Redemption贖回

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Redemption is the purchase back of something that had been lost, by the payment of a ransom.贖回是採購回來的東西已經丟失,支付贖金。 The Greek word so rendered is apolutrosis, a word occurring nine times in Scripture, and always with the idea of a ransom or price paid, ie, redemption by a lutron (see Matt. 20:28; Mark 10:45).呈現apolutrosis的希臘字,一個字在聖經中出現9次,始終與想法的贖金或付出的代價,即贖回路創(參見馬太福音20:28;馬可福音10:45)。 There are instances in the LXX.在LXX存在這樣的情況。 Version of the Old Testament of the use of lutron in man's relation to man (Lev. 19:20; 25:51; Ex. 21:30; Num. 35: 31, 32; Isa. 45:13; Prov. 6:35), and in the same sense of man's relation to God (Num. 3:49; 18:15).舊約的使用人的關係,以男子在路創(利未記19:20; 25:51;前。21:30;民35:31,32;賽。45:13;省6版本: 35),在同一意義上的人的關係,以神(民3:49; 18:15)。 There are many passages in the New Testament which represent Christ's sufferings under the idea of a ransom or price, and the result thereby secured is a purchase or redemption (comp. Acts 20:28; 1 Cor. 6:19, 20; Gal. 3:13; 4:4, 5; Eph. 1: 7; Col. 1:14; 1 Tim. 2:5, 6; Titus 2:14; Heb. 9:12; 1 Pet. 1:18, 19; Rev. 5:9).在新約中有許多段落​​理念下的贖金或價格代表基督的苦難,和結果,從而確保購買或贖回(化合物使徒行傳20:28,哥林多前書6:19,20;加侖。 3:13; 4:4;以弗所書1:7;歌羅西書1時14分提前2:5,提多書2:14,希伯來書9時12分,一寵物。1:18,19啟示錄5:9)。

The idea running through all these texts, however various their reference, is that of payment made for our redemption.貫​​穿所有這些文本的想法,他們參考,但不同的是,為救贖我們的付款。 The debt against us is not viewed as simply cancelled, but is fully paid.對我們的債務不視為簡單地取消,但已繳足股款。 Christ's blood or life, which he surrendered for them, is the "ransom" by which the deliverance of his people from the servitude of sin and from its penal consequences is secured.基督的血還是生活中,他投降,他們是拯救自己的百姓從罪惡的奴役和其刑事後果固定的“贖金”。 It is the plain doctrine of Scripture that "Christ saves us neither by the mere exercise of power, nor by his doctrine, nor by his example, nor by the moral influence which he exerted, nor by any subjective influence on his people, whether natural or mystical, but as a satisfaction to divine justice, as an expiation for sin, and as a ransom from the curse and authority of the law, thus reconciling us to God by making it consistent with his perfection to exercise mercy toward sinners" (Hodge's Systematic Theology).這是純理論的聖經“基督拯救我們既不由單純的權力的行使,也不是由他的學說,也不是他的榜樣,也不是由他施加的道德影響力,也沒有任何主觀影響他的人,無論是自然的或神秘,但作為一個滿意神聖的正義,作為一個贖罪的罪,和作為一個贖金的詛咒和權威的法律,從而協調我們對上帝通過它一致的,他的完美,以行使憐憫對罪人“(Hodge的系統神學)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報字典)

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Redeemer, Redemption救贖,救贖

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Though closely allied to salvation, redemption is more specific, for it denotes the means by which salvation is achieved, namely, by the payment of a ransom.雖然關係密切的救贖,救贖是更具體的,因為它表示這救恩的手段來實現,即通過支付贖金。 As in the case of salvation it may denote temporal, physical deliverance.在救恩的情況下,它可以表示時間,身體釋放。 In the OT the principal words are pada and ga'al, which are usually rendered by lytrousthai in the LXX, occasionally by rhyesthai.在舊約中的主詞是PADA和ga'al的,這通常是在LXX呈現由lytrousthai的,偶爾的rhyesthai。 In the NT lytrousthai is the usual verb form, and nouns are lytrosis and apolytrosis.在NT lytrousthai是常用的動詞形式,並名詞是lytrosis和apolytrosis。 Occasionally agorazein is used, or exagorazein, denoting the act of purchase in the market, especially the slave market.偶爾agorazein使用,或exagorazein,表示在市場上的購買行為,尤其是在奴隸市場。 For "ransom" lytron and antilytron are used.對於“贖金”LYTRON和antilytron使用。

In the OT在OT

In ancient Israel both property and life could be redeemed by making the appropriate payment.在古代以色列的財產和生命都可以進行適當的支付贖回。 Since the firstborn were spared in the last plague which God visited upon Egypt, he had a special claim on these, so that the firstborn thereafter had to be redeemed by a money payment (Exod. 13:13-15).由於在過去的瘟疫神在埃及訪問的長子也難倖免,他有一個特別的要求就這些,使長子便被贖回的錢支付(出埃及記13:13-15)。 According to the Pentateuchal legislation, if a man lost his inheritance through debt or sold himself into slavery, he and his property could be redeemed if one near of kin came forward to provide the redemption price (Lev. 25:25-27, 47-54; cf. Ruth 4:1-12).根據Pentateuchal立法,如果一個人失去了他的繼承債務或賣身為奴,他和他的財產可能被贖回,如果一個至近的親屬出面提供的贖回價(利未記25:25-27,47 - 54,比照露絲4:1-12)。 The kinsman-redeemer was also the avenger of blood on occasion.的親屬,救贖者也有時血的復仇者。

God's deliverance of his people from Egypt is spoken of a redemption (Exod. 6:6; 15:13), and he is Israel's Redeemer (Ps. 78:35).贖回(出埃及記6:6; 15:13),上帝的拯救自己的百姓從埃及上所說的,他是以色列的救贖“(詩篇78:35)。 The emphasis here may well be upon the great output of strength needed to accomplish this objective, strength which itself serves as a kind of ransom price.這裡要強調的可能後,產量大,所需要的力量來實現這一目標,實力本身作為一種贖價。 Once again God's people are found in captivity (Babylon), and again the language of redemption is used in connection with their release (Jer. 31:11; 50:33-34).神的人再次被發現在人工飼養(巴比倫),再次使用的語言贖回與釋放他們(耶31:11; 50:33-34)。 The probable meaning of Isa.伊薩的可能含義。 43:3 is that the conqueror of Babylon and therefore the liberator of Judah, even Cyrus, is being promised domain in Africa as a compensation for giving up captive Judah and restoring it to its inheritance in the land of Canaan. 43:3巴比倫的征服者,因此猶大,居魯士的解放者,是在非洲的承諾域作為補償給俘虜猶大和恢復其繼承迦南地。

The individual also is sometimes the object of God's redemption, as in Job 19:25, where the sufferer expresses his confidence in a living Redeemer who will vindicate him eventually, despite all present appearance to the contrary.個人也有時是神的救贖的對象,在工作19:25,患者表示他生活在一個救贖的信心,他最終會平反,儘管當前出現的相反。 Prov.省。 23:10-11 presents the same general cast of thought.圖23:10-11提出了相同的一般鑄鐵思想。

It is rather surprising that redemption is verbally so little associated with sin in the OT.贖回口頭這麼少與罪在OT,這是相當驚人的。 Ps.詩。 130:8 contains the promise that Jehovah will redeem Israel from all its iniquities. 130:8包含的承諾,耶和華必救贖以色列從所有的罪孽。 Isa.伊薩。 59:20, which Paul quotes in Rom. 59:20,保羅的報價在ROM中。 11:26, says much the same thing in more general terms (cf. Isa. 44:22). 11:26說,同樣的事情在更廣泛的條件(參見伊薩。44:22)。 In Ps.在PS。 49:7 the impossibility of self-ransom for one's life is emphasized. 49:7強調一個人的生命是不可能的自我贖金。 It is possible that the scarcity of reference to redemption from sin in the OT is due to the ever-present proclamation of redemption through the sacrificial system, making formal statements along this line somewhat superfluous, Furthermore, redemption from the ills of life, such as the Babylonian captivity, would inevitably carry with it the thought that God redeems from sin, for it was sin which brought on the captivity (Isa. 40:2).這是可能的贖回罪在OT的稀缺性是由於贖回宣布通過犧牲系統永遠存在的,沿著這條線的正式聲明有些多餘,另外,贖回,從生活的弊病,如巴比倫囚禁,難免會隨身帶著它的思想,上帝救贖脫離罪惡,因為它是罪帶來的圈養(以賽亞書40:2)。

The occurrence of numerous passages in the OT where redemption is stated in terms which do not explicitly include the element of ransom has led some scholars to conclude that redemption came to mean deliverance without any insistence upon a ransom as a condition or basis.發生的許多段落在舊約中所列條款並沒有明確包括的元素贖金贖回導致一些學者得出結論,贖回來沒有任何的條件或基礎的贖金後,堅持意味著拯救。 The manifestation of the power of God in the deliverance of his people seems at times to be the sole emphasis (Deut. 9:26).神在拯救他的人民的力量的表現形式,有時似乎是唯一的重點(申命記9:26)。 But on the other hand there is no hint in the direction of the exclusion of a ransom.但另一方面,沒有一絲的方向,排除了贖金。 The ransom idea may well be an assumed factor which is kept in the background by the very prominence given to the element of power needed for the deliverance.贖金的想法可能是非常突出的元素所需的功率為拯救被存放在後台一個假設的因素。

In the NT在NT

This observation affords the necessary bridge to the NT use of redemption.這一觀察結果得到必要的橋樑NT使用的贖回。 Certain passages in the Gospels reflect this somewhat vague use of the word as implying divine intervention in behalf of God's people without specific reference to any ransom to be paid (Luke 2:38; 24:21).在福音書中的某些段落反映這一點有些模糊使用這個詞代表神的人支付任何贖金,但沒有具體提到(路加福音2:38; 24:21),這意味著神聖的干預。

Mark 10:45, though it does not contain the word "redeem," is a crucial passage for the subject, because it opens to us the mind of Christ concering his mission. 10:45,雖然它不包含單詞“贖回”,是一個至關重要的通道為主體,因為它開啟我們心中的基督關於他的使命的。 His life of ministry would terminate in an act of self-sacrifice which would serve as a ransom for the many who needed it.他的事工的生命將終止將作為贖金為許多需要它的人的自我犧牲的行為。 The largest development of the doctrine in the NT comes in the writings of Paul.最大的發展的學說在NT在保羅的著作。 Christ has redeemed from the curse of the law (Gal. 3:13; 4:5; exagorazein in both cases).基督救贖的律法的咒詛(加拉太書3:13; 4:5; exagorazein在這兩種情況下)。 In the apostle's most concentrated section on the work of Christ he couples redemption with justification and propitiation (Rom. 3:24; cf. I Cor. 1:30).在使徒的最集中的部分,說明理由,並作了挽回祭,基督他夫婦贖回的工作(羅3:24;比照哥林多前書1:30)。 One prominent feature of Paul's usage is the double reference to the word, with a present application to the forgiveness of sins based on the ransom price of the shed blood of Christ (Eph. 1:7; cf. I Pet. 1:18-19), and a future application to the deliverance of the body from its present debility and liability to corruption (Rom. 8:23).保羅的使用的一個突出特點是雙字,與本申請的罪得赦免的基礎上流血的基督的贖價(弗1:7;比照,我的寵物1:18 - 19),和未來的應用程序釋放的身體從目前的衰弱和腐敗的責任(羅馬書8:23)。 This latter event is associated with the day of redemption (Eph. 4:30), not in the sense that redemption will then be operative for the first time, but that the redemption secured by Christ and applied to the soul's forgiveness is then extended to include the body as well, so that salvation is broughtto its intended consummation.這後一種情況下與贖的日子(以弗所書4:30),而不是在這個意義上,將第一次手術贖回,但贖回抵押基督和靈魂的寬恕,然後擴展到以及包括身體,讓救恩的是broughtto旨在完善。

Redemption, though it includes the concept of deliverance, is a more precise term.贖回,但它釋放的概念,是一個更準確的術語。 Otherwise it would be expected that biblical writers would make more extensive use of words denoting deliverance per se, such as lyein or rhyesthai, to the neglect of words for redeem.否則,這將是聖經的作者更廣泛地使用詞彙拯救本身,,如lyein或rhyesthai,而忽略了字贖回。 Yet such is not the case.然而,這種情況並非如此。 It is significant that Paul can content himself with the use of rhyesthai when setting forth the relation of Christ's saving work for us with respect to hostile angelic powers (Col. 1:13), yet when he passes to a contemplation of the forgiveness of our sins he must change his terminology to that of redemption (Col. 1:14).重要的是,保羅自己的內容與rhyesthai使用時,提出敵對天使般的權力(歌羅西書1:13)基督為我們的拯救工作的關係,然而,當他通過赦免我們的一個沉思的罪,他必須改變他的術語贖回(歌羅西書1:14)。 No word in the Christian vocabulary deserves to be held more precious than Redeemer, for even more than Savior it reminds the child of God that his salvation has been purchased at a great and personal cost, for the Lord has given himself for our sins in order to deliver us from them.無字在基督教的詞彙應該舉行更珍貴的不是救贖,更不是救世主,它提醒上帝的孩子,他的救恩已經購買了在一個偉大和個人的成本,這是耶和華了自己,為我們的罪救我們脫離他們。

EF Harrison EF哈里森
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
L. Morris, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross; J. Schneider and C. Brown, NIDNTT, III, 177ff.; O. Procksch et al., TDNT, IV, 328ff.; RJ Banks, ed., Reconciliation and Hope; V. Taylor, Forgiveness and Reconciliation; BB Warfield, The Plan of Salvation; J. Murray, Redemption, Accomplished and Applied; S. Lyonnet and L. Sabourin, Sin, Redemption, and Sacrifice.使徒傳教的十字架莫里斯的影響,J.施耐德C.布朗,NIDNTT,III,177ff。; O. Procksch等,TDNT,IV,328ff。; RJ銀行,編輯,和解與希望;五,泰勒,寬恕與和解,BB沃菲爾德,拯救計劃的J.默里,贖回,,既遂與應用; S. Lyonnet和L.薩布林,善,贖回,和犧牲。


Redemption贖回

Catholic Information 天主教信息

The restoration of man from the bondage of sin to the liberty of the children of God through the satisfactions and merits of Christ.恢復人的自由神的兒女,從罪的捆綁,通過基督的滿意度和優點。

The word redemptio is the Latin Vulgate rendering of Hebrew kopher and Greek lytron which, in the Old Testament means generally a ransom-price.的的字redemptio是拉丁文聖經渲染,希伯來文kopher和希臘LYTRON的的,在舊約中一般是指贖金價格。 In the New Testament, it is the classic term designating the "great price" (1 Corinthians 6:20) which the Redeemer paid for our liberation.在新約中,這是典型的長期指定的“價格”(哥林多前書6:20)的救贖支付我們的解放。 Redemption presupposes the original elevation of man to a supernatural state and his downfall from it through sin; and inasmuch as sin calls down the wrath of God and produces man's servitude under evil and Satan, Redemption has reference to both God and man.贖回的前提是人的原始高程到一個超自然的狀態和他的倒台是從罪來的,因為罪召喚神的忿怒,並產生人的邪惡和撒旦的奴役下,贖回神和人。 On God's part, it is the acceptation of satisfactory amends whereby the Divine honour is repaired and the Divine wrath appeased.神的一部分,它是詞義滿意的補救,修復神的榮耀和神的憤怒安撫。 On man's part, it is both a deliverance from the slavery of sin and a restoration to the former Divine adoption, and this includes the whole process of supernatural life from the first reconciliation to the final salvation.人的部分,既是一種釋放的奴役罪和恢復前的神聖採用,這其中包括超自然的生命的​​全過程,從第一和解的最後的救贖。 That double result, namely God's satisfaction and man's restoration, is brought about by Christ's vicarious office working through satisfactory and meritorious actions performed in our behalf.這種雙重的結果,即上帝的滿意度和人的恢復,帶來基督的工作通過滿意和立功的行動,在我們的代表進行替代辦公室。

I. NEED OF REDEMPTION一,需要救贖

When Christ came, there were throughout the world a deep consciousness of moral depravation and a vague longing for a restorer, pointing to a universally felt need of rehabilitation (see Le Camus, "Life of Christ", I, i).當基督來了,整個世界的道德墮落和一個模糊的嚮往的恢復了深刻的意識,指向一個普遍感到需要康復(看到勒加繆,“基督的生命”,I,I)。 From that subjective sense of need we should not, however, hastily conclude to the objective necessity of Redemption.從主觀意義上的需要,我們不應該,但是,匆忙得出結論的客觀必然性的贖回。 If, as is commonly held against the Traditionalist School, the low moral condition of mankind under paganism or even under the Jewish Law is, in itself, apart from revelation no proof positive of the existence of original sin, still less could it necessitate Redemption.如果普遍持有的對因循守舊學校,低人類道德狀況下異教中,甚至在猶太法律本身,除了啟示,沒有原罪的存在證明,它更可能有必要贖回。 Working on the data of Revelation concerning both original sin and Redemption, some Greek Fathers, like St. Athanasius (De incarnatione, in PG, XXV, 105), St. Cyril of Alexandria (Contra Julianum in PG, LXXV, 925) and St. John Damascene (De fide orthodoxa, in P. G, XCIV, 983), so emphasized the fitness of Redemption as a remedy for original sin as almost to make it appear the sole and necessary means of rehabilitation.啟示的數據,有關原罪和救贖,一些希臘教父,像聖亞他那修(incarnatione,PG,XXV,105),圣西里爾亞歷山大“(魂斗羅PG,LXXV,Julianum 925)和聖。,約翰大馬士革(真正orthodoxa,P. G,第九十四卷,983),強調健身贖回原罪的補救措施幾乎使出現的唯一的和必要的康復手段。 Their sayings, though qualified by the oft-repeated statement that Redemption is a voluntary work of mercy, probably induced St. Anselm (Cur Deus homo, I) to pronounce it necessary in the hypothesis of original sin.他們的說法,雖然經常重複的語句,贖回資格的憐憫,可能引起聖安瑟倫(CUR殺出同性戀,I),發音有必要在設定的原罪是一個自願性的工作。 That view is now commonly rejected, as God was by no means bound to rehabilitate fallen mankind.這種觀點現在普遍拒絕,因為神絕不是墮落人類勢必恢復。 Even in the event of God decreeing, out of his own free volition, the rehabilitation of man, theologians point out other means besides Redemption, vg Divine condonation pure and simple on the sole condition of man's repentance, or, if some measure of satisfaction was required, the mediation of an exalted yet created interagent.即使在發生神下令,走出他自己的自由意志,人的康復,神學家指出了其他手段除了贖回,VG神的寬恕純淨和簡單的唯一條件的人的懺悔,或者,如果一些措施的滿意度需要,的崇高的創建interagent的調解。 In one hypothesis only is Redemption, as described above, deemed absolutely necessary and that is if God should demand an adequate compensation for the sin of mankind.在一個假設贖回,如上所述,是絕對必要的,那就是如果上帝應該要求的充分補償,人類的罪。 The juridical axiom "honor est in honorante, injuria in injuriato" (honour is measured by the dignity of him who gives it, offence by the dignity of him who receives it) shows that mortal sin bears in a way an infinite malice and that nothing short of a person possessing infinite worth is capable of making full amends for it.彌天大罪承擔無限惡意的方式,沒有什麼法律公理“的榮譽EST在honorante,傷害在injuriato”(榮譽是他的尊嚴,誰給它,接受它的人的尊嚴,他的罪行)一個人擁有無限的價值是能夠充分的補償。 True, it has been suggested that such a person might be an angel hypostatically united to God, but, whatever be the merits of this notion in the abstract, St. Paul practically disposes of it with the remark that "both he that sanctifieth, and they who are sanctified, are all of one" (Hebrews 2:11), thus pointing to the God-Man as the real Redeemer.誠然,這已經表明,這樣的人可能是一個天使hypostatically團結起來,上帝,但是,無論是在抽象這個概念的優點,聖保羅實際處置它用這樣的話,“他成聖,他們是聖潔的,是一個“(希伯來書2:11),從而指著神人作為真正的救贖。

II. II。 MODE OF REDEMPTION MODE贖回

The real redeemer is Jesus Christ, who, according to the Nicene creed, "for us men and for our salvation descended from Heaven; and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary and became man. He was also crucified for us, suffered under Pontius Pilate and was buried".真正的救贖,根據尼西亞信經“為我們人類和我們的救恩從天而降;道成肉身由聖靈的聖母瑪利亞而成為人的是耶穌基督,他也被釘在十字架上為我們遭受本丟彼拉多和被埋沒了。“ The energetic words of the Greek text [Denzinger-Bannwart, n.精力充沛的話,希臘文[登青格bannwart,12月31日1652Ň。 86 (47)], enanthropesanta, pathonta, point to incarnation and sacrifice as the groundwork of Redemption. 86(47)],enanthropesanta,pathonta點的化身和犧牲為基礎的贖回。 Incarnation - that is, the personal union of the human nature with the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity - is the necessary basis of Redemption because this, in order to be efficacious, must include as attributions of the one Redeemer both the humiliation of man, without which there would be no satisfaction, and the dignity of God, without which the satisfaction would not be adequate.化身 - 也就是說,個人聯合的人性與天主聖三的第二位 - 是因為這一點,為了有效,必須包括作為一個救贖無論是屈辱的人歸因的必要基礎贖回,沒有這一點,如果沒有這些,就沒有滿意度,上帝的尊嚴的滿意度並不足夠。 "For an adequate satisfaction", says St. Thomas, "it is necessary that the act of him who satisfies should possess an infinite value and proceed from one who is both God and Man" (III:1:2 ad 2um). “對於一個足夠滿意”,聖托馬斯說,“這是必要的,誰滿足他的行為應該具有無限的價值,並繼續從一個誰是神和人”(III:1:2廣告2UM)。 Sacrifice, which always carries with it the idea of suffering and immolation (see Lagrange, "Religions semitiques", 244), is the complement and full expression of Incarnation.犧牲,總是帶著痛苦和自焚的想法(見拉格朗日,“宗教semitiques”,244),是道成肉身的補充和充分的體現。 Although one single theandric operation, owing to its infinite worth, would have sufficed for Redemption, yet it pleased the Father to demand and the Redeemer to offer His labours, passion, and death (John 10:17-18).一個單一的的theandric操作,由於其無限的價值,雖然有足夠的贖回,但它高興的需求和救贖的父親提供他的勞動力,激情和死亡(約翰福音10:17-18)。 St. Thomas (III:46:6 ad 6um) remarks that Christ wishing to liberate man not only by way of power but also by way of justice, sought both the high degree of power which flows from His Godhead and the maximum of suffering which, according to the human standard, would be considered sufficient satisfaction.聖托馬斯(三:46:6廣告6um)的言論,基督希望解放男人,不僅方式的權力,但也通過司法,尋求高度的功率流從他的神性和最大的痛苦,根據人的標準,將被認為是足夠的滿意度。 It is in this double light of incarnation and sacrifice that we should always view the two concrete factors of Redemption, namely, the satisfaction and the merits of Christ.正是在這雙光的化身和犧牲,我們應該隨時查看兩個具體因素的贖回,即滿意度和基督的優點。

A. Satisfaction of Christ A.基督的滿意度

Satisfaction, or the payment of a debt in full, means, in the moral order, an acceptable reparation of honour offered to the person offended and, of course, implies a penal and painful work.滿意度,或支付債務全面,手段,在道德秩序,提供一個可以接受的賠償榮譽的人得罪了,當然,意味著刑罰和痛苦的工作。 It is the unmistakable teaching of Revelation that Christ offered to His heavenly Father His labours, sufferings, and death as an atonement for our sins.這是明白無誤教學的啟示,基督提供給他的天父他的勞動力,痛苦和死亡為贖罪,為我們的罪。 The classical passage of Isaias (lii-liii), the Messianic character of which is recognized by both Rabbinical interpreters and New Testament writers (see Condamin, "Le livre d'Isaie" Paris, 1905), graphically describes the servant of Jahveh, that is the Messias, Himself innocent yet chastized by God, because He took our iniquities upon Himself, His self-oblation becoming our peace and the sacrifice of His life a payment for our transgressions.經典的通道伊薩亞斯(LII,LIII),這是公認的猶太法學博士的口譯員和新約的作者(見Condamin彌賽亞的字符,“樂書”D'Isaïe酒店“巴黎,1905年),生動地描述了僕人的jahveh,是messias,自己無辜chastized的上帝,因為他在他自己身上,他的自我奉獻了我們的罪孽成為我們的和平與犧牲他的生命為我們的過犯付款。 The Son of Man proposes Himself as a model of self-sacrificing love because He "is not come to be ministered unto, but to minister and to give his life a redemption for many" (lytron anti pollon) (Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45).人子提出了自己為模型的自我犧牲的愛,因為他來不是要受人的服事,乃是要服事人,並給他的生活帶來許多“(LYTRON反江勝)贖回(馬太福音20:28;馬克10時45分)。 A similar declaration is repeated on the eve of the Passion at the Last Supper: "Drink ye all of this. For this is my blood of the new testament, which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins" (Matthew 26:27, 28).前夕的激情在最後的晚餐上重複類似的聲明:“你們都喝這一切,因為這是我的血,新的遺囑,應當棚許多你們的罪得赦”(馬太福音26:27, 28)。 In view of this and of the very explicit assertion of St. Peter (1 Peter 1:11) and St. John (1 John 2:2) the Modernists are not justified in contending that "the dogma of Christ's expiatory death is not evangelic but Pauline" (prop. xxxviii condemned by the Holy Office in the Decree "Lamentabili" 3 July, 1907).鑑於此非常明確斷言的聖彼得(彼得前書1:11)和“聖約翰”(約翰一書2:2)現代主義是沒有道理的,在百家爭鳴“的教條是不是福音的基督的贖罪死亡但寶蓮“(提案三十八譴責,羅馬教廷辦公室在法令”lamentabili“7月3日,1907年)。 Twice (1 Corinthians 11:23, 15:3) St. Paul disclaims the authorship of the dogma.兩次(哥林多前書11:23,15:3)聖保祿聲明的作者的教條。 He is, however, of all the New Testament writers, the best expounder of it.他是,但是,所有的新約聖經的作家,它的最好的闡述者。 The redeeming sacrifice of Jesus is the theme and burden of the whole Epistle to the Hebrews' and in the other Epistles which the most exacting critics regard as surely Pauline, there is all but a set theory.耶穌的救贖犧牲的是整個書信的希伯來書“,並在最苛刻的批評者認為肯定寶蓮其他書信的主題和負擔,而是一套理論。 The main passage is Rom., iii, 23 sq.: "For all have sinned, and do need the glory of God. Being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption, that is in Christ Jesus, Whom God hath proposed to be a propitiation, through faith in his blood, to the shewing of his justice, for the remission of former sins."主通道的ROM,三,23平方米:“對於犯了罪,需要神的榮耀。白白的稱義,他的恩典,通過贖回,即在基督耶穌裡的,是神所建議挽回祭,通過信仰他的血液,他的公義顯明的,的緩解前罪。“ Other texts, like Eph., ii, 16; Col., i, 20; and Gal., iii, 13, repeat and emphasize the same teaching.其他文本,弗二,16,20上校,我和Gal,三,13,重複和強調同樣的教學。 The early Fathers, engrossed as they were by the problems of Christology have added but little to the soteriology of the Gospel and St. Paul.早期的教父,全神貫注,因為他們是基督的問題,但很少添加到救世的福音和聖保羅。 It is not true, however, to say with Ritschl (" Die christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung und Versohnung", Bonn, 1889), Harnack ("Precis de l'histoire des dogmes", tr. Paris, 1893), Sabatier ("La doctrine de l'expiation et son evolution historique", Paris, 1903) that they viewed Redemption only as the deification of humanity through incarnation and knew nothing of Christ's vicarious satisfaction.然而,這是不正確的,說與里奇爾(“christliche Lehre馮der Rechtfertigung和Versohnung”,波恩,1889年),哈納克(PRECIS DE L'HISTOIRE德dogmes“,TR。巴黎,1893年),薩巴蒂爾(”學說DE L'贖罪等兒子進化HISTORIQUE“,巴黎,1903年),他們認為只能作為人類的神化贖回通過的化身,也不知道基督的替代滿意。 "An impartial inquiry", says Riviere, "clearly shows two tendencies: one idealistic, which views salvation more as the supernatural restoration of mankind to an immortal and Divine life, the other realistic, which considers it rather as the expiation of our sins through the death of Christ. The two tendencies run side by side with an occasional contact, but at no time did the former completely absorb the latter, and in course of time, the realistic view became preponderant" (Le dogme de la redemption, p. 209). “公正的調查”,里維耶爾說,“清楚地表明兩種傾向:一種有理想,有意見的拯救人類的超自然的恢復不朽的和神聖的生命,其他的現實,認為它,而通過贖我們的罪基督的死。這兩種傾向並排,一個偶然的接觸,但在任何時候都不完全前者吸收了後者,隨著時間的推移,現實的觀點成為優勢“(LE dogme德拉贖回,P。 209)。 St. Anselm's famous treatise "Cur Deus homo" may be taken as the first systematic presentation of the doctrine of Redemption, and, apart from the exaggeration noted above, contains the synthesis which became dominant in Catholic theology.聖安瑟倫的著名論文“當前殺出同源”可能採取的第一個系統的介紹了救贖的教義,除了從誇張上面提到的,包含在天主教神學成為佔主導地位的合成。 Far from being adverse to the satisfactio vicaria popularized by St. Anselm, the early Reformers accepted it without question and even went so far as to suppose that Christ endured the pains of hell in our place.遠從不利的滿意度vicaria的推廣聖安瑟倫,接受早期改革者沒有問題,,竟然假設,基督忍受地獄的痛苦,在我們的地方。 If we except the erratic views of Abelard, Socinus (d. 1562) in his "de Deo servatore" was the first who attempted to replace the traditional dogma of Christ's vicarious satisfaction by a sort of purely ethical exemplarism.如果我們除了不穩定的阿貝拉爾,索齊尼(卒於1562年)在他的“德迪奧servatore”是第一個試圖取代了傳統的教條由的純道德exemplarism的一種基督的替代滿意的。 He was and is still followed by the Rationalist School which sees in the traditional theory all but defined by the Church, a spirit of vindictiveness unworthy of God and a subversion of justice in substituting the innocent for the guilty.他和定義的代無辜的罪人的教會,神鬥氣不值得的精神和正義的一種顛覆傳統的理論認為,在理性主義的學校,還在其次。 The charge of vindictiveness, a piece of gross anthropomorphism, comes from confounding the sin of revenge and the virtue of justice.負責的鬥氣,一塊總的擬人化,從混雜的罪,復仇和正義的美德。 The charge of injustice ignores the fact that Jesus, the juridical head of mankind (Ephesians 1:22), voluntarily offered Himself (John 10:15), that we might be saved by the grace of one Saviour even as we had been lost by the fault of the one Adam (Romans 5:15).不公正的負責人忽略了一個事實,人類的司法頭(以弗所書1:22),耶穌自願提供自己(約翰福音10:15),我們可能會保存一個救世主的恩典,即使我們已經失去的故障的亞當(羅馬書5:15)。 It would be a crude conception indeed to suppose that the guilt or culpability of men passed from the consciences of men to the conscience of Christ: the penalty alone was voluntarily assumed by the Redeemer and, in paying it, He washed away our sins and restored us to our former supernatural state and destination.這將是一個粗略的概念確實想從人的良心,內疚或罪責的人通過基督的良心:自願承擔的刑罰單獨的救贖,在繳納時,他沖走我們的罪和恢復我們以我們以前的超自然的狀態和目標。

B. Merits of Christ B.基督的優點

Satisfaction is not the only object and value of Christ's theandric operations and sufferings; for these, beside placating God, also benefit man in several ways.滿意度是不是唯一的對象和值的基督的theandric的業務和痛苦,旁邊安撫神,也有利於男子在幾個方面。 They possess, in the first place, the power of impetration or intercession which is proper to prayer, according to John, xi, 42: "And I knew that thou hearest me always."擺在首位,祈望或代禱,這是正確的祈禱的力量,他們擁有根據約翰,十一,42:“我知道你聽見我總是”。 However, as satisfaction is the main factor of Redemption with regard to God's honour, so man's restoration is due principally to the merits of Christ.然而,隨著滿意度的主要因素是救贖之神的榮耀,所以男人的恢復,主要是由於基督的優點。 That merit, or the quality which makes human acts worthy of a reward at the hands of another, attaches to the works of the Redeemer, is apparent from the easily ascertained presence in them of the usual conditions of merit, namely這一優點,或使人類的行為是值得的報酬在他人之手的質量,高度的救世主的作品,是從容易確定他們在普通條件下的優點,即

the wayfarer state (John 1:14);旅人狀態(約翰福音1:14);

moral liberty (John 10:18);道德的自由“(約翰福音10:18);

conformity to the ethical standard (John 8:29); and符合道德標準(約翰福音8:29);

Divine promise (Isaiah 53:10).神的承諾(以賽亞書53:10)。

Christ merited for Himself, not indeed grace nor essential glory which were both attached and due to the Hypostatic Union, but accidental honour (Hebrews 2:9) and the exaltation of His name (Phil., ii, 9-10).基督值得為自己,的確不是恩典也沒有必要附加和本質的聯盟的榮耀,但意外的榮譽“(希伯來書2:9),他的名字(腓立比書的提高,二,9-10)。 He also merited for us.他也值得我們。 Such Biblical phrases as to receive "of his fulness" (John 1:16), to be blessed with His blessings (Ephesians 1:3), to be made alive in Him (1 Corinthians 15:22), to owe Him our eternal salvation (Hebrews 5:9) clearly imply a communication from Him to us and that at least by way of merit.這種聖經短語,“從他豐滿的”(約翰福音1:16),他的祝福與被祝福(以弗所書1:3),要活在他(哥林多前書15:22),欠他的永恆救贖(希伯來書5:9)清楚地從他身上我們,至少意味著通信方式的優點。 The Council of Florence [Decretum pro Jacobitis, Denzinger-Bannwart, n.理事會佛羅倫薩Decretum親Jacobitis,登青格bannwart,12月31日1652 N。 711 (602)] credits man's deliverance from the domination of Satan to the merit of the Mediator, and the Council of Trent (Sess. V, cc. iii, vii, xvi and canons iii, x) repeatedly connects the merits of Christ and the development of our supernatural life in its various phases. 711(602)]學分男人的解脫,從撒旦的統治調解員的優點,並反复理事會的遄達(sess.五,CC。三,七,十六和大砲三,X)連接基督的優點,在其各個階段的發展,我們的超自然的生命。 Canon iii of Session V says anathema to whoever claims that original sin is cancelled otherwise than by the merits of one Mediator, Our Lord Jesus Christ, and canon x of Session VI defines that man cannot merit without the justice through which Christ merited our justification.佳能第三第五節說詛咒誰聲稱原罪被取消,否則比1中保,我們的主耶穌基督,和佳能x第六節的優點定義,人可以不值得沒有的正義,通過它基督值得我們的理由。

The objects of Christ's merits for us are the supernatural gifts lost by sin, that is, grace (John 1:14, l6) and salvation (1 Corinthians 15:22); the preternatural gifts enjoyed by our first parents in the state of innocence are not, at least in this world, restored by the merits of Redemption, as Christ wishes us to suffer with Him in order that we may be glorified with Him (Romans 8:17).基督的功勞我們的對象是失去了超自然的禮物又是從罪來的,那就是,“恩典”(約翰福音1:14,16)和救贖(哥林多前書15:22);超自然的禮物,我們的第一個父母在享受純真的狀態不,至少在這個世界上,恢復贖回的優點,正如基督希望我們和他一同受苦,我們可能會和他一同得榮耀(羅馬書8:17)。 St. Thomas explaining how Christ's merits pass on to us, says: Christ merits for others as other men in the state of grace merit for themselves (III:48:1).聖托馬斯解釋如何傳遞給我們的基督的功勞,說:基督值得其他人,其他人在為自己國家的恩典的優點(III:48:1)。 With us merits are essentially personal.隨著我們的優點是基本上是個人的。 Not so with Christ who, being the head of our race (Ephesians 4:15-5:23), has, on that score, the unique prerogative of communicating to the subordinate personal members the Divine life whose source He is.事實並非如此,基督,我們的比賽的頭(以弗所書4:15-5:23),在這一點上,傳達給下屬個人會員的神聖生命的來源,他是唯一的特權。 "The same motion of the Holy Ghost", says Schwalm, "which impels us individually through the various stages of grace toward life eternal, impels Christ but as the leader of all; and so the same law of efficacious Divine motion governs the individuality of our merits and the universality of Christ's merits" (Le Christ, 422). “同樣的聖靈運動”說,施瓦姆,“這促使我們單獨的各個階段的恩典,對推動基督永恆的生命,但所有的領導者;等同樣有效的神聖運動規律支配的個性我們的優點和普遍性“(422)樂基督,基督的功勞。 It is true that the Redeemer associates others to Himself "For the perfecting of the saints, . . . for the edifying of the body of Christ" (Ephesians 4:12), but their subordinate merit is only a matter of fitness and creates no right, whereas Christ, on the sole ground of His dignity and mission can claim for us a participation in His Divine privileges.這是真正的救贖聯營他人以自己的“完善的聖人,盡其職,建立基督的身體”(以弗所書4:12),但其下屬的優點是健身的問題,並創建無正確的,而基督的唯一理由是他的尊嚴和使命,可以要求我們參與他的神聖的特權。

All admit, in Christ's meritorious actions, a moral influence moving God to confer on us the grace through which we merit.所有承認,在基督的立功行為,道德的影響,感動上帝賦予我們的恩典,通過它我們值得。 Is that influence merely moral or does it effectively concur in the production of grace? ,只是道德影響,它有效地同意在生產的恩典嗎? From such passages as Luke, vi 19, "virtue went out from him", the Greek Fathers insist much on the dynamis zoopoios or vis vivifica, of the Sacred Humanity, and St. Thomas (III:48:6) speaks of a sort of efficientia whereby the actions and passions of Christ, as vehicle of the Divine power, cause grace by way of instrumental force.從這些通道的盧克,六19,“美德去從他身上”,希臘的父親堅持多潛能zoopoios或相vivifica的,神聖的人性,和聖托馬斯(三:48:6)的一種說話的efficientia,基督的行動和激情,車輛的神聖的權力,導致恩典的工具的力量。 Those two modes of action do not exclude each other: the same act or set of acts of Christ may be and probably is endowed with twofold efficiency, meritorious on account of Christ's personal dignity, dynamic on account of His investment with Divine power.這兩種模式的行動不排除對方:同樣的行為,或設置可能會和基督的行為可能被賦予了雙重效率,工作表現基督的個人尊嚴,動態帳戶的神聖權力,他的投資帳戶。

III. III。 ADEQUACY OF REDEMPTION充足的救贖

Redemption is styled by the "Catechism of the Council of Trent" (1, v, 15) "complete, integral in all points, perfect and truly admirable".贖回安理會的遄達“問答”(一,五,15)“完整的,不可分割的所有點,完美,令人欽佩”的風格。 Such is the teaching of St. Paul: "where sin abounded, grace did more abound" (Romans 5:20), that is, evil as the effects of sin are, they are more than compensated by the fruits of Redemption.這是教學的聖保羅:“罪在哪裡顯多,恩典就更顯多了”(羅馬書5:20),也就是邪惡的罪惡所造成的影響是,他們更贖回的成果而得到補償。 Commenting on that passage St. Chrysostom (Hom. X in Rom., in PG, LX, 477) compares our liability to a drop of water and Christ's payment to the vast ocean.在談到這條通道聖金口(Hom. 3時X的光盤,PG,LX,477)比較,我們的責任下降水和基督的支付浩瀚的海洋。 The true reason for the adequacy and even superabundance of Redemption is given by St. Cyril of Alexandria: "One died for all . . . but there was in that one more value than in all men together, more even than in the whole creation, for, beside being a perfect man, He remained the only son of God" (Quod unus sit Christus, in PG, LXXV, 135fi).圣西里爾亞歷山大的真正原因是否充足,甚至過剩的贖回:“替眾人死......但有一個更大的價值比所有的人,甚至比在整個創作, ,旁邊是一個完美的人,他依然是唯一的神的兒子“(狴聯合國大學坐CHRISTUS,PG,LXXV,135fi)。 St. Anselm (Cur Deus homo, II, xviii) is probably the first writer who used the word "infinite," in connection with the value of Redemption: "ut sufficere possit ad solvendum quod pro peccatis totius mundi debetur et plus in infinitum".聖安瑟倫(當前殺出同性戀,二,十八)可能是第一個與贖回價值的作家,誰使用“無限”,“UT sufficere possit廣告solvendum狴親peccatis totius蒙迪debetur等加在無限” 。 This way of speaking was strongly opposed by John Duns Scotus and his school on the double plea that the Humanity of Christ is finite and that the qualification of infinite would make all Christ's actions equal and place each of them on the same level with His sublime surrender in the Garden and on Calvary.這種說話的方式是強烈反對的約翰鄧司各脫和他的學校上的雙重請求,人類的基督是有限的和,無限的資格將讓所有基督的行動平等和將他們每個人在同一水平上與他的崇高投降在花園裡,在各各他。 However the word and the idea passed into current theology and were even officially adopted by Clement VI (Extravag. Com. Unigenitus, V, IX, 2), the reason given by the latter, "propter unionem ad Verbum", being the identical one adduced by the Fathers.然而,這個詞的想法傳遞到目前的神學和,甚至正式通過VI克萊門特(,V Extravag. COM。Unigenitus,IX,2),後者給出的理由,“propter的unionem廣告拉丁文字語言”,是相同的所引證的父親。 If It is true that; according to the axiom "actiones sunt suppositorum", the value of actions is measured by the dignity of the person who performs them and whose expression and coefficient they are, then the theandric operations must be styled and are infinite because they proceed from an infinite person.如果這是真的,根據公理的“actiones必須遵守suppositorum”,是衡量價值的行動執行它們的人的尊嚴的表達和係數,,然後theandric操作必須的風格和無限的,因為一個無限的人,他們的出發點。 Scotus's theory wherein the infinite intrinsic worth of the theandric operations is replaced by the extrinsic acceptation of God, is not altogether proof against the charge of Nestorianism leveled at it by Catholics like Schwane and Rationalists like Harnack.其中的無限內在價值的theandric操作司各脫的理論所取代神的外在驗收的,也不是完全抵抗的收費水平在它的天主教徒Schwane像哈納克和理性的景教。 His arguments proceed from a double confusion between the person and the nature, between the agent and the objective conditions of the act.他的論點進行人與自然之間的代理和客觀條件的行為,從雙方寸之間。 The Sacred Humanity of Christ is, no doubt the immediate principle of Christ's satisfactions and merits, but that principle (principium quo) being subordinate to the Person of the Word (principium quod), borrows from it the ultimate and fixed value, in the present case infinite, of the actions it performs.的神聖人性的基督是毫無疑問的即時原則的基督的滿意度和優點,但這一原則(原理不變)下屬的字(原理狴)的人,借用它的最終和固定值,在目前的情況下無限的,它執行的操作。 On the other hand, there is in Christ's actions, as in our own, a double aspect, the personal and the objective: in the first aspect only are they uniform and equal while, viewed objectively, they must needs vary with the nature, circumstances, and finality of the act.在另一方面,在基督的行動,因為在我們自己的,一個雙方面的,個人的和目標:在第一個方面僅是他們統一的和平等的,同時,觀察客觀,他們必須需要的不同性質,情節和終局性的行為。

From the adequacy and even superabundance of Redemption as viewed in Christ our Head, it might be inferred that there is neither need nor use of personal effort on our part towards the performance of satisfactory works or the acquisition of merits.充足,甚至過剩的贖回在基督裡看我們的頭,它可以推斷,是既不需要也不使用個人的努力向我們的表現滿意的作品或收購的優點。 But the inference would be fallacious.但是,推斷是錯誤的。 The law of cooperation, which obtains all through the providential order, governs this matter particularly.這個問題,特別是合作,獲得通過天賜的順序,法律的管轄。 It is only through, and in the measure of, our co-operation that we appropriate to ourselves the satisfactions and merits of Christ.只有通過和措施,我們的合作,我們適當的對自己的滿意度和基督的優點。 When Luther, after denying human liberty on which all good works rest, was driven to the makeshift of "fiducial faith" as the sole means of appropriating the fruits of Redemption, he not only fell short of, but also ran counter to, the plain teaching of the New Testament calling upon us to deny ourselves and carry our cross (Matthew 16:24), to walk in the footsteps of the Crucified (1 Peter 2:21), to suffer with Christ in order to be glorified with Him (Rom. viii, 17), in a word to fill up those things that are wanting to the sufferings of Christ (Colossians 1:24).當路德否認人類自由的行各樣的善事休息,驅車前往臨時搭建的的“基準信仰”作為唯一的手段,挪用的成果贖回後,他不僅不及,但也背道而馳,平原教學的新約聖經,我們呼籲否認自己隨身攜帶的十字架(馬太福音16:24),走的腳步(彼得前書2:21),釘在十字架上受苦與基督同在,與他一同得榮耀(羅。八,17),總之,以填補那些東西,是想與基督一同受苦(歌羅西書1:24)。 Far from detracting from the perfection of Redemption, our daily efforts toward the imitation of Christ are the test of its efficacy and the fruits of its fecundity.從降低完善贖回,我們每天努力的模仿基督的試驗,其療效和水果,其繁殖力。 "All our glory", says the Council of Trent, "is in Christ in whom we live, and merit, and satisfy, doing worthy fruits of penance which from Him derive their virtue, by Him are presented to the Father, and through Him find acceptance with God" (Sess. XIV, c. viii) “我們所有的榮耀”,安理會的遄達說,“是我們生活的人在基督裡,和優點,滿足,做無愧于水果的懺悔,這從他獲得他們的美德,由他的父親,並通過他發現接受與神的“達(sess.十四,第八)

IV. IV。 UNIVERSALITY OF REDEMPTION普遍性的贖回

Whether the effects of Redemption reached out to the angelic world or to the earthly paradise is a disputed point among theologians.贖回的影響是否達到了天使般的世界,人間天堂,是一個有爭議的點之間的神學家。 When the question is limited to fallen man it has a clear answer in such passages as I John, ii, 2; I Tim.當問題僅限於墮落的人,它有一個明確的答案,在這樣的通道,約翰一,二,我添。 ii, 4, iv, 10; II Cor., v, 16; etc., all bearing out the Redeemer's intention to include in His saving work the universality of men without exception.二,四,四,10;二肺心病。,V,16等等,都承載了救世主的打算,包括在他的節能工作的普遍性的男人無一例外。 Some apparently restrictive texts like Matt., xx, 28 xxvi, 28; Rom., v, 15; Heb., ix, 28, where the words "many" (Multi), "more" (plures), are used in reference to the extent of Redemption, should be interpreted in the sense of the Greek phrase no pollon, which means the generality of men, or by way of comparison, not between a portion of mankind included in, and another left out of, Redemption, but between Adam and Christ.像Matt一些看似狹義的文本,XX,28二十六,28,羅,V,15;來,九,28日的話“多”(多模),“多”(plures),用的都是參考贖回的程度,應解釋在這個意義上,希臘短語,江勝,這意味著男人的一般性的原則,通過比較,不包括在人類之間的部分,而另一個留出,贖回,但亞當和基督之間。 In the determination of the many problems that arose from time to time in this difficult matter, the Church was guided by the principle laid down in the Synod of Quierzy [Denzinger-Bannwart n.在確定出現的許多問題,從時間,以時間在這困難的事情,教會主教的Quierzy [登青格BannwartŇ規定的原則指導下。 319 (282)] and the Council of Trent [Sess. 319(282)和理事會的遄達[階段作業。 VI, c. VI。 iii, Denzinger-Bannwart, n.三,登青格bannwart,12月31日1652Ň。 795 (677)] wherein a sharp line is drawn between the power of Redemption and its actual application in particular cases. 795(677)],其中一個尖銳的線之間繪製救贖的力量,在特殊情況下的實際應用。 The universal power has been maintained against the Predestinarians and Calvinists who limited Redemption to the predestinated (cf. the councils named above), and against the Jansenists who restricted it to the faithful or those who actually come to faith [prop.通用的電源一直保持著對Predestinarians和calvinists限制贖回的豫定(參見上面提到的議會),對詹森主義限制了它的忠實或究竟是誰的信仰[道具。 4 and 5, condemned by Alexander VIII, in Denzinger-Bannwart, 1294-5 (1161-2)] and the latter's contention that it is a Semi-Pelagian error to say that Christ died for all men has been declared heretical [Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1096 (970)]. 4和5​​,譴責,在-Bannwart登青格亞歷山大第八1294-5(1161-2)],後者的論點說,基督的死為所有的人,這是一個半伯拉糾主義的錯誤已被宣布為異端[登青格bannwart,12月31日1652 n.1096(970)]。 The opinion of Vasquez and a few theologians, who placed children dying without baptism outside the pale of Redemption, is commonly rejected in Catholic schools.通常認為瓦斯奎茲和一些神學家,誰把奄奄一息的孩子沒有洗禮蒼白的贖回外,在天主教學校拒絕。 In such cases no tangible effects of Redemption can be shown, but this is no reason for pronouncing them outside the redeeming virtue of Christ.在這種情況下,沒有明顯的效果,贖回可以顯示,但是,這是沒有理由的發音以外的基督救贖的美德。 They are not excluded by any Biblical text.他們不排除任何聖經的文本。 Vasquez appeals to I Tim., ii, 3-6, to the effect that those children, not having any means or even possibility to come to the knowledge of the truth, do not seem to be included in the saving will of God.瓦斯奎茲呼籲我添。,二,3-6,到這些兒童的影響,不具有任何手段,甚至可能來對真理的認識,似乎並沒有被包括在神的旨意的節能。 If applied to infants at all, the text would exclude likewise those who, as a matter of fact, receive baptism.如果在所有適用於嬰幼兒,文本也將排除的人,事實上,接受洗禮。 It is not likely that Redemption would seek adults laden with personal sins and omit infants labouring under original sin only.這是不太可能的贖回將尋求成人滿載著個人的罪,而忽略原罪下的嬰兒勞動。 Far better say with St. Augustine: "Numquid parvuli homines non sunt, ut non pertineat ad eos quod dictum est: vult omnes salvos fieri?"遠東更好的聖奧古斯丁說:“Numquid parvuli homines非必須遵守,UT非pertineat廣告EOS狴格言估計:vult義務齊射抄嗎?” (Contra Julianum, IV, xiii). (魂斗羅Julianum,四,十三)。 With regard to the de facto application of Redemption in particular cases, it is subject to many conditions, the principal being human liberty and the general laws which govern the world both natural and supernatural.事實上在特殊情況下贖回申請的,它是受很多條件,主要是人的自由和統治世界自然和超自然的一般規律。 The Universalists' contention that all should finally be saved lest Redemption be a failure is not only unsupported by, but also opposed to, the New Dispensation which far from suppressing the general laws of the natural order, places in the way of salvation many indispensable conditions or laws of a freely established supernatural order.的Universalists的爭奪,最終都應該被保存,以免贖回是失敗的,不僅是不支持的,但也反對,新的豁免遠離抑制的自然秩序的一般規律,救贖之路的地方,許多必不可少的條件或法律的自由建立了超自然的秩序。 Neither should we be moved by the reproaches of failure often flung at Redemption on the plea that, after nineteen centuries of Christianity, a comparatively small portion of mankind has heard the voice of the Good Shepherd (John 10:16) and a still smaller fraction has entered the true fold. ,無論我們應該失敗的辱罵,經常扔在贖回的請求後,19世紀的基督教,相對小部分的人類聽到的聲音,好牧人(約翰福音10:16)和更小的部分移動已進入真實倍。 It was not within God's plan to illumine the world with the light of the Incarnate Word at once, since he waited thousands of years to send the Desired of the Nations.這不是一次的道成肉身的光去照亮世界在神的計劃,因為他等待了千百年來發送所需的國家。 The laws of progress which obtain everywhere else govern also the Kingdom of God.的進展,在其他地方取得的法律也制約著神的國度。 We have no criterion whereby we can tell with certainty the success or failure of Redemption, and the mysterious influence of the Redeemer may reach farther than we think in the present as it certainly has a retroactive effect upon the past.我們沒有標準,據此,我們可以告訴確定性的成功或失敗的贖回,神秘的影響可能達到更遠的救贖在目前的比我們想像的,因為它在過去肯定有追溯效力。 There can be no other meaning to the very comprehensive terms of Revelation.有沒有其他的意思非常全面的啟示。 The graces accorded by God to the countless generations preceding the Christian era, whether Jews or Pagans, were, by anticipation, the graces of Redemption.前基督教時代的無數代神所給予的恩典,無論是猶太人或外邦人,是的青睞,預期贖回。 There is little sense in the trite dilemma that Redemption could benefit neither those who were already saved nor those who were forever lost, for the just of the Old Law owed their salvation to the anticipated merits of the coming Messias and the damned lost their souls because they spurned the graces of illumination and good will which God granted them in prevision of the saving works of the Redeemer.有什麼意義中的陳腐的困境,贖回,既可以造福那些已經保存的,也沒有誰是永遠的失去了,舊法的欠他們的救恩的預期優點,在未來的彌賽亞,和倒霉的失去了自己的靈魂,因為他們唾棄的照明和良好的意願,上帝賦予他們預知的節能工程的救贖的恩典。

V. TITLE AND OFFICES OF THE REDEEMER五,TITLE和辦公室的救世主

Besides the names Jesus, Saviour, Redeemer, which directly express the work of Redemption, there are other titles commonly attributed to Christ because of certain functions or offices which are either implied in or connected with Redemption, the principal being Priest, Prophet, King and Judge.除了名字救主,耶穌,救贖,直接體現救贖的工作,還有其他的產品通常歸因於基督,因為某些功能或辦事處,或暗示或與贖回,主要是祭司,先知,國王和法官。

Priest牧師

The sacerdotal office of the Redeemer is thus described by Manning (The Eternal Priesthood, 1):僧侶辦公室的救世主曼寧(永恆的職,1)是這樣描述的:

What is the Priesthood of the Incarnate Son?什麼是道成肉身的聖子的聖職嗎? It is the office He assumed for the Redemption of the world by the oblation of Himself in the vestment of our manhood.這是在辦公室,他承擔的贖回自己獻的法衣我們的男人的世界。 He is Altar, Victim and Priest by an eternal consecration of Himself.他是一個永恆的奉獻自己的壇,受害者和牧師。 This is the priesthood forever after the order of Melchisedek who was without beginning of days or end of life &151; a type of the eternal priesthood of the son of God.這是永遠的祭司麥基洗德是誰的天沒有開始或結束生命&151;類型的永恆的神的兒子祭司的順序。

As sacrifice, if not by the nature of things, at least by the positive ordinance of God, is part of Redemption, the Redeemer must be a priest, for it is the function of the priest to offer sacrifice.作為犧牲,如果不是事物的本質,至少在神的積極條例,是救贖的一部分,救贖者必須是一個牧師,因為它的功能是,向犧牲的神父。 In an endeavour to induce the newly converted Jews to abandon the defective Aaronic priesthood and to cling to the Great High Priest who entered heaven, St. Paul in his Epistle to the Hebrews, extols the dignity of Christ's sacerdotal office.在努力促使新轉換的猶太人放棄有缺陷的亞倫聖職和固守的大祭司進入了天堂,聖保羅在他的書信的希伯來人,頌揚人的尊嚴基督僧侶辦公室的。 His consecration as a priest took place, not from all eternity and through the procession of the Word from the Father, as some of the theologians seem to imply, but in the fulness of time and through the Incarnation, the mysterious unction which made Him priest being none else than the Hypostatic Union.他作為一個牧師的神聖的地方,從所有永恆的遊行隊伍從父親的話語,一些神學家似乎在暗示,但在豐富的時間和通過的化身,神秘的津津有味,這使他牧師沒有別的比本質的聯盟。 His great sacrificial act was performed on Calvary by the oblation of Himself on the Cross, is continued on earth by the Sacrifice of the Mass and consummated in heaven through the sacrificial intention of the priest and the glorified wounds of the victim.在各各他自己在十字架上所獻的,他的偉大的犧牲行為繼續在地球上所犧牲的質量和,通過犧牲意向的牧師和榮耀的受害者的傷口在天上完善。 The Christian priesthood, to which is committed the dispensation of the mysteries of God, is not a substitute for, but the prolongation of, the priesthood of Christ: He continues to be the offerer and the oblation; all that the consecrated and consecrating priests do in their ministerial capacity, is to "show forth the death of the Lord" and apply the merits of His Sacrifice.基督教神職人員,致力於免除神的奧秘,是不能代替,但延長的,基督的聖職:他仍然是發貨和奉獻,所有的奉獻和祝聖神父在他們的執政能力,就是要“彰顯主的死亡”和適用的優點,他的犧牲。

Prophet先知

The title of Prophet applied by Moses (Deuteronomy 18:15) to the coming Messias and recognized as a valid claim by those who heard Jesus (Luke 7:10), means not only the foretelling of future events, but also in a general way the mission of teaching men in the name of God.標題的先知摩西(申18:15)未來的彌賽亞,並確認為有效的索賠聽到耶穌(路7:10),不僅意味著預言的未來事件,但在一般的方式的使命,教人以上帝的名義。 Christ was a Prophet in both senses.基督是在兩種意義上的先知。 His prophecies concerning Himself, His disciples, His Church, and the Jewish nation, are treated in manuals of apologetics (see McIlvaine, "Evidences of Christianity", lect. V-VI, Lescoeur, "Jésus-Christ", 12e conféer.: Le Prophète).他的預言關於他自己,他的弟子,他的教會,和猶太民族,被視為護手冊(McIlvaine,“證據的基督教信仰”,LECT V-VI,萊斯克爾,“耶穌 - 基督”,12Econféer。樂Prophète)。 His teaching power (Matthew 7:29), a necessary attribute of His Divinity, was also an integrant part of Redemption.他的師資力量(馬太福音7:29),他的神性的必要屬性,也是一個構成要素的贖回。 He who came "to seek and to save that which was lost" (Luke 19:10) should possess every quality, Divine and human, that goes to make the efficient teacher.他來了“為要尋找,拯救失喪的人”(路加福音19:10)應具備的一切品質,神和人,“使有效的教師。 What Isaias (Iv, 4) foretold, "Behold I have given him for a witness to the people, for a leader and a master to the Gentiles", finds its full realization in the history of Christ.伊薩亞斯(四)預言:“看哪,我已經給了他一個見證的人,一個領導者和主的外邦人”在歷史上的基督,發現它的充分實現。 A perfect knowledge of the things of God and of man's needs, Divine authority and human sympathy, precept and example combine to elicit from all generations the praise bestowed on Him by His hearers - "never did man speak like this man" (John 7:46).一個完美的知識的神和人的需求,神聖的權威和人的同情的事情,言傳身教相結合,以引起所有世代的一致好評賦予對他由他的聽眾 - “從來沒有男人說話喜歡這個人”(約翰福音第7章: 46)。

King

The kingly title frequently bestowed on the Messias by the Old Testament writers (Ps. ii, 0; Is. ix, 6, etc.) and openly claimed by Jesus in Pilate's Court (John 18:37) belongs to Him not only in virtue of the Hypostatic Union but also by way of conquest and as a result of Redemption (Luke 1:32).王道標題經常賦予的messias在舊約作家(詩二,0;。九,6,等),並公開聲稱耶穌在“彼拉多的法院”(約翰福音18:37),屬於他不僅憑藉本質的聯盟,但也通過征服和贖回的結果(路加福音1:32)。 Whether or not the temporal dominion of the universe belonged to His royal power, it is certain that He understood His Kingdom to be of a higher order than the kingdoms of the world (John 18:36).不論在時間的宇宙屬於他的王權的統治,可以肯定的是,他明白了他的王國是一個更高層次比王國的世界(約翰福音18:36)。 The spiritual kingship of Christ is essentially characterized by its final object which is the supernatural welfare of men, its ways and means which are the Church and the sacraments, its members who are only such as, through grace, have acquired the title of adopted children of God.其最終目的,這是超自然的福利的男人,其方式和手段,是教會和聖禮,基督的精神王權的本質特徵,其成員只有這樣,通過恩典的人,已經獲得了標題領養的子女神。 Supreme and universal, it is subordinate to no other and knows no limitations of either time or place.最高法院和普遍的,它是從屬於沒有其他的和不知道的時間或地點的限制。 While the kingly functions of Christ are not always performed visibly as in earthly kingdoms, it would be wrong to think of His Kingdom as a merely ideal system of thought.雖然基督的王道功能的並不總是表現明顯在地上的王國,它會錯誤地認為,他的王國,作為一個純粹的理想的系統思想。 Whether viewed in this world or in the next, the "Kingdom of God" is essentially hierarchic, its first and last stage, that is, its constitution in the Church and its consummation in the final judgment, being official and visible acts of the King.在這個世界上,或在未來,無論是觀看“神的國度”本質上是層次,它的第一個和最後一個階段,也就是它的憲法在教會及其完善的終審判決中,官方和可見的行為之王。

Judge法官

The Judicial office so emphatically asserted in the New Testament (Matthew 25:31; 26:64; John 5:22 sq.; Acts 10:42) and early symbols [Denzinger-Bannwart, nn.司法辦公室,強調在新約聖經(馬太福音25:31; 26:64;約翰福音5:22平方米;使徒行傳10:42),早期符號登青格bannwart,12月31日1652 NN。 1-41 (1-13)] belongs to Christ in virtue of His Divinity and Hypostatic Union and also as a reward of Redemption. 1-41(1-13)屬於基督,憑藉他的神性和本質的聯盟,也可以作為獎勵的贖回。 Seated at the right hand of God, in token not only of rest after the labours of His mortal life or of glory after the humiliations of His Passion or of happiness after the ordeal of Golgotha, but also of true judicial power (St. Augustine, "De fide et symbolo", in PL, XL, 188), He judges the living and the dead.坐在神的右邊,在令牌的休息後,不僅他的凡人生活的榮耀後的屈辱,他的激情和快樂的磨難後的各各的勞動,但也真正的司法權(聖奧古斯丁, “善意等symbolo”,PL,XL,188),他判斷活人與死人的。 His verdict inaugurated in each individual conscience will become final at the particular judgment and receive a solemn and definitive recognition at the assizes of the last judgment.他在每一個人的良心開幕的判決將成為最終在特定的判斷,在最後的審判的審判中收到一個莊嚴而明確的認識。 (See ATONEMENT.) (見贖罪。)

Publication information Written by JF Sollier.出版信息作者:JF Sollier。 Transcribed by William O'Meara.轉錄由威廉·歐米拉。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.天主教百科全書,卷十二。 Published 1911.發布時間1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

OXENHAM, The Atonement (London, 1881); RlVIERE, Le dogme de la Redemption (Paris 1905); HUGON, Le mystere de la Redemption (Paris, 1910); GRIMAL, Le sacerdoce et 1e sacrifice (Paris, 1911); HUNTER, Outlines of dogmatic theology (New York 1894); WILHELM AND SCANNELL, Manual of Catholic theology (London, ;901); TANQUERET, Synopsis theologiae dogmaticae specialis (Rome, Tournai Paris, 1909); with a good bibliography II, 404, and passim; RITTER, Christus der Erloser (Linz, 1903); MUTH, Heilstadt Christi als stelloertretende Genugthuung (Ratisbon, 1904).奧克斯納姆,贖罪日(倫敦,1881年); RlVIERE,樂dogme德拉贖回(巴黎1905年);於貢,樂mystere DE LA的贖回(巴黎,1910年); GRIMAL,樂sacerdoce等1E犧牲(巴黎,1911年); HUNTER,綱要的一個很好的參考書目II,404,和各處教條式的神學(紐約1894年),威廉和斯坎內爾,天主教神學(倫敦,手冊; 901); TANQUERET,的簡介theologiae dogmaticae特別(圖爾奈巴黎,羅馬,1909年); RITTER,CHRISTUS:DER Erloser(林茨,1903年);穆斯,Heilstadt斯蒂ALS stelloertretende Genugthuung(拉蒂斯邦,1904年)。



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