Gospel, Godspel, Godspell, Evangelion福音,Godspel,Godspell,新世紀福音戰士

General Information 一般資料

A Gospel is one of the four accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus Christ that begin the New Testament; selections from these books are read or sung in Christian churches during worship services.一個福音是基督耶穌的生活和教誨,開始新約聖經的四個帳戶,選擇從這些書籍的閱讀或唱歌,在基督教教會在主日崇拜。 The English word Gospel is derived from the Old English godspel (good tidings), which is a rendering of the Greek evangelion (good news).英語單詞的福音是來自舊:英語godspel(好消息),這是一個呈現的希臘新世紀福音戰士 (好消息)。 Scholars generally agree that all four Gospels, which are written in Greek, draw on earlier Aramaic oral or written sources that preserved many of the actual works and sayings of Jesus.學者普遍認為,所有四本福音書,這是用希臘文寫成,借鑒早期阿拉姆語的口頭或書面的來源,保存了許多實際工程和諺語的耶穌。

Synoptic Gospels符類福音

The first three Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) are called the Synoptic Gospels (Greek synoptikos,"viewing at a glance") because they provide the same general view of the life and teaching of Jesus.前三個福音(馬太,馬可,路加)被稱為對觀福音書(希臘synoptikos,“看一眼”),因為它們提供了相同的一般耶穌的生活和教學的觀點。 They narrate almost the same incidents, often agreeing in the order of events, and use similar phrasing.他們敘述幾乎相同的事件,往往在事件發生的順序一致,並使用類似的措辭。 In many instances they use identical phrasing.在許多情況下,他們使用相同的措辭。

Until the 19th century nearly all scholars and theologians believed that Matthew was the earliest Gospel.直到19世紀,幾乎所有的學者和神學家認為,馬修是最早的福音。 Mark was believed to be an abridged version of Matthew.馬克被認為是一個刪節的版本馬太福音。 Luke, which appeared to based on Matthew and Mark, was believed to be the latest of the three.盧克,馬修和馬克的基礎上出現,被認為是最新的三。 With some modification, this remains the view of some conservative scholars.通過一些修改,這仍然是一些保守的學者的觀點。

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Today, most other scholars accept some modified form of the two-document hypothesis, first developed in the latter part of the 19th century.今天,大多數學者接受一些修改後的兩個文件假設,後者的一部分,最早是在19世紀。 According to this hypothesis, Mark is the earliest Gospel and provided much of the narrative material, as well as the chronological framework, for both Matthew and Luke.根據這一假說,馬克是最早的福音,並提供了大量的敘事材料,以及的時間框架,為雙方馬修和盧克。 A collection of sayings (with a few narratives) of Jesus, which may have been written in Aramaic, was the second main document, or source, employed by Matthew and Luke (a number of scholars, however, do not agree that it was a single document).集合的說法,有幾個敘述耶穌,這可能是亞拉姆語寫的,是第二個主要文件,或源,馬太和路加(一些學者採用,但是,不同意,這是一個單一的文件)。 This document provided the material lacking in Mark and then, apparently, was lost.本文檔提供了物質缺乏的標記,然後,很顯然,失去了。 It usually is designated as Q (German Quelle,"source"), but sometimes as Logia (Greek for "words" or "sayings").它通常被指定為Q(德國QUELLE,“源”),但有時總互濟會 (希臘文“字”或“語錄”)。 The authors of Matthew and Luke may also have drawn material from other sources available to them individually.馬太和路加的作者,也有可能引起材料從其他來源提供給他們單獨。

John約翰

The Gospel attributed to John the Evangelist differs in many respects from the Synoptics.福音約翰福音不同,在許多方面對觀福音。 Several incidents mentioned in John do not occur in any of the Synoptics, and others recorded in the Synoptics are not recorded in John.在約翰福音中提到的一些事件不發生任何對觀福音,和其他記錄在synoptics不會被記錄在約翰。 Also, some of the events common to all of the Gospels appear in a different order in John's narrative: The cleansing of the Temple, for example, appears almost at the beginning of John (2:13-25), but in the Synoptics it is put after Jesus' triumphant final entry into Jerusalem.另外,有一些共同的福音事件出現在約翰的敘述以不同的順序:例如,顯得潔淨聖殿,幾乎是在開始的約翰(2:13-25),但在synoptics後放入耶穌進入耶路撒冷的勝利的最後一個項目。 Most important, John gives different dates for the Last Supper and for the Crucifixion; the former occurs in John before the feast of the Passover, and the latter before the first day of the Passover.最重要的是,約翰給出了不同的日期為“最後的晚餐”,被釘死在十字架上,前者發生在約翰之前的逾越節,而後者在逾越節的第一天之前。 Furthermore, in John, Jesus' public ministry is described as lasting for more than two years, whereas the Synoptists describe it as lasting for about one year.此外,在約翰福音中,耶穌公開傳道歷時兩年多的描述,而描述它的synoptists持續一年左右。 Finally, in John, Jesus spends much of his time in Judea, often visiting Jerusalem; the Synoptists center his public ministry in and about the province of Galilee.最後,在約翰福音中,耶穌花費了很多時間在朱迪亞,經常訪問耶路撒冷,他的公共事務部的synoptists中心和加利利省。

Not only the chronology of the narrative, but also the form and content of Jesus' teaching is different in John.年表的敘述,而且形式和在約翰福音中耶穌的教導的內容是不同的。 The Synoptists present it mainly in the form of parable and epigram.目前的Synoptists為主要形式的比喻和警句。 The author of John, however, presents it in long allegorical or meditative discourses and discussions - for example, those on the Good Shepherd (chapter 10) and the Vine (chapter 15).然而,約翰的作者,呈現在長寓言或冥想的論述和討論 - 例如,那些在好牧人“(第10章)和藤本植物(第15章)。 Characteristically, during some of these lengthy discourses, Jesus frequently expresses himself in pithy one-sentence metaphors, such as the following: "I am the bread of life" (6:35); "I am the light of the world" (8:12); "I am the way, and the truth, and the life" (14:6).特點是,在這些冗長的論述,耶穌經常表示自己在簡練的一個句子的隱喻,如:“我就是生命的糧”(6:35),“我是世界的光”(8 :12),“我的方式,真理,生命”(14:6)。 The teaching of Jesus in John generally is concerned more with Jesus' divine nature and relationship to God, whereas the Synoptists tend to emphasize his messianic vocation and dwell more on everyday religious and ethical matters.耶穌在約翰福音中的教學一般更關注與耶穌的神性和神的關係,而的Synoptists則往往強調他的救世主的使命和住日常的宗教和道德問題。 In addition, John emphasizes the nature and purpose of Jesus from the start of his Gospel.此外,約翰強調耶穌的性質和目的,從一開始他的福音。 In the Synoptics, these are revealed later in the ministry.在對觀福音透露,這些都是以後的事工。

Modern biblical scholars agree that the Gospel of John was written after the Synoptic Gospels.現代聖經學者一致認為,約翰福音後,對觀福音書。 However, there is considerable disagreement over whether the author of John knew the Synoptics and used them as sources.然而,有相當大的分歧,是否對觀福音的作者約翰知道他們的來源和使用。 Some scholars believe the author may have known and used the Gospels of Mark and Luke.有些學者認為可能已經知道並使用馬克和路加的福音書的作者。

Liturgical Use禮儀使用

In the liturgical sense, the term Gospel is applied to the short selections from the four Gospels that are read or sung in the Roman Catholic Mass and the Anglican Communion service, between the Epistle and the creed.在禮儀上,這個詞的福音適用於短期選擇從四福音在羅馬天主教彌撒和英國聖公會服務之間的書信和信條,閱讀或唱歌。 In the early centuries of the Christian era, Gospel readings were continuous: A day's reading began at the point in the Gospel at which it had been interrupted in the previous service.早在幾個世紀的基督教時代,福音讀數連續一天的閱讀點開始的福音,它已經在先前的服務中斷。 The Gospel selection now used for each day is determined by the order of worship set forth in the missal or, according to certain rules, is one chosen by the celebrant from a special lectionary.福音的選擇是由現在的每一天提出的彌撒或崇拜的順序,按照一定的規則,是一個由監禮人選擇從一個特殊的lectionary。


Gospel福音

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The English word "gospel" (from the Anglo-Saxon god-spell, ie, God-story) is the usual NT translation of the Greek euangelion.英語單詞的“福音”(盎格魯 - 撒克遜人的神法術,也就是說,神的故事)是通常的NT翻譯的希臘euangelion的。 According to Tyndale, the renowned English Reformer and Bible translator, it signified "good, mery, glad and ioyfull tydinge, that maketh a mannes hert glad, and maketh hym synge, daunce, and leepe for ioye" (Prologue to NT).據丁道爾,英國著名的改革家和聖經翻譯,它標誌著“好,梅里,很高興和ioyfull tydinge,在深淵一的曼內斯赫爾特高興的,並使人HYM辛格,daunce,和ioye leepe為”(序幕NT)。 While his definition is more experiential than explicative, it has touched that inner quality which brings the word to life.雖然他的定義是更多的體驗的詮釋,它感動的是內在品質的生活帶來了字。 The gospel is the joyous proclamation of God's redemptive activity in Christ Jesus on behalf of man enslaved by sin.快樂的宣講福音是神在基督耶穌裡的救贖活動代表的人所奴役罪。

Origin起源

Euangelion (neut. sing.) is rarely found in the sense of "good tidings" outside of early Christian literature. Euangelion(neut.唱。)很少在這個意義上“的好消息”以外的早期基督教文獻。 As used by Homer it referred not to the message but to the reward given to the messenger (eg, Odyssey xiv. 152).荷馬的消息的信使(如奧德賽十四的獎勵。152)。 In Attic Greek it always occurred in the plural and generally referred to sacrifices or thank offerings made in behalf of good tidings.在希臘阿提卡它總是發生在複數,通常被稱為犧牲或感謝祭代表的好消息。 Even in the LXX euangelion is found for sure but once (II Kings 4:10: Eng. versions, II Sam.) and there it has the classical meaning of a reward given for good tidings.即使在LXX euangelion的肯定,但一次(列王記下4:10。版本:英文,二,三)。它具有經典意義的報酬好消息。 (In II Kings 18:22, 25, euangelion should undoubtedly be taken as fem. sing. in harmony with vss. 20 and 27 where this form is certain.) Euangelion in the sense of the good news itself belongs to a later period. (II國王18:22,25,euangelion無疑應該採取有限元分析。唱和諧與VSS 20和27,這種形式是肯定的。)Euangelion在這個意義上的好消息本身屬於後一時期。 Outside of Christian literature the neuter singular first appears with this meaning in a papyrus letter from an Egyptian official of the third century AD In the plural it is found in a calendar inscription from Priene about 9 BC It is not until the writings of the apostolic fathers (eg, Didache 8:2; II Clement 8:5) that we sense a transition to the later Christian usage of euangelion as referring to a book which sets forth the life and teaching of Jesus (Justin, Apology i. 66).基督教文學以外的中性單數第一次出現在公元三世紀的複數發現在一個日曆上Priene,約公元前9年的埃及官員的一紙莎草信從這個意義上它不是直到著作的使徒父親(例如,遺訓8:2; II寬容8:5),我們感覺到的後來的基督教的euangelion使用,過渡到一本書,其中載列了生活和教學的耶穌(賈斯汀,我道歉。66)。

Against this background the frequency with which euangelion occurs in the NT (more than seventy-five times) with the specific connotation of "good news" is highly informative.在此背景下的的頻率,euangelion發生在NT(超過75倍)與“好消息”的具體內涵是非常翔實。 It suggests that euangelion is quite distinctively a NT word.這表明,euangelion是很獨特的一個NT字。 Its true significance is therefore found, not by probing its linguistic background, but by observing its specific Christian usage.因此,它的真正意義上的,而不是通過探測其語言背景,但通過觀察其特定的基督教使用。

This is not to deny, of course, that the basic concept has its rightful origin in the religious aspirations of the nation Israel.這是不否認,當然,基本概念在以色列國的宗教訴求,有其合法來源。 Some seven centuries before Christ the prophet Isaiah had delivered a series of prophetic utterances.前七百年基督先知以賽亞書提供了一系列的先知的話語。 With vivid imagery he portrayed the coming deliverance of Israel from captivity in Babylon.有了生動的形象,他描繪了未來的解脫以色列從囚禁在巴比倫。 A Redeemer shall come to Zion preaching good tidings unto the meek and liberty to the captives (Isa. 60:1-2).一個救贖主來到錫安說教的好消息對溫柔的和自由的“俘虜”(以賽亞書60:1-2)。 "How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him who brings good tidings" (Isa. 52:7). “如何在山間美麗的腳,他帶來的好消息”(以賽亞書52:7)。 Jerusalem itself is pictured as a herald whose message is good tidings (Isa. 40:9).耶路撒冷被描繪成一個預示著消息的好消息(以賽亞書40:9)。

Jesus saw in these prophecies a description of his own mission (Luke 4:18-21; 7:22).在這些預言耶穌看見他自己的使命(路4:18-21; 7:22)的描述。 They expressed that same sense of liberation and exultation which was the true characteristic of his messianic proclamation.他們表示,發自內心的解放和歡欣,這是他的救世主宣布的真實特性。 What was a first simply a literary allusion came easily to represent the actual message which was being proclaimed.什麼是第一次只是一個典故很容易被宣布代表實際的信息。 Euangelion was the natural result of the LXX's euangelizein. Euangelion的自然結果LXX的euangelizein的。 Thus Mark could write that Jesus came into Galilee "heralding the euangelion of God" (Mark 1:14).因此,馬克可以寫,耶穌來到加利利“,預示著euangelion的神”(馬可福音1:14)。

Euangelion in the Gospels Euangelion的福音

Upon examining the four Gospels we find that the word euangelion is used only by Matthew and Mark.經檢查四福音書,我們發現,這個詞euangelion僅用於馬修和馬克。 The concept, however, is not foreign to Luke.的概念,但是,是不是外國的盧克。 He uses the verb form twenty-six times in Luke-Acts, and the noun twice in the latter book.他使​​用的動詞形式路加 - 使徒行傳26次,名詞的兩倍,後者的書。 In the Fourth Gospel there is no trace of either verb or noun.在第四福音,沒有一絲無論是動詞或名詞。

In all but one instance Matthew further describes euangelion as the gospel "of the kingdom."但在所有的一個實例馬修進一步說明了euangelion福音“的王國。” This gospel is not to be distinguished from what Mark calls the "gospel of God" (many manuscripts read "the gospel of the kingdom of God") and summarizes in the words," "the time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand" (Mark 1:14-15). On the other occasion Matthew writes "this gospel" (Matt. 26:13), the context indicating that Jesus is alluding to his coming death. The phrase "preaching the gospel of the kingdom" is twice used in summary statements of the ministry of Jesus (Matt. 4:23; 9:35). This gospel is to be preached throughout the entire world prior to the consummation of the age (Matt. 24:14; cf. Mark 13:10).這福音是不加以區分馬克所謂的“神的福音”(許多手稿“的福音,神的國”)和總結的話“,”時間滿了,神的國是在手“(馬可福音1:14-15)。在其他場合馬修寫道:”這福音“(馬太福音26:13),上下文表明耶穌是影射他未來的死亡。”傳福音的這句話王國“兩次使用匯總報表,該部的耶穌(馬太福音4:23; 9:35)。這福音要傳遍整個世界的,到了圓滿的年齡(太24:14;比照前馬克13:10)。

The way in which Mark uses euangelion is suggested by his opening words, "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God."建議的方式,標記使用euangelion他開口說話了,“開始的時候,神的兒子耶穌基督的福音。” Here euangelion is a semitechnical term meaning "the glad news which tells about Jesus Christ." euangelion是一個半技術術語,意思是“高興的消息,講述耶穌基督。” Where Luke writes "for the sake of the kingdom of God" (Luke 18:29), the Markan parallel is "for my sake and for the gospel" (Mark 10:29).盧克寫道:“為了神的國”(路加福音18:29),馬可並行“為我和福音”(馬可福音10:29)。 This gospel is of such tremendous import that for its sake a man must be willing to enter upon a life of complete self-denial (Mark 8:35).這福音是如此巨大的進口,為它的緣故,一個人必須願意進入後的生活,完善自我否定(馬可福音8:35)。 In the long ending of Mark, Christ commands his disciples to "preach the gospel to the whole creation" (Mark 16:15).在漫長的結束標記,基督命令他的弟子們“傳福音給整個創作”(馬可福音16:15)。

The Gospel According to Paul根據保羅的福音

Over against the six occasions (discounting parallels) on which euangelion is used by the Gospel writers, it is found a total of sixty times in the writings of Paul.超過對福音書的作者(扣除平行線)euangelion使用六次,共發現了60倍,在保羅的著作。 Euangelion is a favorite Pauline term. Euangelion是一個最喜歡的寶蓮術語。 It is evenly distributed throughout his epistles, missing only in his note to Titus.它是均勻地分佈在他的書信中,缺的只是在他的說明,提多書。

Paul's ministry was distinctively that of the propagation of the gospel.保羅的事工是獨特的福音的傳播。 Unto this gospel he was set apart (Rom. 1:1) and made a minister according to the grace of God (Eph. 3:7).到這福音,他除了(羅1:1),並根據神的恩典(以弗所書3:7)的部長。 His special sphere of action was the Gentile world (Rom. 16:16; Gal. 2:7).他的特殊作用範圍是外邦人(羅16:16;加拉太書2:7)。 Since Paul accepted the gospel as a sacred trust (Gal. 2:7), it was necessary that in the discharge of this obligation he speak so as to please God rathern than man (I Tim. 2:4).自從保羅接受了福音(加拉太書2:7)作為一種神聖的信任,這是必要的,在履行這方面的義務,他說那麼到請神rathern的比男人(我添。2:4)。 The divine commission had created a sense of urgency that made him cry out, "Woe to me if I do not preach the gospel" (I Cor. 9:16).神聖使命創造了一種緊迫感,讓他哭出來,“我有禍了,如果我不傳福音”(林前9:16)。 For the sake of the gospel Paul was willing to become all things to all men (I Cor. 9:22-23).為了福音的保羅願意成為​​所有的東西,所有的人(林前9:22-23)。 No sacrifice was too great.沒有犧牲過大。 Eternal issues were at stake.永恆的問題是股權。 Those whose minds were blinded and did not obey the gospel were perishing and would ultimately reap the vengeance of divine wrath (II Cor. 4:3; II Thess. 1:9).他們的思想被蒙蔽,不服從福音的滅亡,並最終獲得神的憤怒的復仇(哥林多後書4:3; II帖撒羅尼迦前書1:9)。 On the other hand, to those who believed, the gospel had effectively become the power of God unto salvation (Rom. 1:16).另一方面,這些誰相信,福音已有效地成為神的大能,要救(羅1:16)。

Because Paul on occasion speaks of his message as "my gospel" (Rom. 2:16; II Tim. 2:8), and because in his letter to the Galations he goes to some pains to stress that he did not receive it from man (Gal. 1:11ff.), it is sometimes maintained that Paul's gospel should be distinguished from that of apostolic Christianity in general.有時因為保羅說他的消息,“我的福音”(羅2:16;提摩太後書2:8),而因為在他的信給加拉太一些痛苦,他強調,他沒有收到它從人(加拉太書1:11 FF),它有時也被主張應區別於一般基督教的使徒保羅的福音。

This does not follow.這並不遵循。 I Cor.我肺心病。 15:3-5 sets forth with crystal clarity the message of primitive Christianity. 15:3-5闡述與晶瑩澄澈的原始基督教的消息。 Paul, using terms equivalent to the technical rabbinic words for the reception and transmission of tradition, refers to this message as something which he had received and passed on (vs. 3).保羅,使用相當於傳統的接收和傳輸技術的猶太法學博士的話,指的是這個消息,他已收到,並通過(3節)。 In vs. 11 he can say, "Whether then it was I or they, so we preach and so you believed."在第11節中,他可以說,“無論是我還是他們,所以我們說教,所以你相信。” In Galations, Paul tells how he laid before the apostles at Jerusalem the gospel which he had preached.保羅在加拉太書,告訴他如何擺在使徒在耶路撒冷的福音,他曾鼓吹。 Far from finding fault with the message, they extended to him the right hand of fellowship (Gal. 2:9).遠從發現故障的消息,他們向他的右手獎學金(加拉太書2:9)。 What Paul meant by his earlier remarks is that the charges against his gospel as a mere human message were completely fraudulent.他剛才所說的,保羅的意思是,他的福音的指控僅僅是一個人的信息是完全欺詐。 The revelation of the full theological impact of the Christ-event was God-given and stemmed from his encounter on the Damascus road.神完整的啟示神學的基督事件的影響,源於他的遭遇在大馬色的路上。 Thus he speaks of "my gospel" meaning his own personal apprehension of the gospel.因此,他說:“我的福音”,意思是他自己的個人憂慮的福音。 On other occasions he can speak freely of "our gospel" (II Cor. 4:3; I Thess. 1:5).在其他場合,他可以暢所欲言,“我們的福音”(哥林多後書4:3;帖前1:5)。

For Paul, the euangelion is preeminently the "gospel of God" (Rom. 1:1; 15:16; II Cor. 11:7; I Thes. 2:2, 8-9).對於保羅,euangelion的是講話“神的福音”(羅1:1; 15:16;哥林多後書11:7,我帖前2:2,8-9)。 It proclaims the redemptive activity of God.它宣稱上帝救贖的活動。 This activity is bound up with the person and work of God's Son, Christ Jesus.這項活動是神的兒子,基督耶穌的人,工作的。 Thus it is also the "gospel of Christ" (I Cor. 9:12; II Cor. 2:12; 9:13; 10:14; Gal. 1:7; I Thess. 3:2; vss. 16 and 19 of Rom. 15 indicate that these are interchangeable terms).因此,它是“基督的福音”(林前9:12;哥林多後書2:12; 9:13; 10:14;加拉太書1:7;帖前3:2; VSS 16 19羅馬書15表明,這些是可以互換的條款)。 This gospel is variously expressed as "the gospel of our Lord Jesus" (II Thess. 1:8), "the gospel of the glory of the blessed God" (I Tim. 1:11), "the gospel of his Son" (Rom. 1:9), and "the gospel of the glory of Christ" (II Cor. 4:4). “我們的主耶穌基督的福音”(二帖撒羅尼迦後書1:8),“福音的祝福神的榮耀”(我添。1:11),“他兒子福音,這福音是不同的表達” (羅1:9),和“基督的​​榮耀的福音”(哥林多後書4:4)。 It is a gospel of salvation (Eph. 1:13) and peace (Eph. 6:15).這是一個得救的福音(以弗所書1:13),和平(以弗所書6:15)。 It proclaims the hope of eternal life (Col. 1:23).它宣稱的希望,永恆的生命(歌羅西書1:23)。 It is "the word of truth" (Col. 1:5; Eph. 1:13).它是“真理的道”(歌羅西書1:5;弗1:13)。 Through this gospel, life and immortality are brought to light (II Tim. 1:10).通過這福音,生命和不朽光(提摩太後書1:10)。

The Apostolic Preaching使徒講道

If we wish to investigate more closely the specific content of the primitive gospel, we will do well to adopt the basic approach of CH Dodd (The Apostolic Preaching and Its Developments).如果我們要更加緊密地調查的具體內容,原始的福音,我們會做的很好,採用CH多德(使徒傳教及其發展)的基本方法。 While Dodd refers to the message as kerygma, he is ready to admit that this term is a virtual equivalent of euangelion.雖然多德是指的消息,kerygma,他已經準備好承認,這個詞是一個虛擬相當於euangelion。 (Kerygma stresses the manner of delivery; euangelion, the essential nature of the content.) (Kerygma強調的方式的的交付; euangelion,本質的內容。)

There are two sources for the determination of the primitive proclamation.有兩個來源,為原始宣布的決心。 Of primary importance are the fragments of pre-Pauline tradition that lie embedded in the writings of the apostle.最重要的是預寶蓮傳統的碎片躺在嵌入的使徒​​的著作中。 These segments can be uncovered by the judicious application of certain literary and formal criteria.這些片段可以發現,通過合理應用一定的文學和正式的標準。 While at least one purports to be the actual terms in which the gospel was preached (I Cor. 15:3-5), others take the form of early Christian hymns (eg, Phil. 2:6-11), summaries of the message (eg, Rom. 10:9), or creedal formulas (I Cor. 12:3; I Tim. 3:16).而至少有一個看來是實際的條款,其中被宣揚的福音(林前15:3-5)。,其他的早期基督教的讚美詩的形式(例如,菲爾。2:6-11),摘要消息(如羅馬書10:9),或教義的公式(林前12:3;我添。3:16)。

A second source is the early Petrine speeches in Acts.第二個來源是早期伯多祿在使徒行傳的發言。 These speeches (on the basis of their Aramaic background, freedom from Paulinism, and the general trustworthiness of Luke as a historian) can be shown to give reliably the gist of what Peter actually said and not what a second generation Christian thought he might have said.這些發言的基礎上,他們的阿拉姆語背景,自由從Paulinism是,和一般守信的盧克作為一個歷史學家可以給可靠的要點彼得居然說什麼,而不是什麼是第二代的基督教思想,他可能會說。

These two sources combine to set forth one common apostolic gospel.這兩個來源相結合,提出了一個共同的使徒的福音。 In briefest outline, this message contained: (1) a historical proclamation of the death, resurrection, and exaltation of Jesus, set forth as the fulfillment of prophecy and involving man's responsibility; (2) a theological evaluation of the person of Jesus as both Lord and Christ; (3) a summons to repent and receive the forgiveness of sins.在最短的輪廓,這條消息包含:(1)歷史宣告死亡,復活,並提高了耶穌,設定提出的實現的預言和涉及人的責任;(2)一個神學評價的人,耶穌既上帝和基督(3)悔改並接受傳票,使​​罪得赦。

It will be noticed that the essential core of this message is not the dawn of the messianic age (as Dodd implies), although this is most certainly involved, but that sequence of redemptive events which sweeps the hearer along with compelling logic toward the climactic confession that Jesus is Lord.它將會看到的基本核心,該消息是不是黎明的救世主的年齡(如多德表示),雖然這是最肯定參與了,但序列的救贖事件席捲聽者隨著令人信服的邏輯走向高潮的表白耶穌是主。

The gospel is not the product of a bewildered church pondering the theological significance of Good Friday.福音不是一個莫名其妙的教會琢磨耶穌受難日的神學意義的產品。 It is rather the result of a natural development which had its origins in the teachings of Jesus himself.而這是一個自然發展的結果,它有它的起源在耶穌自己的教導。 The Passion sayings of Jesus, far from being "prophecies after the event" (cf. R. Bultmann, Theology of the NT, I 29), are undeniable evidence that Jesus laid the foundation for a theology of the cross.激情熟語的耶穌,遠遠不是“在事件發生後的預言”(參見R.布特曼,神學NT,我29),是不可否認的證據,證明耶穌的十字架神學奠定了基礎。 In his teaching regarding his own person Jesus furnished what RH Fuller has aptly termed "the raw materials of Christology" (The Mission and Achievement of Jesus).在他的教導對他自己的人,耶穌提供RH富勒恰當地稱之為“基督的原料”(耶穌的使命和成就的)。 The resurrection was the catalyst which precipitated in the minds of the disciples the total significance of God's redemptive activity.復活的催化劑沉澱的弟子心目中的上帝的救贖意義的活動。 It released the gospel!公佈的福音!

This gospel is power (Rom. 1:16).這福音就是力量(羅1:16)。 As an instrument of the Holy Spirit it convicts (I Thess. 1:5) and converts (Col. 1:6).聖靈的工具,裁定(我帖撒羅尼迦前書1:5)和轉換(歌羅西書1:6)。 It cannot be fettered (II Tim. 2:9).它不能被束縛的(提摩太前書2:9)。 Although it is good news, it is strenously opposed by a rebellious world (I Thess. 2:2).雖然這是個好消息,這是strenously不是一個叛逆的世界(帖前2:2)。 Opposition to the message takes the form of opposition to the messenger (II Tim. 1:11-12; Philem. 13).反對該消息的形式反對的使者(提摩太後書1:11-12; Philem 13)。 Yet those who proclaim it must do so boldly (Eph. 6:19) and with transparent simplicity (II Cor. 4:2), not with eloquence lest the cross of Christ be robbed of its power (I Cor. 1:17).然而,那些誰宣布它必須這樣做,大膽地(弗6:19),與透明簡單(哥林多後書4:2),不與口才,免得基督的十字架,被人搶了它的權力(我肺心病。1:17) 。 To those who refuse the gospel it is both foolishness and a stumbling block (I Cor. 1:18ff.), but to those who respond in faith it proves itself to be "the power of God unto salvation" (Rom. 1:16).對於那些拒絕福音的人,是愚蠢和絆腳石(林前1:18 FF),但這些回應信仰證明自己是“神的大能,要救”(羅1:16 )。

RH Mounce RH Mounce
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
RH Strachan, "The Gospel in the NT," IB, VII; W. Barclay, NT Wordbook; AEJ Rawlinson, EncyBrit X, 536ff.; M. Burrows, "The Origin of the Term 'Gospel,'"JBL 44:21-33; W. Milligan, Thess., Note E;A. RH斯特拉坎,在NT的福音“,”IB,VII NT單詞本·巴克利,AEJ羅林森,EncyBrit X,536ff。; M.挖洞,“起源的術語”福音“,”JBL 44:21 -33; W.米利根,帖撒羅尼迦前書,注E,A。 Harnack, Constitution and Law, Appendix III; L. Clarke, "What Is the Gospel?"哈納克,憲法和法律,附錄III,L.克拉克,“什麼是福音?” in Divine Humanity; V. Becker, NIDNTT, II, 107ff.; G. Friedrich, TDNT, II, 705ff,; RH Mounce, The Essential Nature of NT Preaching.在神的人性NIDNTT,二,107ff。五,貝克爾,G.弗里德里希,TDNT,二,705ff,RH Mounce,NT講道的本質屬性。


Gospel福音

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Gospel is a word of Anglo-Saxon origin, and meaning "God's spell", ie, word of God, or rather, according to others, "good spell", ie, good news.福音是盎格魯 - 撒克遜血統的一個詞,意思是“神的咒語”,即上帝的話,或者說,根據其他人,“好魔咒”,即好消息。 It is the rendering of the Greek evangelion, ie, "good message."這是渲染的希臘新世紀福音戰士,即“好消息”。 It denotes它是指

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報字典)


Gospels福音

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The central fact of Christian preaching was the intelligence that the Saviour had come into the world (Matt. 4:23; Rom. 10:15); and the first Christian preachers who called their account of the person and mission of Christ by the term evangelion (= good message) were called evangelistai (= evangelists) (Eph. 4:11; Acts 21:8).基督教講道的中心事實是智能的救世主進入世界(馬太福音4:23,羅10:15);第一個基督教傳教士稱,他們的人的帳戶和使命,基督的長期新世紀福音戰士(好消息)被稱為evangelistai的(傳福音)(以弗所書4:11;使徒行傳21:8)。 There are four historical accounts of the person and work of Christ: "the first by Matthew, announcing the Redeemer as the promised King of the kingdom of God; the second by Mark, declaring him 'a prophet, mighty in deed and word; the third by Luke, of whom it might be said that the represents Christ in the special character of the Saviour of sinners (Luke 7:36; 15:18); the fourth by John, who represents Christ as the Son of God, in whom deity and humanity become one. The ancient Church gave to Matthew the symbol of the lion, to Mark that of a man, to Luke that of the ox, and to John that of the eagle: these were the four faces of the cherubim" (Ezek. 1:10).歷史記載的基督的人,工作有四個:第一,宣布由馬修的救贖應許的神的國國王的第二個馬克,宣布他為“先知,浩浩蕩盪在行為和字;第三盧克人可能會說,代表基督在特殊字符的罪人的救主(路加福音7:36; 15:18),其中約翰,誰代表基督是神的兒子,在第四標誌性的獅子神性和人性的古老的教堂之一。給馬修,標記,一個人到盧克的牛,和約翰的鷹:這是四個面的基路伯“(以西結書1:10)。

Date日期

The Gospels were all composed during the latter part of the first century, and there is distinct historical evidence to show that they were used and accepted as authentic before the end of the second century.福音書都在後者的組成部分的第一個世紀,而且有明顯的歷史證據表明,它們使用和接受作為地道的第二個世紀結束前。

Mutual relation相互之間的關係

"If the extent of all the coincidences be represented by 100, their proportionate distribution will be: Matthew, Mark, and Luke, 53; Matthew and Luke, 21; Matthew and Mark, 20; Mark and Luke, 6. Looking only at the general result, it may be said that of the contents of the synoptic Gospels [ie, the first three Gospels] about two-fifths are common to the three, and that the parts peculiar to one or other of them are little more than one-third of the whole." “如果所有的巧合程度代表了100,他們的比例分配是:馬太,馬克,路加,53馬太和路加,21馬修和馬克,20馬克,路加,6只在一般的結果,可以說,天氣福音的內容[即,前三個福音]約五分之二是共同的三個,和特有的一個或其他的它們的部分是多一點第三的整體。“

Origin起源

Did the evangelists copy from one another?的福音複製彼此嗎? The opinion is well founded that the Gospels were published by the apostles orally before they were committed to writing, and that each had an independent origin.的意見是很有道理的福音公佈的使徒前口服致力於寫作,都有一個獨立的起源。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報字典)


Social Implications of Gospel對社會的影響福音

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The gospel is the proclamation and demonstration of God's redemptive activity in Jesus Christ to a world enslaved by sin.福音的宣講和示範的神在基督耶穌裡的救贖活動所奴役罪的世界。 Redemption is personal as men and women respond to the claims of Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior.贖回是個人的男人和女人作出回應耶穌基督作為救主的訴訟請求。 Redemption is also social, but the nature, priority, and extent of the social implications of the gospel have not been as readily agreed upon.贖回也是社會的,但就沒有這麼爽快地答應後,性質,優先級和對社會的影響程度的福音。

Early Period早期

The social implications of the gospel have been evident in every era of the church's life.在每一個時代的教會生活的福音已經明顯的社會影響。 The early church, for example, expressed a social witness by faithfulness to the radical demands of Christian community (Acts 2:42-46).早期的教會,例如,一個社會的見證,忠實的激進的基督教社區的需求(使徒行傳2:42-46)。 Limited in their social expression by virtue of being members of a persecuted sect, many Christians challenged cultural values in their refusal to bear arms.有限公司是一個受迫害的教派的成員憑藉他們的社會表達他們拒絕攜帶武器,許多基督徒的文化價值提出質疑。

The church continuously manifested its social conscience with a concern for the poor.不斷的教堂體現了其社會的良知與對窮人的關心。 Basil the Great, for example, created a whole complex of charitable institutions in the fourth century.羅勒大,例如,在第四世紀創造了一種複雜的慈善機構。 The monastic movement generated much philanthropic activity.修道運動產生了很大的慈善活動。 The institutional charities of the Roman Catholic Church take their impetus from this medieval social heritage.機構的羅馬天主教教會的慈善機構,他們的動力,從這個中世紀的社會遺產。

The Reformation heralded a renewal of biblical faith, including the Scripture's social emphasis.改革預示著更新的聖經信仰,包括“聖經”的社會重視。 Though Martin Luther denied that good works had any place in the drama of salvation, he nevertheless commended good works as the proper response to the gracious gift of redemption.雖然馬丁·路德否認,好拯救的戲劇作品曾在任何地方,不過,他讚揚妥善應對救贖之恩的好作品。 John Calvin, a second-generation Reformer, gave greater attention to the implications of the gospel for society.第二代改革者,給了約翰·加爾文,更加注重社會福音的影響。 Whereas for Luther the civil rule was a restraining force because of sin, for Calvin government should be a positive force for the common welfare.路德文官統治是因為罪的抑制力,,卡爾文政府應該是一個積極的力量的共同福祉。 In Calvin's Geneva this meant a commitment to education and to welfare for refugees, and outside Geneva sanctioning, under certain circumstances, the right of resistance for peoples suffering under unjust rulers.這意味著在卡爾文的日內瓦難民,教育和福利的承諾和在日內瓦以外的制裁,在某些情況下,抵抗權的人民受不義的統治者。

Modern evangelicalism traces its roots to the Reformation, but is more directly the result of a variety of post-Reformation movements.現代福音派的歷史可追溯到改革,但更直接的結果是改革後的各種運動。 Puritanism grew up in England in the sixteenth century, but its spirit flowered in America in the seventeenth century.清教主義在16世紀在英國長大,但其開花,在美國,在17世紀的精神。 "The Puritan dilemma" in America was the tension between individual freedom and social order. “清教徒兩難”在美國是個人自由與社會秩序之間的緊張關係。 The strong emphasis on the covenant, though, meant an impetus toward self-sacrifice for the common good.關於“公約”的高度重視,雖然,這意味著推動向自我犧牲的共同利益。 Puritanism is sometimes remembered for its individualism, but it deserves to be known as much for its contribution to the social realm, bequeathing elements that would help form the American political tradition.清教主義有時會想起它的個人主義,但它應該被稱為對社會領域的貢獻,遺贈,這將有助於形成美國政治傳統。

German pietism infused new life into seventeenth century Lutheranism.德國虔敬注入了新的生命,到十七世紀,路德教。 Though often characterized as individualistic, legalistic, and other-worldly, the pietists nevertheless complained heartily against a lifeless orthodoxy that did not translate into love and compassion.雖然常常特點是個性化,墨守陳規,和其他世俗的,虔誠,但抱怨由衷地對一個沒有生命的正統,並沒有轉化成愛與慈悲。 Thus Philipp Jakob Spener challenged wealthy Christians to give their goods to the poor in order to eliminate begging.因此,菲利普雅各布Spener挑戰富有的基督徒,給他們的商品給窮人,以消除乞討。 Spencer's pupil, August Hermann Francke, transformed the University of Halle into a training center for pastors and missionaries, and in the town itself an orphanage and hospital were founded and the poor were both catechized and fed.斯賓塞的學生,8月赫爾曼·弗朗克,改變了哈雷大學的牧師和傳教士的培訓中心,在鎮一所孤兒院和醫院的成立和窮人都catechized和美聯儲。

Fueled in part by the example of pietism, and especially the influence of the Moravians, an evangelical revival swept across Great Britain in the eighteenth century.部分是因為虔誠主義,特別是摩拉維亞,在18世紀的福音派宗教復興席捲了整個大不列顛的影響的例子。 John and Charles Wesley, along with George Whitefield, preached in fields and streets in an attempt to recapture the alienated poor for the church.約翰和查爾斯韋斯利,與喬治·懷特菲爾德,在田野和街道,試圖重新奪回疏遠了窮人的教會講道。 Their emphasis on sanctification and the holy life energized their followers into opposing slavery, exhibiting concern for prisoners, and initiating reforms related to the industrial revolution.他們強調聖潔,聖潔的生活,激勵他們的追隨者反對奴隸制,表現出關注的囚犯,和相關的工業革命開始的改革。

In America the First Great Awakening, which began as a season of individual conversions, resulted in an intercolonial movement that reshaped the social order.在美國的第一次大覺醒,開始了一個賽季的個人轉換,導致在殖民地之間的運動,改變了社會秩序。 Under the leadership of Jonathan Edwards and Whitefield the hierarchical nature of both church and society was challenged.喬納森·愛德華茲和Whitefield的領導下,教會和社會的分層特性受到了挑戰。 Indeed, it is widely recognized that this movement, with its democratizing influence, helped prepare the way for the American Revolution.事實上,它被廣泛地認識到,這一運動,其民主化的影響力,幫助準備為美國革命的方式。

Modern Period現代時期

The modern discussion about the social implications of the gospel has been shaped by a variety of movements and factors.現代的福音,對社會的影響的討論已形成的各種運動和因素。 Revivalism has been a crucial force in determining the nature of the discussion because of the prominence of revival leaders in molding modern evangelicalism.復興已經確定的性質的討論,因為突出的復興領導人在塑造現代福音派的關鍵力量。 In the nineteenth century Charles G. Finney maintained that religion came first, reform second, but he sent his converts from the "anxious bench" into a variety of reform movements, including abolitionism.在十九世紀,查爾斯·芬尼認為,宗教排在第一,第二次改革,但他派他的轉換,從成各種改革運動,包括廢奴主義“惶惶不安”。 Energized by a postmillennial theology, Finney often said that "the great business of the church is to reform the world."通電的postmillennial神學,芬尼常說,“偉大的企業是改革的教會世界。” Dwight L. Moody, on the other hand, saw little hope for society.德懷特·穆迪,另一方面,看到了社會的希望不大。 As a premillennialist he pictured the world as a wrecked ship: "God had commissioned Christians to use their lifeboats to rescue every man they could."作為一個premillennialist,他描繪了世界作為一個失事船隻:“神使用他們的救生艇救​​的人,他們已委託基督徒。”

This shift in the relationship between revivalism and reform, present in Moody and more pronounced in Billy Sunday, has been characterized by evangelical scholars as "the great reversal."復興和改革之間的關係,穆迪和比利週日更明顯,這種轉變的特點是福音派學者的“大逆轉”。 Beginning at the end of the nineteenth century and continuing past the midpoint of the twentieth century, the social implications of the gospel were neglected, sometimes abandoned, and most often declared to be of secondary importance by those who called themselves conservatives or fundamentalists.的福音開始在十九世紀的結束和繼續過去的二十世紀的中點,對社會的影響被忽略,有時放棄,最常見的聲明是次要的,那些稱自己為保守派或原教旨主義。 Groups that had hitherto supported social reform retreated into a posture where the primary concern after conversion was the purity of individuals rather than justice in society.一直支持社會改革小組撤退到轉換後的首要關注是純潔的個人,而不是社會公義的姿勢。

At the same time, however, a movement was on the rise which challenged this uncoupling of evangelism and reform, the social gospel.在相同的時間,然而,運動的崛起挑戰了這個傳福音和改革脫開,社會福音。 Born in post-Civil War America, growing to maturity in the era of progressivism, the impact of the social gospel continued long after its formal demise following World War I. The social gospel has been defined by one of its adherents as "the application of the teaching of Jesus and the total message of the Christian salvation to society, the economic life, and social institutions... as well as to individuals."在南北戰爭後美國出生,成長到成熟的時代的進步,社會福音的影響繼續長後正式滅亡後,第一次世界大戰的社會福音已確立了其信徒“的應用耶穌的教導和基督教的拯救社會,經濟生活和社會機構的消息,以及對個人。“ Interacting with the changing realities of an increasingly industrialized and urbanized nation, the social gospel viewed itself as a crusade for justice and righteousness in all areas of the common life.互動與不斷變化的現實日益工業化和城市化的國家,社會福音觀看本身作為一個十字軍東征的公平和正義,在共同生活的各個領域。

Walter Rauschenbusch was its foremost theologian, and his own pilgrimage is typical.沃爾特·饒申布什是其最重要的神學家,和他自己的朝聖之旅是典型的。 Reared in the piety of a German Baptist minister's family, Rauschenbusch began his first charge in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of New York City.育成的虔誠的德國浸信會牧師的家庭,饒申布什在地獄的廚房附近的紐約市開始了他的第一次充電。 Encountering conditions that stifled the lives of his people, he wrote that Hell's Kitchen "was not a safe place for saved souls."遇到條件,扼殺了人們對他的生活,他寫道:地獄廚房“是不是一個安全的地方得救。” This experience forced Rauschenbusch to return to the Bible in search of resources for a more viable ministry.這方面的經驗被迫饒申布什回到“聖經”中尋求一個更可​​行的部資源。 He discovered there both in the prophets and in the teaching of Jesus the dynamic concept of the kingdom of God was left undeveloped by individualistic theology," so that "the original teaching of our Lord has become an incongruous element in so-called evangelical theology."他發現那裡的先知和耶穌的教導的動態概念,神的國未開發的個性化神學,“所以,”原來我們的主教學已成為一種不協調的元素在所謂的福音派神學。 “

The discoveries of Rauschenbusch, Washington Gladden, and other social gospel leaders, however, helped exacerbate a deep division that was developing within American Protestantism.饒申布什,華盛頓金凱悅大,和其他社會福音領袖的發現,但是,幫助內美國新教的發展加劇了深刻的分裂。 Because the social gospel was closely identified with theological liberalism, a popular logic developed whereby conservatives tended to reject social action as part of their rejection of liberalism.因為是緊密聯繫在一起的社會福音神學自由主義,一個流行的邏輯發展,即的保守派傾向於拒絕社會行動的一部分,他們拒絕接受自由主義。 As a matter of record, not all social gospelers were liberals and not all liberals were social gospelers.有案可查的,而不是社會福音的自由主義者,而不是所有的自由派社會福音。 Indeed, Rauschenbusch characterized himself as an "evangelical in their adherence to personal faith and piety, but liberal in their openness to critical biblical studies and their insistence on a social ministry based on the social conception of sin which demanded social action beyond individual acts of benevolence.事實上,饒申布什描繪自己為“福音派在堅持個人的信仰和虔誠,但其開放自由的關鍵聖經研究和堅持在社會事務部的基礎上罪的社會觀的要求超越個人的慈善行為的社會行動。

Recent Discussion最近的討論

In the contemporary period there are numerous attempts to return to a balance of individual and social emphasis in the Christian faith.在現代時期,有無數次嘗試後,恢復到一個平衡的基督教信仰,在個人和社會的重視。 Carl FH Henry, in The Uneasy Conscience of Modern Fundamentalism (1947), decried the lack of social compassion among conservatives.卡爾·FH亨利,在良心不安的現代原教旨主義“(1947),譴責缺乏社會同情保守派之間。 Further, the civil rights crisis and the Vietnam war pricked the consciences of younger evangelicals who wondered whether their spiritual parents had not accommodated their faith to an American "civil religion."此外,公民權利的危機和越南戰爭豎起的良心,年輕的福音派誰不知道是否他們的精神父母沒有滿足他們的信仰,以美國的“公民宗教”。 The last two decades have seen a rebirth of social concern.在過去二十年已經看到了重生的社會關注。 Evangelicals have been rediscovering their roots in Finney and earlier evangelical leadership.福音派已經開始重新審視自己的根在芬尼和更早的福音派的領導。 The Chicago Declaration of 1973 acknowledged that "we have not proclaimed or demostrated [God's] justice to an unjust American society." 1973年的芝加哥宣言承認,“我們還沒有宣布或以實例闡述[上帝]美國一個不公正的社會正義。” Today organizations such as Evangelicals for Social Action and journals such as Sojourners and The Other Side advocate the involvement of evangelicals in all aspects of society.組織,如社會行動和期刊,如旅居者,另一邊的福音派主張今天的福音派信徒在社會各方面的參與。

A new perspective is the liberation theologies emanating from Latin America, Asia, and Africa.一個新的視角是源於拉丁美洲,亞洲和非洲的解放神學。 The demand is for theological reflection that begins, not in the classroom, but in the midst of the poverty and injustice that defines the human situation for many of the peoples of the world today.需求的是神學反省的開始,而不是在課堂上,但在許多當今的世界各國人民的貧困和不公正,它定義了人類的處境之中。 The call is for a theology of "praxis" (practice).的呼叫的神學“實踐”(實踐)。 Many evangelicals recoil from liberation theologies because of the use of Marxist analysis.許多福音派的後坐力,從解放神學,因為運用馬克思主義分析。 But others believe that the affirmation that God is on the side of the poor is a starting place for yet more faithful understandings of the meaning of discipleship.但也有人認為神的肯定是窮人的側是一個起點了更多的忠實門徒的意義的理解。 Although the Third World liberation theologians state that their programs cannot be directly translated to North America, at the same time there has been fruitful interchange with black, feminist, and other theologians working out the meaning of justice.雖然第三世界解放神學狀態的,他們的方案不能直接轉換為北美,同時也富有成果的交流與黑色,女權主義者,和其他神學家,正義的含義。

In summary, historical study helps focus present options.總之,歷史的研究有助於集中當前選項。 As for priority the question remains: Are the social implications equal, secondary, or prior to the individual implications of the gospel?優先的問題是:對社會的影響是平等的,次要的,或之前的個人影響的福音嗎? Continuing discussion about the nature and extent of social ministry revolves around such options as (1) individual and/or social action; (2) charity and/or justice.繼續展開討論,圍繞選項,如(1)個人和/或社會行動的性質和程度,社會事務部(2),慈善機構和/或正義。 However one chooses, the challenge is to translate love and justice into meaningful strategies so that proclamation becomes demonstration.然而,有一個選擇,面臨的挑戰是把愛與正義的有意義的策略,因此宣布該示範。

RC White, Jr小RC白色,
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
DW Dayton, Discovering an Evangelical Heritage; G. Gutierrez, A Theology of Liberation; DO Moberg, The Great Reversal: Evangelism versus Social Concern; W. Rauschenbusch, A Theology for the Social Gospel; W. Scott, Bring Forth Justice; RJ Sider, Rich Christians in an Age of Hunger; TL Smith, Revivalism and Social Reform; J. Sobrino, Christology at the Crossroads; J. Wallis, Agenda for Biblical People; RC White, Jr., and CH Hopkins, The Social Gospel, Religion and Reform in Changing America; JH Yoder, The Politics of Jesus. DW頓,發現一個福音遺產; G.古鐵雷斯,解放神學;莫葛博士,大逆轉:傳福音與社會關懷; W.饒申布什,為社會福音神學,W.斯科特,將公理,RJ考慮在飢餓時代的基督徒,豐富的TL史密斯,復興和社會改革的十字路口,基督J. Sobrino J.瓦利斯議程“聖經”的人; RC白色,Jr。,和CH霍普金斯,社會福音,宗教在變化中的美國和改革JH尤德,政治上的耶穌。


Gospel and Gospels福音和福音

Catholic Information 天主教信息

The word Gospel usually designates a written record of Christ's words and deeds.這個詞福音的基督的言行通常會指定一個書面記錄。 It is very likely derived from the Anglo-Saxon god (good) and spell (to tell), and is generally treated as the exact equivalent of the Greek euaggelion (eu well, aggello, I bear a message), and the Latin Evangelium, which has passed into French, German, Italian, and other modern languages.它很可能是來自盎格魯 - 撒克遜人的神(好)和咒語(告訴),一般被視為完全等同的的希臘euaggelion(EU好,aggello的,我承擔了消息),和拉丁Evangelium,已通過法語,德語,意大利語,和其他現代語言。 The Greek euaggelion originally signified the "reward of good tidings" given to the messenger, and subsequently "good tidings".希臘euaggelion最初所指的“獎勵”的好消息的使者,並隨後“的好消息”。 Its other important meanings will be set forth in the body of the present general article on the Gospels.其重要的意義,將載在身體本文章的福音。

(1) Titles of the Gospels (1)標題的福音

The first four historical books of the New Testament are supplied with titles (Euaggelion kata Matthaion, Euaggelion kata Markon, etc.), which, however ancient, do not go back to the respective authors of those sacred writings.前四個歷史書籍的新約聖經的提供,與的標題(Euaggelion的卡塔Matthaion,Euaggelion卡塔Markon等),這是多麼古老,不回去的那些神聖的著作的作者。 The Canon of Muratori, Clement of Alexandria, and St. Irenæus bear distinct witness to the existence of those headings in the latter part of the second century of our era.穆拉托裡,佳能克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,和聖irenæus熊不同的證人的存在,這些標題中後期的第二個世紀,我們的時代。 Indeed, the manner in which Clement (Strom., I, xxi), and St. Irenæus (Adv. Hær., III, xi, 7) employ them implies that, at that early date, our present titles to the Gospels had been in current use for some considerable time.事實上,方式克萊門特(Strom.,我XXI)號決議,聖irenæus(副詞Hær,III,西安,7)採用意味著,在早期的日期,我們目前的標題福音書已在當前的使用相當一段時間。 Hence, it may be inferred that they were prefixed to the evangelical narratives as early as the first part of that same century.因此,可以推斷,他們是福音派的敘述,早在一個世紀的第一部分,前面。 That, however, they do not go back to the first century of the Christian era, or at least that they are not original, is a position generally held at the present day.然而,他們不回去的第一個世紀的基督教時代,或至少他們是不是原裝的,是一個位置一般認為在目前的一天。 It is felt that since they are similar for the four Gospels, although the same Gospels were composed at some interval from each other, those titles were not framed, and consequently not prefixed to each individual narrative, before the collection of the four Gospels was actually made.有人認為,因為他們是相似的四福音書,雖然相同的福音是由一些相互的間隔,這些頭銜並沒有誣陷,因而沒有前綴,每個人的敘述,之前的四福音書收集的竟是製成。 Besides, as well pointed out by Prof. Bacon, "the historical books of the New Testament differ from its apocalyptic and epistolary literature, as those of the Old Testament differ from its prophecy, in being invariably anonymous, and for the same reason. Prophecies whether in the earlier or in the later sense, and letters, to have authority, must be referable to some individual; the greater his name, the better. But history was regarded as a common possession. Its facts spoke for themselves. Only as the springs of common recollection began to dwindle, and marked differences to appear between the well-informed and accurate Gospels and the untrustworthy . . . did it become worth while for the Christian teacher or apologist to specify whether the given representation of the current tradition was 'according to' this or that special compiler, and to state his qualifications".此外,指出培根教授,“新約聖經的歷史書籍的不同世界末日和書信的文獻,所不同的舊約預言的,總是匿名的,出於同樣的原因。預言無論是在較早或後來意義上說,信件,有權威,必須是參考一些個人;他的名字,就更好了。但是,歷史被認為是作為共同擁有。它的事實為自己說話。只有當共同回憶的彈簧開始減少,出現顯著差異之間的靈通和準確的福音和不值得信任的,沒有成為值得,而基督教的教師或代言人,以指定是否表示目前的傳統“根據這樣或那樣的特殊的編譯器,並陳述他的資格“。 It thus appears that the present titles of the Gospels are not traceable to the Evangelists themselves.因此,它出現的福音,目前的職稱是無法追查的福音。

The first word common to the headings of our four Gospels is Euaggelion, some meanings of which remain still to be set forth.我們的四福音書的標題的第一個字是Euaggelion,其中的一些含義仍然被提出。 The word, in the New Testament, has the specific meaning of "the good news of the kingdom" (cf. Matthew 4:23; Mark 1:15).這個詞,在新約中,有特定意義上的“好消息的王國”(參馬太福音4:23,馬可福音1:15)。 In that sense, which may be considered as primary from the Christian standpoint, Euaggelion denotes the good tidings of salvation announced to the world in connexion with Jesus Christ, and, in a more general way, the whole revelation of Redemption by Christ (cf. Matthew 9:35; 24:14; etc.; Mark 1:14; 13:10; 16:15; Acts 20:24; Romans 1:1, 9, 16; 10:16; etc.).在這個意義上說,這可能會被視為主要從基督教的角度來看,Euaggelion表示向全世界宣布就此與耶穌基督的救恩的好消息,並在更普遍的方式,整個贖回基督的啟示(參見馬太福音9:35; 24:14;等;馬可福音1:14; 13:10; 16:15;使徒行傳20:24;羅馬書1:1,9,16,10:16;等)。 This was, of course, the sole meaning connected with the word, so long as no authentic record of the glad tidings of salvation by Christ had been drawn up.當然,這是唯一與字的涵義,只要沒有真實的記錄由基督的救恩喜訊。 In point of fact, it remained the only one in use even after such written records had been for some time received in the Christian Church: as there could be but one Gospel, that is, but one revelation of salvation by Jesus Christ, so the several records of it were not regarded as several Gospels, but only as distinct accounts of one and the same Gospel.這一點,事實上,它仍然是唯一一個在使用基督教會收到一些時間後,該書面記錄:有可能是一個福音,這是啟示之一,但耶穌基督的救恩,所以記錄被視為幾個福音,但只是作為不同的帳戶在同一個福音。 Gradually, however, a derived meaning was coupled with the word Euaggelion.然而,漸漸地,一個派生的含義再加上這個詞Euaggelion。 Thus, in his first Apology (c. lxvi), St. Justin speaks of the "Memoirs of the Apostles which are called Euaggelia", clearing referring, in this way, not to the substance of the Evangelical history, but to the books themselves in which it is recorded.因此,聖賈斯汀他先道歉(約LXVI),說的“回憶錄”的使徒被稱為Euaggelia“,清除的是,在這種方式中,不是實質的福音派的歷史,但自己的書它被記錄在其中。 It is true that in this passage of St. Justin we have the first undoubted use of the term in that derived sense.這是事實,在此通過聖賈斯汀,我們有了第一個勿庸置疑的在派生的意義上使用的術語。 But as the holy Doctor gives us to understand that in his day the word Euaggelion had currently that meaning, it is only natural to think that it had been thus employed for some time before.但是,作為神聖的醫生讓我們明白,在他的一天的字Euaggelion目前的意義,它是很自然的認為,它已因此採用前一段時間。 It seems, therefore, that Zahn is right in claiming that the use of the term Euaggelion, as denoting a written record of Christ's words and deeds, goes as far back as the beginning of the second century of the Christian era.看來,因此,贊恩是正確的,聲稱的使用的術語Euaggelion的,因為基督的言行表示的書面記錄,可以追溯到開始的第二個世紀的基督教時代。

The second word common to the titles of the canonical Gospels is the preposition kata, "according to", the exact import of which has long been a matter of discussion among Biblical scholars.第二個字常見的典型福音的標題是介詞的卡塔,“根據的”,確切的進口一直是聖經學者之間的討論。 Apart from various secondary meanings connected with that Greek particle, two principal significations have been ascribed to it.除了與各種二次意義,希臘顆粒,已被歸因於它的兩個主要意指。 Many authors have taken it to mean not "written by", but "drawn up according to the conception of", Matthew, Mark, etc. In their eyes, the titles of our Gospels were not intended to indicate authorship, but to state the authority guaranteeing what is related, in about the same way as "the Gospel according to the Hebrews", or "the Gospel according to the Egyptians", does not mean the Gospel written by the Hebrews or the Egyptians, but that peculiar form of Gospel which either the Hebrews or the Egyptians had accepted.許多作者已經把它的意思是不是“寫”,但制訂的“的概念,”馬太,馬可,在他們眼裡,我們的福音書的標題,並非意在表明作者身份,但聲明權威低保什麼是相關的,在大約相同的方式“福音根據希伯來人”,或根據埃及人的“福音”,並不意味著福音寫希伯來人或埃及人,但造型奇特的福音其中希伯來人或埃及人已經接受了。 Most scholars, however, have preferred to regard the preposition kata as denoting authorship, pretty much in the same way as, in Diodorus Siculus, the History of Herodotus is called He kath Herodoton historia. ,但是,多數學者傾向於把介詞卡塔表示署名權,幾乎在同樣的方式,在狄奧多羅斯Siculus的,希羅多德的歷史被稱為他凱絲Herodoton史記。 At the present day it is generally admitted that, had the titles to the canonical Gospels been intended to set forth the ultimate authority or guarantor, and not to indicate the writer, the Second Gospel would, in accordance with the belief of primitive times, have been called "the Gospel according to Peter", and the third, "the Gospel according to Paul".在現今社會普遍承認的是,有職稱的設置提出了最終的決定權或擔保人的典型福音,而不是表示的作家,第二個福音,將按照與信仰的原始時代,有被稱為“福音根據彼得”,並根據保羅的第三個“福音”。 At the same time it is rightly felt that these titles denote authorship, with a peculiar shade of meaning which is not conveyed by the titles prefixed to the Epistles of St. Paul, the Apocalypse of St. John, etc; The use of the genitive case in the latter titles Paulou Epistolai, Apokalypsis Ioannou, etc.) has no other object than that of ascribing the contents of such works to the writer whose name they actually bear.在相同的時間裡,它被正確地認為,這些標題表示著作權,具有特殊的意義陰影這是不可言傳的標題前綴,以書信的聖保羅,聖約翰的啟示等;使用所有格情況在後者標題波盧Epistolai,Apokalypsis約安努等)有沒有其他對象指稱的內容,這樣的作品的作家,他們的名字,他們實際上承擔。 The use of the preposition kata (according to), on the contrary, while referring the composition of the contents of the First Gospel to St. Matthew, of those of the second to St. Mark, etc., implies that practically the same contents, the same glad tidings or Gospel, have been set forth by more than one narrator.使用的介詞的kata(根據),相反,而參照的第一福音聖馬太,那些所述第二聖馬克,等的組合物的內容,意味著,實際上相同的內容,同樣的喜訊或福音,已經確定了超過一個敘述者。 Thus, "the Gospel according to Matthew" is equivalent to the Gospel history in the form in which St. Matthew put it in writing; "the Gospel according to Mark" designates the same Gospel history in another form, viz, in that in which St. Mark presented it in writing, etc. (cf. Maldonatus, "In quatuor Evangelistas", cap .i).因此,“馬太福音”是相當於在聖馬太把它以書面的形式在福音的歷史,“馬可福音”指定相同的的福音歷史上的另一種形式,即,在聖馬以書面形式提交,等等(參見Maldonatus,“在QUATUOR Evangelistas”,帽,我)。

(2) Number of the Gospels (2)號碼的福音

The name gospel, as designating a written account of Christ's words and deeds, has been, and is still, applied to a large number of narratives connected with Christ's life, which circulated both before and after the composition of our Third Gospel (cf. Luke 1:1-4).的名稱福音,指定一個書面帳戶基督的話和行為,和是仍然,應用到一個大數量的敘述與基督的生命,其中流傳既之前和之後的成分,我們的第三個福音(參見路加福音1:1-4)。 The titles of some fifty such works have come down to us, a fact which shows the intense interest which centred, at an early date, in the Person and work of Christ.有50個這樣的作品的標題已回落到我們,這一事實表明集中的濃厚興趣,在早期的日期,在基督的負責人及工作。 it is only, however, in connexion with twenty of these "gospels" that some information has been preserved.但是,它是唯一的,在聯接的“福音”20的一些信息已經被保存。 Their names, as given by Harnack (Chronologie, I, 589 sqq.), are as follows: -哈納克(Chronologie,I,589 SQQ),他們的名字,如下: -

1-4. 1-4。 The Canonical Gospels典型福音

5. 5。 The Gospel according to the Hebrews.根據希伯來人的福音。

6. 6。 The Gospel of Peter.彼得的福音。

7. 7。 The Gospel according to the Egyptians根據埃及人的福音

8. 8。 The Gospel of Matthias.馬蒂亞斯的福音。

9. 9。 The Gospel of Philip.菲利普福音。

10. 10。 The Gospel of Thomas.福音的托馬斯。

11. 11。 The Proto-Evangelium of James.原Evangelium詹姆斯。

12. 12。 The Gospel of Nicodemus (Acta Pilati).福音的尼哥底母(文獻皮拉蒂)。

13. 13。 The Gospel of the Twelve Apostles.福音的十二使徒岩(Twelve Apostles)。

14. 14。 The Gospel of Basilides.的福音巴西里德。

15. 15。 The Gospel of Valentinus.的福音瓦倫提諾。

16. 16。 The Gospel of Marcion.馬吉安的福音。

17. 17。 The Gospel of Eve.夏娃的福音。

18. 18。 The Gospel of Judas.猶大福音。

19. 19。 The writing Genna Marias.寫作的根納馬里亞斯。

20. 20。 The Gospel Teleioseos.的福音Teleioseos。

Despite the early date which is sometimes claimed for some of these works, it is not likely that any one of them, outside our canonical Gospels, should be reckoned among the attempts at narrating the life of Christ, of which St. Luke speaks in the prologue to his Gospel.儘管有時被要求早日為這些作品,這是不太可能的,其中的任何一個,我們的典型福​​音外,不可忽視的嘗試中,在敘述基督的生命,其中聖路加說他的福音的序幕。 Most of them, as far as can be made out are late productions, the apocryphal character of which is generally admitted by contemporary scholars (see APOCRYPHA).他們中的大多數,就可以做出來的,杜撰的人物,這是當代學者普遍承認的(偽經)的後期製作。

It is indeed impossible, at the present day, to describe the precise manner in which out of the numerous works ascribed to some Apostle, or simply bearing the name of gospel, only four, two of which are not ascribed to Apostles, came to be considered as sacred and canonical.在目前的一天,這實在是不可能的,描述出的眾多作品中,賦予一些使徒的確切方式,或簡單地印有名字的福音,只有四個,其中兩個是不是歸因於使徒,後來被視為神聖和規範。 It remains true, however, that all the early testimony which has a distinct bearing on the number of the canonical Gospels recognizes four such Gospels and none besides.這仍然是正確的,但是,除了所有的早期見證,具有鮮明的典型福音的數量關係認識四個這樣的福音,並沒有。 Thus, Eusebius (died 340), when sorting out the universally received books of the Canon, in distinction from those which some have questioned writes: "And here, among the first, must be placed the holy quaternion of the Gospels", while he ranks the "Gospel according to the Hebrews" among the second, that is, among the disputed writings (Hist. Eccl., III, xxv).因此,尤西比烏斯(死於340),排序時,普遍收到了書籍的佳能,在其中一些人質疑的區別寫道:“在這裡,居首位,必須把神聖的四元數的福音”,而他把“福音根據希伯來人”之間的第二次,也就是,在有爭議的著作(Hist.傳道書,三,二十五)。 Clement of Alexandria (died about 220) and Tertullian (died 220) were familiar with our four Gospels, frequently quoting and commenting on them.克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞(死於約220年),良(死於220),與我們熟悉的四福音書,經常對他們的引用和評論。 The last-named writer speaks also of the Old Latin version known to himself and to his readers, and by so doing carries us back beyond his time.最後命名的作家還談到對自己和他的讀者拉丁美洲舊版本,並通過這樣做我們回到超出了他的時間。 The saintly Bishop of Lyons, Irenæus (died 202), who had known Polycarp in Asia Minor, not only admits and quotes our four Gospels, but argues that they must be just four, no more and no less.里昂,愛任紐(死於202),誰知道波利卡普在小亞細亞,不僅是聖潔的主教承認並引用了我們的四福音書,但認為他們必須是四,不能多也不能少。 He says: "It is not possible that the Gospels be either more or fewer than they are. For since there are four zones of the world in which we live, and four principal winds, while the Church is scattered throughout the world, and the pillar and ground of the Church is the Gospel and the Spirit of life; it is fitting that we should have four pillars, breathing out immortality on every side and vivifying our flesh. . . The living creatures are quadriform, and the Gospel is quadriform, as is also the course followed by the Lord" (Adv. Hær., III, xi, 8).他說:“這是不可能的,福音是更多或更少的比他們的,因為在有四個區域,我們生活在其中的世界,四個主要的風,而散佈在世界各地的教會,和是福音的教會的柱石和根基和生命的精神,是恰當的,我們應該有四大支柱,呼吸各個方面和生機我們的肉體不朽眾生quadriform的,和福音quadriform的,當然也是主“(:副詞Hær。,III,西安,8)。 About the time when St. Irenæus gave this explicit testimony to our four Gospels, the Canon of Muratori bore likewise witness to them, as did also the Peshito and other early Syriac translations, and the various Coptic versions of the New Testament.關於的時候,聖irenæus了明確的證詞,我們的四福音書,佳能同樣見證了他們的muratori孔,由於還沒有Peshito和其他早期的敘利亞文翻譯,以及各種科普特版本的新約聖經。 The same thing must be said with regard to the Syriac harmony of the canonical Gospels, which was framed by St. Justin's disciple, Tatian, and which is usually referred to under its Greek name of Diatessaron (To dia tessaron Euaggelion).必須指出的是,同樣的事情方面的敘利亞和諧的典型福音,被人陷害聖賈斯汀的的弟子,塔蒂安,和通常是指根據它的希臘名字Diatessaron人們(直徑tessaron Euaggelion)。 The recent discovery of this work has allowed Harnack to infer, from some of its particulars, that it was based on a still earlier harmony, that made by St. Hippolytus of Antioch, of our four Gospels.最近發現這項工作的允許哈納克來推斷,從它的一些細節,仍然較早的和諧,即由聖希波呂托斯的安提阿,我們的四福音書,它是基於。 It has also set at rest the vexed question as to St. Justin's use of the canonical Gospels.它也休息棘手的問題,聖賈斯汀的使用規範的福音。 "For since Tatian was a disciple of Justin, it is inconceivable that he should have worked on quite different Gospels from those of his teacher, while each held the Gospels he used to be the books of primary importance" (Adeney). “提安是賈斯汀的弟子,這是不可思議的,他應該從他的老師完全不同的福音工作,而各自持有的福音書,他是最重要的書籍”(阿德尼)。 Indeed, even before the discovery of Tatian's "Diatessaron", an unbiased study of Justin's authentic writings had made it clear that the holy doctor used exclusively our canonical Gospels under the name of Memoirs of the Apostles.事實上,即使發現之前提安的“Diatessaron人們”,Justin的真實公正的研究著作中已說得很清楚,神聖的醫生用專門回憶錄中的使徒的名義下,我們的典型福​​音。

Of these testimonies of the second century two are particularly worthy of notice, viz, those of St. Justin and St. Irenæus.在這些證詞的第二個世紀兩名特別值得我們注意,即,那些聖賈斯汀和聖irenæus。 As the former writer belongs to the first part of that century, and speaks of the canonical Gospels as a well-known and fully authentic collection, it is only natural to think that at his time of writing (about AD 145) the same Gospels, and they only, had been recognized as sacred records of Christ's life, and that they had been regarded as such at least as early as the beginning of the second century of our era.由於前作家屬於這個世紀的第一部分,講的典型福音作為一個知名的和完全真實的集合,它只是自然地想到,在他寫作時(約公元145年)相同的福音, ,他們只,已被確認為基督的生命的神聖的紀錄,而且,他們一直這樣認為,至少早在開始的第二個世紀,我們的時代。 The testimony of the latter apologist is still more important.後者辯護士的證詞是更重要的。 "The very absurdity of his reasoning testifies to the well-established position attained in his day by the four Gospels, to the exclusion of all others. Irenæus' bishop was Potinus who lived to the age of 90, and Irenæus had known Polycarp in Asia Minor. Here are links of connexion with the past which go back beyond the beginning of the second century" (Adeney). “非常荒謬,他的推理證明的四福音書達到行之有效的位置,在他的天,所有其他人的排斥。愛任紐的主教Potinus人活到90歲,和愛任紐波利卡普在亞洲下面是未成年人。相關的鏈接的過去,回去超出了年初的第二個世紀“(阿德尼)。

In the writings of the Apostolic Fathers one does not, indeed, meet with unquestionable evidence in favour of only four canonical Gospels.在該著作的使徒父親,一個不,事實上,滿足不容置疑的證據,贊成的只有四個典型福音。 But this is only what one might expect from the works of men who lived in the very century in which these inspired records were composed, and in which the word Gospel was yet applied to the glad tidings of salvation, and not to the written accounts thereof.但是,這是人們所預料的是,從作品的人誰住在非常世紀中,這些靈感記錄組成,字福音尚未應用的救恩的喜訊,而不是其的書面帳戶。

(3) Chief Differences between Canonical and Apocryphal Gospels. (3)之間的主要分歧典型和猜測福音。 From the outset, the four Gospels, the sacred character of which was thus recognized very early, differed in several respects from the numerous uncanonical Gospels which circulated during the first centuries of the Church.從一開始,在四福音書,其中的神聖性,因此很早就認識,從眾多的明顯不規範的福音在第一世紀的教會流傳不同的幾個方面。 First of all, they commended themselves by their tone of simplicity and truthfulness, which stood in striking contrast with the trivial, absurd, or manifestly legendary character of many of those uncanonical productions.首先,他們稱讚他們的語氣形成鮮明的對比,裡面放著許多那些明顯不規範的生產瑣碎的,荒謬的,或明顯傳說中的人物的簡單性和真實性。 In the next place, they had an earlier origin than most of their apocryphal rivals, and indeed many of the latter productions were directly based on the canonical Gospels.在未來的地方,他們的早期起源比大部分未經證實的對手,並確實有很多的後期製作,直接基於典型福音。 A third feature in favour of our canonical records of Christ's life was the purity of their teachings, dogmatic and moral, over against the Jewish, Gnostic, or other heretical views with which not a few of the apocryphal gospels were tainted, and on account of which these unsound writings found favour among heretical bodies and, on the contrary, discredit in the eyes of Catholics.一個第三個功能,有利於我們規範記錄基督的生命是的純度他們的教義,教條式的道德,超過反對的猶太人,諾斯替教,或其他異端觀點與不是一個少數的猜測福音被沾染,並考慮到這些不健全的著作中發現異端機構青睞,相反,抹黑在眼中的天主教徒。 Lastly, and more particularly, the canonical Gospels were regarded as of Apostolic authority, two of them being ascribed to the Apostles St. Matthew and St. John, respectively, and two to St. Mark and St. Luke, the respective companions of St. Peter and St. Paul.最後,更特別的是,典型福音被視為使徒的權威,他們兩個人被歸因的使徒聖馬太和聖約翰,分別和兩個聖馬克和聖盧克,同伴的聖彼得和聖保羅。 Many other gospels indeed claimed Apostolic authority, but to none of them was this claim universally allowed in the early Church.許多其他的福音的確聲稱使徒權威,但其中沒有一個是在早期教會普遍允許這種說法。 The only apocryphal work which was at all generally received, and relied upon, in addition to our four canonical Gospels, is the "Gospel according to the Hebrews".只杜撰的工作,這是在所有普遍接受和依靠,除了我們四個典型福音,是“福音根據希伯來人”。 It is a well-known fact that St. Jerome, speaking of this Gospel under the name of "The Gospel according to the Nazarenes", regards it as the Hebrew original of our Greek canonical Gospel according to St. Matthew.這是一個眾所周知的事實,圣杰羅姆,說這本福音書“拿撒勒的福音”的名義下,把原來的希伯來文,希臘典型福音的聖馬太。 But, as far as can be judged from its fragments which have come down to us, it has no right to originality as compared with our first canonical Gospel.不過,據其碎片已回落到我們可以判斷的是,它沒有正確的原創性相比,我們的第一個典型福音。 At a very early date, too, it was treated as devoid of Apostolic authority, and St. Jerome himself, who states that he had its Aramaic text at his disposal, does not assign it a place side by side with our canonical Gospels: all the authority which he ascribes to it is derived from his persuasion that it was the original text of our First Gospel, and not a distinct Gospel over and above the four universally received from time immemorial in the Catholic Church.在非常早的日期,也被視為缺乏使徒的權威,和圣杰羅姆自己,誰規定說,他的阿拉姆語的文字在他的處置,不分配給它一個並排的地方,我們的典型福​​音:所有他賦予它的權威來自他的勸說下,這是我們的第一福音的原始文本,而不是一個獨特的福音及以上的四個普遍收到了從遠古時代在天主教教會。

(4) Order of the Gospels (4)令“的福音

While the ancient lists, versions, and ecclesiastical writers agree in admitting the canonical character of only four Gospels, they are far from being at one with regard to the order of these sacred records of Christ's words and deeds.雖然古老的列表,版本,和教會作家同意在承認只有四福音書的規範性,他們是從在這些神聖的基督的言行記錄的順序。 In early Christian literature, the canonical Gospels are given in no less than eight orders, besides the one (St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke, St. John) with which we are familiar.在早期基督教文獻,典型福音不低於8個訂單,除了一(聖馬太,聖馬克,聖盧克,聖約翰)與我們所熟悉的。 The variations bear chiefly on the place given to St. John, then, secondarily, on the respective positions of St. Mark and St. Luke.承擔主要的變化給聖約翰的地方,然後,其次,聖馬可廣場和聖路加在各自的位置。 St. John passes from the fourth place to the third to the second, or even to the first.聖約翰通過從第三到第二個,或什至第一個第四位。 As regards St. Luke and St. Mark, St. Luke's Gospel is often placed first, doubtless as being the longer of the two, but at times also second, perhaps to bring it in immediate connexion with the Acts, which are traditionally ascribed to the author of our Third Gospel.至於聖路加及聖馬可,聖路加的福音往往是放在第一,毫無疑問,時間越長,兩個,但有時也第二,也許是為了把它在即時聯接的行為,這是傳統上屬於我們的第三個福音的作者。

Of these various orders, the one which St. Jerome embodied in the Latin Vulgate, whence it passed into our modern translations, and even into the Greek editions of the New Testament, is unquestionably the most ancient.在各種不同的訂單,圣杰羅姆體現在拉丁文聖經,是從那裡來傳遞到我們的現代譯本,甚至到希臘版本的新約聖經,無疑是最古老的。 It is found in the Canon of Muratori, in St. Irenæus, in St. Gregory of Nazianzus, in St. Athanasius, in the lists of the sacred books drawn up by the Councils of Laodicea and of Carthage, and also in the oldest Greek uncial Manuscripts.: the Vatican, the Sinaitic, and the Alexandrine.它被發現在佳能的muratori,在聖irenæus,在聖格列高利的nazianzus,在聖亞他那修,在列表中老底嘉和迦太基由議會制定的,神聖的書籍,也最古老的希臘uncial手稿。:梵蒂岡,西奈山,與亞歷山大。 Its origin is best accounted for by the supposition that whoever formed the Gospel collection wished to arrange the Gospels in accordance with the respective date which tradition assigned to their composition.它的起源是最好的假設,誰形成了福音收集希望安排的福音,按照各自的傳統分配給它們的組成日期。 Thus, the first place was given to St. Matthew's Gospel, because a very early tradition described the work as originally written in Hebrew, that is, in the Aramaic language of Palestine.因此,首先是考慮到聖馬太的福音,因為一個非常早期的傳統的工作最初是希伯來文寫的,那就是,在阿拉姆語的巴勒斯坦。 This, it was thought, proved that it had been composed for the Jewish believers in the Holy Land, at a date when the Apostles had not yet started to preach the glad tidings of salvation outside of Palestine, so that it must be prior to the other Gospels written in Greek and for converts in Greek-speaking countries.有人認為,這證明,它已經組成的猶太信徒的聖地,在日期時尚未開始的使徒們宣講的救恩的喜訊以外的巴勒斯坦,因此,它必須是之前的其他的福音寫在希臘和希臘國家中的皈依。 In like manner, it is clear that St. John's Gospel was assigned the last place, because tradition at a very early date looked upon it as the last in the order of time.以類似的方式,很顯然,聖約翰福音被分配了最近的地方,在一個非常早期的日期,因為傳統的最後的時間順序看。 As to St. Mark and St. Luke, tradition ever spoke of them as posterior to St. Matthew and anterior to St. John, so that their Gospels were naturally placed between those of St. Matthew and St. John.聖馬克和聖盧克,傳統以往任何時候都談到了他們為後聖馬太和前聖約翰,使他們的福音自然之間的聖馬太和聖約翰。 In this way, as it seems, was obtained the present general order of the Gospels in which we find, at the beginning, an Apostle as author; at the end, the other Apostle; between the two, those who have to derive their authority from Apostles.通過這種方式,因為它似乎是得到了目前一般的順序,在福音中,我們發現,在開始的時候,使徒的作者;結束時,其他使徒兩者之間,必須取得授權從使徒。

The numerous orders which are different from the one most ancient and most generally received can easily be explained by the fact that after the formation of the collection in which the four Gospels were for the first time united, these writings continued to be diffused, all four separately, in the various Churches, and might thus be found differently placed in the collections designed for public reading.許多訂單是不同的,可以很容易地被解釋的事實後形成的集合中的四福音書的第一次團結,這些作品繼續擴散,所有四個最古老和最普遍接受的此外,在各教會,因而有可能被發現,不同的放置在設計集合,供市民閱讀。 It is likewise easy in most cases to make out the special reason for which a particular grouping of the four Gospels was adopted.同樣是在大多數情況下,很容易使特定的分組採用的四福音書的特殊原因。 The very ancient order, for instance, which places the two Apostles (St. Matthew, St. John) before the two disciples of Apostles (St. Mark, St. Luke) may be easily accounted for by the desire of paying a special honour to the Apostolic dignity.非常古老的秩序,例如,將兩個門徒(聖馬太,聖約翰),可以很容易地佔了前兩個弟子的使徒(聖馬克,聖盧克)的慾望付出了特殊的榮譽到的使徒尊嚴。 Again, such an ancient order as Matthew, Mark, John, Luke, bespeaks the intention of coupling each Apostle with an Apostolic assistant, and perhaps also that of bringing St. Luke nearer to the Acts, etc.同樣,馬太,馬克,路加,約翰,這樣一個古老的順序四起每個使徒耦合與宗座助理的意圖,或許也將聖路加接近的行為,

(5) Classification of the Gospels (5)分類的福音

The present order of the Gospels has the twofold advantage of not separating from one another those Evangelical records (St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke) whose mutual resemblances are obvious and striking, and of placing at the end of the list of the Gospels the narrative (that of St. John) whose relations with the other three is that of dissimilarity rather than of likeness.現在的順序的福音書有兩方面的優勢不是彼此分離的那些福音記錄(聖馬太,聖馬克,聖盧克),其共同相似之處是顯而易見的,驚人的,並放置在列表的末尾福音的敘述(聖約翰)的關係與其他三個是相異的,而不是形似。 It thus lends itself well to the classification of the Gospels which is now generally admitted by Biblical scholars.因此,它本身的分類的福音,這是現在人們普遍承認聖經學者。 St. Matthew, St. Mark, and St. Luke are usually grouped together, and designated under the common name of the Synoptic Gospels.聖馬太,聖馬克,聖路加通常組合在一起,並指定下對觀福音書的通用名稱。 They derive this name from the fact that their narratives may be arranged and harmonized, section by section, so as to allow the eye to realize at a glance the numerous passages which are common to them, and also the portions which are peculiar either to only two, or even to only one, of them.他們從他們的敘述可能被安排和協調,由一節一節的事實推導出這個名字,所以讓眼部實現一眼就看出這是他們共同的許多段落,以及所特有的部分只2,或什至只有一個,它們。 The case stands very differently with regard to our Fourth Gospel.的情況下,考慮到我們的第四個福音,代表不同的。 As it narrates but a few incidents in common with the Synoptists, and differs from them in respect to style, language, general plan, etc., its chief parts refuse to be included in a harmony such as may be framed by means of the first three Gospels.由於它敘述,但有幾個共同的Synoptists事件,並不同於他們在風格,語言,總體規劃等方面,其主要部分不被包含在一個和諧,如可擬定通過第一3福音。 While, therefore, the Synoptic narratives are naturally put together into one group, St. John's record is rightly considered as standing apart and as, so to speak, making up a class by itself (see SYNOPTICS).因此,儘管天氣的敘述自然拼湊成一組,聖約翰的紀錄是正確的站立分開,可以這麼說,一類本身(看天氣)。

(6) The Gospels and the Oral Gospel (6)福音書和口頭福音

All recent critics admit that the contents of our four Gospels are intimately connected with more primitive accounts of Christ's life, which may be described, in a general way, as an Oral Gospel.所有近期的批評者也承認,我們的四福音書的內容是密切聯繫在一起的,可描述的,在一般的方式,作為一種口服福音的基督的生命更原始的帳戶。 They are well aware that Jesus Himself did not consign to writing His own teachings, and directed His Apostles not to write, but to preach, the Gospel to their fellow-men.他們清楚地知道,耶穌自己沒有委託寫他自己的教義,並指示他的門徒不寫,但講道,傳福音給他們的同胞的人。 They regard as an undoubted fact that these first disciples of the Master, faithful to the mission which He had entrusted to them, began, from the day of Pentecost on, boldly to declare by word of mouth what they had seen and heard (cf. Acts 4:2), considering as a special duty of theirs "the ministry of the word" (Acts 6:4).他們認為,從五旬節那一天,作為一個不容置疑的事實,這些第一批弟子的主,忠實於他的使命託付給他們,開始大膽地宣布他們所看到和聽到的口耳相傳(參見使徒行傳4:2),作為一種特殊的責任,他們的“部的字”(使徒行傳6:4)。 It is plain, too, that those whom the Apostles immediately selected to help them in the discharge of this most important mission had to be, like the Apostles themselves, able to bear witness to the life and teachings of Christ (cf. Acts 1:21 sq.).它是簡單的,那就是,那些人的使徒們立即選中,以幫助他們在履行這個最重要的任務是,自己的使徒一樣,能作見證的生命和基督的教義(參徒1: 21平方米)。 The substance of the Evangelical narratives would thus be repeated viva voce by the early teachers of Christianity, before any one of them bethought himself to set it down in writing.的福音敘述的物質會因此被重複口試由早期的基督教教師,其中任何一個前終於想到自己在寫。 It can be readily seen that such Apostolic teaching was then inculcated in words which tended to assume a stereotyped form of expression, similar to that which we find in the Synoptic Gospels.它可以很容易看到這樣的使徒教學灌輸的話往往承擔了千篇一律的表現形式,類似的,我們發現,在對觀福音書。 In like manner, also, one can easily realize how the Apostles would not be concerned with the exact order of events narrated, and would not aim at completeness in telling what they "had seen and heard". ,也以類似的方式,可以很容易地實現使徒們如何不擔心與敘述事件的確切順序,並告訴他們“所看到和聽到的目的不是完整的。” Thus, according to this opinion, was gradually formed what may be called the "Oral Gospel", that is, a relation of Christ's words and deeds, parallel, in respect to matter and form, to our canonical Gospels.因此,根據該意見,逐漸形成了被稱為“口頭福音”,也就是基督的話和行為的關係,並行,就此事,並形成我們的典型福​​音。 In view of this, critics have endeavoured to find out the general contents of this Oral Gospel by means of the second part of the Book of the Acts, by a study of the doctrinal contents of the Epistles of St. Paul, and more particularly by a close comparison of the Synoptic narratives; and it may be freely said that their efforts in that direction have met with considerable success.鑑於此,批評家們一直在努力,以找出一般的行為,這本書的第二部分,通過這項口頭福音,聖保羅的書信的教義內容的一項研究,特別是由天氣的敘述比較密切,它可能是隨口說,他們朝著這個方向努力,已達到相當大的成功。 As regards, however, the precise relation which should be admitted between our canonical Gospels and the Oral Gospel, there is still, among contemporary scholars, a variety of views which will be set forth and examined in the special articles on the individual Gospels.至於,不過,應該承認我們的的典型福音和口頭福音之間的精確關係,仍然是,在當代學者,各種各樣的意見,將提出和審議的個人福音的特殊物品。 Suffice it to say, here, that the theory which regards the canonical Gospels as embodying, in substance, the oral teaching of the Apostles concerning the words and deeds of Christ is in distinct harmony with the Catholic position, which affirms both the historical value of these sacred records and the authoritative character of the Apostolic traditions, whether these are actually consigned to writing or simply enforced by the ever living voice of the Church.我只想說,在這裡,這方面的典型福音的體現,在物質的理論,口語教學的使徒關於基督的言行是在不同的和諧與天主教會的立場,其中申明的歷史價值這些神聖的紀錄,使徒傳統和權威的性格,無論是這些實際上是委託,以書面或簡單地強制執行的教會曾經生活的聲音。

(7) Divergences of the Gospels (7)分歧的福音

The existence of numerous and, at times, considerable differences between the four canonical Gospels is a fact which has long been noticed and which all scholars readily admit.眾多和相當大的差異的四個典型福音,有時是一個事實,長期以來一直關注和所有的學者都爽快地承認存在的。 Unbelievers of all ages have greatly exaggerated the importance of this fact, and have represented many of the actual variations between the Evangelical narratives as positive contradictions, in order to disprove the historical value and the inspired character of the sacred records of Christ's life.不信的青睞,極大地誇大了這一事實的重要性,並表示很多的實際變化之間的福音敘述為陽性的矛盾,以否定基督的生命的神聖記錄的歷史價值和激勵著特徵。 Over against this contention, sometimes maintained with a great display of erudition, the Church of God, which is "the pillar and ground of the truth" (1 Timothy 3:15), has always proclaimed her belief in the historical accuracy and consequent real harmony of the canonical Gospels; and her doctors (notably Eusebius of Cæsarea, St. Jerome, and St. Augustine) and commentators have invariably professed that belief.反對這個論點,有時神的教會,這是“支柱產業和地面的真相”(提摩太前書3:15),一直保持著一個偉大的展示博學,準確性和隨之而來的真正的歷史宣告了她的信念和諧的典型福音,而她的醫生(特別是尤西比烏斯的cæsarea,圣杰羅姆,聖奧古斯丁)和評論家都不約而同地宣稱這種信念。 As can readily be seen, variations are naturally to be expected in four distinct, and in many ways independent, accounts of Christ's words and deeds, so that their presence, instead of going against, rather makes for the substantial value of the Evangelical narratives.由於可以很容易地被看到,變化是自然到可以預計在四個不同的,並在許多方式獨立,佔基督的話和行為,使他們的存在,而不是去反對,而使得的實質性價值的福音敘述。 From among the various answers which have been given to the alleged contradictions of the Evangelists we simply mention the following.從已經給所謂矛盾的福音之間的各種答案中,我們簡單地提及以下內容。 Many a time the variations are due to the fact that not one but two really distinct events are described, or two distinct sayings recorded, in the parallel passages of the Gospels.很多時候的變化是由於這樣的事實,不是一個,而是兩個非常不同的事件描述,或記錄兩種不同的說法,在平行通道的福音。 At other times, as is indeed very often the case, the supposed contradictions, when closely examined, turn out to be simply differences naturally entailed, and therefore distinctly accounted for, by the literary methods of the sacred writers, and more particularly, by the respective purpose of the Evangelists in setting forth Christ's words and deeds.在其他時候,的確是很經常的情況下,應該矛盾時,仔細審查,最終是簡單自然entailed的差異,並因此顯著,神聖的作家在文學的方法,而更特別的是,由了基督的言行福音,在各自的目的。 Lastly, and in a more general way, the Gospels should manifestly be treated with the same fairness and equity as are invariably used with regard to other historical records.最後,在一個更普遍的方式,福音應該明顯地被視為具有相同的公正和公平,都不約而同地使用其他歷史記錄。

To borrow an illustration from classical literature, the 'Memoirs' of the Apostles are treated [by unbelievers] by a method which no critic would apply to the 'Memoirs' of Xenophon.借用一個例子,從古典文學,被視為“回憶錄”的使徒[不信]的方法,沒有批評家將適用於“回憶錄”色諾芬。 The [Rationalistic] scholar admits the truthfulness of the different pictures of Socrates which were drawn by the philosopher, the moralist, and the man of the world, and combines them into one figure instinct with a noble life, half hidden and half revealed, as men viewed it from different points; but he seems often to forget his art when he studies the records of the Saviour's work. [理性主義的學者承認的真實性得出的蘇格拉底的哲學家,道德和人的世界不同的圖片,並把它們組合成一個數字的高尚生活的本能,半隱藏和半透露,男人認為它是從不同的角度,但他似乎往往忘記了他的藝術時,他研究了救主的工作記錄。 Hence it is that superficial differences are detached from the context which explains them.因此,它是表面差異的背景下,這也說明他們脫離。 It is urged as an objection that parallel narratives are not identical.這是敦促作為反對平行敘述是不相同的。 Variety of details is taken for discrepancy.各種細節的差異。 The evidence may be wanting which might harmonize narratives apparently discordant; but experience shows that it is as rash to deny the probability of reconciliation as it is to fix the exact method by which it may be made out.在證據可能想可能協調的敘述顯然是不和諧的,但經驗表明,它是為皮疹否認和解的可能性,因為它是固定不變的方法,它可以做出來。 If, as a general rule, we can follow the law which regulates the characteristic peculiarities of each Evangelist, and see in what way they answer to different aspects of one truth, and combine as complementary elements in the full representation of it, we may be well contented to acquiesce in the existence of some difficulties which at present admit of no exact solution, though they may be a necessary consequence of that independence of the Gospels which, in other cases, is the source of their united power (Westcott).如果作為一般規則,我們可以按照法律調節特性的特殊性,每個傳播者,並看到他們的回答在什麼樣的方式不同方面的一個真理,並結合互補的元素,它的完整表達,我們可能會以及知足的,默許中存在的一些困難,目前承認沒有確切的解決方案,雖然他們可能是一個必要的後果,即獨立的福音,在其他情況下,聯合電力的來源(韋斯科特)。

Publication information Written by Francis E. Gigot.出版信息的書面由Francis E.羊腿。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯·J.·波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.奉獻給聖心耶穌基督的天主教百科全書,第六卷。 Published 1909.發布時間1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat,1909年9月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

Catholic authors: MEIGNAN, Les Evangiles et la Critique (Paris, 1870); FILLION, Introd.天主教作者:MEIGNAN,萊斯Evangiles與批判“(巴黎,1870年);菲利安,Introd。 gén. GEN。 aux Evangiles (Paris, 1888); TROCHON ET LESÉTRE, Introd. :輔助Evangiles(巴黎,1888年); TROCHON ETLESÉTRE,Introd。 à l'Ecriture sainte, III (Paris, 1890); BATIFFOL, Six leçons sur les Evangiles (Paris, 1897); CORNELY, Introd. ÀL'的書寫聖,III(巴黎,1890年); BATIFFOL,六leçonsSUR LES Evangiles(巴黎,1897年); CORNELY,請選確認。 sp. SP。 (Paris, 1897); JACQUIER, Hist. (巴黎,1897年);雅基耶,歷史。 des Liv. DES麗芙。 du NT, II (Paris, 1905); VERDUNOY, L'Evangile (Paris, 1907); BRASSAC, Manuel biblique, III (Paris, 1908).杜NT,II(巴黎,1905年); VERDUNOY,L'Evangile(巴黎,1907年); BRASSAC,曼努埃爾·biblique,III(巴黎,1908年)。 - -

Non-Catholic: WESTCOTT, Introd.非天主教WESTCOTT,請選確認。 to the Study of the Gospels (New York, 1887); WILKINSON, Four Lectures on the Early History of the Gospels (London, 1898); GODET, Introd.的福音(紐約,1887年); WILKINSON,四講的福音(倫敦,1898年)的早期歷史的研究; GODET,Introd。 to the New Test.新的考驗。 (tr. New York, 1899); ADENEY, Biblical Introduction (New York, 1904) (編輯部紐約,1899年);阿德尼,聖經簡介(紐約,1904年)



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