Theology of John神學的約翰。

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For a man who has been so prominent in Christian thinking throughout the centuries John is a strangely shadowy figure.對於一個人誰一直如此突出的基督教思想在整個世紀,約翰是一個奇怪的黑影。 In the Gospels and Acts he is almost invariably accompanied by someone else and the other person is the spokesman (there is an exception when John tells Jesus that he forbade a man to cast out demons; Luke 9:49).在福音和使徒行傳,他幾乎總是伴隨著別人和其他人的代言人(有一個例外,當約翰告訴耶穌,他禁止一個人趕鬼,路加福音9:49)。 He is often linked with Peter and with his brother James, and these three were specially close to Jesus (Matt. 17:1; Mark 14:33; Luke 8:51).他經常被與彼得和他的兄弟詹姆斯,而​​這三個特別接近耶穌(馬太福音17:1,馬可福音14:33,路加福音8:51)。 He and James were called "sons of thunder" (Boanerges; Mark 3:17), which perhaps points to the kind of character revealed in their desire to call down fire from heaven on people who refused to receive Jesus (Luke 9:54).他和詹姆斯被稱為“雷子”(Boanerges馬可福音3:17),這也許是指向那種性格透露,他們的願望,叫火從天降在人拒絕接受耶穌(路加福音9:54) 。

We learn more from the writings linked with his name.我們更多地了解他的名字聯繫在一起的著作。 The Fourth Gospel as it stands is anonymous, but there is good reason for thinking that John wrote it and that he was the beloved disciple who leaned on Jesus' breast at the Last Supper (John 13:23) and to whom the dying Jesus commended his mother (John 19:26-27).第四個福音,因為它代表的是匿名的,但有充分的理由認為約翰說,他是靠著耶穌的胸膛,在最後的晚餐“(約翰福音13:23),垂死的耶穌稱讚愛徒他的母親(約翰福音19:26-27)。 The impression we get is that John had entered into the mind of Jesus more than any of the other disciples had.我們得到的印象是,約翰已進入耶穌的頭腦比任何其他的門徒有。

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God as Father作為父親的神

From his Gospel we learn a good deal about the Father and, indeed, it is to John more than anyone else that Christians owe their habit of referring to God simply as "the Father."從他的福音,我們學習了大量關於父親的,事實上,這是約翰超過其他基督徒欠他們的習慣,簡單地提到神之父“的人。” John uses the word "father" 137 times (which is more than twice as often as anyone else; Matthew has it 64 times, Paul 63).約翰用“父親”137倍(這是超過兩倍,經常和其他人一樣,馬太福音64次,保羅63)。 No less than 122 refer to God as Father, a beautiful emphasis which has influenced all subsequent Christian thinking.不低於122指神作為父親,一個美麗的重點,影響所有後續的基督教思想。 John also tells us that this God is love (I John 4:8, 16), and love is an important topic in both his Gospel and his epistles.約翰也告訴我們,神就是愛(約翰一書4:8,16),並在他的福音和他的書信中,愛情是一個重要的課題。 We know love in the Christian sense because we see it in the cross (John 3:16; I John 4:10); it is sacrificial giving, not for worthwhile people, but for sinners.我們知道在基督教意義上的愛,因為我們看到它在十字架上(約翰福音3:16,約翰一書4:10),它是犧牲付出,不值得的人,但對於罪人。

The Father is constantly active (John 5:17); he upholds his creation and brings blessing on those he has made.父親是不斷活動(約翰福音5:17),他堅持他做了他的創作帶來祝福。 He is a great God whose will is done, particularly in election and salvation.他是一個偉大的神的意志做,特別是在選舉和救贖。 "No one can come to me," said Jesus, "unless the Father who sent me draws him" (John 6:44); and again, "You did not choose me, but I chose you" (John 15:16; cf. 8:47; 18:37). “沒有人能到我這裡來,”耶穌說,“除非父親是誰送我提請他”(約翰福音6:44);再次,“你沒有選擇我,但我選擇了你”(約翰福音15:16;比照8:47; 18:37)。

The book of Revelation was written by John (Rev. 1:1-3), though which John is not specified.啟示錄是由約翰(啟示錄1:1-3),雖然在約翰沒有指定。 But there is good reason for seeing it as coming from John the apostle and as stressing an important aspect of Johannine thought, namely that of divine sovereignty.但是,有充分的理由把它看作來自使徒約翰和約翰思想強調的一個重要方面,即神的主權。 It is easy to get lost in a strange world of seals, trumpets, bowls, and animals with unusual numbers of heads and horns.這是很容易迷失在一個陌生的世界,密封件,小號,碗,動物的頭和角不尋常的數字。 But this is not the important thing.但這還不是最重要的事情。 Throughout this book God is a mighty God.在這本書中,上帝是一個全能的神。 He does what he wills and, though wickedness is strong, in the end he will triumph over every evil thing.他做什麼,他的遺囑,雖然邪惡力量雄厚,到底他會戰勝一切邪惡的東西。 There is a great deal about the wrath of God in Revelation (and something about it in the Gospel), which brings out the truth that God is implacably opposed to evil and will in the end overthrow it entirely.神的忿怒的啟示(在福音的東西),這使事情的真相,上帝是勢不兩立邪惡,將在年底完全推翻它是一個偉大的交易。

Christology基督

Throughout the Johannine writings there is a good deal of attention given to Christology.在整個johannine著作中,有一個很好的協議給基督的關注。 The Gospel begins with a section on Christ as the Word, a passage in which it is clear that God has taken action in Christ for revelation and for salvation.一節基督的話,一個通道中,很顯然,神在基督裡的啟示,並為拯救已採取行動,開始的福音。 Christ is "the Savior of the world" (John 4:42), and this is brought out when he is referred to as Christ (= Messiah), Son of God, Son of man, and in other ways.基督是“救世主”(約翰福音4:42),這是帶出時,他被稱為基督(彌賽亞),上帝的兒子,兒子的男子,並在其他方面。 They all depend in one way or another on the thought that God is active in Christ in bringing about the salvation he has planned.它們都依賴於這樣或那樣的思想,上帝是活躍在基督裡帶來的救恩,他已計劃。 John has an interesting use of terms like "glory" and "glorify," for he sees the cross as the glorification of Jesus (John 12:23; 13:31).約翰有一個有趣的使用的術語,如“榮耀”和“榮耀”,因為他看見頌揚耶穌的十字架(約翰福音12:23; 13:31)。 Suffering and lowly service are not simply the path to glory; they are glory in its deepest sense.的痛苦和卑微的服務不是簡單的通向光榮的道路,他們是在其最深的榮耀。 This striking form of speech brings out the truth that God is not concerned with the kind of thing that people see as glorious.這是一個驚人的講話帶出了神的真理,不關心什麼樣的事情,人們看到,作為光榮。 The whole life of Jesus was lived in lowliness but John can say, "We have beheld his glory" (John 1:14).生活在卑微的,但約翰說,“我們已經見過他的榮光”(約翰福音1:14)耶穌的整個生命週期。

Miracles奇蹟

John's treatment of the miracles is distinctive.約翰的奇蹟的治療是獨特的。 He never calls them "mighty works" as do the synoptists, but "signs" or "works."他從來不稱他們為“強大的作品”,因為這樣做的synoptists,但“標誌”或“作品”。 They point us to significant truth, for God is at work in them.他們指出,我們顯著的真理,神的工作,他們是在。 "Work" may be used of Jesus' nonmiraculous deeds as well as those that are miraculous, which suggests that his life is all of a piece.可使用的“工作”耶穌的nonmiraculous事蹟,以及那些腐朽為神奇,這表明他的生活是所有的一塊。 He is one person; he does not do some things as God and others as man.他是一個人,他不為上帝,其他人做一些事情。 But all he does is the outworking of his mission, a thought which means much to John.但是,他所做的一切是他的使命,outworking的一個念頭,這意味著很多約翰。 There are two Greek words for "to send," and John's gospel has both more frequently than any other book in the NT.有兩個希臘字“送”約翰福音在NT比任何其他書都更頻繁地。 Mostly he uses the words to bring out the truth that the Father sent the Son, though there are some important passages linking the mission of his followers with that of Jesus (John 17:18; 20:21).主要是他使用的詞語以圖把事情的真相,父差子,但也有一些重要的通道連接的使命,他的追隨者的耶穌(約翰福音17:18; 20:21)。 Being sent means that Jesus became man in the fullest sense, as is brought out by his dependence on the Father (cf. John 5:19, 30) and by statements about his human limitations (eg John 4:6; 11:33, 35; 19:28).被送到意味著耶穌成為人在充分意義上的,是帶出了他的父親的依賴(參見約翰一書5:19,30),陳述他的人的限制(例如,約翰一書4:6; 11:33, 35; 19:28)。 John's Jesus is fully divine, indeed, but he is also fully human.約翰的耶穌是完全的神,的確,但他也是完全的人。

The Holy Spirit聖靈

John tells us more about the Holy Spirit than do the other evangelists.約翰告訴我們更多關於聖靈比其他福音。 He is active from the beginning of Jesus' ministry (John 1:32-33), but the full work of the Spirit among man awaited the consummation of Jesus' own ministry (John 7:39).他是從一開始的耶穌的事工(約翰福音1:32-33),但在人中間等待的全部工作的精神,完善的耶穌'自己的事工(約翰福音7:39)。 The Spirit is active in the Christian life from the beginning (John 3:5, 8) and there are important truths about the Spirit in Jesus' farewell discourse.聖靈是從一開始就在基督徒的生命(約翰一書3:5,8)和耶穌的告別話語的精神有重要的真理。 There we learn among other things that he is "the Spirit of truth" (John 14:16-17), that he will never leave Jesus' people (John 14:16), and that he has a work among unbelievers, namely that of convicting them of sin, righteousness, and judgment (John 16:8).在那裡,我們學會了在其他的東西,他是“真理的聖靈”(約翰福音14:16-17),他將永遠不會離開耶穌的人(約翰福音14:16),而且他有一個工作之間的不信,即定罪的罪,義,為審判,自己責備自己(約翰福音16:8)。

The Spirit is active in leading Christians in the way of truth (John 16:13), and John has a good deal to tell us about the Christian life.精神是活躍在領先的基督徒路的真理(約翰福音16:13),約翰告訴我們基督徒的生活有一個很好的協議。 He speaks of "eternal life," which seems to mean life proper to the age to come, life of the highest quality (cf. John 10:10).他說,“永恆的生命”,這似乎意味著生活適當的年齡,生活的最高質量的(參見約翰福音10:10)。 Entrance into life is by believing, and John uses this verb 98 times (though never the noun "faith").生活是入世相信,約翰用這個動詞98倍(雖然從未名詞“信仰”)。 Believers are to be characterized by love (John 13:34-35).信徒們的特點是愛(約翰福音13:34-35)。 They owe all they have to the love of God, and it is proper that they respond to that love with an answering love, a love for God that spills over into a love for other people.他們欠他們到神的愛,它是正確的,他們的反應應答的愛,對神的愛,波及到其他人的愛,愛。 This receives strong emphasis in I John.在約翰一書,受到高度重視。 John emphasizes the importance of light (for believers are people who "walk in the light"; I John 1:7) and of truth.約翰強調光(信徒是誰的人“在光明中行”約翰一書1:7)和真理的重要性。 Jesus is the truth (John 14:6) and the Spirit is the Spirit of truth (John 14:17).耶穌是真理(約翰福音14:6)和聖靈就是真理的聖靈(約14:17)。 To know the truth is to be free (John 8:31-32).要知道事情的真相是免費的(約翰福音8:31-32)。

John's is a profound and deep theology, though expressed in the simplest of terms.約翰是一個廣泛而深刻的神學,雖然在最簡單的術語。 It sets forth truths which no Christian can neglect.它闡述的真理,沒有一個基督徒可以忽略。

L Morris ł莫里斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
JE Davey, The Jesus of St. John; WF Howard, Christianity According to St. John; R. Kysar, The Fourth Evangelist and His Gospel; CF Nolloth, The Fourth Evangelist; NJ Painter, John: Witness and Theologian; SS Smalley, John: Evangelist and Interpreter; DG Vanderlip, Christianity According to John. JE戴維的聖約翰,耶穌WF霍華德,基督教據聖約翰R. Kysar,第四傳播者和他的福音,CF挪洛斯,第四傳播者,NJ畫家,約翰證人和神學家,SS斯莫利,約翰:傳播者和口譯DG Vanderlip,基督教根據約翰。



Also, see:此外,見:
Theology of Matthew 神學的馬修。
Theology of Mark 神學的標誌
Theology of Luke 神學路加福音
New Testament Theology 新約聖經神學


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