New Testament Theology新約神學

Advanced Information 先進的信息

New Testament Theology is that branch of the Christian disciplines which traces themes through the authors of the NT and then amalgamates those individual motifs into a single comprehensive whole.新約神學是基督教的學科,它跟踪的NT的作者主題,通過這些個別的圖案,然後合併成一個單一的全面的整體的一個分支。 Thus it studies the progressive revelation of God in terms of the life situation at the time of writing and the delineates the underlying thread which ties it together.因此,在寫作的時候,研究了漸進式的啟示的神的生活狀況,並描繪了底層的線程聯繫起來一起。 This discipline centers upon meaning rather than application, ie, the message of the text for its own day rather than for modern needs.這門學科的中心意思,而不是應用程序後,即消息的文本為自己的一天,而不是現代人的需求。 The term employed most frequently for the current state of biblical theology is "crisis," due to the growing stress on diversity rather than unity and the failure to attain any consensus whatever as to methodology or content.最頻繁的當前狀態聖經神學所採用的術語是“危機”,由於越來越大的壓力多樣性,而不是團結,未能達成任何共識,任何方法或內容。 However, this is hyperbolic.然而,這是雙曲線。

Historical Survey歷史考察。

In the centuries following the apostolic era dogma dominated the church and biblical theology was forced to take a subordinate role.在幾個世紀的使徒時代教條為主的教會和聖經神學被迫採取一個從屬的角色。 The "rule of faith," or the magisterium of the church, was the guiding principle. “法治信仰”,或教會的訓導,當時的指導原則。 The change began with the Reformation, when sola Scriptura replaced dogma as the hermeneutic of the church.轉變開始改革時,唯獨聖經取代教條的解釋學的教會。 The true beginning of "biblical theology" came after the Enlightenment within German pietism.真正開始“聖經神學”來了之後,在德國敬虔主義的啟示。 The mind replaced faith as the controlling factor, and the historical-critical method developed.心取代信仰作為控制因素,發展的歷史批判的方法。 JF Gabler in 1787 defined the approach in purely descriptive terms, and after him critics treated the Bible like any other book. JF高布樂“在1787年定義的方法純粹是描述性的詞語,之後,他的批評者對待聖經像任何其他的書。

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In Tubingen, FC Baur in 1864 developed "tendency criticism," which reconstructed NT history under Hegel's thesis (Petrine church), antithesis (Pauline church), and synthesis (the later church of the second century).在圖賓根,FC鮑爾在1864年開發的“傾向的批評,”重建NT歷史根據黑格爾的論文(伯多祿的教堂),對仗(寶蓮教堂),並合成(後來的教會在公元二世紀)。 Later in the century the history of religions school with Wilhelm Bousset and William Wrede looked at the sources of Christianity in terms of the surrounding religions.後來在本世紀的歷史的宗教學校與威廉Bousset的和威廉wrede看著周圍的宗教基督教的來源。 From that time the basis of NT theology was said to be the early church rather than Jesus.從那個時候,基礎新台幣神學據說是早期教會,而不是耶穌。 The conservative reaction, via Schlatter and Zahn in Germany, the Cambridge trio (Lightfoot, Westcott, and Hort), and the Princetonians (Hodge, Machen, Warfield, and Vos) argued for the interdependence of biblical theology with exegesis and systematics.保守的反應,通過施拉特和贊恩在德國,劍橋三重奏(萊特富特,韋斯科特,園藝),和普林斯頓(Hodge的,有麥,沃菲爾德,及VOS)主張聖經神學與訓詁學和系統性的相互依存關係。

Karl Barth and dialectical theology (1919) rescued the old liberalism after its collapse following the First World War.卡爾巴特和辯證神學(1919年)第一次世界大戰後,救出老自由主義後,其崩潰。 He said that God speaks to man through the Bible.他說:上帝通過“聖經”的人。 Therefore the testaments were studied along theological rather than historical-critical lines.因此,見證了研究沿神學,而不是歷史的臨界線。 Oscar Cullmann with his salvation-history approach represented the conservative wing, and Rudolf Bultmann with his demythologization and existential interpretation controlled the liberal faction.奧斯卡CULLMANN代表的保守派,他的救恩歷史記錄的方法和魯道夫布特曼與他的的demythologization和存在解釋的自由派控制。 Following Bultmann, Ernst Fuchs and Gerhard Ebeling developed the new hermeneutic, and influential school which considered the Bible to be encounter or "word-event."布特曼,恩斯特福斯和格哈德艾伯林之後開發出新的詮釋學,以及有影響力的學校,其中考慮聖經要遇到或“字事件”。 They reacted against the Bible as propositional truth and said that in it man is called to a new relationship with God.他們的反應對聖經作為命題的真相,並說,在這名男子被稱為神的一個新的關係。

There are several more recent approaches, such as Wolfhart Pannenberg's return to the historical approach as a scientific discipline and Brevard Childs's canon process, which considers the Bible as a unity and states that biblical theology must begin with the final canonical form rather than the developing stages of the biblical books.有幾個較新的方法,如代表人物潘內伯格的回報率的歷史方法作為一個科學的學科和布里瓦德童車的佳能過程,其中認為“聖經”作為一個團結和國家,聖經神學必須開始的最終規範的形式,而不是的發展階段“聖經”的書。 The major characteristic, however, has been disunity.的主要特徵,但是,一直不統一。 No voice has gained ascendancy and no single system dominates as did Baur, Bousset, or Bultmann in the past.沒有發言權已經獲得了優勢,並沒有像鮑爾,Bousset,或布特曼在過去單一系統中佔主導地位。 However, the interest is greater than ever before, and several voices, notably those of the canon-critical camp, are turning interest back to biblical theology.然而,利益比以往任何時候都大,幾個聲音,特別是那些陣營的佳能關鍵,把興趣回到聖經神學。 Relationship to Other Disciples.與其他弟子的關係。 To Systematic Theology.系統神學。 Since biblical theology began as a reaction against dogmatics, there has always been tension between the two.自聖經神學,開始對教義的一種反應,兩者之間一直存在著緊張。 Many like Ernst Kasemann have argued that the fragmentary nature of the NT data makes any attempt to unify the diverse theologies impossible.許多人認為,像恩斯特凱士曼的NT數據的局部性質,使得任何試圖統一不同的神學不可能。 However, this is doubtful (see below), and the two are interdependent.然而,這是值得懷疑的(見下文),二者相互依存。 Biblical theology forces systematics to remain true to the historical revelation, while dogmatics provides the categories to integrate the data into a larger whole.聖經神學部隊留下真實的歷史啟示,而教義提供了分類的數據集成到一個更大的整體的系統性。 However, the organization itself stems from the text; Scripture must determine the integrating pattern or structure.不過,該組織本身的文字源於“聖經”的人必須確定整合的模式或結構。 Biblical theology is descriptive, tracing the individual emphases of the sacred writers and then collating them to ascertain the underlying unity.聖經神學,是描述,追查個人的側重點神聖的作家,然後整理,以確定潛在的統一性。 Systematics takes this material and reshapes it into a confessional statement for the church; it bridges the gap between "what it meant" and "what it means."系統採取這種材料,重塑它變成自白聲明,對於教會,它架起了一座橋樑之間“是什麼意思”,“這是什麼意思。” At the same time, systematics provides the preunderstanding that guides the interpreter, so the two disciplines interact in a type of "hermeneutical circle" as each informs and checks the other.同時,系統提供了前理解指導口譯,所以這兩個學科的互動,在一種類型的“詮釋學循環”,因為每個通知,並檢查其他。

To Exegesis要訓詁

There is a constant tension within biblical theology between diversity and unity, and a holistic consideration of the biblical material is a necessary corrective to a fragmented approach to the Bible.在聖經神學之間的多樣性和統一性,是一個恆定的張力和全盤考慮的聖經材料是必要的糾正條塊分割的辦法,以“聖經”。 Thus biblical theology regulates exegesis (Gaffin).因此,聖經神學調節訓詁學(加芬)。 Yet exegesis also precedes biblical theology, for it provides the data with which the latter works.然而,註釋聖經神學之前,因為它提供的數據,後者的工作。 The theologian correlates the results of the exegesis of individual texts in order to discover the unity between them.神學家相關的個人文本註釋的結果,以發現它們之間的團結。 Therefore the hermeneutical circle is now a three-way enterprise.因此,詮釋學循環,現在是一個三路的企業。

To Historical Theology歷史神學

"Tradition" controls not only Roman Catholic dogma but Protestant thinking as well. “傳統”的控制不僅是羅馬天主教的教條,而是新教思想。 All interpreters find their data base in their community of faith.在他們的信仰團體,全部口譯找到自己的數據基礎。 Historical theology makes the theologian aware of the ongoing dialogue and thus functions both as a check against reading later ideas into a passage and as a store of knowledge from which to draw possible interpretations.歷史神學使得神學家知道正在進行的對話,從而既可作為檢查對閱讀後進入通道的想法,作為一個店的知識,從中可以得出可能的解釋。 This discipline also enters the hermeneutical circle, within which the text challenges our preunderstanding and both draws upon and reforms our tradition-derived beliefs.這門學科也進入詮釋學循環,在其中的文本的挑戰,我們的前理解,既借鑒和改革,我們的傳統衍生信仰。

To Homiletical Theology講道神學

Nearly every theologian realizes that theology dare not merely describe the past thinking of the biblical authors.幾乎每一個神學家意識到神學不敢不僅僅是描述過去的思考聖經的作者。 It must demonstrate the relevance of those ideas for contemporary needs.它必須表現出這些思想對當代需求的相關性。 This is the task of homiletical theology.這是講道神學的任務。 Of course, no one is either a theologian or a homiletician; in a very real sense the two converge.當然,沒有人是一個神學家或homiletician一個非常現實的意義收斂。 Yet it is still valid to differentiate the levels at which we work, so long as we realize that true interpretation must blend all five aspects, biblical, systematic, exegetical, historical, and homiletical.然而,它仍然是有效區分層次,在我們工作中,只要我們認識到,真正的解釋必須整合所有五個方面,聖經,系統化,訓詁學,歷史和講道。 The task itself has been explained best by missiology's "contextualization."這個任務本身已經解釋宣教的“語境”。 The preacher/missionary takes the results of the first four disciplines and communicates this to the current "context" of the church/mission field.佈道者/傳教需要的結果,首4個學科和溝通,這是目前的“背景”的教會/團場。

Specific Problem Areas具體的問題領域

Unity and Diversity統一性與多樣性

Many argue that the biblical books are circumstantial and linked to irreversible historical contingency; therefore there was no true unifying theology.許多人認為,聖經書是間接的和歷史的偶然性與不可逆的,因此,有沒有真正的統一神學。 Some go so far as to state there was no true "orthodoxy" in the earliest church but only a series of different groups struggling for control.一些走這麼遠,以國家有沒有真正的“正統”,在最早的教堂,但只是一系列不同群體掙扎的控制。 Certainly there is tremendous diversity in the Bible, since most of the books were written to defend God's will for his people against various aberrations.當然,在聖經中有巨大的多樣性,因為大部分的書籍被寫入捍衛神的旨意為他的人民對各種像差。 Further, there is a great variety of expressions, eg, Paul's "adoption" motif or John's "newborn" imagery.此外,還有種類繁多的表達式,例如,保羅的“領養”母題或約翰的“新生兒”意象。 However, this does not mean that it is impossible to compile divergent traditions into a larger conceptual whole (cf. Eph. 4:5-6).然而,這並不意味著它是不可能的,不同的傳統編譯到一個更大的概念全部(弗4:5-6)。 Through all the diverse expressions a unified perspective and faith shine through.通過多樣化的表現一個統一的觀點和信念的光芒。 The key is linguistic/semantic; the differences can often be understood as metaphors which point to a larger truth.最關鍵的是語言/語義的差異往往可以被理解為隱喻,指向一個更大的事實。 At this level we can detect unity.在這個層面上,我們可以檢測團結。

Tradition-History傳統的歷史

Many believe that doctrines and traditions developed in stages, and that inspiration should be applied to the originating event, the stages in the subsequent history of the community, and the final stage in which it was "frozen" into the canon.許多人認為,應適用理論和傳統,發展階段,而靈感的起源事件,在隨後的歷史的社會,並在最後階段,它被“凍結”到佳能階段。 This makes detection of any biblical theology very difficult and usually leads to multiple interpretations.這使得任何聖經神學的檢測非常困難的,通常會導致多種解釋。 However, there is another way, which depends upon the final form and traces only that which is evident in the text.但是,還有另一種方式,這取決於最終的形式和痕跡只在文本中,這是顯而易見的。 Moreover, we must not allow a concept of tradition to replace the search for a unifying center.此外,我們不能讓一個傳統的概念,以取代尋找一個統一的中心。 Tradition-critical speculation becomes an end in itself, with very little in the way of fruitful results.傳統臨界投機成為目的本身,很少的方式豐碩的成果。 Still, when placed within the context of the whole process, the method can highlight individual emphases, eg, in the four Gospels.然而,當放置範圍內的全過程,該方法可以突出個人的側重點,例如,在四福音書。

Analogia Fidei and Progressive Revelation以此類推真誠原則和漸進的啟示

When one places too much stress on unity, "parallelomania" can result, ie, the tendency to apply any parallel (even if a wrong one) to a text.當一個人把太多的壓力團結,“parallelomania”的結果,即適用於任何平行的傾向(即使錯誤)到一個文本。 Actually, as evidenced even in the Reformers, "the faith" or dogma can control our exegesis.事實上,即使在改革者證明,“信仰”或教條,可以控制我們的註釋。 A better phrase would be analogia Scriptura, "Scripture interpreting Scripture."一個更好的詞來描述,以此類推聖經“,聖經解釋聖經。” Here too we must exercise care and stress a proper use of parallels, studying the use of the terms in both passages in order to determine whether the meanings truly overlap.在這裡,我們也必須小心,並強調正確使用的相似之處,研究使用兩個段落中的條款,以確定是否真正的含義重疊。 Progressive revelation ties together the seemingly disparate notions of tradition-history and analogia Scriptura.漸進式的啟示看似不相干的概念聯繫在一起的歷史和傳統以此類推聖經。 One must trace the historical process of revelation and determine the continuities between individual parts.我們必須追溯歷史過程的啟示和確定的各個部分之間的連續性。

History and Theology歷史和神學

James Barr says that ambiguity about the connection between revelatory events and historical causation and between revelation and the biblical text itself causes problems for the possibility of biblical theology.詹姆斯·巴爾說,含糊不清的啟示事件和歷史的啟示和聖經文本本身之間的因果關係之間的連接會導致問題的可能性聖經神學。 Yet history is necessary for theology.然而,歷史是必要的神學。 While there is theology in narrative sections like the Gospels, this does not obviate the historical core.雖然有像福音神學的敘述部分,這不排除對歷史的核心。 Lessing's "ugly broad ditch" between "accidental truths of history" and "necessary truths of reason" is based upon the philosophical skepticism of the Enlightenment.萊辛的“醜陋的廣泛溝”之間的“偶然真理的歷史”和“必要真理的原因是基於哲學懷疑論的啟蒙。 In the post-Einsteinian age this position is no longer viable.在後愛因斯坦的年齡,這個位置不再是可行的。 There is no reason that theology must be divorced from the possibility of revelation in history.沒有任何理由,神學必須脫離的可能性在歷史的啟示。 Indeed, history and its interpretation are united, and recent approaches to historiography demonstrate not only the possibility of seeing God's revelation in history but the necessity of doing so.事實上,歷史和它的解釋是統一的,近期的做法,史學不僅體現在歷史中看到上帝的啟示的可能性,但這樣做的必要性。 In Kings-Chronicles or the Gospels, for instance, history and theology are inseparable.在國王的編年史或福音,例如,歷史和神學是分不開的。 We know Jesus as he has been interpreted for us through the sacred evangelists.我們知道耶穌,因為他已經解釋為我們神聖的福音。

Language, Text, and Meaning語言,文字和意義

Recent theorists have drawn such a sharp contrast between modern conditions and the ancient world that the interpreter seems forever separated from the intended meaning of the text.最近的理論家們得出這樣一個鮮明的對比現代條件和古代世界的解釋似乎永遠分開文本的原意。 They assert that a text once written becomes autonomous from the author, and the interpreter cannot get behind his or her preunderstanding to make an "objective" reading.他們斷言,一旦寫入一個文本成為自治區從作者,解釋器不能落後他或她的前理解“客觀的”閱讀。 The world of the interpreter cannot interpenetrate the world of the Bible.世界的解釋不能相互滲透的“聖經”的世界。 Gadamer argues for a fusion of horizons between the interpreter and the text, and Ricoeur speaks of the "world-referential" dimension, ie, Scripture draws the reader into its own world.伽達默爾主張之間的翻譯和文本的視野融合,利科說的“世界參照”尺寸,即聖經吸引讀者進入自己的世界。 More recent approaches such as structuralism go beyond the text to stress the "deeper structure" beneath it, ie, the universal patterns of the mind which speak to every generation.最近的方法,如結構主義超越文本強調的“深層結構”它的下方,即普遍的思維模式,這說話,每一代。 It is said that we are moving further and further from the original meaning of Scripture.這是說,我們正進一步從“聖經”的本義。 However, this is not necessarily the case.然而,這並不一定是這種情況。 Wittgenstein talked of the "language games" which language plays, and ED Hirsch speaks of the "intrinsic genre" of the text, ie, the rules of the language game which narrow the possibilities and facilitate interpretation.維特根斯坦講的“語言遊戲”的語言扮演,和ED赫希說,“固有的風格”的文字,即縮小的可能性和方便解釋的語言遊戲的規則。 Meaning in the text is open to the interpreter, who must place his preunderstanding "in front of" the text (Ricoeur) and enter its own language game.在文中的含義是開放給傳譯員,他們必須把他的preunderstanding“前面的”文(呂格爾),並輸入自己的語言遊戲。 Within this the original meaning is a possible goal.在這個原始的意義是一個可能的目標。 When we recognize the NT as stating propositional truth, the intended meaning becomes a necessary enterprise.當我們認識到新台幣作為命題說明真相,本意成為必要的企業。

OT and NT催產素和NT

Any true biblical theology must recognize the centrality of the relationship between the testaments.任何真正的聖經神學必須承認之間的關係,證明中的核心地位。 Again the issue is diversity vs. unity.同樣的問題是多樣性與統一性。 The various strata of both must be allowed to speak, but the unity of these strata must be recognized.各階層都必須被允許說話,但必須認識到這些階層的團結。 Several aspects demand this unity: the historical continuity between the testaments; the centrality of the OT for the NT; the promise-fulfillment theme of the NT; the messianic hope of the OT and its place as a "pedagogue" (Gal. 3).有幾個方面需要救世主的希望,這種統一的歷史連續性之間的見證,OT的NT核心的承諾履行的NT的主題為“教育家”(加拉太書3的OT和地方的) 。 Many, from Marcion to Bultmann, have posited an absolute dichotomy between the testaments, yet to do so is to separate the NT from its historical moorings and to cause it to founder in a sea of historical irrelevance.很多,從馬吉安布特曼,都假定一個絕對的二分法之間的見證,但這樣做是為了分開NT從歷史系泊,並導致其創始人在歷史不相干的海洋。 Others elevate OT over NT (AA van Ruler) or take a purely Christological approach to the OT (Hengstenberg, Vischer).其他提升OT,NT(AA麵包車的主宰行星),或一個純粹的基督的OT(亨斯滕貝格,Vischer)。 None does full justice to the two testaments.沒有做充分的正義兩約。 For instance, while a completely Christological approach guards against the tendency to historicize the OT away from promise-fulfillment, it leads to a subjective spiritualizing of the OT which denies its intended meaning.例如,當一個完全基督的辦法防的傾向歷史性OT承諾履行,它會導致一種主觀的精神化的OT否認其要表達的意思。 Therefore, I would posit "patterns of unity and continuity" (Hasel) as the OT looks forward to the NT and the NT depends upon the OT for its identity.因此,我想陽性“的模式,統一性和連續性”(哈塞爾)作為OT期待NT和NT OT取決於它的身份。 Both are valid aspects of God's ongoing redemptive activity in history.神的的救贖正在進行的活動在歷史上,兩者都是有效的方面。

Theology and Canon神學和佳能

Brevard Childs has made the final form of the canon the primary hermeneutical tool in determining a biblical theology.布里瓦德童車取得了最後,佳能的主要形式確定聖經神學詮釋學工具。 He believes that the parts of Scripture must maintain a dialectical relationship with the whole of the canon.他認為,“聖經”的部分必須保持一個辯證的關係,整個的佳能。 Therefore there is no true biblical theology when only the individual voices of the various strata are heard.因此,沒有真正的聖經神學時,只有個別的各階層的聲音被聽到。 However, many critics demur, saying that biblical authority and inspiration are dynamic rather than static, centering not only upon the final form of the text but also upon the individual stages within the tradition process, both before the "final" form and after it, even up to the present day.然而,許多評論家提出異議,認為聖經的權威和靈感是動態的而不是靜態的,不僅在最後形成的文本,而且還取決於在傳統工藝的各個階段,之前的“最後”的形式後,圍繞,即使到了現在。 Childs responds that while the tradition process has validity, any true theology must depend upon the canon itself and not upon the speculative results of historical criticism.蔡爾茲響應,而傳統工藝的有效性,任何真正的神學必須依賴於佳能的本身,而不是在投機的結果,歷史的批評。 Childs's concern is valid, but there are certain problems.蔡爾茲的關注是有效的,但也存在一定問題。 First, both the original community and the current interpreter have priority over the author and text.首先,原來的社區和當前解釋,在作者和文本的優先級。

Second, Childs admits that with his approach the original meaning of the text cannot be recovered.其次,童車也承認,他的做法無法恢復原來意義上的文字。 Many canon critics see the true meaning as encompassing not only the canonical thrust but also the meaning of the original event/saying, subsequent developments, and current interpretations.不僅規範的推力,而且原始事件的意義/說,隨後的發展中,目前的解釋為包括許多佳能批評家見的真正含義。 The text is reduced to a mere voice in a cacophony of sounds.文本被降低到一個純粹的聲音在刺耳的聲音。 Third, many other critics reduce Scripture to a "canon within the canon" (eg, Kasemann).三,其他許多批評減少聖經內的佳能“佳能”(例如,凱士曼)。 One chooses a theme as center and stresses only those passages which fit this so-called core of Scripture.有人選擇一個主題為中心,強調只有那些段落適合這個所謂的“聖經”的核心。 This reduction must be avoided and the whole of Scripture allowed to speak.這項減稅必須避免和整本聖經說。

Authority權威

Since biblical theology is descriptive, dealing with "what it meant," critical scholars deny its authority.由於聖經神學,是描述性的,處理“是什麼意思,”批判學者否認其權威。 True biblical authority, it is said, rests upon its "apostolic effectiveness" in fulfilling its task (Barrett) or upon the community behind it (Knight) or its content (Achtemeier).有人說,真正的聖經權威,有賴於它的“使徒成效”,以完成自己的任務(巴雷特),或根據社會的背後(騎士)其內容(阿克提美亞)。 In actuality the authority of Scripture transcends all these; as the revelation of God, it has propositional authority; as the revelation of God to man, it has existential authority.實際上聖經的權威超越這一切的上帝的啟示,它命題權威,神對人的啟示,它有存在的權力。 The text is primary, and the authority of the interpreter is secondary, ie, it derives its authority from the text.文本是主要的,權威的解釋是次要的,也就是說,它源於其權威的文本。 Theology as interpreted meaning has authority only to the extent that it reflects the true message of the inspired Scriptures.神學的解釋意義的範圍內,它反映的是真實的信息的啟發聖經的權威。 The Barthian separation between the living Word and the written Word, with the latter having only instrumental authority, is an inadequate mode, for it fails to understand properly the claims of Scripture for itself.生活之間的Word和文字,與後者只有器樂權威,是Barthian分離不足的模式,因為它不能正確理解索賠的經文本身。 The Bible is both propositional revelation and the dynamic instrument of the Holy Spirit.聖經既是命題的啟示和動​​態儀器的聖靈。 The authority of biblical theology stems not just from the fact that it speaks to the contemporary situation (which is the task of systematics and homiletics) but from the fact that it communicates divine truth.權威聖經神學莖不只是來自一個事實,即它說,當前的情況(這是任務的系統學和講道),但一個事實,即它傳達神的真理。

A Proper Methodology一個適當的方法

The Synthetic Method traces basic theological themes through the strata of Scripture in order to note their development through the biblical period.合成方法的痕跡,基本神學主題,通過地層的經文,以說明他們的發展,通過聖經的時期。 Its strength is stress on the unity of Scripture.它的強度是壓力聖經的一致性。 Its weakness is its tendency toward subjectivity: one can force an artificial pattern upon the NT material.它的弱點是它的主觀傾向:一是可以迫使一個人造格局後,新台幣材料。

The Analytical Method studies the distinctive theology of individual sections and notes the unique message of each. 分析方法研究了鮮明的神學的個別章節和票據的獨特信息。 The strength is the emphasis upon the individual author's meaning.強度是強調個人作者的意思時。 The weakness is the radical diversity, which results in a collage of pictures with no cohesiveness.弱點是激進的多樣性,這將導致一個拼貼的照片,沒有凝聚力。

The Historical Method studies the development of religious ideas in the life of God's people.歷史研究方法的發展,宗教思想,神的子民的生命。 Its value is the attempt to understand the community of believers behind the Bible.它的價值,是試圖了解社區的信徒背後的聖經。 Its problem is the subjectivity of most reconstructions, in which the scriptural text is at the mercy of the theorist.它的問題是主觀的大部分重組,其中聖經的文字是在憐憫的理論家。

The Christological Method makes Christ the hermeneutical key to both testaments. 基督方法 ,使基督詮釋學的關鍵,既見證。 Its strength is its recognition of the true center of the Bible.它的強度是其承認“聖經”的真正中心。 Its weakness is its tendency to spiritualize passages and force interpretations foreign to them, especially in terms of the OT experience of Israel.它的弱點是精神上的通道和力量詮釋外國對他們的傾向,特別是在以色列的的OT經驗的。 One should not read everything in the OT or NT as a "type of Christ."一個人不應該讀為“基督的類型的OT或NT的一切。”

The Confessional Method looks at the Bible as a series of faith statements which are beyond history.該教派的方法,著眼於聖經,因為一系列的信仰聲明,這是超越歷史。 Its value is its recognition of creed and worship in NT faith.它的價值是其承認在NT信仰的宗教和信仰。 Its danger is its radical separation between faith and history.它的危險性是它的激進分離信仰和歷史。

The Cross-Section Method traces a single unifying theme (eg, covenant or promise) and studies it historically by means of "cross-sections" or samplings of the canonical record. 的橫截面法的痕跡,一個單一的統一的主題(例如,公約或 ​​承諾),並研究它在歷史上的“橫截面”或採樣的典型紀錄。 Its strength is the understanding of major themes that it provides.它的強度是重要的主題,它提供了了解。 Its weakness is the danger of arbitrary selection.它的弱點是任意選擇的危險。 If one selects the wrong central theme, other themes can be forced into harmony with it.如果選擇了錯誤的中心主題,其他主題可以被迫與它的和諧。

The Multiplex Method (Hasel) combines the best of these and proceeds hermeneutically from text to theory. 多重方法 (哈塞爾),結合了最好的,收益hermeneutically從文本到理論。 It begins with grammatical and historical analysis of the text, attempting to unlock the meaning of the various texts within their life settings.它是從語法和歷史的文本分析,試圖解開他們的生活範圍內設置的各種文本的意義。 Here a sociological analysis is also helpful, since it studies those life settings in terms of the social matrix of the believing communities.這裡的社會學分析也是有幫助的,因為它研究那些生活環境中的社會矩陣信社區。 As the data are collected from this exegetical task, they are organized into the basic patterns of the individual books and then further of the individual authors.由於數據收集從這個訓詁任務,他們被組織到個人的書籍,然後再進一步的個別作者的基本模式。 At this stage the interpreter has delineated the emphases or interlocking forces in the strata.在這個階段的解釋已劃定的重點或聯鎖部隊在地層中。 Once these various traditions (eg, Markan, Johannine, Pauline) have been charted, the student looks for basic principles of cohesion between them, for metaphorical language which discloses larger patterns of unity between the authors.一旦這些不同的傳統(例如,馬可,約翰,寶蓮)已被繪製,學生尋找它們之間的凝聚力的基本原則,隱喻的語言,揭示了較大的模式作者之間的團結。 One must seek the unified whole behind statements of election and universal salvific will, on the one hand, or behind realized and final eschatology, on the other. ,一方面,或背後已變現及最後的末世論,另一方面,我們必須尋求統一的整體背後報表選舉和普遍的救贖。 Paul's stress on justification by faith will be united with John's use of new-birth language.保羅因信稱義的壓力將團結與約翰的使用新出生的語言。 These larger unities are charted on two levels, first with respect to overall unity and second concerning the progress of revelation.這些較大的統一繪製的兩個層面,首先就整體的團結和第二的進展的啟示。 Finally, these motifs are compiled into major sections and subsections, following a descriptive (biblical) method rather than an artificial reconstruction.最後,這些圖案被編譯成主要章節和小節,一個描述性的(聖經)的方法,而不是人工重建。 In other words, the data rather than the dogmatic presuppositions of the interpreter control the operation.換句話說,數據,而不是解釋器教條式的前提的控制操作。 From this will emerge a central unifying theme around which the other subthemes gather themselves.這將出現一個中央統一的主題,圍繞它的其他分主題收集自己。 Within this larger unity the individual themes maintain complementary yet distinct roles.在這種大團結的個別主題保持互補但不同的角色。 The larger cohesive unity must result from rather than become the presupposition of the theological enterprise, ie, the texts determine the patterns.較大的有凝聚力的團結,必須產生,而不是成為預設的神學企業,即,文本,確定的模式。

Themes in NT Theology新台幣神學主題

These final two sections will apply the above proposals first to the basical theological messages of individual NT authors and then to the quest for a unifying central theme in the NT.這最後兩節將適用於上述的建議,首先把基本神學訊息個別新台幣作者,然後再追求一個統一的中心主題在NT。 Since there are separate articles in this volume on the theologies of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, and Paul, we will present here the rest of the NT corpus, namely the themes of the general epistles and of Revelation.由於對神學的馬太,馬克,路加,約翰和保羅,本卷中有單獨的文章,我們將介紹這裡其餘的新台幣語料庫,即主題一般書信和啟示。

Hebrews was written to a group of Jewish Christians, perhaps in Rome, who were in danger of "apostasizing" due to persecution.希伯來人寫的一組的猶太基督徒,也許在羅馬,誰是危險的“apostasizing”由於迫害。 As a result, the author stresses the pilgrimage aspect of the Christian life (see Kasemann).因此,筆者強調基督徒的生活(見凱士曼)的朝聖方面。 The believer is to recognize that he or she lives between two worlds, the present age of trouble and the future age of salvation.信徒要認識到,他或她生活在兩個世界,對當今時代的麻煩和未來時代的救贖之間。 The key is a faith which makes hope a concrete reality (11:1) and makes the "powers of the age to come" a present reality (6:4-5).關鍵是信心,希望一個具體的現實(11:1),使“權力的年齡來”目前的現實(6:4-5)。 In light of the superiority of Christ over the old Jewish economy, the Christian must cling to the high priest "after the order of Melchizedek" (7:1-2).在較古老的猶太人經濟優勢的基督,基督教必須固守高神父“的命令後,麥基洗德”(7:1-2)。 While many have made the high priestly Christology the major theme of Hebrews, it is more likely that the pilgrimage aspect, rooted in the exhortation passages, is central.雖然許多已取得高司鐸christology重大主題的希伯來人,它更可能是朝聖方面,紮根中的勸勉通道中,是中央的。

James, probably the first NT book written, is addressed to a Jewish Christian audience, perhaps in Palestine.詹姆斯,可能是第一個NT寫的書,給一個猶太基督教的觀眾,也許在巴勒斯坦。 The church was poor, without influence, and passing through a time of persecution in which wealthy Jews were confiscating their property (2:6, 5:1-6).教會是窮人,沒有影響力,經過一段時間的迫害富有的猶太人,沒收他們的財產(2:6,5:1-6)。 The book is immensely practical, dealing in a pastoral way with weak believers and their tendencies.這本書是非常實用的,在牧區的方式與軟弱的信徒和他們的傾向。 It draws upon wisdom themes regarding trials and temptation, social concern, the problem of the tongue, and interpersonal conflicts to underscore the necessity of putting one's faith into practice in the practical Christian life.它吸取智慧主題,就考驗和誘惑,備受社會關注的問題的舌頭,和人與人之間的衝突,強調有必要把自己的信仰實踐中的實際基督徒的生活。

I Peter utilizes a great deal of creedal or catechetical material, ie, formal statements on Christian doctrine composed by the apostles for the early church, to speak to a further situation of persecution on behalf of a mixed church of Jewish and Gentile Christians in northern Galatia.彼得使用了很大的教義和教理講授的材料,即在正式發言中對基督教教義的早期教會的使徒組成,進一步的情況,迫害代表一個混合教會的猶太人和外邦人的基督徒在北加拉太。 It combines an eschatological perspective (ie, the end has begun and glory is near) with an ethical emphasis (ie, exemplary behavior must result from the experience of God's salvation in light of the world's opposition).它結合了末世論的角度(即已經開始,結束和榮耀,是近)與道德的重點(即模範行為必須在光的世界反對神的救恩的經驗)。 Christ is the model of the righteous sufferer (3:18), and his exaltation is shared by the one who endures similar hostility.基督是義患者的模型(3:18),和他的提升是共享的一個人忍受類似的敵意。 Therefore, in the midst of this evil world the believer is an alien whose true citizenship is in heaven and who rejoices even when suffering (1:6-7) because it is a participation in the humiliation/exaltation of Christ.因此,在這個邪惡的世界之中,即使痛苦(1:6-7),因為它是一個參與的恥辱/提升基督的信徒,是一個陌生的,其真正的公民身份是在天上,誰喜歡。

II Peter and Jude are sister epistles written to combat false teaching of the Gnostic type which rejected the lordship of Christ (II Pet. 2:1) and the parousia (II Pet. 3:3-4) and degenerated into immorality (Jude 4). II彼得和裘德是妹妹寫書信,打擊虛假教學的諾斯底式拒絕了貴族身份的基督(II寵物。2:1)和圓滿(II彼前3:3-4),墮落成為不道德(裘德4 )。 In light of this, there is a decided emphasis upon the primacy of apostolic teaching (II Pet. 1:16, 20-21; 3:2) and upon the return of Christ in judgment (II Pet. 3:3-4; Jude 5-6).鑑於此,有一個決定強調​​,在使徒教學的首要地位(彼後1:16,20-21; 3:2)和基督的再來時的判斷(二寵物。3:3-4;裘德5-6)。 The coming day of the Lord is central in II Peter, and the judgment of those who oppose God, either human or angelic/demonic, comes to the fore in Jude.即將來臨的日子,耶和華,是中央在彼得,和那些反對神的人的判斷,無論是人還是天使/惡魔,涉及到中脫穎而出裘德。 Both stress the stringent responsibility of the church to oppose the false teachers.這兩種壓力的嚴格責任,教會反對虛假的教師。

Unifying Themes統一的主題

Five criteria are necessary to the search for a central motif that binds together the individual emphases and diverse doctrines of the NT: (1) the basic theme must express the nature and character of God; (2) it must account for the people of God as they relate to him; (3) it must express the world of mankind as the object of God's redemptive activity; (4) it must explain the dialectical relationship between the testaments; (5) it must account for the other possible unifying themes and must truly unite the theological emphases of the NT.五標準是必要的:(1)為核心主題的搜索結合在一起,個人的側重點和不同的學說的NT的基本主題要表達的神的性質和特點;(2)它必須考慮神的子民因為它們涉及到他;(3)它必須表達人類世界的神的救贖活動的對象;(4)它必須解釋的辯證關係之間的見證;(5)它必須佔的其他可能的統一的主題和必須真正團結的NT神學的重點。 Many proposed themes will fit one or another of the strata of OT and NT, eg, the narrative or the poetic or the prophetic or the wisdom or the epistolary portions, but will fail to summarize all.許多建議的主題,將適合的催產素和NT,例如,敘事或詩意或先知性或智慧或書信體部分的一種或另一種的地層,但將無法概括所有。 This theme must balance the others without merely lifting one above its fellow motifs.這個主題必須平衡的人,而不只是提升其同系的圖案上面。

The Covenant (Eichrodt, Ridderbos) has often been utilized to express the binding relationship between God and his people. 公約“(艾希羅特,ridderbos)經常被用來表達神和他的人民之間的綁定關係。 It includes both the legal contract and the eschatological hope which results, both the universal dimension of the cosmic God who creates as well as sustains and the specific communion which results.它包括法律效力的合同和末世希望它的結果,無論是誰創造的宇宙之神,以及維持和具體的交流,結果的普遍性。 The problem is that this is not universally attested in the testaments as the central core.問題是,這並沒有被普遍證明,證明了作為核心。 A better theme might be "election" as expressing the act of God or "promise" as the hope which results (see below).一個更好的主題可能是“選舉”作為表達上帝或“承諾”,希望它的結果(見下文)的行為。

God and Christ (Hasel) have been stressed a great deal lately, noting the theocentric character the NT. 上帝和耶穌 (哈塞爾)已經強調了大量最近,注意到theocentric性格新台幣。 This is much better than stressing aspects, such as the holiness or lordship or kingship of God, and better than making either God or Christ the center, which would do a disservice to OT or NT respectively.這是更好的強調方面,如神的聖潔或lordship或王權,比要么天主或基督的中心,這將做對不起OT或NT。 However, while we may view the theme dynamically to allow for the individual expression of subthemes, this too may be narrow since the community of God's people is not a natural part of it.不過,我們可以查看主題動態,以供個人表達的分主題,這也可能是狹隘的,因為神的子民的社會是不自然的一部分,它。

Existential Reality or Communion has been stressed (Bultmann et al.) as the true purpose of the Bible. 存在的現實,還是共融一直強調(布特曼等人),“聖經”的真正目的。 Proponents argue that this ties together the other themes and expresses the dynamic work of God among his people.支持者認為,這種緊密聯繫在一起的其他主題,在他的人表示工作動態神。 Yet as expressed by many it ignores too readily the propositional and creedal content of Scripture.然而,所表達的許多人來說,忽略太容易的命題和聖經教義的內容。 While communion is certainly a primary motif, it is not the unifying theme.共融無疑是一個主要的主題,它是不是統一的主題。

Eschatological Hope (Kaiser) is often stressed, in either the sense of promise or of hope. eschatological希望 (凱澤),是經常強調,在任何意義上的承諾,或希望。 The strength of this is the way it unites the testaments, since both look to the future consummation of God's activity in history.這樣的實力就是這樣,它團結的見證,因為兩個人都看了一下對方的未來在歷史上圓滿的神的活動。 It also unifies the other three above, which can be said to express aspects of this hope.結合其他三個以上,這可以說是表達這種希望的各個方面。 Its weakness, as often noted by various scholars, is the absence of stress on this in many portions of Scripture, eg, the wisdom literature or the Johannine writings.它的弱點,往往由不同的學者指出,在這個問題上的許多部分,例如,聖經智慧文學或johannine著作是沒有壓力。 Again, this is a major emphasis but not the unifying theme.再次,這是一個重點,但不是統一的主題。

Salvation History (von Rad, Cullmann, Ladd) may be the best of the positions, for it recognizes God's/Christ's redemptive activity on behalf of mankind, in terms of both present and future communion. 救恩史 (CULLMANN,馮拉德,拉德)可能是最好的位置,因為它認識到神/基督的救贖,代表人類的活動,無論是現在和未來的共融方面。 More than the others above, it subsumes each of the categories into itself.比上述其他的,它更歸入到自身的每個類別。 Those who oppose this as the unifying theme argue from two directions: (1) its artifical nature, since there is no single instance in OT or NT where it is directly stated; and (2) the lack of emphasis upon it in the entire NT, eg, it fits Luke-Acts but not John.那些反對作為統一的主題爭辯說,從兩個方向:(1)人工性質,因為沒有單個實例OT或NT,它是直接陳述;(2)沒有強調它在整個NT例如,它適合盧克的行為,但不是約翰。 However, any "unifying theme" is by its very nature artifical, since it is a principle derived from the individual themes of Scripture.然而,任何“統一的主題”由於其本身的性質是人工,因為它是一個來自個別主題的“聖經”的原則。 Also, while it is not "central" to every book, it is behind those diverse motifs and is thereby able to bind them together.此外,雖然它是不是“中央”的每一本書,它的背後是這些不同的圖案,從而能夠將它們綁定在一起。 Every theme here has a viable claim, so we must see which of the five best summarizes the others.每一個主題,在這裡有一個可行的索賠,因此,我們必須看到這五個最好的總結了。 Therefore, salvation-history has the best claim to the title "unifying theme."因此,救恩歷史上最好的要求,題目是“統一的主題。”

GR Osborne GR奧斯本
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
J. Barr, The Scope and Authority of the Bible; CK Barrett, "What is NT Theology? Some Reflections," Horizons in Biblical Theology 3; H. Boers, What is NT Theology? J.巴爾,管轄範圍和權力的聖經;對照Barrett表示,“這是什麼新台幣神學?幾點思考”聖經神學3的曙光; H.布爾人,新台幣神學是什麼? B. Childs, Biblical Theology in Crisis; R. Gaffin, "Systematic Theology and Biblical Theology," The NT Student and Theology a III, ed JH Skilton; D. Guthrie, NT Theology; G. Hasel, NT Theology: Basic Issues in the Current Debate; U. Mauser, ed., Horizons in Biblical Theology: An International Dialogue; E. Kasemann, "The Problem of a NT Theology," NTS 19:235-45; GE Ladd, A Theology of the NT; R. Morgan, The Nature of NT Theology: The Contributions of William Wrede and Adolf Schlatter; JD Smart, The Past, Present, and Future of Biblical Theology; G. Vos, Biblical Theology. B.蔡爾茲,聖經神學危機; R.加芬,“系統神學和聖經神學,”新台幣學生和神學a三,海關JH的skilton D.格思裡,新台幣神學; g。哈塞爾,新台幣神學:基本問題目前的爭議;美聯儲毛瑟槍,版,視野,在聖經神學:一個國際對話; E.凱士曼“的問題新台幣神學”,國稅廳19:235-45;葛雷德,A神學的新台幣; R 。摩根,其性質新台幣神學:威廉wrede和阿道夫施拉特JD智能的過去,現在和未來的聖經神學,聖經神學G.沃斯的貢獻。



Also, see:此外,見:
Theology of Matthew 神學的馬修。
Theology of Mark 神學的標誌
Theology of Luke 神學路加福音
Theology of John 神學的約翰。


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