Orthodox Church Listing of Synods and Councils東正教主教會議和議會上市

General Information 一般資料

Council at Jerusalem (not counted in the Councils) 48-51 AD 在耶路撒冷 (不計在安理會)48-51 AD
About Judaisers.關於猶太教信仰。 Saints James, Peter, Paul, and Barnabas were involved.聖徒雅各,彼得,保羅和巴拿巴參與。 Described in the Acts of the Apostles [15:6-29].中描述的行為的使徒[15:6-29]。 Led by Saint James ("the brother of the Lord"), bishop of Jerusalem.聖詹姆斯(“主的兄弟”),耶路撒冷主教的帶領下。 Determined that Gentile converts did not have to embrace Judaism to be Christians.確定詹蒂萊轉換沒有接受猶太教是基督徒。

Council at Carthage local Council, 251 AD 在迦太基當地議會, 理事會 251 AD
About the lapsed.關於失效。 Novatianism was defended by Navatius, condemned by Saint Cyprian. Novatianism保衛Navatius,由聖塞浦路斯的譴責。 Set requirements for readmission to Church of those who had lapsed during persecutions.設置要求,重新加入教會已失效期間迫害。 Declared baptisms by heretics were worthless (no "baptisms" outside the Church).聲明異端的洗禮一文不值(沒有教會之外的“洗禮”)。 Required baptism for entry into the Church by those "baptised" by heretics (outside the Church).所需的洗禮進入教會的“洗禮”異端教會之外。 Forbade re-baptism of those who had received Church baptism, then fallen into heresy who sought readmission.禁止重新洗禮,誰收到了教會的洗禮,然後陷入異端誰試圖重新接納。

252 AD. 252 AD。 Reduced requirements for readmission of lapsed who showed serious penance.降低要求重新接納已失效,存在嚴重的苦修。 Repeated decisions regarding baptism of previous year.反复做決定前一年的洗禮。

255 AD. 255 AD。 Repeated decisions regarding baptism of 251 and 252.反复做決定,關於251和252的洗禮。 Determined that clerics falling into heresy should be received back into the Church as laymen.確定落入異端,神職人員應收到到教會作為外行。

256 AD. 256 AD。 Rejected decisions by Pope Stephen regarding "baptism" outside the Church.被拒絕的決定教皇斯蒂芬教會之外的“洗禮”。 Re-affirmed previous decisions regarding baptism.再次確認了先前的決定,關於洗禮。

256 AD. 256 AD。 Repeated decisions made earlier in year, rejecting Pope Stephen's teaching.重複作出的決定在今年早些時候,,拒絕教皇斯蒂芬的教學。 Declared there were no sacraments outside the Church.在公告中沒有外教會的聖事。

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Council at Elvira local Council, never accepted by Orthodox 300-306 AD 在埃爾維拉當地議會, 理事會從來沒有接受東正教300-306 AD
Imposed celibacy on clergy.施加於神職人員的獨身生活。 Established canon forbidding converts from heresy to ever become clergy.佳能禁止轉換,從異端永遠成為神職人員。

Council at Ancyra local Council, 314 AD 安該拉理事會在地方議會,314 AD
About the lapsed.關於失效。 First synod following the end of persecutions.第一次主教會議結束後的迫害。 Condemned as liars, those who publicly proclaimed adherence to the national religion (paganism) in order to receive an official document that allowed them to avoid persecution.譴責為騙子,這些人公然宣稱堅持以收到正式的文件,使他們能夠避免迫害的民族宗教(異教)。 Established punishments for these lapsed.建立懲罰這些失效。 Also established punishments for various types of sexual immorality.還建立了各類淫亂處罰。

Council at Neo-Caesaria local Council, c. 理事會在新Caesaria地方市議會,C。 315 AD 315 AD
Established punishments for various types of sexual immorality.處罰各類淫亂。 Established qualifications for clergy.成立資格的神職人員。

First Council at Nicaea - First Ecumenical (Imperial) Council , 325 AD 第一屆理事會在公元325年尼西亞-第一合一(英制)理事會
Convened regarding Arianism, Paulianism, defended by Arius, condemned by Saint Athanasius.召開關於阿里烏斯教,Paulianism,捍衛阿里烏斯,譴責聖亞他那修。 Condemned the teaching of Arius who claimed the Lord Jesus Christ was created by God, denying His divinity.譴責阿里烏斯聲稱主耶穌基督是上帝創造的,否認祂的神性教學。 Virtually all those assembled were horrified upon hearing Arius' teaching, but debate arose over terminology.幾乎所有的裝配的那些被嚇壞在聽到阿里烏斯的教學,但辯論引發術語。 Despite resistance because it was an unbiblical word, the Fathers embraced the philosophical term homoousios ('of the same essence') as the only term the Arians were unable to distort into compatibility with their heresy.儘管阻力,因為這是一個不符合聖經的字,父親擁抱的的哲學術語homoousios(“相同的本質”)作為唯一的長期白羊座的人無法與他們的異端邪說扭曲成兼容性。 Established Symbol of Faith (Nicene Creed) .建立信仰的象徵(尼西亞信經)。

Determined formula for determining Pascha (Easter).確定的公式確定復活節(復活節)。 Condemned mandatory celibacy for all ranks of clergy.各職級的神職人員譴責強制獨身。 Established regulations on moral issues and church discipline.建立道德問題和教會的紀律規定。 Required Paulianists to be baptised upon entry to Church, even if baptised by Paulianists.進入教堂受洗後的必需的Paulianists到,,即使洗禮,Paulianists。 Determined prayers on Sundays should be offered standing.應提供確定的祈禱日,屹立不倒。

Nicene Creed尼西亞信經

I believe in one God.我相信在一個神。 The Father Almighty.全能的父。 Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.造天,地,和所有的有形和無形的東西。
And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only begotten, begotten of the Father before all ages.在一主耶穌基督,上帝的兒子,獨生的,生的父親在所有年齡段的。 Light of Light; true God of true God; begotten not made; of one essence with the Father, by whom all things were made.光燈;真神的真神獨生子的一個本質的父親,其中所有的東西。
Who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven, and was incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary, and became man.為我們人類和我們的救恩來到從天上降下來,與道成肉身的聖靈和聖母瑪利亞,而成為人。
And He was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered, and was buried.他被釘在十字架上為我們本丟彼拉多,和遭遇,和被埋沒了。
And the third day He rose again according to the Scriptures.而第三天,他再次上升,根據聖經。
And ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of the Father; and he shall come again with glory to judge the living and the dead; whose Kingdom shall have no end.升天,坐在父的右邊,他將再次與榮耀判斷活人和死人的王國,沒有窮盡。

Synod at Gangra local Council, 340 AD 主教在當地市政府,公元340年岡格拉
The synod of Gangra dealt with a local sectarian group.主教的岡格拉處理與當地的一個教派。 The group condemned marriage altogether (rather like the Cathari, several centuries later).結婚共組譴責(而不是,喜歡的卡塔利,幾個世紀以後)。 They also condemned eating meat, refused to be obedient to lawful authorities (considered their own authority the only thing to be obeyed), they encouraged women to dress as men (clothes and haircuts), they encouraged parents to abandon their children (to go live the 'pure' life) and children to abandon their parents (for the same reason).他們還譴責吃肉,拒絕服從認為自己的權威必須服從的唯一合法當局,他們鼓勵婦女裝扮成男人(衣服和理髮),他們鼓勵父母拋棄他們的孩子(去住“純”的生活)和孩子們放棄他們的父母出於同樣的原因。 It was this group that the synod condemned.這是本組的主教譴責。 The other notable thing the synod did was to condemn fasting on Sundays (which became a major issue later).另一個值得注意的事情的主教譴責空腹週日(即後來成為一個主要的問題)。

Council at Antioch local Council, 341 AD 理事會在安提阿當地市政府,341 AD
Reinforced Nicaea I's ruling on Pascha.增強尼西亞我的裁決復活節。 Established regulations regarding clergy, the organisation of the local churches, church discipline, and use of canonical letters (used by travelling Christians as proof of being Christians in good standing).成立關於神職人員的規定,組織當地教會,教會的紀律和規範的字母(用於旅行證明,良好的信譽是基督徒的基督徒)。

Council at Sardica 347 AD 在薩爾迪卡 347 AD 委員會
Established canons concerning church order and discipline.成立大砲教會秩序和紀律。 Reaffirmed the Symbol of Faith from Nicaea I. ,由尼西亞一,重申信仰的象徵

Council at Laodicaea local Council, 364 AD 理事會當地市政府Laodicaea,364 AD
Established canons concerning church order and discipline.成立大砲教會秩序和紀律。

First Ecumenical Council at Constantinople - Second Ecumenical (Imperial) Council , 381 AD 第一次大公會議在君士坦丁堡-第二屆大公(英制)局 ,381 AD
Convened regarding Macedonianism, Apollinarians, Eunomians, Eudoxians, Sabellians, Marcellians, Photinians.召開的的,關於Macedonianism,Apollinarians,Eunomians,Eudoxians,Sabellians,Marcellians,Photinians。

Macedonius defended the issues, and Saint Gregory the Theologian (aka St Gregory of Nazianzus) and Saint Gregory of Nyssa were champions of Orthodoxy.馬其頓紐斯(Macedonius)辯護的問題,和聖格列高利(又名聖格雷戈里的nazianzus)和神學家聖格列高利的果樹冠軍的正統。

Condemned Arianism.譴責阿里烏斯教。 Condemned Macedonianism which denied divinity of the Holy Spirit.譴責的Macedonianism否認神的聖靈。 Defined the Holy Trinity as one God in Three Persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit each fully God of the same essence.定義的聖三一作為一個三人的神,父,子,聖靈完全的神的相同的本質。 Expanded Symbol of Faith from Nicaea I into what is now commonly labelled 'Nicene Creed' but is more properly known as the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed.擴大信仰的象徵尼西亞我到現在通常被稱為“尼西亞信經”,但更恰當地稱為尼西亞 - 君士坦丁堡信條。 As expanded, this Symbol of Faith has remained the basic proclamation of the Christian Faith.擴大,這信仰的象徵一直保持基本宣布的基督教信仰。 Condemned Apollinarianism which taught the Lord Jesus Christ possessed the divine Logos in place of a human mind and was therefore fully divine, but not fully human.譴責亞波里拿留主義,它告訴我們主耶穌基督的人的心靈具有神聖的標誌,因此,完全的神性,但不完全的人。 Condemned Eunomians (an extreme form of Arianism), the Eudoxians (semi-Arians), the Sabellians (who taught the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit were three modes of manifestation of the one God, denying the distinction of Three Persons), the Marcellians (who taught the Logos was an impersonal divine power that issued from God and entered into a relationship with Jesus to make him the Son of God), and the Photinians (who taught that Jesus was a mere man upon whom the Logos rested).的譴責Eunomians(阿里烏斯教的一種極端形式),:在Eudoxians(半亞利安),的Sabellians(誰教聖父,聖子和聖靈的神的表現為三種模式,否認的區別三人), Marcellians(誰教的標誌是一個客觀的神聖的權力,發出神,進入到一個與耶穌的關係,他是神的兒子),和​​Photinians(誰告訴我們,耶穌是一個純粹的人,在人的理性休息)。

Ranked relative importance of the five patriarchates with Old Rome first and New Rome (Constantinople) second.五個主教的職位與舊的羅馬第一,新羅馬(君士坦丁堡)第二的排名相對重要性。 Established regulations for church discipline, including standing during prayer on Sundays and the days of Pentecost.建立教會的紀律規定,包括在禱告上週日的地位和五旬節的日子。 Established manner in which heretics were to be received into the Church.成立方式,異教徒將接收到的教會。

Addition to the Nicene Creed除了尼西亞信經

And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father, Who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified; Who spoke by the Prophets.而在聖靈,主,生命的賜予者,誰收益的父親,他的父親和兒子一起被崇拜和歌頌,誰說話的先知。
In One Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church.在一個至聖,至公,從宗徒傳下來的教會。
I acknowledge One Baptism for the remission of sins.我承認洗禮,使罪得赦。
I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come.我期待已久的從死裡復活,和世界的生命來。 Amen.阿門。

Council in Constantinople local Council, 394 AD公元394年在君士坦丁堡當地議會, 理事會
Established various regulations, including the requirement of at least three bishops to ordain a bishop.建立了各種法規,包括至少三名主教祝聖的主教的要求。

Council at Carthage local Council, 419-424 AD 在迦太基地方市議會的會議 ,419-424 AD
Convened regarding Pelagianism and Donatism, which were defended by Pelagius, Celestius, and Donatus.召開關於伯拉糾和多納圖斯派的辯護,這是伯拉糾,Celestius,圖斯。 Orthodoxy was championed by Bishop Aurelius.東正教奧勒留主教倡導的。

Established regulations for clergy, including excommunication for clerics lower than bishop who appealed decisions outside of Africa (specifically mentioning 'across the sea', ie the pope of Rome).成立神職人員的規定,包括被逐出教會神職人員低於主教誰呼籲非洲以外的決定(特別是提到“隔海相望”, 羅馬教皇)。 Denied jurisdiction of pope of Rome in African church.拒絕在非洲教會的羅馬教皇的管轄範圍。 Enumerated canon of Scripture (OT & NT).枚舉聖經正典(OT&NT)。 Set requirements for Donatists received into the Church, including prohibition of rebaptising those baptised as Donatists.設置接收到教會,包括禁止rebaptising受洗多納,多納徒派的要求。

Established canon requiring baptism where proof of previous baptism was not available.成立佳能需要證據,證明以前的洗禮洗禮。 Condemned beliefs of Pelagians: that Adam was created mortal, that infants need not be baptised because they are not subject to the consequences of Adam's sin, that grace is not needed to avoid sin, and that grace only enables us to recognise sin but does not assist us in avoiding sin.死刑犯的伯拉糾的信念:是亞當被創造了凡人,,嬰兒需要的不受洗,因為他們都沒有受到亞當的罪造成的後果,是恩典是不是需要,以避免單,和,寬限期只允許我們以承認罪,但不幫助我們遠離罪惡。

Council at Ephesus - Third Ecumenical (Imperial) Council , 431 AD 理事會在以弗所-第三合一(英制)會議 ,公元431年
Convened regarding Nestorianism, defended by Nestorius, and condemned by Saint Cyril of Alexandria召開關於景教,辯護和譴責聶斯脫裡,聖亞歷山大的西里爾

Condemned Nestorianism which taught a separation between the Lord Jesus Christ's divinity and humanity.譴責景教它告訴我們主耶穌基督的神性與人性之間的分離。 Nestorianism manifested this in the rejection of the traditional term 'Theotokos' (literally, 'God Birth-Giver'), claiming Mary only gave birth to the Lord's humanity and should thus be called 'Christotokos'.景教表現在傳統的長期拒絕“聖母”(從字面上看,“神出生者),聲稱瑪麗生下了主的人性,因此應該被稱為”Christotokos“。 Defined that the Lord Jesus Christ was a single person who was fully God and fully human and that since mother's give birth to persons (not natures), Mary should be known as 'Theotokos', thus insisting on the unity of the two natures in the one person of Christ.定義的,主耶穌基督是一個單人誰是完全的神和完全的人,並自母親給出生的人士(不的性質),瑪麗應該被稱為為“聖母”,從而堅持的2性質的統一一個人的基督。 Upheld Christology of Saint Cyril of Alexandria.堅持基督的聖亞歷山大的西里爾。 The Symbol of Faith (Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed) was affirmed and changes to it were forbidden with punishment of deposition for clerics and excommunication for laity prescribed.肯定信仰的象徵(尼西亞 - 君士坦丁堡信條),並改變它被禁止與沉積逐出教會牧師和俗人規定處罰。 Established that the rights of each province should be preserved and inviolate (ie bishops from one province have no rights over other provinces).成立應保留和不可侵犯的權利,每個省(即從一個省的主教有沒有支配權,其他省份)。

Council at Constantinople local, 448 AD 理事會在君士坦丁堡本地,448 AD
Convened regarding Eutychianism (Monophysitism), which was defended by Eutyches and condemned by Saint Flavian.召開關於Eutychianism的(基督一性),這是捍衛歐迪奇和聖弗拉維安譴責。 Eutyches, who rejects the 'union'; of 'two natures' in 'one person' is condemned.歐迪奇,誰拒絕“工會”,“兩個性質”中“一個人的譴責。

Council at Ephesus Heretical (known historically as 'Robber Council' 449 AD 在以弗所異端(歷史上稱為“賊會”449 AD
After Eutyches appeals to the patriarch of Alexandria (Dioscorus) who exonerates him (although it was against canon law to do so), a council is called which restricts the number of Flavian's supporters allowed to attend whilst augmenting the number of Eutyches' supporters, is chaired by Dioscorus who refuses to allow Flavian to speak in his own defence, refuses to hear Saint Leo of Rome's Tome of Leo (his response to reports of the Synod of 448).歐迪奇上訴的族長亞歷山大(Dioscorus)誰不能免除他(雖然它是針對佳能法律這樣做)後,議會的被稱為哪些限制弗拉維安的支持者,同時增強歐迪奇的支持者參加,是Dioscorus拒絕讓弗拉維安發言為自己辯護,拒絕聽到聖羅馬的寶典獅子座獅子座(他的主教會議的448報導)主持。 Eutyches is exonerated, Saint Flavian deposed (and shortly thereafter beaten to death by supporers of Eutyches), all who confess 'two natures' in the Lord Jesus Christ's Person are declared anathema.歐迪奇被無罪釋放,聖弗拉維安廢黜(並在此後不久被毆打致死歐迪奇由supporers)宣布,在主耶穌基督的人承認“這兩個性質”的詛咒。

Council of Chalcedon - Fourth Ecumenical (Imperial) Council , 451 AD 安理會的卡爾西-第四合一(英制)局 ,451 AD
Convened regarding Eutychianism (Monophysitism), which was defended by Eutyches and Dioscorus, and condemned by Saint Leo (the Great) of Rome.召開關於Eutychianism的(基督一性),這是悍歐迪奇和Dioscorus,並譴責羅馬的聖里奧(大)。 Annulled and invalidated 'Robber Council' of 449 in Ephesus.廢止和失效的“賊會”的449在以弗所。 Condemned Eutyches and Dioscorus.譴責歐迪奇和Dioscorus。 Affirmed canons of previous three Ecumenical (Imperial) Councils.肯定了前三個合一(英制)議會的大砲。 Condemned Monophysitism.譴責基督一性。 After examination of the Tome of Leo affirmed it as 'the faith of the Fathers'.經過檢查的獅子座之書肯定是“信仰的父親”。 Affirmed completeness of the two natures of the Lord Jesus Christ: divinity and humanity (perfect God and perfect man).肯定了完整的兩個性質的主耶穌基督的神性和人性化(完美的神和完美的人)。 Condemned Nestorianism and those 'who divide the one and only-begotten Son'.譴責景教與那些將一個獨生子“。 Condemned simony, reaffirmed prohibitions of bishops acting outside their territory, reaffirmed New Rome (Constantinople) as second in honour (following Old Rome) of the patriarchates.譴責西摩尼,重申禁止在其領土之外的主教,,重申新羅馬(君士坦丁堡),第二的榮譽(以下舊羅馬)的主教的職位。

Statement聲明

Therefore, following the Holy Fathers, we all with one accord teach men to acknowledge one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, at once complete in Godhead and complete in manhood, truly God and truly man, consisting also of a reasonable soul and body; of one substance with the Father as regards his Godhead, and at the same time of one substance with us as regards his manhood; like us in all respects, apart from sin; as regards his Godhead, begotten of the Father before the ages, but yet as regards his manhood begotten, for us men and for our salvation, of Mary the Virgin, the Theotokos, one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, only-begotten, recognised in two natures, without confusion, without change, without division, without separation; the distinction of natures being in no way annulled by the union, but rather the characteristics of each nature being preserved and coming together to form one person and subsistence, not as parted or separated into two persons, but one and the same Son and only-begotten God the Word, Lord Jesus Christ; even as the prophets from earliest times spoke of Him, and our Lord Jesus Christ Himself taught us, and the creed of the Fathers has handed down to us.因此,聖教父們,大家都同心合意教人承認在同一個兒子,我們的主耶穌基督,在一次完整的神性和完成的男子漢氣概,真正的上帝和真正的人,還包括一個合理的靈魂,身體的一種物質與父親至於他的神性,在一個物質與我們的同時,關於他的男子氣概,像我們在各方面,除了罪,至於他的神性,生的父親在萬世以前, ,但尚未至於他的男子氣概的獨生子,為我們人類和我們的救恩,聖母瑪利亞,聖母,一個相同的基督,聖子,主,唯一的獨生子,在兩個性質的認可,沒有混亂,沒有變化,沒有分裂,沒有分離的區別,在沒有辦法廢除了由工會的性質,而是被保存下來,並走到一起,形成一個人生活,還不如分開或分離成兩個人的特點,每個自然,但一兒子和唯一的獨生子,主耶穌基督的話,甚至從最早的時候談到了他的先知,和我們的主耶穌基督教導我們,和信條的父親傳給我們的。

Council of Orange local Council, never accepted in East, 529 AD 橙色當地議會, 理事會從來沒有接受東,529 AD
Convened regarding Pelagianism.召開關於伯拉糾。 Condemned various beliefs of Pelagianism: that humans are unaffected by Adam's sin, that a person's move towards God can begin without grace, that an increase of faith can be attained apart from grace, that salvation can be attained apart from the Holy Spirit, that man's free will can be restored from its destruction apart from baptism, that 'merit' may precede grace, that man can do good and attain salvation without God's help,譴責各種信仰的伯拉糾:,人類是不會受到亞當的罪,是一個人的舉動對神可以開始沒有寬限期,是增長的信心可以將獲得除了從雍容,的救恩可以被實現,除了從聖靈來的,那人的自由意志,可以恢復的破壞除了洗禮,這是優點,可能會先恩,那個男人可以做的好,沒有上帝的幫助下得到拯救,

Statement聲明

... ... we must, under the blessing of God, preach and believe as follows.神的祝福下,我們必須宣講,並相信如下。 The sin of the first man has so impaired and weakened free will that no one thereafter can either love God as he ought or believe in God or do good for God's sake, unless the grace of divine mercy has preceded him.罪的第一人,因此受損,削弱了自由意志,此後沒有人可以愛上帝,他應該相信神或做的好,除非偏偏在他前面的恩典,神的慈悲。 ... ...

According to the catholic faith we also believe that after grace has been received through baptism, all baptised persons have the ability and responsibility, if they desire to labour faithfully, to perform with the aid and cooperation of Christ what is of essential importance in regard to the salvation of their soul.根據天主教的信仰,我們也相信,,通過洗禮後的寬限期已收到,所有受洗者有能力也有責任,如果他們願意忠實地勞動,執行與基督的援助和合作是極其重要的方面拯救他們的靈魂。 We not only do not believe that any are foreordained to evil by the power of God, but even state with utter abhorrence that if there are those who want to believe so evil a thing, they are anathema.我們不僅不相信任何邪惡的神的力量是注定的,但即使是絕對的深惡痛絕,如果有這些要相信這麼邪惡的事情的,他們是詛咒狀態。 We also believe and confess to our benefit that in every good work it is not we who take the initiative and are then assisted through the mercy of God, but God himself first inspires in us both faith in him and love for him without any previous good works of our own that deserve reward, so that we may both faithfully seek the sacrament of baptism, and after baptism be able by his help to do what is pleasing to him.我們也相信,承認我們的利益,在每一個良好的工作,這是我們不主動,並協助通過上帝的憐憫,而是神自己的第一個啟發我們都在他的信仰和對他的愛沒有任何以前的好我們自己的作品,值得獎勵,所以,我們可以如實地尋求聖洗聖事,和洗禮後,能夠通過他的幫助下,做他所喜悅的他。

The complicated background to Constantinople II複雜的背景君士坦丁堡II
Large areas of the Empire were under the influence of Monophysitism.大面積的帝國的影響下,基督一性。 The Monophysites strongly rejected Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret of Cyrus, and Ibas of Edessa as Nestorian heretics.該monophysites堅決拒絕了西奧多的Mopsuestia,theodoret公司居魯士,IBAS的edessa景教異端。 The orthodox emperor, Justinian, seeking to placate the Monophysites, issued an edict condemning the person and writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia, certain writings of Theodoret of Cyrus, and the letter of Ibas to Maris.正統皇帝查士丁尼,試圖安撫該monophysites,頒布了一項法令,譴責西奧多的Mopsuestia,某些文字的theodoret居魯士,和信IBAS馬里斯的人,著作。 The Christology of Justinian's edict was perfectly orthodox.該christology的查士丁尼的法令是完全正統的。

Since the three writers were long dead and their writings had not been condemned by the Council at Chalcedon, there was great reluctance to agree to Justinian's edict.由於早就死了三位作家和他們的作品沒有被譴責理事會卡爾西,是極不情願的同意查士丁尼的法令。 Moreover, there was no heresy arising from these writings and condemning them was to side with the Monophysites who were opposed to Chalcedon.此外,有沒有異端邪說所產生的這些著作,並譴責他們是該monophysites誰反對卡爾西到另一邊。 After not a little coercion, the bishops in the East did agree with Justinian and condemned the three writers.沒有一點強迫後,主教們沒有同意在東Justinian和譴責三位作家。

Pope Vigilus was unwilling to accept Justinian's edict for the same reasons it had been resisted in the East.教皇Vigilus是不願意接受查士丁尼的法令,出於同樣的原因已在東方的抵制。 Justinian summoned Vigilus to Constantinople.查士丁尼的召喚Vigilus到君士坦丁堡。 Due to learning more about the writings condemned by Justinian's edict and/or persuasion/coercion of Justinian, Vigilus agreed to accept the edict.由於學習更多關於Justinian的法令和/或說服/脅迫查士丁尼譴責的著作,Vigilus同意接受該法令。 This about-face prompted a synod in North Africa to excommunicate Vigilus, for the metropolitanates of Milan and Aquileia to break communion with Rome, and for criticisms to be issued by the bishops of Gaul.此有關的主​​教在北非破門Vigilus,米蘭和阿奎metropolitanates的突破與羅馬的共融,及將予發行的主教高盧批評。 Faced with such strong opposition in the West, Vigilus withdrew his agreement to Justinian's edict.面對如此強烈的反對,在西方,他的協議Vigilus退出到查士丁尼的法令。 This second about-face by Vigilus created great confusion and compelled Justinian to call an Ecumenical (Imperial) Council.這第二次約Vigilus創造了巨大的混亂,並迫使查士丁尼致電合一(英制)理事會。 Initially, Vigilus rejected the legitimacy of the council, but later relented, accepted the condemnation of the three writers, and was reconciled to the Church.最初,Vigilus拒絕議會的合法性,但後來心軟了,接受了三位作家的譴責,並不甘心的教會。

Second Ecumenical Council of Constantinople - Fifth Ecumenical (Imperial) Council , 553 AD 第二屆大公會議第五合一(英制)會議 ,公元553年的君士坦丁堡-
Convened regarding Monophysitism (Nestorianism) and Origenism.召開關於基督一性(景教)和Origenism。 Nestorius, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Eutyches, and Origen defended these issues, which were condemned by Emperor (Saint) Justinian (the Great)聶斯脫裡,西奧多的Mopsuestia,歐迪奇,和奧利捍衛這些問題,這被譴責(聖)由皇帝查士丁尼(大)

Condemned the person and writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia, who had been Nestorius' teacher and declared the Logos to be a different God than the one called Christ and who taught the Lord Jesus Christ was troubled by desires of human flesh and passions of the human soul.譴責的人,著作西奧多的Mopsuestia,誰曾聶斯脫裡的老師和宣布的標誌,是一個不同的人比一個稱為基督的教導主耶穌基督的人肉的慾望和激情的人的靈魂的困擾。 Condemned writings of Thedoret of Cyrus which rejected Saint Cyril of Alexandria's Christology.譴責著作的Thedoret居魯士拒絕圣西里爾的亞歷山德里亞的基督。 Condemned Ibas of Edessa's letter to Maris the Persian for its Nestorian tone.譴責IBAS的埃德薩的信馬里斯在波斯的景教音。 Condemned writings of Diodorus of Tarsus as Nestorian.景教譴責著作狄奧多羅斯的塔爾蘇斯。 Repeated condemnations from previous councils of Arius, Eunomius, Macedonius, Apollinaris, Nestorius, and Eutyches.反复譴責阿里烏斯,Eunomius,馬其頓紐斯(Macedonius),亞坡理納,聶斯脫裡,和歐迪奇從以前的議會。 Condemned Origen, Didymus, and Evagrius for teaching the pre-existence of souls, re-incarnation, the ultimate salvation of demons, that heavenly bodies possessed souls, and other errors.譴責淵源,Didymus,Evagrius的教學前存在的靈魂,輪迴轉世,最終得救的惡魔,天體擁有的靈魂,和其他錯誤。

No canons were produced by this Council.沒有大砲立法會通過。

Council of Todelo (Spain) heretical, local Council, 589 AD 理事會Todelo(西班牙)旁門左道,當地政府,公元589年
In an effort to combat Arianism in Spain by making the Son like the Father in all things (specifically, being a source of the Holy Spirit's procession although this subordinated the Holy Spirit), added the additional phrase 'and the Son' (the Filioque ) to the Nicene-Constantinoplitan Creed despite declarations of previous Ecumenical (Imperial) Councils that no changes were to be made in perpetuity.的努力,以打擊阿里烏主義在西班牙,使得像父親的兒子在所有的事情(特別是,聖靈的遊行雖然這次級的神聖精神的來源),增加的額外短語“和的兒子”( filioque)到的尼西亞,Constantinoplitan的信條,儘管以前合一(英制)議會的任何更改將被永久的聲明。 It was this belief in a 'double procession' of the Holy Spirit that led to the eventual separation between Orthodoxy in the East and Roman Catholicism in the West.正是這種信念的“雙重遊行的聖靈,導致最終在東方和西方的羅馬天主教東正教之間的分離。

Third Ecumenical Council of Constantinople - Sixth Ecumenical (Imperial) Council , 680-681 AD 三君士坦丁堡大公會議-第六屆大公(英制)理事會 ,680-681 AD
Convened regarding Monothelitism, representing Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, Peter, Pope Honorius, and Cyrus.代表謝爾蓋,皮拉斯,保羅,彼得,honorius教皇,和Cyrus召開關於Monothelitism,,。

Condemned Monothelitism (a belief that the Lord Jesus Christ had only one will and one energy).的譴責Monothelitism(主耶穌基督有一個信念,即只有一個意志,一個能源)。 Condemned as Monothelite heretics Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, and Peter (Patriarchs of Constantinople); Pope Honorius; Patriarch Cyrus of Alexandria, and others.譴責為皮拉斯,Monothelite異端謝爾蓋,保羅和彼得(始祖君士坦丁堡); honorius教皇祖師居魯士,亞歷山大,和其他人。 Affirmed that the Lord Jesus Christ, though but one person, after His incarnation possessed two natural wills and two natural energies, just as He possessed two natures.肯定了主耶穌基督,雖然少一人,在他的化身擁有兩個天然遺囑和兩個自然能量,只是因為他擁有的這兩個性質。
No canons were produced by this Council.沒有大砲立法會通過。

Council in Trullo (Constantinople) - Conclusion of Sixth Council (aka 'Quinsext' to indicate it was a summation of Fifth & Sixth Councils. , 692 AD 圓頂小屋(君士坦丁堡) -結論第六屆理事會(又名“Quinsext”,以表明它是一個概括的第五和第六兩局。692 AD
This Council was held in Constantinople (aka in Trullo , literally, 'under the dome' because of the building used) It was convened due to the lack of canons from Fifth and Sixth Ecumenical Councils, Called by Emperor to promulgate canons necessary to correct issues still outstanding from the previous Councils.本會舉行在君士坦丁堡(又名石頂圓屋 ,從字面上看,“下”,因為所使用的建築)的圓頂,它的召開,被稱為第五次和第六次大公會議的大砲,由於缺乏由皇帝頒布大砲必要的正確的問題從以前的議會依然突出。 Professed faith in all the previous Ecumenical Councils and anathematised those who did not 'hold and embrace' the dogmas promulgated by these Councils.以前所有的基督教議會宣稱的信心和anathematised那些誰不持有和擁抱這些議會所頒布的教條。 Prohibited ordination of man married more than once or married to previously married woman; deposition of any clergy discovered to be guilty of same or marrying after ordination (although approving marriage before ordination to diaconate or priesthood and ordering that deacons or priests who separated from his wife to be deposed).禁止協調人結婚多過一次或任何神職人員結婚以前結婚的女人,沉積發現犯相同或結婚後協調(協調執事或祭司雖然批准結婚前和訂購執事或神父誰與妻子分居被廢黜)。 Declared the patriarch of New Rome (Constantinople) should have equal privileges as the patriarch of Old Rome.宣布舊羅馬的族長,族長新羅馬(君士坦丁堡),都應該享有同等的權限。 Established monastic regulations.成立寺院法規。 Enacted canon permitting only the Liturgy of the Pre-Sanctified (a vespers service where communion is received from that which was previously consecrated) on days of Lent because these are days of fasting (Saturdays, Sundays, and the Feast of the Annunciation excluded).制定佳能只允許禮儀中的前沐天的大齋(晚禱服務,這是以前神聖的共融收到),因為這些天的禁食(週六,週日和節日的報喜排除)。 Enacted canons regarding fasting (prohibition of fasting on Saturdays or Sundays, except Holy Saturday; prohibition of eggs and cheese).制定大砲空腹(禁食,週六或週日,聖週六除外;禁止禁止雞蛋和奶酪)。 Enacted canon mandating excommunication for one week for laymen administering the Divine Mysteries when a bishop, priest, or deacon present.制定一個星期的佳能強制逐出教會的神聖之謎外行管理時,主教,司鐸,執事目前。 Condemned soothsaying, fortune-telling, casting of spells, superstition, etc. Prohibited marriage to heretics.譴責占卜,算命占卜,鑄造的法術,迷信等違禁婚姻異端。 Made assisting in abortion or having abortion equivalent to murder.協助流產或墮胎相當於謀殺。 Established procedures for accepting heretics into the Church.既定程序接收到教會的異端。

Council in Constantinople heretical Council, 754 AD 理事會君士坦丁堡異端會議,公元754
After many years of persecution by the Iconoclast Emperor Leo III and his son, the Iconoclast Emperor Constantine V, a council was called to 'determine' if images were proper.經過多年的迫害反對崇拜聖像的皇帝利奧三世和他的兒子,反對崇拜聖像的皇帝君士坦丁V,一個會被稱為'確定',如果圖像是正確的。 The patriarchates of Rome, Antioch, Alexandria, and Jerusalem refused to participate.羅馬,安提阿,亞歷山大,耶路撒冷的主教的職位拒絕參加。 The bishops who were compelled to attend, accepted the heresy of Iconoclasm under pressure from the emperor.主教被迫參加,從皇帝的壓力下接受了邪教的聖像破壞運動。 This false council anathematised Saint John of Damascus and Saint Germanus of Constantinople for idolatry of images.這種虛假的議會anathematised大馬士革的聖約翰和聖Germanus君士坦丁堡偶像崇拜的圖像。

Second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea - Seventh Ecumenical (Imperial) Council , 787 AD 第二屆大公會議的尼西亞- (英制)第七次大公會議 ,787 AD
Convened regarding Iconoclasm.召開關於聖像破壞運動。 The decisions of the council of 754 were never accepted by the faithful and was resisted by the monasteries (despite fierce persecution from the government). 754的理事會的決定從未被接受的忠實和抵制的寺院(儘管從政府的激烈的迫害)。 Upon the death of the Iconoclast Emperor Leo IV (son of Constantine V, grandson of Leo III) and the beginning of the regency of Empress Irene, the reign of Iconoclasm came to an end.反對崇拜聖像的皇帝利奧IV(康斯坦丁V,利奧三世的孫子的兒子),並開始攝政皇后艾琳死亡後,在位的聖像破壞運動走到了盡頭。 This council annulled the council of 754 and condemned Iconoclasm.本會取消了議會的754和譴責聖像破壞運動。 Affirmed veneration (but not adoration, which was for God alone) of images.非宗教崇拜(但不崇拜,這是只有上帝)的圖像。 Germanus and John of Damascus proclaimed saints.的Germanus和約翰大馬士革宣布聖徒。 Condemned simony.譴責西摩尼。 Decreed that those secretly keeping Jewish customs (eg keeping the Sabbath) but pretending to be Christians should live as Jews openly, but be excluded from the Church.頒布法令,秘密保持猶太人的習俗(例如守安息日),卻冒充是基督徒應該作為猶太人生活公開,但被排除在教會的。 Established monastic regulations.成立寺院法規。

Statement聲明

We define that the holy icons, whether in colour, mosaic, or some other material, should be exhibited in the holy churches of God, on the sacred vessels and liturgical vestments, on the walls, furnishings, and in houses and along the roads, namely the icons of our Lord God and Saviour Jesus Christ, that of our Lady the Theotokos, those of the venerable angels and those of all saintly people.我們定義的聖像,無論在色彩,馬賽克,或其他一些材料,應該表現在聖教會的神,神聖的船隻和禮儀法衣,在牆壁上,家具,以及在房屋和道路兩旁,即我們的上帝和救主耶穌基督的圖標,我們的夫人,聖母,那些古老的天使和那些聖潔的人。 Whenever these representations are contemplated, they will cause those who look at them to commemorate and love their prototype.可以預期,只要這些陳述將導致這些誰看,以紀念和愛他們的原型。 We define also that they should be kissed and that they are an object of veneration and honour [ timitiki proskynisis ], but not of real worship [ latreia ], which is reserved for Him Who is the subject of our faith and is proper for the Divine Nature.我們定義,他們應該被親吻,他們是一個對象的尊敬和榮譽,但不能,真正崇拜latreia] [timitiki proskynisis,這是留給他的主題是我們的信念是正確的神聖自然。 The veneration accorded to an icon is in effect transmitted to the prototype; he who venerates the icon, venerated in it the reality for which it stands.給予一個圖標的崇拜,實際上是傳輸的原型,他崇敬的圖標,它代表的現實崇敬的。

Council in Frankfurt heretical, local Council, 794 AD 理事會在法蘭克福異端邪說,當地政府,公元794年
Opposed decisions of Nicaea II, denying it had been an ecumenical council.相反的決定的尼西亞II,否認它曾是基督教會。 Pope Hadrian condemned for supporting Nicaea II.教皇哈德良譴責支持尼西亞II。 The worship of images, under the terms worship, adoration, and service of any kind, was forbidden.崇拜的圖像,根據條款崇拜,崇拜,和任何形式的服務,是被禁止的。 Destruction of images was also opposed, inasmuch as the synod did not condemn depictions as decorations or tools for instructing the illiterate, only the worship or adoration of depictions.銷毀的圖像也反對,因為主教沒有譴責描寫作為裝飾品或工具的指示文盲,只有崇拜或崇拜的描寫。

Council in Aachen heretical, local Council, 809 AD 在亞琛異端邪說,當地政府委員會 ,809 AD
Decreed that belief in the Filioque was necessary for salvation.頒布法令,在聖子的信仰是必要的救贖。

Council in Constantinople local Council, 861 AD 在君士坦丁堡當地議會委員會 ,861 AD
Established regulations for monasticism, including requiring local bishop's permission to build monastery.成立為修道的規定,包括要求當地主教的權限,建立寺院。 Condemned castration.譴責閹割。 Established regulations for clergy.建立了神職人員的規定。

Council in Constantinople local Council, 867 AD 在君士坦丁堡當地議會委員會 ,867 AD
Tension begun by Frankish missionaries in Bulgaria, acting as Pope Nicholas' emissaries, began to introduce the Symbol of Faith with the addtion of the Filioque .由法蘭克的傳教士開始在保加利亞的張力,作為教皇尼古拉斯的使者,開始引入信仰的象徵與addtion filioque。 Escalated by desire on part of Rome and Constantinople to have jurisdiction in Bulgaria.升級的慾望,羅馬和君士坦丁堡的一部分,向有管轄權的保加利亞。 Triggered by Pope Nicholas, who in 865 for the first time put forward the never-before-heard claim that the Pope had authority 'over all the earth, that is, over every Church.'觸發由羅馬教皇尼古拉斯,誰在865第一次提出了以前從未聽說過的要求,教皇在全地上,也就是對每一個教會的權威“。 This council, convened by Saint Photius and including archbishops of Treves, Cologne and Ravenna from the West, excommunicated and anathematised Pope Nicolas該理事會召開由聖Photius包括大主教特雷韋斯,科隆和拉文納從西方,逐出教會和anathematised教皇尼古拉斯·

Council in Constantinople considered a heretical Council by the Orthodox Church, 869-870 AD 理事會在君士坦丁堡的東正教會被認為是異端邪說,869-870 AD
Only 12 bishops attended at first, and attendance never exceeded 103.第一,只有12名主教參加和出席從來沒有超過103。 The legates of Pope Adrian II presided.教皇阿德里安II的使節主持。 Saint Photius had already been condemned, without a hearing, at a Roman synod and Pope Adrian, taking advantage of political changes in Constantinople, pressed for a council.聖Photius已經受到譴責,沒有舉行聽證會,在羅馬主教和教皇阿德里安,利用政治變化的理事會在君士坦丁堡,按下。 Saint Photius' defense was cut short, and when he refused to sign his own condemnation, he was excommunicated.聖Photius的防守被腰斬,當他拒絕簽署自己的譴責,他被驅逐。 The result of these councils was to intensify the bitterness between East and West.這些議會的結果是加強東方和西方之間的辛酸。 Not regarded as 'Ecumenical' by Roman Catholicism until 11th or 12th century, it has never been accepted by Orthodoxy.不被視為“普世”,直到11或12世紀,它從來沒有接受正統的羅馬天主教。

Fourth Ecumenical Council in Constantinople - Eighth Ecumenical (Imperial) Council 879-880 AD 第四次大公會議在君士坦丁堡-第八合一(英制)理事會 879-880 AD
Resolved scandals between East and West regarding Bulgaria.已解決醜聞東方與西方之間關於保加利亞。 Expelled those who did not recognise Nicaea II as Seventh Ecumenical Council.被開除學籍的那些誰不認識尼西亞二,第七次大公會議。 Outlawed and repudiated local councils of Rome and Constantinople against Saint Photius.依法取締和否定羅馬和君士坦丁堡對地方議會的聖Photius。 Established that the Symbol of Faith from Constantinople I (the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed) was to be forever 'un-innovated' and 'immutable'.建立信仰的象徵,從君士坦丁堡(尼西亞 - 君士坦丁堡信條)是永遠的'非創新'和'不可變的“。 Required those excommunicated by Rome to be treated as such by Constantinople and vice-versa.要求者逐出教會羅馬被視為君士坦丁堡反之亦然。 (Accepted by all five patriarchates, including Pope John VIII) (接受所有五個主教的職位,其中包括教皇約翰八世)

Council in Constantinople local Council, 1082 AD 在君士坦丁堡當地議會委員會 ,1082 AD
Convened regarding John Italus.召開關於約翰Italus。 Condemned those who seek to discover exactly how the Word was joined to His human substance; Greek doctrines of the soul, heaven, earth, and creation; the destruction of the soul after death; those who say that creation is eternal or immutable; those who do not accept the miracles of Christ, the Theotokos, and all his saints; those who think Greek philosophy true; that creation is not the result of God's free will; the pre-existence of souls; those who deny that creation is created ex nihilo ; those who say that hell is temporary or that all of creation will be restored; and those who understand the Kingdom of Heaven to be temporary.譴責那些誰尋求發現的話究竟是如何加入到他的人的物質;希臘教義的靈魂,天上,地上,和創造,破壞,人死後的靈魂,那些人說,創造是永恆不變的,那些誰不接受基督,東正,和他眾聖徒的奇蹟,那些誰認為希臘哲學的真實;,創造的上帝的自由意志的結果的前,存在的靈魂,那些誰否認,創建是創建無中生有那些人說,到底是暫時的還是將恢復所有的創造和那些誰知道天國是暫時的。

Synod of Blachernae, in Constantinople local Synod, 1157 AD ,在君士坦丁堡的主教, 主教的Blachernae 1157 AD
Convened regarding Basilakes and Soterichus.召開關於Basilakes和Soterichus。 Condemned those who say Christ offered His sacrifice to the Father alone, and not to himself and to the Holy Spirit; those who say the sacrifice of the Divine Liturgy is only figuratively the sacrifice of Christ's body and blood; those who deny that the sacrifice in the Liturgy is one and the same as that of Christ on the cross; those who say men were reconciled to the Son through the incarnation and to the Father through the passion; those who think the deification of Christ's humanity destroyed his human nature; those who deny that his deified human nature is worthy of worship; those who say that, since the human nature of Christ was swallowed up into Divinity, his passion was an illusion; those who say that characteristics of Christ's human nature (creaturehood, circumscription, mortality, and blameless passions) exist only hypothetically, when one considers Christ's human nature in abstraction, and not really and truly.譴責那些誰講基督提供他的犧牲父孤獨,和不以自己和聖靈的;誰講神的儀式的犧牲是只有象徵性的基督的身體和血的犧牲,那些誰否認的犧牲中在禮儀中是一個的相同的基督在十字架上誰講的人進行對賬的兒子通過的化身和父通過的激情,那些誰認為的神化基督的人性摧毀了他的人性,那些誰否認,他被神化的人自然是值得的崇拜,那些誰說的是,因為在人的本質的基督被吞噬了成神,他的激情是一種錯覺,那些誰說,特點基督的人性(生物身份,界限,死亡率,和無可指責的激情)只存在於假設,當一個人認為基督在抽象的人性,而不是實實在在地。

Council in Constantinople local Council, 1166 AD 在君士坦丁堡當地議會委員會 ,1166 AD
Convened regarding Constantine the Bulgarian.召開關於君士坦丁保加利亞。 Condemned those who maintain that 'My father is greater than I' refers only to Christ's human nature, taken in abstraction and who explain the statement in various ways, one of which is that the statement refers to the fact that Christ's human nature retained its properties in the hypostatic union.譴責那些誰維護,“我的父親是更大的比我'是指只有基督的人性,採取抽象和誰解釋的語句在不同的方式,其中之一是,聲明指,基督的人性保留其屬性在本質的聯盟。

Second Council of Lyons Failed 'reunion Council', 1274 AD 第二屆理事會里昂失敗的“團圓會”,1274 AD
Motivated by a desire of popes to gain recognition of primacy and by a desire of emperors to receive material and martial aide.出於教皇的願望,並得到認可的首要地位和皇帝的願望得到物質上的和軍事助手。 Emperor Michael basically compelled the few Orthodox bishops in attendance to rubber-stamp papal claims.皇帝邁克爾基本上迫使一些東正教會主教出席橡皮圖章教皇的索賠。 Rejected throughout the East and regarded as meaningless.整個東拒絕,認為是毫無意義的。 Emperor Michael's sister stated: 'Better my brother's empire should perish than the purity of the Orthodox faith.'皇帝邁克爾的妹妹說:“我的兄弟帝國滅亡比信仰東正教的純度。” Repudiated by Michael's successor.否定邁克爾的繼任者。

Council at Constantinople local Council, 1285 AD 在君士坦丁堡當地議會委員會 ,1285 AD
Convened regarding the Procession of the Holy Spirit.召開有關遊行的聖靈。 Clarified the teaching on the Holy Spirit's origin.闡明了教學聖靈的起源。

Statement聲明

It is recognised that the very Paraclete shines and manifests Himself eternally by the intermediary of the Son, as light shines from the sun by the intermediary of rays ...; but that does not mean that He comes into being through the Son or from the Son.人們認識到,非常聖靈照著,自己永遠表現的中介的兒子,來自太陽的光線照射光線的中介,但是,這並不意味著他進入通過兒子或兒子。

Council at Constantinople - Ninth Ecumenical (Imperial) Council , 1341, 1349, 1351 AD 理事會在君士坦丁堡-第九屆普世(英制)委員會 ,1341年,1349年,1351 AD
Convened regarding Barlaam the Calabrian and Acindynus.召開關於Barlaam卡拉布里亞和Acindynus的。 Condemned Barlaam the Calabrian and Acindynus.譴責Barlaam卡拉布里亞和Acindynus的。 Condemned those who think the light of Christ's Transfiguration was an apparition, or the essence of God and those who do not believe the divine light is the uncreated grace and energy of God which proceeds from God's essence; those who do not recognise the undivided distinction between God's essence and his energy; those who deny the energy of God is uncreated; those who say the distinction between energy and essence implies that God is not simple and uncompounded; those claim the term 'Godhead' should only be applied to the essence of God, and not to the divine energy; and those who maintain the Divine Essence can be communicated.譴責那些誰認為的基督變容,是一個幻影,或上帝的本質和那些誰你不相信神聖之光的非受造的恩典和能源的上帝其中進行從上帝的本質;誰你不認識的不可分割的區別之間上帝的本質和他的能量,那些誰否認的神的能量是自存的,誰說,能源和本質的區別意味著,上帝是不是簡單的和未配;的索賠術語“神性”應該只被應用到上帝的本質,而不是神聖的能量和保持的神聖本質的人可以溝通。

Council of Constance Roman Catholic Council, 1414-1418 AD 理事會的康斯坦茨羅馬天主教會,1414-1418 AD
It deposed John XXIII and Benedict XIII whilst the third pope, Gregory XII, resigned.它被廢黜約翰二十三世和本篤十三世而第三教皇格雷戈里十二,辭了職。 This settled the division of mutliple claimants to the papacy and cleared the way for the Council's election of Martin V. Taught that a general council was highest authority (higher than pope) and required regular meeting of bishops in general council.這解決了部門的複式申索人教皇和,馬丁訴理事會的選舉鋪平了道路教導,總理事會是最高權力機構(高於教皇)和所需的主教在總理事會例會。

Council of Basel Roman Catholic Council, 1431 AD ff 巴塞爾委員會的羅馬天主教會,1431 AD FF
Met in accordance with decree of Constance.按照法令的康斯坦茨會見。 Re-affirmed that a general council was superior in authority to a pope.再次確認,一般會優於教皇權威。 Pope demanded the council be transferred to Ferrara, but only a minority of bishops complied with most continuing to meet in Basel.教皇要求會轉移到費拉拉,但只有少數最持續性地滿足巴塞爾的主教遵守。

Council of Ferrara Failed 'reunion Council', 1438 AD; moved to Florence, 1438 - 1443佛羅倫薩,1438年至1443年理事會費拉拉的失敗“團圓會”,1438 AD;
Motivated by a desire of popes to gain recognition of primacy and by a desire of emperors to receive material and military assistance.出於教皇的願望,並得到認可的首要地位和皇帝的願望得到物質上的和軍事援助。 Began in Ferrara, was subsequently transferred to Florence.在費拉拉開始,隨後被轉移到佛羅倫薩。 Primary focus: Filioque.主要重點:聖子。 Ended with most Orthodox bishops accepting addition of Filioque, claims of papal primacy, and accepting Latin notion of Purgatory.截至最東正教會主教接受另外的聖子,聲稱教皇至高無上,和接受拉丁煉獄的概念。 Upon return to East, most bishops renounced agreement which had been forced on them by Emperor John.後返回到東,最主教放棄了皇帝約翰被迫對他們的協議。 Soundly rejected by Orthodox faithful throughout Roman Empire and Slavic areas.紮實拒絕了整個羅馬帝國和斯拉夫地區的正教信仰。 Officially repudiated by Constantinople Patriarchate in 1472. Served as model for Roman Catholicism's Uniates.正式否定君士坦丁堡宗主教於1472年。 擔任羅馬天主教的Uniates,模型。

Ending of Ferrara-Florence in Rome 1443-1444 AD 截至費拉拉,佛羅倫薩在羅馬 1443年至1444年AD
Conclusion of Ferrara-Florence after Orthodox departure (1439)結論費拉拉 - 佛羅倫薩後東正教出發(1439)

Synod of Jerusalem Pan-Orthodox Council, 1583 AD 耶路撒冷泛東正教會主教會議 ,1583 AD
Convened regarding various Roman Catholic beliefs.召開各種羅馬天主教的信仰。

The 1583 Synod of Jerusalem condemned the following: 1. 1583耶路撒冷的主教會議譴責了以下幾點:1。 those who do not believe the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father alone in essence, and from Father and Son in time;那些不相信聖靈的收益來自父親的本質,並從父親和兒子在時間;
2. 2。 those who believe the Lord Jesus Christ used unleavened bread at the Last Supper;那些相信主耶穌基督用無酵餅,在“最後的晚餐”;
3. 3。 those who believe in Purgatory;那些在煉獄相信;
4. 4。 those who believe the pope, rather than the Lord Jesus Christ is head of the Church;相信教皇的人,而不是主耶穌基督是教會的頭;
5. 5。 those who use the Gregorian calendar and its new Paschalion.那些誰使用公曆和新的Paschalion。

In addition, this synod re-affirmed adherence to the decisions of Nicaea I (Ecumenical/Imperial #1 (AD 325)).此外,這一會議重新肯定了堅持的決定,:尼西亞我(基督教/禦#1(公元325年))。

Council at Iasi (Romania) local Council, 1642 AD 雅西(羅馬尼亞)地方議會, 理事會在 1642 AD
Re-affirmed as 'genuine parts of scripture': 1 Esdras (3 Esdras in the Vulgate), Tobit, Judith, three books of the Maccabees, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus (Ben Sira), Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah.重新認定為“真正的聖經”:埃斯德拉斯(埃斯德拉斯,在武加大),托比書,朱迪,三本書的馬加比,智慧,傳道書(西拉),巴魯克和耶利米書。 Approved revised version of Confession of Peter of Moghila corrected for its Roman Catholic errors (purgatory, the claim that the change in the eucharistic bread and wine occurs at the 'words of institution'.經批准的修訂版的Moghila彼得的告白羅馬天主教錯誤校正(煉獄的說法,在聖體聖事的麵包和酒的變化發生在機構的的話。

Council of Jerusalem - Pan-Orthodox Council 1672 AD 會在耶路撒冷-泛東正教會 1672 AD
Convened regarding Cyril Lukaris.召開關於西里爾Lukaris。 Condemned Calvinism of Cyril Lukaris.譴責加爾文主義的西里爾Lukaris。 Re-affirmed procession of the Holy Spirit from Father alone.重新肯定聖靈從父親單獨的遊行。 Condemned 'justification through faith alone'.譴責“的理由僅通過信仰”。 Explicitly listed Wisdom, Judith, Tobit, The History of the Dragon, Susanna, Maccabees, and Sirach as 'genuine parts of Scripture'.明確列出的智慧,朱迪思,托比的歷史,蘇珊娜,龍馬加比,西拉奇“真正的”聖經“”。 Denied unregenerate man is totally depraved.拒絕未重生的人是完全墮落。

Statement聲明

We believe a man to be not simply justified through faith alone, but through faith which works through love, that is to say, through faith and works.我們相信,一個人不能簡單地僅通過信仰,乃是因信稱義的工作的愛,那是說,通過信仰和工程。 ... ...

But we regard works not as witnesses certifying our calling, but as being fruits in themselves, through which faith becomes efficacious, and as in themselves meriting, through the Divine promises, that each of the faithful may receive what is done through his own body, whether it is good or bad.但我們認為不能作為證人,證明我們的呼召,但作為水果,在自己的信仰變得有效,並在自己值得,通過神聖的承諾,每個信徒可能會收到通過自己的身體是什麼做的,無論是好還是壞。

Council at Constantinople local Council, 1755 AD公元1755年在君士坦丁堡當地議會委員會
Convened regarding Baptism.召開關於洗禮。 Decreed that all Westerners -- Latin or Protestant -- had invalid sacraments and were only to be admitted into the Orthodox Church through Baptism.頒布法令,所有的西方人 - 拉丁文或新教 - 無效的聖禮,並只可納入東正教通過洗禮。

Council at Constantinople local Council, 1772 AD公元1772年在君士坦丁堡當地議會委員會
Convened regarding Purgatory.召開關於煉獄。 Condemned the innovation of purgatory.譴責創新的煉獄。

Statement聲明

We the godly, following the truth and turning away from such innovations, confess and accept two places for the souls of the dead, paradise and hell, for the righteous and sinners, as the holy Scripture teaches us.我們的虔誠,之後的真理,從這些創新,承認和接受兩地死了,天堂與地獄的靈魂和罪人為義,如​​“聖經”教導我們。 We do not accept a third place, a purgatory, by any means, since neither Scripture nor the holy Fathers have taught us any such thing.我們不接受第三個地方,煉獄,以任何方式,因為既不是聖經,也不是神聖的父親教給我們任何這樣的事情。 However, we believe these two places have many abodes ...然而,我們相信這兩個地方有許多的住所......
None of the teachers of the Church have handed down or taught such a purgatory, but they all speak of one single place of punishment, hades, just as they teach about one luminous and bright place, paradise.教師的教會都沒有流傳下來或教這樣的煉獄,但他們都講一個單一的地方,閻王的處罰,只是他們教一個發光的明亮的地方,天堂。 But both the souls of the holy and the righteous go indisputably to paradise and those of the sinners go to hades, of whom the profane and those who have sinned unforgivably are punished forever and those who have offended forgivably and moderately hope to gain freedom through the unspeakable mercy of God.但無論是靈魂的神聖和正義的無可爭議的天堂的罪人去冥界,人的褻瀆和永遠受到懲罰那些誰犯了罪不可原諒的,誰得罪forgivably和適度希望獲得自由通過難言的憐憫的神。 For on behalf of such souls, that is of the moderately and forgivably sinful, there are in the Church prayers, supplications, liturgies, as well as memorial services and almsgiving, that those souls may receive favour and comfort.對於代表的靈魂,是的中度及forgivably的罪惡的,有在教會的祈禱,懇求,禮儀,以及紀念服務和救濟,這些人可能會收到青睞和舒適。 Thus when the Church prays for the souls of those who are lying asleep, we hope there will be comfort for them from God, but not through fire and purgatory, but through divine love for mankind, whereby the infinite goodness of God is seen.因此,當堂祈禱那些誰睡的靈魂,我們希望能有舒適的神,但不是通過消防和煉獄,但通過神對人類的愛,無限的被認為是善良的上帝。

Council at Constantinople local Council, 1819 AD 在君士坦丁堡當地議會委員會 ,1819 AD
Endorsed the teaching of the Kollyvades monks (frequent communion, the empirical experience of hesychasm against metaphysical speculations and rationalism, etc.)贊同教學的Kollyvades和尚(頻繁的交流,反對形而上學思辨和理性主義等的實際經驗,hesychasm)

Council at Constantinople local Council, 1872 AD公元1872年在君士坦丁堡當地議會委員會
Convened regarding Phyletism.召開關於Phyletism。 Condemned Phyletism, the heresy that the organisation of the Church should be along racial (ethnic) lines in the same geographical area.的譴責Phyletism,異端邪說,該組織的教會應該是沿著種族(種族)線在同一地理區域。

Council at Constantinople Inter-Orthodox Congress, 1923 AD 理事會在君士坦丁堡東正教間會議,1923 AD
Authorised local churches to use the Revised Julian calendar whilst maintaining the traditional Paschalion.授權地方教會使用經修訂的儒略歷同時保持傳統Paschalion。

Information provided by TR Valentine由TR情人節提供的信息



Also, see:此外,見:
Roman Catholic Church Listing of Councils 羅馬天主教教會上市議會

Nicene Creed (Symbol of Faith) 尼西亞(象徵真誠)

Athanasian Creed 阿他那修信經信條
Apostles' Creed 使徒們的信條

Council of Basel 巴塞爾議會
Council of Chalcedon 理事會chalcedon
Council of Constance 安理會的人Constance
Councils of Constantinople 議會的君士坦丁堡
Council of Ephesus 理事會以弗所
Council of Ferrara-Florence 安理會的費拉拉-佛羅倫薩
Councils of Nicaea 校董會的尼西亞
Photius photius


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