歸咎於一個不可辯駁的權威的人Hellenist,斐洛太熟悉,因為它們包含神的神諭表示通過工具神聖的作家(“德維生素。MOSIS”,第469頁,658平方米“德monarchia”,頁564)。

B. According to Christian Living B.根據基督徒生活

This concept of Scripture is fully upheld by the Christian teaching.這個概念充分維護聖經的基督教教學。 Jesus Christ Himself appeals to the authority of Scripture, "Search the scriptures" (John 5:39); He maintains that "one jot, or one tittle shall not pass of the law, till all be fulfilled" (Matthew 5:18); He regards it as a principle that "the Scripture cannot be broken" (John 10:35); He presents the word of Scripture as the word of the eternal Father (John 5:33-41), as the word of a writer inspired by the Holy Ghost (Matthew 22:43), as the word of God (Matthew 19:4-5; 22:31); He declares that "all things must needs be fulfilled which are written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me (Luke 24:44). The Apostles knew that "prophecy came not by the will of man at any time: but the holy men of God spoke, inspired by the Holy Ghost" (2 Peter 1:21); they regarded "all scripture, inspired of God" as "profitable to teach, to reprove, to correct, to instruct in justice" (2 Timothy 3:16). They considered the words of Scripture as the words of God speaking in the inspired writer or by the mouth of the inspired writer (Hebrews 4:7; Acts 1:15-16; 4:25). Finally, they appealed to Scripture as to an irresistible authority (Rom., passim), they supposed that parts of Scripture have a typical sense such as only God can employ (John 19:36; Hebrews 1:5; 7:3 sqq.), and they derived most important conclusions even from a few words or certain grammatical forms of Scripture (Galatians 3:16; Hebrews 12:26-27). It is not surprising, then, that the earliest Christian writers speak in the same strain of the Scriptures. St. Clement of Rome (I Cor., xlv) tells his readers to search the Scriptures for the truthful expressions of the Holy Ghost. St. Irenæus (Adv. haer., II, xxxviii, 2) considers the Scriptures as uttered by the Word of God and His Spirit. Origen testifies that it is granted by both Jews and Christians that the Bible was written under (the influence of) the Holy Ghost (Contra Cels., V, x); again, he considers it as proven by Christ's dwelling in the flesh that the Law and the Prophets were written by a heavenly charisma, and that the writings believed to be the words of God are not men's work (De princ., iv, vi). St. Clement of Alexandria receives the voice of God who has given the Scriptures, as a reliable proof (Strom., ii).耶穌基督呼籲聖經的權威,“查考聖經”(約翰福音5:39);他堅持說:“一記,或一個絲毫不差不得通過的法律,都要成全”(馬太福音5:18)他認為這是一個原則,“聖經不能被打破”(約翰福音10:35);他提出了“聖經”的字永恆的父親(約翰福音5:33-41)的話,作為一個作家的話靈感來自聖靈(馬太福音22:43),神的話(馬太福音19:4-5; 22:31),他聲明說:“所有的事情必須滿足都寫在摩西的律法,和在先知,並在詩篇,關於我的(路加福音24:44)。使徒們知道“預言從來不是由人的意志在任何時候,但聖潔的人,說出神的話,聖靈的啟發”(彼得後書1:21),他們認為“所有的經文,靈感之神”,“有利可圖的教導,責備,糾正,指導司法公正”(提摩太後書3:16)。他們認為聖經的話靈感的作家或口靈感的作家(希伯來書4:7;使徒行傳1:15-16; 4:25)神的話來說,最後,他們呼籲聖經,以一種不可抗拒的權威(羅,各處),他們以為“聖經”的部分有典型意義,只有上帝可以使用(約翰福音19:36,希伯來書1:5; 7:3 SQQ),他們得出最重要的結論,甚至幾句話或一定的語法形式的經文(加拉太書3:16,希伯來書12:26-27)。這是並不奇怪,那麼,最早的基督教作家發言中一脈相承的“聖經”。聖克萊門特的羅馬(我肺心病,XLV)告訴他的讀者查考聖經,聖靈的真實表達。聖irenæus(副詞haer,二,三十八,二)認為“聖經”,說出神的話語和他的靈。奧利證明,它是授予都猶太人和基督徒,聖經是書面的影響,神聖的幽靈(魂斗羅CELS。,V,x)下,再次,他認為它作為證明基督的住宅在肉體,在法律和先知的人寫一個天堂般的魅力,和的著作被認為是神的話,是不是男人的工作(:德PRINC。,四,六),聖克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞接收誰給了“聖經”上帝的聲音,作為一個可靠的的證明(Strom.,II)。

C. According to Ecclesiastical Documents C.根據教會的文檔

Not to multiply patristic testimony for the Divine authority of Scripture, we may add the official doctrine of the Church on the nature of Sacred Scripture.不乘教父見證神聖的權威,聖經,我們可能會增加官方學說,教會對聖經的性質。 The fifth ecumenical council condemned Theodore of Mopsuestia for his opposition against the Divine authority of the books of Solomon, the Book of Job, and the Canticle of Canticles.第五次大公會議譴責西奧多的Mopsuestia所羅門的書籍,這本書的工作,和頌歌的Canticles神聖的權威,他的反對。 Since the fourth century the teaching of the Church concerning the nature of the Bible is practically summed up in the dogmatic formula that God is the author of Sacred Scripture.自第四世紀的教會“聖經”的性質的教學實踐總結出來的教條式的公式,上帝是聖經的作者。 According to the first chapter of the Council of Carthage (AD 398), bishops before being consecrated must express their belief in this formula, and this profession of faith is exacted of them even today.根據安理會的迦太基(公元398年)的第一章,之前被祝聖的主教必須在此公式中表達他們的信仰,即使在今天,這個行業的信心,強迫他們。 In the thirteenth century, Innocent III imposed this formula on the Waldensians; Clement IV exacted its acceptance from Michael Palaeologus, and the emperor actually accepted it in his letter to the Second Council of Lyons (1272).在13世紀,英諾森三世對這個公式的韋爾,從邁克爾Palaeologus,克萊門特四,付出的接受,和皇帝接受了第二屆理事會萊昂斯(1272)在他的信。 The same formula was repeated in the fifteenth century by Eugenius IV in his Decree for the Jacobites, in the sixteenth century by the Council of Trent (Sess. IV, decr. de can. Script.), and in the nineteenth century by the Vatican Council.葉夫根尼IV重複同樣的公式在15世紀內,jacobites在他的法令,安理會的遄達(DECR。Sess. IV的可以。腳本),在16世紀和十九世紀的梵蒂岡委員會。 What is implied in this Divine authorship of Sacred Scripture, and how it is to be explained, has been set forth in the article INSPIRATION.什麼是隱含在這神聖的聖經作者的,以及它是如何來解釋,已載列在文章中靈感。

III. III。 COLLECTION OF SACRED BOOKS收集神聖的書籍

What has been said implies that Scripture does not refer to any single book, but comprises a number of books written at different times and by different writers working under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost.說了些什麼暗示,聖經沒有任何單一的書,但包括在不同的時間和不同的作家聖靈的啟發下,一些書。 Hence the question, how could such a collection be made, and how was it made in point of fact?因此,問題,怎麼會這樣一個集合,並在事實上是如何呢?

A. Question of Right A.問題的右

The main difficulty as to the first question (quoestio juris) arises from the fact that a book must be Divinely inspired in order to lay claim to the dignity of being regarded as Scripture.出現的第一個問題(quoestio法學)的事實必須為了打好要求被視為聖經的尊嚴,神聖的靈感來自於一本書的主要困難。 Various methods have been suggested for ascertaining the fact of inspiration.已經提出的各種方法,確定的事實靈感。 It has been claimed that so-called internal criteria are sufficient to lead us to the knowledge of this fact.它一直聲稱,所謂的內部標準,足以使我們這個事實的知識。 But on closer investigation they prove inadequate.但是,仔細的調查,他們被證明是不夠的。

Miracles and prophecies require a Divine intervention in order that they may happen, not in order that they may be recorded; hence a work relating miracles or prophecies is not necessarily inspired.奇蹟和預言的需要,他們可能會發生,而不是為了他們可能會被記錄在一個神聖的干預,因此有關工作的奇蹟或預言沒有一定的啟發。

The so-called ethico-aesthetic criterium is inadequate.所謂的倫理,審美嚴格的標準是不夠的。 It fails to establish that certain portions of Scripture are inspired writings, eg, the genealogical tables, and the summary accounts of the kings of Juda, while it favours the inspiration of several post-Apostolic works, eg, of the "Imitation of Christ", and of the "Epistles" of St. Ignatius Martyr.無法建立的某些部分的靈感來自“聖經”的著作,例如,家譜表,和猶大的君王,匯總帳戶,它有利於靈感的幾個使徒後的作品,如“模仿基督”和聖依納爵烈士“書信”。

The same must be said of the psychological criterium, or the effect which the perusal of Scripture produces in the heart of the reader.同時必須指出的心理繞圈,或讀著聖經產生的效果,在心臟的讀者。 Such emotions are subjective, and vary in different readers.這種情緒是主觀的,不同,不同的讀者。 The Epistle of St. James appeared strawlike to Luther, divine to Calvin.書信的聖雅各福群會出現strawlike路德,卡爾文神聖的。

These internal criteria are inadequate even if they be taken collectively.這些內部條件是不夠的,即使他們採取集體。 Wrong keys are unable to open a lock whether they be used singly or collectively.錯誤的鍵是無法打開的鎖是否被單獨使用或共同使用。

Other students of this subject have endeavored to establish Apostolic authorship as a criterium of inspiration.其他學生對這個問題一直在努力建立使徒著作權繞圈的靈感。 But this answer does not give us a criterium for the inspiration of the Old Testament books, nor does it touch the inspiration of the Gospels of St. Mark and St. Luke, neither of whom was an Apostle.但這個答案並沒有給我們一個嚴格的標準為靈感的舊約聖經,也沒有觸摸靈感的聖馬可廣場和聖路加的福音,沒有一個人是一個使徒。 Besides, the Apostles were endowed with the gift of infallibility in their teaching, and in their writing as far as it formed part of their teaching; but infallibility in writing does not imply inspiration.此外,使徒們的禮物infallibility在教學中的被賦予,並在寫作中盡可能地形成自己的教學,但並不意味著書面犯錯誤的靈感。 Certain writings of the Roman pontiff may be infallible, but they are not inspired; God is not their author.的羅馬教皇的某些文字可能是萬無一失的,但他們沒有靈感,這是神不是他們的作者。 Nor can the criterium of inspiration be placed in the testimony of history.繞圈的靈感也可以被放置在歷史的見證。 For inspiration is a supernatural fact, known only to God and probably to the inspired writer.靈感是一種超自然的事實,只知道神,可能靈感的作家。 Hence human testimony concerning inspiration is based, at best, on the testimony of one person who is, naturally speaking, an interested party in the matter concerning which he testifies.因此關於靈感的人的證詞為基礎,在最好的一個人,自然是說他證明,在這個問題上的利害關係人的證詞。 The history of the false prophets of former times as well as of our own day teaches us the futility of such testimony.前的時間,以及我們自己的一天的假先知的歷史告訴我們:這些證詞是徒勞的。 It is true that miracles and prophecy may, at times, confirm such human testimony as to the inspiration of a work.這是真正的奇蹟和預言可能,有時工作的靈感,確認這些人的證詞。 But, in the first place, not all inspired writers have been prophets or workers of miracles; in the second place, in order that prophecies or miracles may serve as proof of inspiration, it must be clear that the miracles were performed, and the prophecies were uttered, to establish the fact in question; in the third place, if this condition be verified, the testimony for inspiration is no longer merely human, but it has become Divine.但是,擺在首位,並非所有靈感的作家是先知或工人的奇蹟,排在第二位,在預言或奇蹟可以作為證明的靈感,它必須是明確的奇蹟,並預言了一聲,建立問題的事實;排在第三位,如果此條件下進行驗證,靈感的證詞不再只是一個人,但它已經成為神聖。 No one will doubt the sufficiency of Divine testimony to establish the fact of inspiration; on the other hand, no one can deny the need of such testimony in order that we may distinguish with certainty between an inspired and a non-inspired book.沒有人會懷疑是否有足夠神聖的證詞來證明這個事實的靈感,另一方面,沒有人可以否認需要這樣的證詞,以便我們可以區分與確定性之間的靈感和啟發書。

B. Question of Fact B.事實問題

It is a rather difficult problem to state with certainty, how and when the several books of the Old and the New Testament were received as sacred by the religious community.這是一個相當困難的問題,狀態肯定的,如何以及何時書籍的舊約和新約的幾個神聖的宗教社會。 Deut., xxxi, 9, 24 sqq., informs us that Moses delivered the Book of the Law to the Levites and the ancients of Israel to be deposited "in the side of the ark of the covenant"; according to Deut., xvii, 18, the king had to procure for himself a copy of at least a part of the book, so as to "read it all the days of his life".申命記三十一,9日,24 SQQ,告訴我們,摩西的律法書交付存放約櫃的“在一旁的利未人,古人對以色列根據申,十七,18,國王不得不為自己採購的至少一部分的書的副本,以“讀它的生命。”所有的日子。 Josue (xxiv, 26) added his portion to the law-book of Israel, and this may be regarded as the second step in the collection of the Old Testament writings.若蘇埃(24,26)添加了部分法律書籍,以色列,這可能會被視為舊約的著作收集的第二個步驟。 According to Is., xxxiv, 16, and Jer., xxxvi, 4, the prophets Isaias and Jeremias collected their respective prophetic utterances.根據是,三十四,16,和耶。,三十六,四,先知伊薩亞斯羅和jeremias收集他們各自的預言。 The words of II Par., xxix, 30, lead us to suppose that in the days of King Ezechias there either existed or originated a collection of the Psalms of David and of Asaph. II桿,第29屆,30的話,我們假設國王埃澤希亞甚在天有存在或起源的詩篇大衛和亞薩的集合。 From Prov., xxv, 1, one may infer that about the same time there was made a collection of the Solomonic writings, which may have been added to the collection of psalms.從省,二十五,1,可以推斷,大約在同一時間,是一家集所羅門的著作,其中可能已被添加到收集的詩篇。 In the second century BC the Minor Prophets had been collected into one work (Ecclus., xlix, 12) which is cited in Acts, vii, 42, as "the books of the prophets".在公元前二世紀的未成年人的先知已收集到1的工作(Ecclus.,XLIX,12),引用使徒行傳,七,42,“先知書中”。 The expressions found in Dan., ix, 2, and I Mach., xii, 9, suggest that even these smaller collections had been gathered into a larger body of sacred books.於丹的表達,九,2,我馬赫。,第十二章,9,建議已收集到一個更大的身體神聖的書籍,即便是這些較小的集合。 Such a larger collection is certainly implied in the words II Mach., ii, 13, and the prologue of Ecclesiasticus.二馬赫。,II,13,和序幕的Ecclesiasticus的話肯定是暗示這樣的大集合。 Since these two passages mention the main divisions of the Old-Testament canon, this latter must have been completed, at least with regard to the earlier books, during the course of the second century BC由於這兩個段落提到的舊約佳能的主要部門,後者必須已完成,至少對於早期的書籍,在公元前二世紀的過程中,

It is generally granted that the Jews in the time of Jesus Christ acknowledged as canonical or included in their collection of sacred writings all the so-called protocanonical books of the Old Testament.人們普遍理所當然地認為猶太人在耶穌基督的時候,公認的標準或在他們收集的神聖的著作舊約的所有所謂的protocanonical書籍的。 Christ and the Apostles endorsed this faith of the Jews, so that we have Divine authority for their Scriptural character.基督和使徒贊同這種信仰的猶太人,使我們有神聖的權力,為他們的聖經人物。 As there are solid reasons for maintaining that some of the New-Testament writers made use of the Septuagint version which contained the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament, these latter too are in so far attested as part of Sacred Scripture.由於有充分的理由保持的使用的版本的譯本,其中載有經書的舊約新約聖經的作家,這些後者也是到目前為止證明聖經的一部分。 Again, II Pet., iii, 15-16, ranks all the Epistles of St. Paul with the "other scriptures", and I Tim., v, 18, seems to quote Luke, x, 7, and to place it on a level with Deut., xxv, 4.同樣,II的寵物。,排名第三,15日至16日,所有的書信聖保羅的“經文”,我和蒂姆。,V,18歲,似乎引用路加福音中,x,7,並把它放在申的水平,二十五,4。 But these arguments for the canonicity of the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament, of the Pauline Epistles, and of the Gospel of St. Luke do not exclude all reasonable doubt.但這些經書的舊約和聖路加的福音,保羅書信,正規的參數不排除一切合理懷疑。 Only the Church, the infallible bearer of tradition, can furnish us invincible certainty as to the number of the Divinely inspired books of both the Old and the New Testament.只有教會的傳統,犯錯的承載,可以提供我們立於不敗之地肯定了神聖的書籍和舊的新約聖經的數量。 See CANON OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES.看到佳能的聖經。

IV. IV。 DIVISION OF SCRIPTURE DIVISION聖經

A. Old and New Testaments A.舊約和新約

As the two dispensations of grace separated from each other by the advent of Jesus are called the Old and the New Testament (Matthew 26:28; 2 Corinthians 3:14), so were the inspired writings belonging to either economy of grace from the earliest times called books of the Old or of the New Testament, or simply the Old or the New Testament.由於兩個彼此分離的來臨,耶穌福音的恩典被稱為舊約和新約聖經(馬太福音26:28;哥林多後書3:14),所以無論是經濟的寬限期,從最早的靈感著作有時被稱為舊的或新約聖經,或僅僅是舊的或新約聖經的書籍。 This name of the two great divisions of the inspired writings has been practically common among Latin Christians from the time of Tertullian, though Tertullian himself frequently employs the name "Instrumentum" or legally authentic document; Cassiodorus uses the title "Sacred Pandects", or sacred digest of law.這個名字的啟發著作的兩大部門已經幾乎常見的拉丁基督徒之間的時間良,,雖然德爾圖良本人經常使用的名稱“的文書或法律真實的文件; Cassiodorus使用的標題的​​”神聖Pandects“,或神聖的消化法。

B. Protocanonical and Deuterocanonical B. Protocanonical和次經

The word "canon" denoted at first the material rule, or instrument, employed in various trades; in a metaphorical sense it signified the form of perfection that had to be attained in the various arts or trades. “佳能”在第一材料的規則,或儀器,在各行業中表示,在比喻的意義上,它標誌著在各種藝術或行業,要達到完美的形式。 In this metaphorical sense some of the early Fathers urged the canon of truth, the canon of tradition, the canon of faith, the canon of the Church against the erroneous tenets of the early heretics (St. Clem., "I Cor.", vii; Clem. of Alex., "Strom.", xvi; Orig., "De princip.", IV, ix; etc.).在這個比喻的意義上的早期父親呼籲真理的佳能​​,佳能的傳統,佳能的信念,早期的異端(聖克萊姆的錯誤信條佳能教會的反對,“我肺心病。”七克萊姆。亞歷克斯,“神池”,十六;原價。“的原理。”,四,九等)。 St. Irenæus employed another metaphor, calling the Fourth Gospel the canon of truth (Adv. haer., III, xi); St. Isidore of Pelusium applies the name to all the inspired writings (Epist., iv, 14).聖依使用另外一個比喻,調用第四個福音,佳能的真相(副詞haer,三,十一)聖伊西多爾佩魯西亞的名稱應用到所有的靈感著作“(Epist.,四,14)。 About the time of St. Augustine (Contra Crescent., II, xxxix) and St. Jerome (Prolog. gal.), the word "canon" began to denote the collection of Sacred Scriptures; among later writers it is used practically in the sense of catalogue of inspired books.關於聖奧古斯丁(魂斗羅新月,II,第39屆)和圣杰羅姆(Prolog.加侖),“佳能”的時間開始來表示集合神聖的經文;在後來的作家中,它實際上是用來在意義上的靈感的書籍目錄。 In the sixteenth century, Sixtus Senensis, OP, distinguished between protocanonical and deuterocanonical books.在16世紀,西斯Senensis,OP,區分protocanonical和經書。 This distinction does not indicate a difference of authority, but only a difference of time at which the books were recognized by the whole Church as Divinely inspired.這種區別並不表示不同的權威,但只有一個時間差,在整個教會的認可,作為神聖的靈感的書。 Deuterocanonical, therefore, are those books concerning the inspiration of which some Churches doubted more or less seriously for a time, but which were accepted by the whole Church as really inspired, after the question had been thoroughly investigated.經的,因此,那些書的靈感,其中一些教堂懷疑或多或少認真了一段時間,但它確實鼓舞了整個教會,接受了之後的問題進行了全面調查。 As to the Old Testament, the Books of Tobias, Judith, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, I, II, Machabees, and alos Esther, x, 4- xvi, 24, Daniel, iii, 24-90, xiii, 1-xiv, 42, are in this sense deuterocanonical; the same must be said of the following New- Testament books and portions: Hebrews, James, II Peter, II, III John, Jude, Apocalypse, Mark, xiii, 9-20, Luke, xxii, 43-44, John, vii, 53-viii, 11.至於舊約聖經,書籍的托比亞斯,朱迪思,智慧,傳道書,巴魯克,I,II,Machabees,阿洛斯以斯帖,X,4 - 十六,24日,丹尼爾,三,24-90,十三,十四今年42歲,是在這個意義上說經的同時必須指出的以下新約聖經的書籍和部分:希伯來書,雅各,彼得II,II,III約翰,猶大書,啟示,標記,十三,9日至20日,盧克,二十二,43-44,約翰,53歲的七,八,11。 Protestant writers often call the deuterocanonical Books of the Old Testament the Apocrypha.新教作家往往稱之為舊約聖經偽經的經書。

C. Tripartite Division of Testaments C.三權分立約

The prologue of Ecclesiasticus shows that the Old-Testament books were divided into three parts, the Law, the Prophets, and the Writings (the Hagiographa).序幕的Ecclesiasticus表明,舊約的書分為三個部分,法,先知,和著作的Hagiographa。 The same division is mentioned in Luke, xxiv, 44, and has been kept by the later Jews.同一部門提到在路加,24,44,,後來猶太人,並一直保持。 The Law or the Torah comprises only the Pentateuch. “誦讀經文,或只包含五。 The second part contains two sections: the former Prophets (Josue, Judges, Samuel, and Kings), and the latter Prophets (Isaias, Jeremias, Ezechiel, and the Minor Prophets, called the Twelve, and counted as one book).第二部分包含兩個部分:前先知(若蘇埃,法官,薩穆埃爾,和國王隊),而後者伊薩亞,赫雷米亞斯,埃策希爾和未成年人的先知,先知(稱為十二,算作一本書)。 The third division embraces three kinds of books: first poetical books (Psalms, Proverbs, Job); secondly, the five Megilloth or Rolls (Canticle of Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther); thirdly, the three remaining books (Daniel, Esdras, Paralipomenon).第三分部包含了三種類型的書:第一個詩意的書籍(詩篇,箴言,作業);第二,五Megilloth的或勞斯萊斯(canticle的canticles,路得記,耶利米哀歌,傳道書,以斯帖記);第三,其餘三個書籍(但以理書,埃斯德拉斯,aralipomenon是)。 Hence, adding the five books of the first division to the eight of the second, and the eleven of the third, the entire Canon of the Jewish Scriptures embraces twenty-four books.因此,將五本書的第一部八第二,第三的11,整個佳能的猶太聖經包含了24本書。 Another arrangement connects Ruth with the Book of Judges, and Lamentations with Jeremias, and thus reduces the number of the books in the Canon to twenty-two.另一種安排連接露絲這本書的法官,並與耶利米哀歌,從而減少了在佳能的書籍22。 The division of the New-Testament books into the Gospel and the Apostle (Evangelium et Apostolus, Evangelia et Apostoli, Evangelica et Apostolica) began in the writings of the Apostolic Fathers (St. Ignatius, "Ad Philad.", v; "Epist. ad Diogn., xi) and was commonly adopted about the end of the second century (St. Iren., "Adv. haer.", I, iii; Tert., "De praescr.", xxxiv; St. Clem. of Alex., "Strom.", VII, iii; etc.); but the more recent Fathers did not adhere to it. It has been found more convenient to divide both the Old Testament and the New into four, or still better into three parts. The four parts distinguish between legal, historical, didactic or doctrinal, and prophetic books, while the tripartite division adds the legal books (the Pentateuch and the Gospels) to the historical, and retains the other two classes, ie, the didactic and the prophetic books.該部門的新約聖經的書籍到福音和使徒(Evangelium等Apostolus,Evangelia等波斯托裡,Evangelica等Apostolica)的著作的使徒父親(聖依納爵,“廣告Philad開始。”,V“Epist廣告Diogn十一)普遍採用的第二個世紀結束(聖伊倫,“進階haer”。,I,III;叔,“praescr。”,三十四,聖克萊姆。亞歷克斯,“神池”,第七章,第三等),但更近的父親沒有堅持。已經發現了更多的方便的把舊約和新四成,或仍更好地融入三部分組成。四個部分區分法律,歷史,教學或教義,和先知書,而三權分立增加了法律書籍(摩西五經和福音書)的歷史,並保留其他兩個類,即說教的的預言書。

D. Arrangement of Books D.安排的書籍

The catalogue of the Council of Trent arranges the inspired books partly in a topological, partly in a chronological order.目錄安理會的遄達,部分按時間順序安排的靈感的書部分的拓撲。 In the Old Testament, we have first all the historical books, excepting the two books of the Machabees which were supposed to have been written last of all.在舊約中,我們首先所有的歷史書籍,除了兩本書的Machabees被認為已經寫上的所有。 These historical books are arranged according to the order of time of which they treat; the books of Tobias, Judith, and Ester, however, occupy the last place because they relate personal history.這些歷史書是根據他們對待;托比亞斯,朱迪思,和酯的書籍,然而,佔據了最後一個地方的時間順序排列的,因為它們涉及個人的歷史。 The body of didactic works occupies the second place in the Canon, being arranged in the order of time at which the writers are supposed to have lived.該機構的教學工作中佔有第二位,佳能,按時間順序排列的作家理應生活。 The third place is assigned to the Prophets, first the four Major and then the twelve Minor Prophets, according to their respective chronological order.第三位的是分配的先知,先用4個,然後在12小先知書,根據他們各自的時間順序排列。 The Council follows a similar method in the arrangement of the New- Testament books.在新約聖經的書籍的安排會遵循類似的方法。 The first place is given to the historical books, ie, the Gospels and the Book of Acts; the Gospels follow the order of their reputed composition.第一個地方是在歷史的書籍,即,福音和使徒行傳的福音按照順序他們的知名組成的。 The second place is occupied by the didactic books, the Pauline Epistles preceding the Catholic.佔據第二位的是說教的書,保羅書信前天主教。 The former are enumerated according to the order of dignity of the addresses and according to the importance of the matter treated.前者列舉的尊嚴的地址的順序,並根據處理此事的重要性。 Hence results the series: Romans; I, II Corinthians; Galatians; Ephesians; Philippians; Colossians; I, II, Thessalonians; I, II Timothy; Titus; Philemon; the Epistle to the Hebrews occupies the last place on account of its late reception into the canon.因此導致系列:羅馬,I,II哥林多前書,加拉太書,以弗所書,腓立比書,歌羅西書,I,II,帖撒羅尼迦前書,我,提摩太後書,提多書,腓利門書希伯來人的書信,以考慮到其後期的接待佔據的最後一個地方進入佳能。 In its disposition of the Catholic Epistles the Council follows the so- called western order: I, II Peter; I, II, III John; James; Jude; our Vulgate edition follows the oriental order (James; I, II, III, John; Jude) which seems to be based on Gal., ii, 9.在其配置的天主教教會的會遵循所謂的西方秩序:I,II彼得I,II,III約翰·詹姆斯,裘德我們的武加大版如下東方順序(詹姆斯I,II,III,約翰;裘德),這似乎是基於半乳糖,二,九。 The Apocalypse occupies in the New Testament the place corresponding to that of the Prophets in the Old Testament.在新約中相應的地方在舊約中的先知的啟示佔據。

E. Liturgical Division E.禮儀師

The needs of liturgy occasioned a division of the inspired books into smaller parts.禮儀的需求引致部門的啟發書成更小的部分。 At the time of the Apostles it was a received custom to read in the synagogue service of the sabbath-day a portion of the Pentateuch (Acts 15:21) and a part of the Prophets (Luke 4:16; Acts 13:15, 27).當時的使徒,這是一個自定義閱讀的猶太教堂服務的安息日天的部分五(使徒行傳15:21)和部分的先知(路加福音4:16;使徒行傳13:15, 27)。 Hence the Pentateuch has been divided into fifty-four "parashas" according to the number of sabbaths in the intercalary lunar year.因此,pentateuch一直被分為54的“parashas”的根據安息在農曆閏年的數量。 To each parasha corresponds a division of the prophetic writings, called haphtara.要每個parasha對應預言的著作,被稱為haphtara的一個部門。 The Talmud speaks of more minute divisions, pesukim, which almost resemble our verses.該塔木德說多分鐘的的部門,pesukim,幾乎像我們的經文。 The Church transferred to the Christian Sunday the Jewish custom of reading part of the Scriptures in the assemblies of the faithful, but soon added to, or replaced, the Jewish lessons by parts of the New Testament (St. Just., "I Apol.", lxvii; Tert., "De praescr.", xxxvi, etc.).猶太人的教訓轉移到教會的基督教週日閱讀的“聖經”中的程序集的忠實的猶太習俗,但很快加入,或更換,部分新約聖經(聖只是說:“我APOL。 “,LXVII;叔,”德praescr“,三十六,等)。 Since the particular churches differed in the selection of the Sunday readings, this custom did not occasion any generally received division in the books of the New Testament.由於個別教會不同選擇的週日讀數,這個習俗沒有借勢任何部門在新約聖經的書籍。 Besides, from the end of the fifth century, these Sunday lessons were no longer taken in order, but the sections were chosen as they fitted in with the ecclesiastical feasts and seasons.此外,從第五世紀的結束,週末的教訓,不再採取的秩序,但部分被選中,因為他們安裝的宗教節日和季節。

F. Divisions to facilitate reference F.分部,以方便參考

For the convenience of readers and students the text had to be divided more uniformly than we have hitherto seen.為方便讀者和學生的文字被劃分更均勻,比我們迄今所見過的。 Such divisions are traced back to Tatian, in the second century.這樣的劃分可追溯到塔蒂安,在第二個世紀。 Ammonius, in the third, divided the Gospel text into 1162 kephalaia in order to facilitate a Gospel harmony.在第三,Ammonius,分為福音文本到1162 kephalaia,以促進福音和諧。 Eusebius, Euthalius, and others carried on this work of division in the following centuries, so that in the fifth or sixth the Gospels were divided into 318 parts (tituli), the Epistles into 254 (capitula), and the Apocalypse into 96 (24 sermones, 72 capitula).尤西比烏斯,Euthalius,和其他人進行這方面的工作分工,在接下來的幾個世紀,因此,在第五或第六的福音被分成318份(tituli)到254(頭狀花序),書信,和啟示為96(24 sermones,72頭狀花序)。 Cassiodorus relates that the Old Testament text was divided into various parts (De inst. div. lit., I, ii). Cassiodorus涉及的舊約經文被劃分成不同的部分(德研究所息。點亮。,I,II)。 But all these various partitions were too imperfect and too uneven for practical use, especially when in the thirteenth century concordances (see CONCORDANCES) began to be constructed.但是,所有這些不同的分區太不完美的,太不均衡的實際使用,特別是在13世紀語詞索引時(見語詞索引)開工建設。 About this time, Card.大約在這個時候,卡。 Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, who died 1228, divided all the books of Scripture uniformly into chapters, a division which found its way almost immediately into the codices of the Vulgate version and even into some codices of the original texts, and passed into all the printed editions after the invention of printing.斯蒂芬·蘭頓,坎特伯雷大主教,死亡1228人,分為均勻的聖經章節,部門幾乎立即發現它的進入抄本的武加大版本,甚至一些抄本的原文,並傳遞到所有的所有的書印刷術的發明後,在印刷版本。 As the chapters were too long for ready reference, Cardinal Hugh of St. Cher divided them into smaller sections which he indicated by the capital letters A, B, etc. Robert Stephens, probably imitating R. Nathan (1437) divided the chapters into verses, and published his complete division into chapters and verses first in the Vulgate text (1548), and later on also in the Greek original of the New Testament (1551).章,以供參考太長,樞機主教休聖雪兒把他們分成更小的部分,他表示大寫字母A,B,羅伯特·斯蒂芬斯,可能是模仿R.彌敦道(1437年)的章節分為春天到,並發表了他的完全分割成章節和詩句第一,在武加大文本(1548)和以後在希臘原新約聖經(1551)。

V. SCRIPTURE五,經文

Since Scripture is the written word of God, its contents are Divinely guaranteed truths, revealed either in the strict or the wider sense of the word.因為聖經是神的話,它的內容是神聖的保證真理透露,在嚴格或更廣泛意義上的。 Again, since the inspiration of a writing cannot be known without Divine testimony, God must have revealed which are the books that constitute Sacred Scripture.同樣,由於採用書面形式的靈感不能被稱為沒有神的見證,神必須人士透露,這是聖經的書,構成。 Moreover, theologians teach that Christian Revelation was complete in the Apostles, and that its deposit was entrusted to the Apostles to guard and to promulgate.此外,神學家的教導,基督教的啟示在使徒,其存款委託的的使徒防範和頒布。 Hence the apostolic deposit of Revelation contained no merely Sacred Scripture in the abstract, but also the knowledge as to its constituent books.啟示錄“中包含因此,使徒存款,不只是神聖的經文,在抽象的,但其組成書籍的知識。 Scripture, then, is an Apostolic deposit entrusted to the Church, and to the Church belongs its lawful administration.聖經,然後託付給教會的使徒存款,和教會屬於其合法的管理。 This position of Sacred Scripture in the Church implies the following consequences:聖經教會的這一立場意味著以下後果:

(1) The Apostles promulgated both the Old and New Testament as a document received from God. (1)頒布的舊約和新約使徒的文件從神領受的。 It is antecedently probable that God should not cast his written Word upon men as a mere windfall, coming from no known authority, but that he should entrust its publication to the care of those whom he was sending to preach the Gospel to all nations, and with whom he had promised to be for all days, even to the consummation of the world.這是可能先行,上帝不應該投他的文字,對男性的僅僅是一個意外的收穫,從沒有已知的權威,但他應該照顧的人,他被發送到所有國家傳福音給委託的出版,並他曾答應所有天,甚至到了圓滿的世界。 In conformity woth this principle, St. Jerome (De script. eccl.) says of the Gospel of St. Mark: "When Peter had heard it, he both approved of it and ordered it to be read in the churches".在符合woth這個原則,圣杰羅姆(德腳本。傳道書。)的福音聖馬可說:“當彼得聽到了,他都同意了,並下令將其讀,在教堂”。 The Fathers testify to the promulgation of Scripture by the Apostles where they treat of the transmission of the inspired writings.父親作證頒布聖經的使徒們那裡,他們對待傳輸的啟發著作。

(2) The transmission of the inspired writings consists in the delivery of Scripture by the Apostles to their successors with the right, the duty, and the power to continue its promulgation, to preserve its integrity and identity, to explain its meaning, to use it in proving and illustrating Catholic teaching, to oppose and condemn any attack upon its doctrine, or any abuse of its meaning. (2)傳輸的啟發著作包括在聖經的使徒們給他們的繼承人的權利,義務,並繼續它的頒布,以保護其完整性​​和身份,解釋其含義交付使用證明和說明天主教教義,反對和譴責任何攻擊它的教義,或任何濫用它的意義。 We may infer all this from the character of the inspired writings and the nature of the Apostolate; but it is also attested by some of the weightiest writers of the early Church.我們可以推斷出這一切的靈感著作的特徵和性質的使徒,但它也證明了早期教會的一些沉重的作家。 St. Irenæus insists upon these points against the Gnostics, who appealed to Scripture as to private historical documents.聖irenæus堅持這點對諾斯替教,呼籲聖經私人擁有的歷史文件。 He excludes this Gnostic view, first by insisting on the mission of the Apostles and upon the succession in the Apostolate, especially as seen in the Church of Rome (Haer., III, 3-4); secondly, by showing that the preaching of the Apostles continued by their successors contains a supernatural guarantee of infallibility through the indwelling of the Holy Ghost (Haer., III, 24); thirdly, by combining the Apostolic succession and the supernatural guarantee of the Holy Ghost (Haer., IV, 26).他排除這種諾斯底的看法,第一,堅持使命的使徒,並在繼承的使徒,特別是看到Haer.,III,在羅馬教會(3-4);其次,通過展示,宣揚繼續由他們的繼承人的使徒包含一個超自然的保證犯錯誤通過留置聖靈“(Haer.,III,24);第三,相結合的聖靈使徒繼承和超自然的保證(Haer.,IV,26 )。 It seems plain that, if Scripture cannot be regarded as a private historical document on account of the official mission of the Apostles, on account of the official succession in the Apostolate of their successors, on account of the assistance of the Holy Ghost promised to the Apostles and their successors, the promulgation of Scripture, the preservation of its integrity and identity, and the explanation of its meaning must belong to the Apostles and their legitimate successors.這似乎是純認為,如果經文不能被視為一個私人歷史文件對帳戶的官方使命的使徒,對帳戶的正式繼任的使徒,他們的繼任者,在聖靈的幫助,承諾到使徒和他們的繼任者,“聖經”的頒布,保存其完整性和身份,並解釋其含義必須屬於使徒和他們的合法接班人。 The same principles are advocated by the great Alexandrian doctor, Origen (De princ., Praef.).同樣的原則所倡導的偉大的亞歷山大醫生,奧利(德PRINC,Praef)。 "That alone", he says, "is to be believed to be the truth which in nothing differs from the ecclesiastical and Apostolical tradition". “獨”,他說,“被認為是沒有什麼不同的真理,教會和使徒的傳統”。 In another passage (in Matth. tr. XXIX, n. 46-47), he rejects the contention urged by the heretics "as often as they bring forward canonical Scriptures in which every Christian agrees and believes", that "in the houses is the word of truth"; "for from it (the Church) alone the sound hath gone forth into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the world".另一個通道(Matth。文。XXIX,N 46-47),他拒絕爭呼籲的異端“,因為他們經常提出典型聖經中,每一個基督徒都同意,並相信”,“房子是真理的道“,”(教會)的單獨的聲音的人走了出來,到地球,他們的言語傳到地極的世界“。 That the African Church agrees with the Alexandrian, is clear from the words of Tertullian (De praescript., nn, 15, 19).非洲教會的同意與亞歷山大,是清楚的話,戴爾都良(德praescript,NN,15,19)。 He protests against the admission of heretics "to any discussion whatever touching the Scriptures".他抗議接納任何討論任何接觸聖經“異端”。 "This question should be first proposed, which is now the only one to be discussed, `To whom belongs the faith itself: whose are the Scriptures'?. . .For the true Scriptures and the true expositions and all the true Christian traditions will be wherever both the true Christian rule and faith shall be shown to be". “這個問題應該首先提出,這是目前唯一一個將要討論的,為一名信仰本身屬於:是誰的”聖經“嗎?......對於真正的經典和真正的論述和所有真正的基督教傳統是的地方應是“真正的基督徒的規則和信念。 St. Augustine endorses the same position when he says: "I should not believe the Gospel except on the authority of the Catholic Church" (Con. epist. Manichaei, fundam., n. 6).聖奧古斯丁通過相同的位置時,他說:“我不應該相信福音,但對權力的天主教教會”(Con. epist。Manichaei,fundam。,N。6)。

(3) By virtue of its official and permanent promulgation, Scripture is a public document, the Divine authority of which is evident to all the members of the Church. (3)憑藉其正式和永久的頒布,聖經是一份公開文件,神聖的權威,這是顯而易見的所有教會的成員。

(4) The Church necessarily possesses a text of Scripture, which is internally authentic, or substantially identical with the original. (4)教會必須擁有聖經的文本,這是內部真實的,或與原來大致相同的。 Any form or version of the text, the internal authenticity of which the Church has approved either by its universal and constant use, or by a formal declaration, enjoys the character of external or public authenticity, ie, its conformity with the original must not merely be presumed juridically, but must be admitted as certain on account of the infallibility of the Church.任何形式的文本版本,的內部真實性已批准的教會通過它的普及和不斷的使用,或由正式聲明,享有外部的或公共的真實性,即其與原件相符的性格,絕不能僅僅在法律上推定,但必須承認一定的infallibility的教會。

(5) The authentic text, legitimately promulgated, is a source and rule of faith, though it remains only a means or instrument in the hands of the teaching body of the Church, which alone has the right of authoritatively interpreting Scripture. (5)作準文本,合法的頒布,是一個源和法治信仰,但它仍然只是一個手段或工具在手的教學機構,教會,才有權解釋聖經的權威。

(6) The administration and custody of Scripture is not entrusted directly to the whole Church, but to its teaching body, though Scripture itself is the common property of the members of the whole Church. (6)管理和保管聖經是沒有委託直接向整個教會,但其教學機構,雖然聖經本身是整個教會成員的共同財產。 While the private handling of Scripture is opposed to the fact that it is common property, its administrators are bound to communicate its contents to all the members of the Church.雖然私人處理經文是反對的事實,它是共同財產時,其管理層綁定到其內容的所有教會的成員。

(7) Though Scripture is the property of the Church alone, those outside her pale may use it as a means of discovering or entering the Church. (7)雖然聖經是單獨的教會財產,她蒼白的以外可以使用它作為一種手段發現或進入教堂。 But Tertullian shows that they have no right to apply Scripture to their own purposes or to turn it against the Church.但德爾圖良表示,他們無權申請經文,以達到自己的目的,或對教會把它。 He also teaches Catholics how to contest the right of heretics to appeal to Scripture at all (by a kind of demurrer), before arguing with them on single points of Scriptural doctrine.他還教如何抗辯權的異端呼籲聖經的所有(異議一種),才與他們爭論的聖經教義的單點的天主教徒。

(8) The rights of the teaching body of the Church include also that of issuing and enforcing decrees for promoting the right use, or preventing the abuse of Scripture. (8)的教學機構,教會的權利還包括,頒布和執行法規的正確使用,防止濫用聖經。 Not to mention the definition of the Canon (see CANON), the Council of Trent issued two decrees concerning the Vulgate, and a decree concerning the interpretation of Scripture (see EXEGESIS, HERMENEUTICS), and this last enactment was repeated in a more stringent form by the Vatican Council (sess. III, Conc. Trid., sess. IV).更何況佳能(CANON)的定義,安理會的遄達頒布兩項法令在武加大,有關聖經的解釋(見註釋,解釋學)的法令,並制定了更嚴格的形式重複這最後的梵蒂岡會達(sess.三,濃TRID,SESS。IV)。 The various decisions of the Biblical Commission derive their binding force from this same right of the teaching body of the Church.聖經委員會的各項決定,從這個教學機構的教堂一樣,享有獲得他們的約束力。 (Cf. Stapleton, Princ. Fid. Demonstr., X-XI; Wilhelm and Scannell, "Manual of Catholic Theology", London, 1890, I, 61 sqq.; Scheeben, "Handbuch der katholischen Dogmatik", Freiburg, 1873, I, 126 sqq.). (見斯台普頓,PRINC。FID。Demonstr。,X-XI威廉和Scannell先生,“天主教神學手冊”,倫敦,1890年,我,61 SQQ。; Scheeben,“handbuch明鏡katholischen信條學”,弗賴堡,1873年, I,126 SQQ)。

VI. VI。 ATTITUDE OF THE CHURCH TOWARDS THE READING OF THE BIBLE IN THE VERNACULAR教會對“聖經”中的方言的閱讀態度

The attitude of the Church as to the reading of the Bible in the vernacular may be inferred from the Church's practice and legislation.可以推斷,從教會的實踐和立法的態度,教會讀“聖經”中的方言。 It has been the practice of the Church to provide newly-converted nations, as soon as possible, with vernacular versions of the Scriptures; hence the early Latin and oriental translations, the versions existing among the Armenians, the Slavonians, the Goths, the Italians, the French, and the partial renderings into English.它一直是實踐的教會提供新轉換的國家,盡快與白話文版本的“聖經”,因此早期拉丁美洲和東方翻譯版本之間存在亞美尼亞人,Slavonians,哥特人,意大利人,法語,部分渲染成英文。 As to the legislation of the Church on this subject, we may divide its history into three large periods:至於教會對這個問題的立法,我們可以將其分為三個大階段的歷史:

(1) During the course of the first millennium of her existence, the Church did not promulgate any law concerning the reading of Scripture in the vernacular. (1)在她的存在的第一個千年的過程中,教會並沒有頒布任何法律關於讀經中的方言。 The faithful were rather encouraged to read the Sacred Books according to their spiritual needs (cf. St. Irenæus, "Adv. haer.", III, iv).而忠實地鼓勵閱讀神聖的書籍,根據他們的精神需求(參見聖irenæus,“進階haer。”,III,IV)。

(2) The next five hundred years show only local regulations concerning the use of the Bible in the vernacular. (2)500年只顯示當地有關規定使用的“聖經”中的方言。 On 2 January, 1080, Gregory VII wrote to the Duke of Bohemia that he could not allow the publication of the Scriptures in the language of the country. 1080年1月2日,格列高利七世寫信給波希米亞公爵,他不能讓出版的“聖經”中的語言的國家。 The letter was written chiefly to refuse the petition of the Bohemians for permission to conduct Divine service in the Slavic language.此信寫,主要是為了拒絕權限進行神聖的服務,在斯拉夫語的波希米亞人的請願書。 The pontiff feared that the reading of the Bible in the vernacular would lead to irreverence and wrong interpretation of the inspired text (St. Gregory VII, "Epist.", vii, xi).教宗擔心,讀“聖經”中的方言會導致不敬和錯誤解釋的啟發文本(聖格列高利七世,“Epist。”,七,十一)。 The second document belongs to the time of the Waldensian and Albigensian heresies.第二份文件屬於華爾和阿爾比派異端邪說的時間。 The Bishop of Metz had written to Innocent III that there existed in his diocese a perfect frenzy for the Bible in the vernacular.梅斯(Metz)的主教曾寫信給英諾森三世在他的教區存在一個完美的狂熱“聖經”中的方言。 In 1199 the pope replied that in general the desire to read the Scriptures was praiseworthy, but that the practice was dangerous for the simple and unlearned ("Epist., II, cxli; Hurter, "Gesch. des. Papstes Innocent III", Hamburg, 1842, IV, 501 sqq.). After the death of Innocent III, the Synod of Toulouse directed in 1229 its fourteenth canon against the misuse of Sacred Scripture on the part of the Cathari: "prohibemus, ne libros Veteris et Novi Testamenti laicis permittatur habere" (Hefele, "Concilgesch", Freiburg, 1863, V, 875). In 1233 the Synod of Tarragona issued a similar prohibition in its second canon, but both these laws are intended only for the countries subject to the jurisdiction of the respective synods (Hefele, ibid., 918). The Third Synod of Oxford, in 1408, owing to the disorders of the Lollards, who in addition to their crimes of violence and anarchy had introduced virulent interpolations into the vernacular sacred text, issued a law in virtue of which only the versions approved by the local ordinary or the provincial council were allowed to be read by the laity (Hefele, op. cit., VI, 817). 1199教皇回答說,在一般的閱讀聖經的願望是值得稱道的,但這種做法是危險的,簡單的和沒受過教育(“Epist。,II,cxli;護角樁石,的”Gesch沙漠Papstes無辜的III“,漢堡1842年,IV,501 SQQ)。英諾森三世去世後,1229年第十四屆佳能的聖經上的卡塔利的防止濫用圖盧茲主教的指示:“prohibemus,東北LIBROS Veteris等諾維Testamenti laicis在1233 permittatur habere“(黑弗勒,”Concilgesch“,弗賴堡,1863年,V,875)。塔拉戈納(Tarragona)的主教會議發表了類似的禁止在其第二佳能,但這些法律的目的只為國家管轄的各自的主教會議(黑弗勒,同上,918)。第三次主教會議的牛津大學,1408年,由於疾病的的的Lollards,除了自己的罪行的暴力和無政府狀態推出了致命的插值成白話神聖的文本,發布了法律,憑藉該版本由當地普通或省議會批准,被允許讀由俗人(黑弗勒,前引書,VI,817)。

(3) It is only in the beginning of the last five hundred years that we meet with a general law of the Church concerning the reading of the Bible in the vernacular. (3)只有在過去500年來,我們滿足與教會有關的一般規律,讀“聖經”中的方言開始。 On 24 March, 1564, Pius IV promulgated in his Constitution, "Dominici gregis", the Index of Prohibited Books.在1564年3月24日,約四在他的“憲法”,頒布“DOMINICI收聽廣播節目和收看”禁書指數。 According to the third rule, the Old Testament may be read in the vernacular by pious and learned men, according to the judgment of the bishop, as a help to the better understanding of the Vulgate.根據第三條規則,舊約可能會被讀​​取在白話的虔誠和教訓的人,根據判斷的主教,幫助更好地了解了vulgate。 The fourth rule places in the hands of the bishop or the inquisitor the power of allowing the reading of the New Testament in the vernacular to laymen who according to the judgment of their confessor or their pastor can profit by this practice.第四條規則的地方主教或打破砂鍋的力量,讓讀新約聖經中的方言外行根據的判斷,他們的懺悔或他們的牧師手中的這種做法可以獲利。 Sixtus V reserved this power to himself or the Sacred Congregation of the Index, and Clement VIII added this restriction to the fourth rule of the Index, by way of appendix.西斯五保留這項權力,以自己或指數聖克萊門特八,增加此限制指數的第四個規則,附錄的方式。 Benedict XIV required that the vernacular version read by laymen should be either approved by the Holy See or provided with notes taken from the writings of the Fathers or of learned and pious authors.教宗本篤十四世讀白話版由外行被批准,由羅馬教廷的著作的父親或教訓和虔誠作者的筆記。 It then became an open question whether this order of Benedict XIV was intended to supersede the former legislation or to further restrict it.然後,它成為一個懸而未決的問題,這是否為了本篤十四的目的是要取代前者的立法或進一步限制。 This doubt was not removed by the next three documents: the condemnation of certain errors of the Jansenist Quesnel as to the necessity of reading the Bible, by the Bull "Unigenitus" issued by Clement XI on 8 Sept., 1713 (cf. Denzinger, "Enchir.", nn. 1294-1300); the condemnation of the same teaching maintained in the Synod of Pistoia, by the Bull "Auctorem fidei" issued on 28 Aug., 1794, by Pius VI; the warning against allowing the laity indiscriminately to read the Scriptures in the vernacular, addressed to the Bishop of Mohileff by Pius VII, on 3 Sept., 1816.這無疑是由接下來的三個文件不會被刪除的譴責某些錯誤的簡森派克內爾讀“聖經”的必要性,通過的公牛“Unigenitus”8年9月發行的克萊門特十一,1713(參見登青格, “Enchir”,NN。1294至1300年);保持在主教的皮斯托亞相同的教學,公牛“Auctorem信”發行於1794年8月28日,由庇護六世的譴責;讓俗人的警告不分青紅皂白地讀“聖經”中的方言,給主教Mohileff庇護七世,於1816年9月3日。 But the Decree issued by the Sacred Congregation of the Index on 7 Jan., 1836, seems to render it clear that henceforth the laity may read vernacular versions of the Scriptures, if they be either approved by the Holy See, or provided with notes taken from the writings of the Fathers or of learned Catholic authors.但指數於1836年1月7日,神聖的會眾發出的法令似乎使明確表示,從今以後,的俗人可以讀白話文版本的聖經,如果他們是由羅馬教廷批准,或採取與筆記的父親或學習天主教作家的著作。 The same regulation was repeated by Gregory XVI in his Encyclical of 8 May, 1844.格里高利十六世在他的通諭,1844年5月8日重複同樣的規定。 In general, the Church has always allowed the reading of the Bible in the vernacular, if it was desirable for the spiritual needs of her children; she has forbidden it only when it was almost certain to cause serious spiritual harm.在一般情況下,教會一直允許讀“聖經”中的方言,如果她的孩子們的精神需求是可取的,她已經禁止它,只有當它幾乎肯定會導致嚴重的精神傷害。

VII. VII。 OTHER SCRIPTURAL QUESTIONS其他聖經的問題

The history of the preservation and the propagation of the Scripture-text is told in the articles MANUSCRIPTS OF THE BIBLE; CODEX ALEXANDRINUS (etc.); VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE; EDITIONS OF THE BIBLE; CRITICISM (TEXTUAL); the interpretation of Scripture is dealt with in the articles HERMENEUTICS; EXEGESIS; COMMENTARIES ON THE BIBLE; and CRITICISM (BIBLICAL). “聖經”中的文章手稿的保存和傳播“聖經”文本的歷史告訴法典頸(等);版本的聖經版本的聖經,批評(文本);聖經的解釋處理中的文章闡釋學,訓詁學;評注聖經批評(“聖經”)。 Additional information on the foregoing questions is contained in the articles INTRODUCTION; OLD TESTAMENT; NEW TESTAMENT.的文章介紹,對上述問題的更多信息包含在舊約,新約聖經。 The history of our English Version is treated in the article VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE.我們的英語版本的歷史被視為在文章中版本的聖經。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息的書面AJ馬斯。 Transcribed by Robert B. Olson.轉錄由羅伯特·B·奧爾森。 Offered to Almighty God for Timothy and Kris Gray, and for a holy love and understanding of Sacred Scripture for all members of Our Blessed Lord's Church.的提摩太和克里斯灰色,提供給全能的上帝和神聖的愛情和理解我們的人有福了主的教會聖經中的所有成員。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.天主教百科全書,卷十三。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, DD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,DD,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

A list of Catholic literature on Scriptural subjects has been published in the American Ecclesiastical Review, xxxi (August, 1904), 194-201; this list is fairly complete up to the date of its publication.天主教文學,聖經的主題列表已發表在美國教會審查,三十一(1904年8月),194-201,這個列表是相當完成了其出版的日期。 See also the works cited throughout the course of this article.還引用了這篇文章的過程中的作品。 Most of the questions connected with Scripture are treated in special articles throughout the course of the ENCYCLOPEDIA, for instance, in addition to those mentioned above, JEROME; CANON OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES; CONCORDANCES OF THE BIBLE; INSPIRATION OF THE BIBLE; TESTAMENT, etc. Each of these articles has an abundant literary guide to its own special aspect of the Scriptures.大多數的問題與聖經的特殊物品處理的整個過程的百科全書,例如,除了上面提到的那些,JEROME,佳能的聖經語詞索引“聖經”,“聖經”啟示; TESTAMENT等這些文章有一個​​豐富的文學指導自己的特殊方面的“聖經”。



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